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Sample records for psaroniocompsa incrustata lutz

  1. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  2. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  3. Anfíbios Anuros da coleção Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939

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    Bertha Lutz

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyla claresignata Lutz & Lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known Brazilian hylas. It is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. The specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. It belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the Marítime Range. The adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. DESCRIPTION. Vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. Tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. Snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. Eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. Tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. Lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. Toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. No dermal appendage on the hell. Habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. Legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. Type (female: 61 mm. (Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS of TADPOLE (by G. Orton. "A large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly

  4. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis; Teste de Winston-Lutz: uma analise quantitativa

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    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas, E-mail: dnandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  5. [Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae), its history and importance].

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    Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão, Ana Margarida; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2003-01-01

    This is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  6. Taxonomic study and redescription of Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on type examination, Culex (Melanoconion theobaldi (Lutz, 1904 is redescribed. The species Cx. (Mel. chrysonotum Dyar & Knab, 1908, was put back as synonym of theobaldi. Besides, examination of Cx. (Mel. chrysothorax (Newstead & Thomas, 1910 type, leads to retiring as synonym of theobaldi and considered it as "species inquirenda".

  7. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

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    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  8. Sobre as espécies do gênero Echinostoma Rudolphi, 1809 descritas por Adolpho Lutz em 1924 On the species of the genus Echinostoma Rudolphi, 1809, described by Adolpho Lutz in 1924

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    Anna Kohn

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores redescrevem as espécies E. erraticum, E. exile, E. microrchis, E. neglectum, E. nephrocystis e E. parcespinosum, criadas por Lutz em 1924, apresentando figuras e quadros de medidas.In 1924, LUTZ in his work "Estudos sobre a evolução dos Endotrematodeos brazileiros", proposed six new species under the genus Echinostoma and described them although without offering many details. For this reason, it was not possible to achieve a complete knowledge of these species and as almost the whole material studied by LUTZ was encolosed in the Oswaldo Cruz Helminthological Collection, the authors revised it, presenting redescriptions of the species, as well as original camera lucida drawings, in order to facilitate further investigations on the matter.

  9. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

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    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  10. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

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    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  11. Coleção de simuliídeos (Diptera - Simuliidae de Adolpho Lutz, sua história e importância Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae, its history and importance

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    Ana Margarida Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é parte de uma dissertação de mestrado em elaboração no curso de pós-graduação em biologia animal da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, apoiado pela CAPES. Nele, são apresentadas as espécies de simuliídeos que pertencem à coleção de Adolpho Lutz depositadas no Laboratório de Simuliídeos e Oncocercose do Departamento de Entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC. Pioneiro no estudo desses dípteros, Lutz descreveu cerca de 25 espécies de diferentes localidades do Brasil. Vetor da oncocercose, os simuliídeos tiveram sua importância médico-sanitária reconhecida em fins da década de 1920.This paper is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  12. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

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    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  13. Mental Illness within Family Context: Visual Dialogues in Joshua Lutz's Photographic Essay "Hesitating Beauty"

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    Sile, Agnese

    2018-01-01

    The status of photography within medical arts or humanities is still insecure. Despite a growing number of published photographic essays that disclose illness experience of an individual and how illness affects close relatives, these works have received relatively little scholarly attention. Through analysis of Joshua Lutz's "Hesitating…

  14. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  15. Estudo comparativo dos métodos coprológicos de Lutz, Kato-Katz e Faust modificado A comparative study of the coprologic methods of Lutz, Kato-Katz and the Faust modified

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    Adelú Chaves

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, comparativamente, em 500 pacientes, os métodos de exames de fezes de Lutz, Faust modificado e Kato-Katz para o diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes. O método de Kato-Katz proporcionou maiores índices de positividade do que as outras duas técnicas no diagnóstico de ancilostomideos, T. trichiurus e S. mansoni. Nenhuma diferença foi observada quanto ao diagnóstico de A. lumbricoides. Para o diagnóstico das protozooses não houve diferença significativa entre os métodos de Faust modificado e de Lutz. Baseado nos dados obtidos, eficiência, simplicidade e rapidez de execução recomenda-se a associação dos métodos de Kato-Katz e Faust modificado na rotina de diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes.A comparative study was of the Lutz, Faust (modified, and Kato-Katz stool examination methods for parasitological diagnosis using 500 patients. The Kato-Katz method provided higher rates of positivity than the other two techniques in the diagnosis of Ancylostomidae, T. trichiurus, and S. mansoni. No differences were observed in the diagnosis of A. lumbicoides. Nor was a statistically significant difference observed in the diagnosis of protozoosis when using the Lutz and modified Faust methods. The data obtained led to a recommendation for an association of Kato-Katz and modified Faust methods for routine parasitological diagnosis due to Us simplicity, rapidity, and efficiency.

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

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    Litzenberg, D; Irrer, J; Kessler, M; Lam, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  17. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  18. SU-F-T-547: Off-Isocenter Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery/stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

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    Gao, J; Liu, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a quantitative study to verify that the mechanical field center coincides with the radiation field center when both are off from the isocenter during the single-isocenter technique in linear accelerator-based SRS/SBRT procedure to treat multiple lesions. Methods: We developed an innovative method to measure this accuracy, called the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test, and here we provide a practical clinical guideline to implement this technique. We used ImagePro V.6 to analyze images of a Winston-Lutz phantom obtained using a Varian 21EX linear accelerator with an electronic portal imaging device, set up as for single-isocenter SRS/SBRT for multiple lesions. We investigated asymmetry field centers that were 3 cm and 5 cm away from the isocenter, as well as performing the standard Winston-Lutz test. We used a special beam configuration to acquire images while avoiding collision, and we investigated both jaw and multileaf collimation. Results: For the jaw collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the mechanical field deviated from the radiation field by about 2.5 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 3 mm, up to 4.27 mm. For the multileaf collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the deviation was below 1 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 1 mm, up to 1.72 mm, which is 72% higher than the tolerance threshold. Conclusion: These results indicated that the further the asymmetry field center is from the machine isocenter, the larger the deviation of the mechanical field from the radiation field, and the distance between the center of the asymmetry field and the isocenter should not exceed 3 cm in of our clinic. We recommend that every clinic that uses linear accelerator, multileaf collimator-based SRS/SBRT perform the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test in addition to the standard Winston-Lutz test and use their own deviation data to design the treatment plan.

  19. Adolpho Lutz: um esboço biográfico

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    Benchimol Jaime Larry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as origens familares e a trajetória de Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940 até sua transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, em 1908. Utiliza o cientista como fio condutor para a análise da instituição das medicinas pasteuriana e tropical no Brasil. Examina seus estudos superiores e de aperfeiçoamento na Europa germânica, suas atividades como clínico e como investigador de temas relacionados à helmintologia, parasitologia, veterinária e bacteriologia no interior de São Paulo, sua estada no leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí, e controvérsias médicas de que participou durante o período em que chefiou o Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo, especialmente aquelas concernentes ao cólera, às disenterias, à febre tifóide, à malária e à febre amarela.

  20. Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia: Report of two cases in a family

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    Bhawna Bhutoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV, is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen′s disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

  1. Phylogeography and population diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

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    Vanderly Andrade-Souza

    Full Text Available High morphological homogeneity and cryptic speciation may cause the diversity within Simuliidae to be underestimated. Recent molecular studies on population genetics and phylogeography have contributed to reveal which factors influenced the diversity within this group. This study aimed at examining the genetic diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz, 1910 in populations from the biomes Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest. In this study, we carried out phylogeographic and population genetic analyses using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI. The 19 populations studied were clustered into seven groups, most of which are associated with geography indicating certain genetic structure. The northern region of the state of Minas Gerais is most likely the center of origin of this species. The average intergroup genetic distance was 3.7%, indicating the presence of cryptic species. The species tree as well as the haplotype network recovered all groups forming two major groups: the first comprises groups Gr-Bahia (in which the São Francisco river has not acted as geographical barrier, Gr-Pernambuco, and Gr-Mato Grosso do Sul. The second included groups comprising populations of the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo, and Espírito Santo. The mismatch distribution for groups was consistent with the model of demographic expansion, except for the Gr-Central-East_1 group. The diversification in this group occurred about 1.19 Mya during the Pleistocene, influenced by paleoclimatic oscillations during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

  2. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

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    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  3. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  4. Bromeliaceae do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Encholirium Lutzii L. B. Smith n. sp

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    Lyman B. Smith

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Encholirium Lutzii is distinguished from the majority of species by its branched inflorescence. Only E. horridum L. B. Smith and rarely E. spectabile Martius exhibit this character, but have much larger flowers than E. Lutzii and stout floral axes. Also the wing of the seed in E. horridum is very long-caudate. We feel that it is particularly appropriate to dedicate this new species to Dr. Adolpho Lutz because of his great discoveries in the biological relationships of the Bromeliaceae.

  5. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

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    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  6. Monitoramento da autenticidade de amostras de bebidas alcoólicas enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Leticia Araujo Farah NAGATO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc. enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante caramelo e que por falta de controle dessas matérias-primas, podem oferecer risco potencial à saúde humana pela presença de metanol. A técnica empregada na análise dos componentes secundários e metanol das amostras foi realizada através da cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. Observou-se que em 608 amostras de bebidas alcoólicas analisadas, 391 eram falsificadas e dentre estas 2 apresentaram teores de metanol acima do limite tolerado (200mg/100mL de álcool anidro pela legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma grande persistência em se produzir bebidas alcoólicas falsificadas. Desta forma, é muito importante estar sempre monitorando estes produtos e identificando os diferentes tipos de falsificações existentes no país.This work aimed at verifying the authenticity of alcoholic beverages (whisky, vodka, ginger spirit, etc. sent for analysis by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo from 1993 to August 1999. The chemical composition of these drinks was studied because of the presence of illicit alcoholic beverages on the national market, especially those with a high commercial value. These products are usually elaborated with alcohol, water, flavor and caramel coloring. Since there is no control over these raw materials, these drinks could offer a potential risk to human health because of the presence of methanol. The method employed in the analysis of congeners and methanol in alcoholic

  7. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  8. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  9. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  10. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia and Corinto (N. neivai in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26ºC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  11. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Falcão, Alda Lima

    2004-10-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia) and Corinto (N. neivai) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26 masculineC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  12. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

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    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  13. Lovesongs and period gene polymorphisms indicate Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) as a sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Araki, Alejandra S; Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-08-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) is implicated as a vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in some areas of Brazil. Lutzomyia cruzi is closely related to Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) the main Latin American vector of AVL and a species complex. Although females of the two species are identical, the males can be distinguished by differences in the genitalia. Nevertheless, pheromone analysis shows that Lu. cruzi males produce 9-methyl-germacrene-B, which has also been found in a number of Latin American populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. In addition, analysis of microsatellite loci shows that the level of divergence between Lu. cruzi and Lu. longipalpis s.l. is similar to that observed among the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. Here we present the lovesongs of Lu. cruzi males which are similar to the Burst-type songs produced by one of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. We also present data on the molecular polymorphisms of the period gene of Lu. cruzi that indicate this species as another sibling within the Lu. longipalpis complex. The results highlight the importance of an integrative approach to understand the patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence among very closely related vector species. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M H; Nascimento, M D S B; Leonardo, F S; Rebêlo, J M M; Pereira, S R F

    2011-01-01

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.

  15. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos

  16. Distribuição, abundância e diversidade de Simuliidae (Diptera em uma bacia hidrográfica impactada no sul do Brasil Distribution, abundance and diversity of Simuliidae (Diptera in an impacted watershed in southern Brazil

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    Milton Norberto Strieder

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na bacia do rio Caí, no Rio Grande do Sul, em duas áreas com diferentes estados de conservação ambiental: uma fortemente alterada pela intensa avicultura e suinocultura e outra mais conservada. Para padronizar as coletas das larvas e pupas de simulídeos foram utilizados substratos artificiais, instalados nos arroios por períodos de 14 dias. Em todos os pontos de amostragens foram feitas coletas simultâneas de água para análise físico-química e microbiológica. Na área mais conservada foram coletadas onze espécies com as seguintes freqüências: Psaroniocompsa incrustata (42,95%, P. auripellita (17,66%, Chirostilbia pertinax (16,86%, Inaequalium subclavibranchium (8,43%, I. nogueirai (5,80%, P. anamariae (3,69%, I. clavibranchium (1,58%, C. riograndense (0,92%, Lutzsimulium hirticosta (0,92%, I. botulibranchium (0,79%, Thyrsopelma itaunense (0,40%. Na área de maior impacto foram coletadas apenas seis espécies: C. pertinax (84,31%, C. riograndense (7,52%, T. itaunense (4,68%, P. incrustata (2,94%, I. subclavibranchium (0,33%, Ectemnaspis dinellii (0,22%. As concentrações de Nitrato e Nitrito na água foram os fatores que melhor permitem distinguir os pontos amostrados. A concentração de nitrato esteve significativamente relacionada com C. pertinax (r²= 0,54; P This study was carried out in two areas with different degrees of environmental degradation in the Caí river basin, in Rio Grande do Sul. One sampling area is less altered and the other is strongly impaired by organic pollutants from avian and swine production. The larvae and pupae of simulids were collected using artificial substrates that remain submersed in streams for 14 days. In all sampling sites water was collected simultaneously for physical-chemical and microbiological analysis. In the less disturbed area eleven species were collected with the following frequencies: Psaroniocompsa incrustata (42.95%, P. auripellita (17.66%, Chirostilbia

  17. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: VII. Répartition des deux morphotypes du phlébotome lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae dans le piémont andin de Bolivie

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    Francois Le Pont

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux morphotypes de Lytzomyia longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912 ont été décrits au Brésil, l'un avec une seule paire de taches tergales, l'autre avec deux paires de taches. Ce caractère est propre aux mâles. En Bolivie, la forme à une tache existe seule dans le foyer de leishmaniose viscérale des Yungas (alt. 1000-2000 m dans l'envirionnement péridomicilliaire; c'est le vecteur confirmé de cette maladie. Le second morphotype à deux taches a été récemment découvert sous le porche de grottes dans le région de Cochabamba (alt. 2700 m; il était absent dans et autour des habitations de cette région, où la leishmaniose vicérale est inconnue. Les deux morphotypes de Lu. longipalpis ont, en Bolivie, une distribution allopatrique, et leurs écologies respectives sont très différentes.

  18. Die Politik der EZB an den Grenzen ihres Mandats? / Lutz Lammers

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    Lammers, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Riigi võlakirjade ostmisega seotud rahanduspoliitikast. Saksamaa põhiseaduskohtu seisukohast Euroopa Keskpanga väljakuulutatud OMT-programmi kohta, mis võimaldab keskpangal piiramatult võlakirju osta. Riigi võlakirjade ostmisest järelturgudel

  19. Test Reviews: Loranger, A. W. (2001). "OMNI Personality Inventory." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    The OMNI Personality Inventory (OMNI) is a self-report questionnaire designed for use with adolescents and adults between 18 and 74 years of age. The questionnaire is not based on a particular theory, consistent with current trends in test development, according to the author. An abbreviated form of the OMNI, the OMNI-IV Personality Disorder…

  20. Baseline susceptibility to alpha-cypermethrin in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) from Lapinha Cave (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas Davila; Lopes, Josiane Valadão; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Pinheiro, Letícia C; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-09-17

    Given the increase in cases of visceral leishmaniasis in recent years, associated with the socio-economic impact of this disease, as well as the wide distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil and the likelihood that this vector may develop resistance to insecticides used for control, the Ministry of Health considers as crucial the creation of a network in order to study and monitor the resistance of this vector to insecticides used for control. In this sense, this study aimed: 1) to characterize the susceptibility of L. longipalpis from Lapinha Cave (Lagoa Santa, MG - Brazil) to Alfateck SC200 in field bioassays, and 2) to define the susceptibility baseline to alpha-cypermethrin in laboratory bioassays, checking the possibility of using it as susceptibility reference lineage (SRL). The field bioassays revealed that the tested population was highly susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin in all time periods with high mortality (~100 %) in all treated surfaces before six months after spraying. In the laboratory bioassays, the studied population presented LD50, LD95 and LD99 to 0.78013, 10.5580 and 31.067 mg/m(2), respectively. The slope was 1.454121. The studied population of L. longipalpis was considered as adequate for SRL according criterion recommended by Pan-American Health Organization and has proven susceptibility to tested insecticide in the field. One cannot rule out the possibility of finding populations of L. longipalpis more susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin; therefore, further research is necessary on other populations with potential use as a SRL.

  1. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals included opossums (39.3%, followed by rats (37.9%, bats (14.3%, raccoons (3.6%, foxes (2.1%, snakes (1.4%, and frogs (1.4%. The peridomiciliary presence of domestic and synanthropic animals as well as sandflies that had fed on human, opossum, and canid blood supports the hypothesis that kala azar transmission has been taking place in the anthropic environment in the municipality of Raposa.

  2. Implementation of an automated assessment system of the Winston-Lutz test based on the transformed generalized Hough; Implementacion de un sistema de evaluacion automatizada del test de Winston-Lutz basado en la transformada generalizada de Hough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Fernandez Canadillas, M. J.; Caballero Lucena, E.; Cantero Carrillo, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has implemented a software tool based on the generalized Hough transform to automate the evaluation of test WL This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the test. It also eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluator which is an uncertainty of 0.3 mm. (Author)

  3. Estudo da competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911 Study of the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911

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    Antonio Carlos da Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae do Vale do Ribeira (SP para estirpes de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, mediante pesquisa de infectividade natural; exposições de fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas (F1 às lesões de hamsters experimentalmente infectados e testes de transmissão via picada. A infectividade natural e os testes de transmissão revelaram-se negativos e, nas exposições, foram obtidas positividades de 74% (123+/166 dissecados e 70% (115+/164 dissecados para fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas respectivamente, e o desenvolvimento das formas evolutivas compatíveis com o modelo Peripilaria. A suscetibilidade às estirpes testadas associada aos indicadores epidemiológicos concorrem para a suspeita do papel vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia na região estudada.This paper investigated the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae in Vale do Ribeira (SP to strains of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, by means of a search for natural infection; exposure of wild and colonized females (F1 to the lesions of experimentally infected hamsters and transmission tests by bite. The natural infection and the transmission tests were negative. In the exposures of Lu. intermedia to infected lesions we found rates of 74% (123+/166 dissected and 70% (115+/164 dissected for the wild and colonized females respectively. The development of the parasites was compatible with the development model of Peripilaria. The susceptibility of the tested strains associated with the epidemiological indicators contribute to the vectorial role suspicion of Lutzomyia intermedia in the studied region.

  4. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  5. Estabelecimento de colonia, em laboratório, de Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Establishment of colony, in laboratory, of Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Para a utilização em infecções experimentais e xenodiagnósticos de infecções naturais por leishmânias dermotrópicas do Rio de Janeiro, estabelecemos, em laboratório, uma colônia de Lutzomyia intermedia apresentando aqui a metodologia seguida, juntamente com dados relativos ao rendimento e duração de cada fase evolutiva nas quatro primeiras gerações.A laboratory colony of the sandfly Lutzomyia intermedia was established (at present in its seventh generation in order to provide specimens for experimental infection and for experimental xenodiagnosis of natural infections due to cutaneous leishmanias in Rio de Janeiro. Date are presented on the methodology and on the yield and duration of each stage of development, during the first four generations.

  6. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.

  7. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  8. Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

    2008-08-01

    The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover.

  9. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae from Asunción, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Norath

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L. infantum (Nicolle, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  10. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 and Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus 1977, in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Soares, Maria Regiane; Lopes Antunes, Jadson Emanuel; de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Lima, Rogério Nora; Nery Costa, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui - Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site. Luminous CDC and Damasceno traps were simultaneously installed at the visited sites, where two specimens of L. longipalpis and one L. termitophila were captured. The identification of the dens and trails, allows us to infer that the dens are not used only by the C. thous. Finding the VL vector in natural C. thous natural dens, reinforces the hypothesis of transmission of Le. infantum in the outskirts of the large urban centers, in a cycle that independs from dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  12. Tribute to P.L. Lutz: cardiac performance and cardiovascular regulation during anoxia/Hypoxia in freshwwater turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J.; Gesser, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater turtles overwintering in ice-covered ponds in North America may be exposed to prolonged anoxia, and survive this hostile environment by metabolic depression. Here, we review their cardiovascular function and regulation, with particular emphasis on the factors limiting cardiac performance....... The pronounced anoxia tolerance of the turtle heart is based on the ability to match energy consumption with the low anaerobic ATP production during anoxia. Together with a well-developed temporal and spatial energy buffering by creatine kinase, this allows for cellular energy charge to remain high during anoxia....... Furthermore, the turtle heart is well adapted to handle the adverse effects of free phosphate arising when phosphocreatine stores are used. Anoxia causes tenfold reductions in heart rate and blood flows that match the metabolic depression, and blood pressure is largely maintained through increased systemic...

  13. Report of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a cutaneous-leishmaniasis-endemic area of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Anayansi; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2011-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the primary vector of the parasite responsible for visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. In the present study, Lu. longipalpis was found in a domiciliary area in Limón, a district in Capira, a region in which cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Panama. Previously, this species has been found in a humid forest in this same region. Finding Lu. longipalpis in domiciliary areas indicates that this species may be adapting to new habitats and that it may play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Panama.

  14. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Demilson Rodrigues Dos; Ferreira, Adão Celestino; Bisetto Junior, Alceu

    2012-10-01

    We report the first find of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The specimens were captured in the urban area of the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu, with Falcão light traps, in domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of 61 properties, on two consecutive nights from 18:00 to 06:00hs in March 2012. We captured 40 specimens of Lu. longipalpis and 54 specimens of other sandfly species. This find expands knowledge of the geographical distribution of this sandfly in Brazil.

  15. Sex pheromone and period gene characterization of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Posadas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar D; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James Gc; Acardi, Soraya A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-11-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the primary vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum in the New World. In this study, male Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens from Posadas, Argentina were characterized for two polymorphic markers: the male sex pheromone and the period (per) gene. The male sex pheromone was identified as (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, the same compound produced by Lu. longipalpis from Paraguay and many populations from Brazil. The analysis of per gene sequences revealed that the population from Argentina is significantly differentiated from previously studied Brazilian populations. Marker studies could contribute to the understanding of the distribution and spread of urban American visceral leishmaniasis, thus aiding in the design of regional surveillance and control strategies.

  16. Genetic variation among natural and laboratory colony populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)(Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzaro, G C; Alexander, B; Mutebi, J P; Montoya-Lerma, J; Warburg, A

    1998-01-01

    Genetic diversity among three field populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Colombia was studied using isozyme analysis. Study sites were as much as 598 km apart and included populations separated by the eastern Cordillera of the Andes. Genetic variability among populations, estimated by heterozygosity, was within values typical for insects in general (8.1%). Heterozygosity for field populations were compared with a laboratory colony from Colombia (Melgar colony) and were only slightly lower. These results suggest that establishment and long term maintenance of the Melgar colony has had little effect on the level of isozyme variability it carries. Genetic divergences between populations was evaluated using estimates of genetic distance. Genetic divergence among the three field populations was low (D = 0.021), suggesting they represent local populations within a single species. Genetic distance between field populations and the Melgar colony was also low (D = 0.016), suggesting that this colony population does not depart significantly from natural populations. Finally, comparisons were made between Colombian populations and colonies from Brazil and Costa Rica. Genetic distance values were high between Colombian and both Brazil and Costa Rica colony populations (D = 0.199 and 0.098 respectively) providing additional support for our earlier report that populations from the three countries represent distinct species.

  17. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-11-02

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2.In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  18. Genetic Variation among Natural and Laboratory Colony Populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera:Psychodidae from Colombia

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    Lanzaro Gregory C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among three field populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Colombia was studied using isozyme analysis. Study sites were as much as 598 km apart and included populations separated by the eastern Cordillera of the Andes. Genetic variability among populations, estimated by heterozygosity, was within values typical for insects in general (8.1%. Heterozygosity for field populations were compared with a laboratory colony from Colombia (Melgar colony and were only slightly lower. These results suggest that establishment and long term maintenance of the Melgar colony has had little effect on the level of isozyme variability it carries. Genetic divergences between populations was evaluated using estimates of genetic distance. Genetic divergence among the three field populations was low (D=0.021, suggesting they represent local populations within a single species. Genetic distance between field populations and the Melgar colony was also low (D=0.016, suggesting that this colony population does not depart significantly from natural populations. Finally, comparisons were made between Colombian populations and colonies from Brazil and Costa Rica. Genetic distance values were high between Colombian and both Brazil and Costa Rica colony populations (D=0.199 and 0.098 respectively providing additional support for our earlier report that populations from the three countries represent distinct species

  19. The retained capacity of Lutzomya longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva to transmit Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas after eight years (64 generations in a closed laboratory colony

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    M. de N. A. Gonçalves

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed Lutzomyia longipalpis colony, from Ceará has been used to transmit Leishmania chagasi isolated from a fox in Pará state. The last time this colony was successfully used in similar transmission experiments was eight years (64 generations ago indicating that this colony of Lu. longipalpis has fully maintained its vectorial capacity in spite of such a long period of maintainance in the laboratory.Lutzomyia longipalpis foi alimentado através de membrana com uma suspensão de macerado de fígado e baço em sangue desfibrinado de coelho. Este material foi originário de um hamster infectado com Leishmania chagasi, realimentado em hamsters limpos, transmitindo os parasitos em duas ocasiões. Esta mesma colônia de Lu. longipalpis, do Ceará, foi usada para a primeira transmissão há oito anos e 64 gerações atrás e não teve a capacidade vetorial diminuída.

  20. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  1. New species of Myxosporea from frogs and resurrection of the genus Cystodiscus Lutz, 1889 for species with myxospores in gallbladders of amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2012), s. 478-496 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cystodiscus axonis * Cystodiscus australis * new species * Myxidium * Myxosporea * amphibians * frogs * tadpoles * brain * liver * disease * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  2. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  3. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS--Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL--Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Mrazik, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), an individually administered test of intelligence for use with individuals between the ages of 3 and 94. The RIAS represents the newest intelligence test on the marketplace and incorporates the most current intelligence test theory…

  4. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of vacant lots and constructions in the urban area were evaluated. After an epidemiological study, educational measures such as the distribution of pamphlets, cleaning group work, visits to residences and cooperation from High School teachers and students were also suggested. Chemical control was indicated in high-risk sites, especially those of nearschool buildings. Furthermore, the use of natural predators was also mentioned within the present sanitation regulations for urban areas. The authors assert that these procedures must be integrated and continued aninterrruptedly for several years. They also suggest a collaborative work with those responsible for the dengue erradication program, as well as the institution of the "scorpion study week", which would greatly contribute to the education of the population, to preventive programs and to scorpion control.

  5. Espécies novas do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Melastomataceae Tibouchina Lutzii Brade n.sp

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    A. C. Brade

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available A posição desta espécie é após Tibouchina floribunda Cogn. No hábito assemelha-se a Tibouchina Schwackei Cogn. mas distingue-se bem desta pelo revestimento diferente e a côr alva da página inferior da folha.

  6. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  7. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

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    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  8. PRIMEIRA OCORRÊNCIA DE Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis LUTZ & NEIVA, 1912 (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE) NO ESTADO DO AMAPÁ, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo; Clicia Denis Galardo; Aderbal Amanajás Santana; José Claudio Cortes Mendes; Francisco Redivaldo Almeida de Souza; Jorge Pereira Duarte; José Ferreira Saraiva; Luiz Carlos Leite Pinna; Raimundo Wilson Carvalho; Ana Paula Sales de Andrade Correa; Ana Cristina da Silva Ferreira Lima

    2013-01-01

    Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Lutzomyia longipalpis, o mais importante vetor biológico do agente causador da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana (LVA), no município de Ferreira Gomes, estado do Amapá, Brasil e por tratar-se de uma espécie com grande importância epidemiológica, os autores alertam as autoridades locais.   Palavras-chave: Amapá, Ferreira Gomes, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Leishmaniose Visceral Americana.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n2p179-...

  9. The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Getúlio Dornelles; Santos, Edmilson dos; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2009-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread zoonosis in Brazil and, up to now, there has been no record of the main vector of its agent, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the Southern Region. Due to the diagnosis of VL in a dog in October 2008 in the city of São Borja, in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a collection of phlebotomines was undertaken to detect the presence of the vector Lu. longipalpis. The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector.

  10. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) no estado de Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Lima, Giovana Belem Moreira

    2006-01-01

    A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipa...

  11. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  12. Spatial population dynamics and temporal analysis of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the city of Clorinda, Formosa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bravo, Andrea; German, Alba; Abril, Marcelo; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Salomón, Oscar D

    2017-07-25

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector for the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), has extended its distribution in the southern cone in the Americas. The first urban record of Lu. longipalpis in Argentina was from the City of Clorinda in 2004. The aim of this study was to analyse the monthly distribution and abundance of Lu. longipalpis and to evaluate its association with environmental and climatic variables in Clorinda City, Province of Formosa. Phlebotominae sampling was performed using CDC light mini-traps that were placed in different sites of the city between January 2012 and December 2013. Environmental variables including the normalised difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, land surface temperature and precipitation were evaluated using a spatiotemporal model. A total of 4996 phlebotomine sandflies were captured during the study period, and eight species were reported: Lu. longipalpis, Migonemyia migonei, Nyssomyia whitmani, Ny. neivai, Brumptomyia guimaraesi, Evandromyia cortelezzii/sallesi, Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Expapillata firmatoi. This is the first urban record of Ex. firmatoi in Argentina. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the most abundant species between 2012 and 2013, and it appeared in all the sampled sites. Moreover, the model applied showed that ground humidity and temperature were significantly associated with the abundance of Lu. longipalpis. This longitudinal approach at city scale allows for modelling that explains more than 60% of the temporal variability of the abundance of Lu. longipalpis based exclusively on satellite obtained data. The results support the hypothesis of steady 'hot spots' of abundance with time, while other sites could change its abundance due to eventual microenvironment changes. The Lu. longipalpis abundance driving factors are breeding site-related variables, highlighting the importance both for modelling and surveillance to use lag data.

  13. [Expansion of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the department of Caldas: Increased risk of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Luz Adriana; Mondragón-Shem, Karina; Vergara, Daniela; Vélez-Mira, Andrés; Cadena, Horacio; Carrillo-Bonilla, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Diverse taxonomical and molecular studies suggest that Lutzomyia longipalpis , main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of species widely distributed throughout the continent and adapted to different habitats. To carry out entomological surveillance in the area of influence of the Miel I Hydroelectric Plant. Adhesive traps were used in a transect covering an area of approximately 400 km for the capture of insects, which were then identified using the Young and Duncan taxonomical key. This study reports the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the municipalities of Norcasia at an altitude of 392 masl, and in Marquetalia at 1,387 masl. We suggest that the increase in the geographical and altitudinal distribution could be related to the existence of the Lu. longipalpis species complex, or to environmental factors, such as the rise in temperature due to global climate changes, which create the establishment of Lu. longipalpis , generating a new epidemiological risk for new visceral leishmaniasis foci in the country.

  14. Novos registros de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera: Psychodidae na região Centro-Leste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil New records of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Central East Region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André Antonio Cutolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência das leishmanioses tegumentar (LTA e visceral (LVA americanas, especialmente essa última, em hospedeiros caninos e humanos, encontra-se em expansão no Estado de São Paulo. Na vigilância epidemiológica dessas endemias, torna-se fundamental o conhecimento da distribuição e ecologia das diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos. Assim, a divulgação de novos registros de seus vetores é fundamental para apontar novas áreas de risco para a transmissão dessas doenças. Neste estudo, realizaram-se capturas de flebotomíneos em ambiente de mata, em diferentes localidades dos municípios de Ipeúna, Itirapina e Analândia, entre agosto e setembro de 2007. Foram capturados 248 flebotomíneos de nove espécies diferentes, em Ipeúna, seis e sete espécimes de duas espécies distintas coletados respectivamente em Itirapina e Analândia. A espécie mais abundante em Ipeúna foi Pintomyia pessoai (37,5%, seguida de P. fischeri (33,06% e Migonemyia migonei (16,53%. Essas três espécies são consideradas importantes vetores de LTA no território paulista. O registro de Lutzomyia longipalpis pela primeira vez em Ipeúna e Analândia e a confirmação de sua presença em Itirapina indicam risco de essabelecimento da LVA na área e a necessidade de mais estudos locais sobre sua ecologia, sobretudo em relação à ocupação de ambientes antrópicos.Cutaneous (LTA and Visceral (LVA American Leishmaniasis incidences are increasing in human and canine hosts, especially LVA, which is expanding its range through São Paulo State. Distribution and ecology knowledge of different sand fly species is essential for leishmaniasis epidemiology vigilance. The communication of new findings of its vectors is mandatory for risk determination for transmission of these illnesses. On this study sand flies were trapped in bushed areas, in different localities at rural areas of Ipeúna, Itirapina and Analândia counties, between August and September 2007. A total of 248 specimens of nine different species were sampled in Ipeúna, six and seven specimens of two different species were trapped in Itirapina and Analândia, respectively. The most abundant species in Ipeúna was Pintomyia pessoai (37.5%, followed by Pintomyia fischeri (33.06% and Migonemyia migonei (16.53%, all three species are considered vectors of LTA in São Paulo State. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Ipeúna and Analândia for the first time and its presence confirmed in Itirapina, indicating a risk of LVA essablishment in the area and the need for further local studies on its ecology, especially regarding its occupation of the anthropic environment.

  15. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) no estado de Mato Grosso Spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) in the State of Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Akemi Missawa; Giovana Belem Moreira Lima

    2006-01-01

    A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipa...

  16. Primeiro encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG, concomitante com o relato de primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral humana First finding of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in the urban area of Uberlândia, MG, concomitant with the first reported autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis

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    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do vetor da leishmaniose visceral, Lutzomyia longipalpis, na área urbana de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais e o primeiro caso de leishmaniose visceral humana autóctone no município, notificado ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, por meio da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Discute-se a importância deste encontro na transmissão da doença nessa área.The first occurrence of the vector for visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the urban area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, and the first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis recorded in the same locality are reported. These were notified to the Zoonosis Control Center, through the Epidemiological Surveillance sector of the Municipal Health Department. The importance of these findings regarding transmission of the disease in this area is discussed.

  17. Ampliación de la distribución de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae en el departamento de Caldas: potencial aumento del riesgo de leishmaniasis visceral

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    Luz Adriana Acosta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Diversos estudios a nivel taxonómico y molecular sugieren que Lutzomyia longipalpis, principal vector de la leishmaniasis visceral en Latinoamérica, es un complejo de especies con ampliadistribución a lo largo del continente y con adaptaciones a diferentes hábitats. Objetivo. Realizar vigilancia entomológica en el área de influencia de la hidroeléctrica Miel I. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron trampas adhesivas en una intersección de 400 km, aproximadamente, para la captura de insectos, los cuales fueron identificados con la clave taxonómica de Youngy Duncan. Resultados. En este estudio se reporta la presencia de Lu. longipalpis en los municipios de Norcasia a una altitud de 392 msnm y en Marquetalia a 1.387 msnm; es el primer reporte a esta altura para esta especie en Colombia. Conclusiones. Se sugiere que la ampliación de la distribución geográfica y altitudinal de Lu. longipalpis en el país podría estar relacionada con la existencia del complejo de especies Lu. longipalpis, o a factores ambientales como el aumento de temperatura debido al cambio climático global que viene sucediendo en las últimas décadas. Esta última hipótesis sugeriría que se están creando nuevos hábitats propiciospara el establecimiento de Lu. longipalpis, lo cual genera un nuevo riesgo epidemiológico de posiblesnuevos focos de leishmaniasis visceral en el país.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.762

  18. Descripción y comparación del condrocráneo en larvas de Hyla raniceps (Cope, 1862, Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871 y Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae

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    Alcalde, Leandro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el condrocráneo en larvas de 3 especies de hílidos neotropicales, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus y S. squalirostris, las cuales presentan larvas de charca, tipo IV, con desarrollo exotrófico, nectónicas (Scinax spp. o bentónicas (H. raniceps. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con la información conocida acerca de Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus y S. ruber. Las especies de Scinax se diferencian de las de Hyla, en forma independiente del tipo ecológico que presentan sus larvas, por la presencia de un proceso lateral al cóndilo articular del ceratohial (ausente en Hyla spp.. No ha sido posible dilucidar si este proceso es una sinapomorfía de Scinax o de las especies que componen el clado rubra. Diecisiete caracteres varían entre especies independientemente del ambiente y la dieta de las larvas: cinco de ellos son del neurocráneo, cinco del arco mandibular y siete del hiobranquium. El grado de desarrollo del proceso anterohial lateral del ceratohial muestra asociación con el mecanismo de alimentación de las larvas. Tres caracteres soportan grupos de especies en el género Hyla. Hyla lanciformis e H. raniceps (grupo albopuntacta presentan la comisura cuadrado craneal con la mitad del ancho que presenta el proceso muscular en su base y la pars reuniens con forma de "V". Hyla geographica (grupo geographica presenta la pars reuniens de forma cuadrada. Hyla nana (grupo microcephala carece de seno hipobranquial posterior y proceso cuadrado etmoidal. El grupo rostrata del género Scinax está soportado por la presencia de una conexión sindesmótica entre cuerpo y ala del cartílago suprarrostral. La existencia de diferencias en las estructuras del condrocráneo relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas larvas que presentan el mismo mecanismo de alimentación micrófago, indican que este tipo de alimentación puede ocurrir mediante una serie de estructuras y no por una única morfología en particular. The larval chondrocranium of 3 species of neotropical hylids, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus and S. squalirostris is described, which present pond type, type IV, with exotrophic development, nektonic (Scinax spp. or benthic (H. raniceps tadpoles. The obtained data were compared with known information about Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus and S. ruber. The species of Scinax are differentiated from those of Hyla independently of the ecological type of their tadpoles by the presence of a process lateral to the ceratohyal?s condilus articularis (which is absent in Hyla spp.. The question about if this process is a sinapomorphy either for Scinax or the species that compound the rubra clade, could not be dilucidated. Seventeen characters vary among species independently of the environment and the diet of tadpoles: five of them are from the neurocranium, five from the mandibular arch and seven from the hiobranquium. The grade of development of the anterolateral process of the ceratohyale shows association with the feeding mechanism of tadpoles. Three characters support species groups on genus Hyla. Hyla lanciformis and H. raniceps (albopuntacta group have the commissura quadrato-cranialis anterior a half of wide compared with the wide of the processus muscularis quadrati at its base, and a V-shaped pars reuniens. Hyla geographica (geographica group presents a square-shaped pars reuniens. In Hyla nana (microcephala group, the sinus posterior hypobranchialis and the processus quadrato-ethmoidale are missing. The rostrata group from genus Scinax appears supported by the presence of a sindesmotic connection between corpus and ala of the cartilago suprarostrale. The existence of differences in the chondrocranial structures related whit diet in tadpoles that present the same microphagous feeding mechanism, indicates that this type of diet occurs by a series of structures and do not with a single particular morphology.

  19. Observations on the feeding habits of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Campo Grande, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Marassá, Ana Maria; Consales, Cleide Aschenbrenner; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; de Oliveira, Gilliard Rezende; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2008-09-01

    Sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps from December 2003 to November 2005 in three areas of Campo Grande, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. These areas incorporated two patches of remnant forest and five houses. The blood meals of engorged female sand flies were identified using the avidin-biotin system of immunoenzymatic ELISA capture. Most (327/355) of the females analysed were Lutzomyia longipalpis, of which 66.4% reacted with human blood, 64.8% with that of birds and 8.9% with that of dogs. Females that had taken human blood predominated in the residential areas and two forest patches. The following combinations of blood were also detected for L. longipalpis in some of the samples analysed: bird+human (43.4%), bird+human+dog (6.1%). The combination bird+human+dog+pig was also found for Nyssomyia whitmani. Dogs and pigs appear to have little attractiveness for L. longipalpis. The results obtained demonstrate the eclecticism and high anthropophily of L. longipalpis and raise new questions with regard to the importance of dogs in VL epidemiology and the possible role of man as a source of infection for sand flies.

  20. Analysis of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Mirian Francisca Martins; Varjão, Jane Ramos; Moraes, Sinara Cristina de; Salcedo, Gladys Elena

    2012-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious and parasitic zoonotic, non-contagious, vector-borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1934) is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, was designated as a priority area by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for american visceral leishmaniasis, and it is important to identify the vector species present in this municipality. Our objective was to raise sandflies and study the influence of environmental variables on the vector density of Lutzomyia longipalpis. We performed entomological monitoring in 3 districts using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and recorded human cases of american visceral leishmaniasis in the city. We calculated the relative frequency and richness of sandflies and applied a transfer function model to the vector density correlate with relative humidity. The sandfly population was composed of 2 genera and 27 species, totaling 8,097 individuals. Monitoring identified Lutzomyia longipalpis (44%), followed by Lutzomyia lenti (18.9%), Lutzomyia whitmani (13.9%), Lutzomyia carmelinoi (9.1%), Lutzomyia evandroi (5.1%), Lutzomyia termitophila (3.3%), Lutzomyia sordellii (1.9%), and 20 other species (Lutzomyia longipalpis showed occurrence peaks during the rainy season; there was a temporal correlation with humidity, but not with frequency or temperature. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the urban area of Barra do Garças underscores the changing disease profile, which was previously restricted to the wild environment.

  1. Identificação do sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999) pela técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina

    OpenAIRE

    Marassá,Ana Maria; Consales,Cleide Aschenbrenner; Galati,Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Nunes,Vânia Lúcia Brandão

    2006-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi, espécies integrantes da fauna flebotomínea da Serra da Bodoquena, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, têm sido objeto de estudo devido às suas elevadas abundâncias no Assentamento Guaicurus, foco de leishmaniose tegumentar humana e visceral canina. Em pesquisas que vem sendo realizadas neste acampamento para a identificação de vetores destas parasitoses, foram capturados no período de 2002 a 2004, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas em amb...

  2. Simuliidae (Diptera:Culicomorpha no Brasil XI - Shelleyellum gênero novo Brazilian Simuliidae (Diptera:Culicomorpha XI - Shelleyellum new genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Py-Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É caracterizado um novo gênero neotropical de simulídeo, com base nas espécies previamente incluídas no "Grupo Siolii", do gênero Psaroniocompsa. Chaves de identificação para imaturos são apresentadas. O gênero Shelleyellum fica constituído pelas espécies: S. damascenoi (Py-Daniel,1988, S. guaporense (Py-Daniel, 1989, S. lourencoi (Py-Daniel, 1988, S. siolli (Py-Daniel, 1988, S. tergospinosum (Hamada, 2000. O gênero é caracterizado, principalmente, pela de carena longitudinal nos distímeros dos machos e a presença de tubérculos tegumentares nas larvas.A new neotropical genus of simuliids is characterized based on species previously included in the "Siolii Group" of Psaroniocompsa genus. Identifications keys for immature stages are presented. Shelleyellum genus is constituted by the species: S. damascenoi (Py-Daniel,1988, S. guaporense (Py-Daniel, 1989, S. lourencoi (Py-Daniel, 1988, S. siolli (Py-Daniel, 1988, S. tergospinosum (Hamada, 2000. The genus is mainly characterized by longitudinal carina in male distimere and the presence of tegumentary tubercles in the larvae.

  3. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler.…

  4. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  5. "Keset filmi" Kiasmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome kunstniku Tellervo Kalleineni filmiprojektist "In the middle of a movie'". Eestist esinesid projektis Taavi Eelmaa, Tarrvi Laamann, Silva Lutz, Anders Melts, Anneli Remme, Siiri Salem, Martin Palm, Kaja Prikk, Peeter Ristsoo, filmisid Peeter Maimik ja Marianne Kõrver

  6. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN LHC : global layout

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephane Maridor

    2006-01-01

    from left to right: Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  7. ALICE industrial award ceremony in Bologna at Santa Cristina

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    from left to right:Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  8. Cladistic analysis of the Neotropical genera Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983, Coscaroniellum Py-Daniel, 1983 and Shelleyellum Py-Daniel & Pessoa, 2005 (Diptera: Simuliidae Análise cladística dos gêneros neotropicais Cerqueirellum Py-Daniel, 1983, Coscaroniellum Py-Daniel, 1983 e Shelleyellum Py-Daniel & Pessoa, 2005 (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Females of simuliid black flies are haematophagous insects and vectors of several pathogenic agents of human diseases such as the filarial worms Mansonella ozzardi and Onchocerca volvulus. The genus Cerqueirellum is one of the most important groups of vectors of mansonellosis and onchocerciasis diseases in South America, and the genera Coscaroniellum and Shelleyellum are phylogenetically close to Cerqueirellum. There is not yet an agreement among authors about the generic classification of the species which compose these three genera, being all lumped by some taxonomists within Psaroniocompsa. A cladistic analysis of all species of Coscaroniellum, Cerqueirellum, and Shelleyellum, based on 41 morphological characters were done. Species closely related to Cerqueirellum were included in the analysis. The genera Cerqueirellum, Coscaroniellum and Shelleyellum were demonstrated as consistent basal entities and well-defined monophyletic clades.As fêmeas de piuns ou borrachudos da família Simuliidae são hematófagas e vetoras de diversos patógenos, destacando-se os vermes filarióides Mansonella ozzardi e Onchocerca volvulus. Dentre os grupos supra-específicos que são vetores de mansonelose e oncocercose na América do Sul, destaca-se o gênero Cerqueirellum. Os gêneros Coscaroniellum e Shelleyellum são filogeneticamente muito próximos a Cerqueirellum. Não existia concordância quanto à validade de Cerqueirellum e Coscaroniellum como clados supra-específicos, sendo ambos os gêneros incluídos, por uma escola taxonômica, como grupos de espécies em Psaroniocompsa. Neste trabalho é feita uma análise filogenética baseada em caracteres morfológicos dos três gêneros.. Os gêneros Cerqueirellum, Coscaroniellum e Shelleyellum. apresentaram-se como entidades basais válidas, consistentes e monofiléticas.

  9. A generalization of resource-bounded measure, with an application (Extended abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; van Melkebeek, Dieter; Regan, Kenneth W.; Sivakumar, D.; Strauss, Martin

    We introduce resource-bounded betting games, and propose a generalization of Lutz's resource-bounded measure in which the choice of next string to bet on is fully adaptive. Lutz's martingales are equivalent to betting games constrained to bet on strings in lexicographic order. We show that if strong pseudo-random number generators exist, then betting games are equivalent to martingales, for measure on E and EXP. However, we construct betting games that succeed on certain classes whose Lutz measures are important open problems: the class of polynomial-time Turing-complete languages in EXP, and its superclass of polynomial-time Turing-autoreducible languages. If an EXP-martingale succeeds on either of these classes, or if betting games have the "finite union property" possessed by Lutz's measure, one obtains the non-relativizable consequence BPP ≠ EXP. We also show that if EXP ≠ MA, then the polynomial-time truth-table-autoreducible languages have Lutz measure zero, whereas if EXP = BPP, they have measure one.

  10. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  11. A Literature Review of Cultural Resources in Morgan County, Colorado,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-02

    MILES APPRCXI: %TE LOCATIONS OF SURVEY AREAS 1. NARROWS DAM SURVEY 2. WILDCAT CREEK SURVEY 3. BRUS { FLOOD CO’IOL PROJECT L B3I B LI 0 RAP H Y...Kenneth L. 1975 Edible plants available to aboriginal occupants of the Narrows area. IN Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N. Ted Ohr, Timothy J...Reservoi - , Morgan County. Prepared for -1e Riverside IrrigaLion District and Public Service Company of Colorado. Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N

  12. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-27

    Oct 27, 2004 ... Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones and more than twenty heat stress transcription factors. Sanjeev Kumar Baniwal Kapil Bharti Kwan Yu Chan Markus Fauth Arnab Ganguli Sachin Kotak Shravan Kumar Mishra Lutz Nover Markus Port Klaus-Dieter Scharf Joanna Tripp ...

  14. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  15. Modifiers and mechanisms of multi-system polyglutamine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    case of polyQ repeat disorders such as HD (reviewed in Lutz. 2007). The different .... saccades, h ypertrophic cardiomyopath y, diabetes mellitus. Campuzano et al . (1996), ...... serine–threonine kinase Akt which phosphorylates mutant huntingtin at ...... systematic analysis of human disease-associated gene sequences.

  16. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  17. Mechanism of Huiru decoction on hyperprolactinemia in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of HD (9.6 g/kg body weight) reduced PRL level of hyperPRL rats effectively (p < 0.01). HD increased dopamine ..... 4. Gerhard Lutz. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. ... benefits of herbal medicines for schizophrenia: from empirical ...

  18. Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker-Kreichgauer, Gisela

    1982-01-01

    Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness : hostility in a debate / Lutz von Rosenstiel ; Gisela Stocker- Kreichgauer. - In: Group decision making / ed. by Gisela Stocker-Kreichgauer ... - London u.a. : Acad. Press, 1982. - S. 241-255. - (European monographs in social psychology ; 25)

  19. Darshana Jolts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can recall this dedication in the names of the week in all languages, in Indian ... That is what the game of science is all about: to go beyond the impressions created by our ... The book, dating back roughly to the second century C E, was known ..... See Lutz B Schmadel, Dictionary of minor planet names (online Edition).

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones and more than twenty heat stress transcription factors · Sanjeev Kumar Baniwal Kapil Bharti Kwan Yu Chan Markus Fauth Arnab Ganguli Sachin Kotak Shravan Kumar Mishra Lutz Nover Markus Port Klaus-Dieter Scharf Joanna Tripp Christian Weber Dirk ...

  1. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck

  2. Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duellman William E.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Los anuros marsupiales se hallan representados en Colombia por diez y seis especies pertenecientes al género Gastrotheca. G. humbertoi  Lutz, 1977, pasa a la sinonimia de G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran y Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz y Ruiz, 1977, y G. yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978, son incluidas en la sinonimia de G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico y comentario sobre la distribución para cada una de las especies colombianas junto con una clave para su identificación. Marsupial frogs are represented in Colombia by sixteen species of Gastrotheca. Gastrotheca humbertoi Lutz, 1977 is placed in the synonymy of G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran and Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz and Ruiz, 1977, and G.Yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978 are placed inthesynonymy of G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. A brief diagnosis and statement of distribution are presented for each Colombian species, and a key for identification of the species is provided.

  3. Taxonomy and Biology of Phlebotomine Vectors of Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    Sobre o encontro de Lutzomyiu longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) no Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rev. Saude Publ. Sac Paulo 4:99-100. 3 Forattini, 0. P...Almeida. /1964. Flebotomos do nordeste. I. Encontro de "Plboou cht, " "P. gmgxi e ’T. 1QnstispinJ. em Pernambuco (Diptera, Psychodidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol

  4. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-31

    1971. S-6bre o encontro deiutzomtyia longipalpis (Lutz& Neiva, 1912) no Estado do Sio Paulo, Brasil. Rev. Silude Pub]. Sio Paulo 4:99-100. Forattini, 0...271-282. t~~ f References Cited 831 Lucern, D. T. & L. Almeida. 1964. Fleb6tomos do nordeste. I. Encontro de "Phlebotomus choti," "P. aragaoi" e "P

  5. DMPD: Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14726496 Receptor tyrosine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. Cor...osine kinases and the regulation of macrophage activation. PubmedID 14726496 Title Receptor tyrosine...rell PH, Morrison AC, Lutz MA. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):731-7. Epub 2004 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Receptor tyr

  6. Development of a Novel Method to Detect Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Lewis Phillips, G. D.; Li, G.; Dugger, D. L.; Crocker, L. M.; Parsons, K. L.; Mai, E.; Blattler, W. A.; Lambert , J. M.; Chari, R. V. J.; Lutz, R...cells. Molecular Carcinogenesis. doi:10.1002/mc.22014. 150. Sun, Y., Campisi, J., Higano, C., Beer , T. M., Porter, P., Coleman, I., True, L., & Nelson, P

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (28th) of the Military Testing Association Held in New London, Connecticut on 3-7 November 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-07

    Lutz, R.J. (1975). Changing Brand Attitudes through Modification of Cognitive Burke, J.S. and Faris, J.H. (1982). Structure, Journal of Consumer...as design: Using typography to improve access and understanding. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), The technology of text: Principles for structuring, designing

  8. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  9. DNA Barcode Reference Library for the African Citrus Triozid, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae): Vector of African Citrus Greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, F M; Rwomushana, I; Ombura, L O; Cook, G; Mohamed, S A; Tanga, C M; Nderitu, P W; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Grout, T G; Ekesi, S

    2017-12-05

    Citrus (Citrus spp.) production continues to decline in East Africa, particularly in Kenya and Tanzania, the two major producers in the region. This decline is attributed to pests and diseases including infestation by the African citrus triozid, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Besides direct feeding damage by adults and immature stages, T. erytreae is the main vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', the causative agent of Greening disease in Africa, closely related to Huanglongbing. This study aimed to generate a novel barcode reference library for T. erytreae in order to use DNA barcoding as a rapid tool for accurate identification of the pest to aid phytosanitary measures. Triozid samples were collected from citrus orchards in Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa and from alternative host plants. Sequences generated from populations in the study showed very low variability within acceptable ranges of species. All samples analyzed were linked to T. erytreae of GenBank accession number KU517195. Phylogeny of samples in this study and other Trioza reference species was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method. The phylogenetic tree was paraphyletic with two distinct branches. The first branch had two clusters: 1) cluster of all populations analyzed with GenBank accession of T. erytreae and 2) cluster of all the other GenBank accession of Trioza species analyzed except T. incrustata Percy, 2016 (KT588307.1), T. eugeniae Froggatt (KY294637.1), and T. grallata Percy, 2016 (KT588308.1) that occupied the second branch as outgroups forming sister clade relationships. These results were further substantiated with genetic distance values and principal component analyses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    models. The objective of ReqSpec is to support the elicitation , definition, and modeling of requirements for real-time embedded systems in an iterative...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software En- gineering Institute at

  11. Multidisciplinary pain management programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Arnold, Bernhard; Pfingsten, Michael; Nagel, Bernd; Lutz, Johannes; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University ...

  12. New Sabethes (Diptera: Culicidae) species records for Ecuador, from Colonso-Chalupas biological reserve, province of Napo (Amazon)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, J.C.; Enríquez, S.; Campaña, Y.; Benítez Ortíz, W.

    2015-01-01

    Two new records of Sabethes mosquitoes (Culicidae: Nematocera) are reported for Ecuador with the respective extension of their geographical distribution in the Neotropics: Sabethes intermedius Lutz and Sabethes soperi Lane & Cerqueira, from the provinces of Napo (Amazon) into the Natural Reserve of Colonso-Chalupas at 1,200 m altitude, beside Tena city, Ecuador. Both species are considered as potential vectors of sylvatic Yellow Fever virus and Mayaro virus. Information on collection local...

  13. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  14. A Novel Phosphatase Gene on 10q23, MINNP, in Hereditary and Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    surrounding stroma. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES human cancer genetics, breast cancer 28 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...Genetics. All rights reserved. et al. 1998). CS is a poorly recognized autosomal dom- 0002-929712001/6904-0005$02.00 inant cancer syndrome...58, 1348-1352. 24. Coles, C., Condie, A., Chetty, U., Steel. C.M., Evans, H.J. and Prosser, J. 36. Wolf, C., Rouyer, N., Lutz, Y.. Adida . C., Loriot, M

  15. A Developmental Approach to Characterizing the Tissue-Invasion Gene Program in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    OF PAGES Breast Cancer 24 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF...induced host response. Am J. Pathol. 149:273-282, 1996. 4. Wolf, c., Rouyer, N., Lutz, Y., Adida , C., Loriot, M., Bellocq, J.P., Chambon, P., and Basset...following a 5 d incubation period. (upper left and right panels). In contrast, MT1-MMP-transfected cells perforated the BM in representative TEM and

  16. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  17. Asset Management Process (AMP) Improvement Project: Final Report of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Beach, Sue Meade-Lutz, Gary Reid, Deanna Tauvela, and Larry Majure . John Gorman served as the event’s Process Owner. INVESTIGATIONAL QUESTION The...Reid, Deanna Tauvela, and Larry Majure . John Gorman served as the event’s Process Owner. INVESTIGATIONAL QUESTION For years, the Center has...Provide custodians with receipts that are electronically tracked and use the receipt transaction to trigger forced asset transfers in ERP. See Appendix F

  18. Proceedings of Conference on Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory 3

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, PK

    2011-01-01

    A collection dealing with language documentation and linguistic theory from a conference held at SOAS on 19- 20 November 2011. Papers by Peter Austin, Oliver Bond, Lutz Marten & David Nathan, Balthasar Bickel, Anju Saxena, Anvita Abbi, Cathryn Bartram, Henrik Bergqvist, Martine Bruil, Eliane Camargo & Sabine Reiter, Kearsy Cormier, Jordan Fenlon, Ramas Rentelis, & Adam Schembri, Simeon Floyd & Martine Bruil, Diana Forker, Michael Franjieh & Kilu von Prince, Brent Henderson & Charl...

  19. An Economic Evaluation of a Vaccine Acquisition Strategy to Mitigate Acute Diarrheal Illness Among Deployed US Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    one cause for hospital admission among troops deployed to Operation Restore Hope in Somalia from 1992 to 1993. [35] These data suggest that not only... Hope , Somalia, 1992-1993. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1995. 52(2): p. 188-93. 124 30. Taylor, S.F., R.H. Lutz, and J.A. Millward, Disease and nonbattle...Hux, C. Attard, and N. Milkovich, Cost- effectiveness of becaplermin for nonhealing neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage, 2003. 49

  20. Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) is a UNESCO Category 2 water center headquartered at the USACE Institute for Water...Resources (IWR) in Alexandria, Virginia, USA. ICIWaRM was officially created by an agreement between the U.S. Government and UNESCO in October 2009 to...csc.noaa.gov/ digitalcoast/sites/default/files/files/publications/04062013/ InfrastructureSystemsRebuildingPrinciples.pdf Patterson LA , Lutz B, Doyle MW

  1. SU-G-BRB-02: An Open-Source Software Analysis Library for Linear Accelerator Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, J; Yaldo, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. Methods: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence. The analysis library was built using the general programming language Python. Each test was analyzed with the library algorithms and compared to manual measurements taken at the time of acquisition. Results: VMAT QA results agreed within 0.1% between the library and manual measurements. Machine logs (dynalogs & trajectory logs) were successfully parsed; mechanical axis positions were verified for accuracy and MLC fluence agreed well with EPID measurements. CBCT QA measurements were within 10 HU and 0.2mm where applicable. Winston Lutz isocenter size measurements were within 0.2mm of TrueBeam’s Machine Performance Check. Starshot analysis was within 0.2mm of the Winston Lutz results for the same conditions. Picket fence images with and without a known error showed that the library was capable of detecting MLC offsets within 0.02mm. Conclusion: A new routine QA software library has been benchmarked and is available for use by the community. The library is open-source and extensible for use in larger systems.

  2. SU-G-BRB-02: An Open-Source Software Analysis Library for Linear Accelerator Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yaldo, D [Advocate Health Care, Park Ridge, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. Methods: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence. The analysis library was built using the general programming language Python. Each test was analyzed with the library algorithms and compared to manual measurements taken at the time of acquisition. Results: VMAT QA results agreed within 0.1% between the library and manual measurements. Machine logs (dynalogs & trajectory logs) were successfully parsed; mechanical axis positions were verified for accuracy and MLC fluence agreed well with EPID measurements. CBCT QA measurements were within 10 HU and 0.2mm where applicable. Winston Lutz isocenter size measurements were within 0.2mm of TrueBeam’s Machine Performance Check. Starshot analysis was within 0.2mm of the Winston Lutz results for the same conditions. Picket fence images with and without a known error showed that the library was capable of detecting MLC offsets within 0.02mm. Conclusion: A new routine QA software library has been benchmarked and is available for use by the community. The library is open-source and extensible for use in larger systems.

  3. Emoções e guerras: da Micronésia às bases militares americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Saraiva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Lutz tem um PhD em antropologia cultural da Universidade de Harvard, é professora do Departamento de Antropologia da Brown University, e investigadora do Watson Institute for International Studies da mesma universidade. Os seus temas de pesquisa debruçam-se sobre a antropologia das emoções, construção do género e da noção de raça, teoria crítica, mudanças na democracia e, mais recentemente, guerra, grupos militares e sociedade, nomeadamente através do estudo de bases militares americanas e do retorno de militares americanos dissidentes da guerra do Iraque. Lutz conduziu igualmente pesquisa para organizações activistas e todas estas temáticas se relacionam com a vontade de compreender as articulações socais e culturais das construções de poder e de desigualdade. Algumas das suas obras, influentes no campo da antropologia das emoções, da antropologia cognitiva e da história política são Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and their Challenge to Western Theory; Language and the Politics of Emotion(com Abu-Lughod; Reading National Geographic; Homefront: a Military City and the American 20th Century; Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics; The Bases of the Empire. The Struggle against US Military Posts, além de vários artigos como "Empire is in the details" e "Making war at home in the United States: militarization and the current crisis". Nesta entrevista Lutz fala sobre o que tem sido o seu trabalho e as suas preocupações académicas mas também sociais e interventivas.

  4. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al 1 using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA

  5. CWF and TABLE - Two Fortran programmes for the calculation of Coulomb penetration and shift factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.S.; James, M.F.

    1965-12-01

    CWF and TABLE are Fortran programmes, written for the IBM 7090 and English-Electric Leo Marconi KDF9 computers, that calculate the penetration and shift factors for a charged particle in a Coulomb field. The numerical methods used are those of Lutz and Karvelis. The two programmes are very similar. Input to TABLE is in the form of the centre-of-mass co-ordinates. CWF is intended for use in calculating cross-sections for neutron-induced reactions which result in charged particle emission, and the input is in the form of the neutron energy in the laboratory frame of reference, together with other necessary reaction data. (author)

  6. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  7. Intermarried couples, mental health and psychosocial well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Holm, Dagny

    2012-01-01

    up in visibly ethnically different households. In Lutz, V., & L. Supik (Eds.), Framing intersectionality: Debates on a multi-faceted concept in gender studies. Surrey: Ashgate]. The analysis indicates that internal, personal and family aspects, such as realistic plans, mixing everyday practices...... and focussing on the fun part, are in interplay with external aspects such as formal and informal acceptance of the intermarriage in society, dominant gender roles, recognition and inclusion for the mixed couples. Recognition of the significance of these aspects and practices is important for promoting positive...

  8. Water in the Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Valentin, Ch. Claveau A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, VN. Saveliev , L.N. Sinitsa « THE TCPE MANY-BODY MODEL FOR WATER » 79 M. Masella and J-P. Flament...Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et Applications, CNRS Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. A.D. Bykov, N.N. Lavrentieva, V.N. Saveliev , L.N...T19 Lozada M. T4 Rothman L.S. T22 Lutz B. L. T33 Ruiz J. P24 Lynch R. P3 Sadlej A. T5 Lynden-Bell R. M. P8 Saveliev V.N. P4 Maemets V. P18 Saykally

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Maxillofacial Region: A Report of 5 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Dionízio De Albuquerque Neto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection initially described in Brazil in 1908 by Adolfo Lutz. Manifestation of this disease depends on numerous factors, such as microorganism virulence, hormonal profile, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and immune system. It is characterized classically by cutaneous lesions, lymphadenopathy, and pulmonary involvement. It presents male predilection, which can be explained by the protective effect of female hormones. Classic presentation within oral cavity is a superficial ulcer characterized by hemorrhagic dots of moriform aspect. Treatment should be established individually and closely monitored. This manuscript aims at reporting five cases of this pathology.

  10. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  11. Multidisciplinary pain management programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, Germany

  12. A new species of Bufo Laurenti (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nazaré Stevaux

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid load, Bufo jimi sp. nov., is described from Maracás and Itagibá, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species shows close relationships to B. paracnemis Lutz, 1925 by sharing the presence of tibial glands and the paratoid glands shape. The new species is a member of the Bufo marinus-group, and is characlerized by having well-defined glands in most part of dorsal faceof the forearms, in the extcrn side of the feet and in both sides of cloacal region.

  13. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    and olive ridley marine turtle hatchlings. T.T. Jones, R.R. Reina Symposium and P.L. Lutz. Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca 44.0 REGULATION OF VERTEBRATE... preference of 16[deg]C acclimated emabs was a genseralist woodrat, with a choice bersween control anod 50% juniper diet under Wsarm (26 1 4.6fdeg]C and thsey...and Olive Ridley Marine Turtle Harvey B. Lillywhite’, Jaishri G. Mceon2, Gopinathan K. Menon’. Ming C. Tuo: ’University, Hatchllngs of Florida

  14. QALMA: A computational toolkit for the analysis of quality protocols for medical linear accelerators in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Lei, Yu; Kalantzis, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Quality Assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerator (linac) is one of the primary concerns in external beam radiation Therapy. Continued advancements in clinical accelerators and computer control technology make the QA procedures more complex and time consuming which often, adequate software accompanied with specific phantoms is required. To ameliorate that matter, we introduce QALMA (Quality Assurance for Linac with MATLAB), a MALAB toolkit which aims to simplify the quantitative analysis of QA for linac which includes Star-Shot analysis, Picket Fence test, Winston-Lutz test, Multileaf Collimator (MLC) log file analysis and verification of light & radiation field coincidence test.

  15. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  16. Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Google and YouTube use Python because it's highly adaptable, easy to maintain, and allows for rapid development. If you want to write high-quality, efficient code that's easily integrated with other languages and tools, this hands-on book will help you be productive with Python quickly -- whether you're new to programming or just new to Python. It's an easy-to-follow self-paced tutorial, based on author and Python expert Mark Lutz's popular training course. Each chapter contains a stand-alone lesson on a key component of the language, and includes a unique Test Your Knowledge section with p

  17. Quantitative assessment of the dose-response of alkylating agents in DNA repair proficient and deficient ames tester strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Leilei; Guérard, Melanie; Zeller, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenic and clastogenic effects of some DNA damaging agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have been demonstrated to exhibit a nonlinear or even "thresholded" dose-response in vitro and in vivo. DNA repair seems to be mainly responsible for these thresholds. To this end, we assessed several mutagenic alkylators in the Ames test with four different strains of Salmonella typhimurium: the alkyl transferases proficient strain TA1535 (Ogt+/Ada+), as well as the alkyl transferases deficient strains YG7100 (Ogt+/Ada-), YG7104 (Ogt-/Ada+) and YG7108 (Ogt-/Ada-). The known genotoxins EMS, MMS, temozolomide (TMZ), ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and methylnitrosourea (MNU) were tested in as many as 22 concentration levels. Dose-response curves were statistically fitted by the PROAST benchmark dose model and the Lutz-Lutz "hockeystick" model. These dose-response curves suggest efficient DNA-repair for lesions inflicted by all agents in strain TA1535. In the absence of Ogt, Ada is predominantly repairing methylations but not ethylations. It is concluded that the capacity of alkyl-transferases to successfully repair DNA lesions up to certain dose levels contributes to genotoxicity thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stability of vitamin A in irradiated beef liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Lamardo, Leda C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carorene were analized in 3KGy Co-60 γ-irradiation and unirradiated samples of bovine liver. Six different lots of samples were obtained at meat market, two samples per lot weighing about 100g each, keot at -15 0 C as long as possible. Pre-treatment and analysis methopds were those described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in described in Institute Adolfo Lutz Norms for Food Analysis, using two-gram samples in duplicates. The total viramin A content of the samples varied a lot. The means and standard deviations of vitamin A retention percentage after irradiation were 106±8.2 (12 replications). Similarly, β-carotene retention percentage was 98±2.4 (24 replications). The results show that there were no losses of neither vitamin A nor protovitamin A as consequence of irradiation with a dose suitable for the reduction of spoilage and pathogenic organisms. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  20. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  1. Paracoccidioidomicose: centenário do primeiro relato de caso Paracoccidioidomycosis: a century from the first case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Há 100 anos Adolpho Lutz publicava relato pioneiro de enfermidade descrita como mycose pseudococcidica, hoje paracoccidioidomicose, em que discorria sobre suas manifestações clínico-histopatológicas e micológicas. Com precisão, em abril de 1908, descreveu que "O agrupamento de corpúsculos kysticos é bastante característico. Geralmente há um maior no centro e outros pequenos em redor, o que sempre me produziu a impressão de resultar de um processo de gemmação". Inaugurava-se novo campo para investigações científicas.One hundred years ago Adolpho Lutz published published the frist report of a patient with paracoccidioidomycosis, then referred as mycosis pseudococcidica. in his original article published in April 1908, he accurately informed that "The arrangement of cystic corpuscles is highly characteristic. Generally one finds a large central corpuscle surrounded by small ones, and this feature has always left me under the impression that it is the results of a gemulation process" A new field of scientific research was then opened.

  2. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  3. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  4. SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N; Laurel, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the

  5. Quality assurance for a six degrees-of-freedom table using a 3D printed phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kyle; Ayan, Ahmet S; Woollard, Jeffrey; Gupta, Nilendu

    2018-01-01

    To establish a streamlined end-to-end test of a 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) robotic table using a 3D printed phantom for periodic quality assurance. A 3D printed phantom was fabricated with translational and rotational offsets and an imbedded central ball-bearing (BB). The phantom underwent each step of the radiation therapy process: CT simulation in a straight orientation, plan generation using the treatment planning software, setup to offset marks at the linac, registration and corrected 6DoF table adjustments via hidden target test, delivery of a Winston-Lutz test to the BB, and verification of table positioning via field and laser lights. The registration values, maximum total displacement of the combined Winston-Lutz fields, and a pass or fail criterion of the laser and field lights were recorded. The quality assurance process for each of the three linacs were performed for the first 30 days. Within a 95% confidence interval, the overall uncertainty values for both translation and rotation were below 1.0 mm and 0.5° for each linac respectively. When combining the registration values and other uncertainties for all three linacs, the average deviations were within 2.0 mm and 1.0° of the designed translation and rotation offsets of the 3D print respectively. For all three linacs, the maximum total deviation for the Winston-Lutz test did not exceed 1.0 mm. Laser and light field verification was within tolerance every day for all three linacs given the latest guidance documentation for table repositioning. The 3D printer is capable of accurately fabricating a quality assurance phantom for 6DoF positioning verification. The end-to-end workflow allows for a more efficient test of the 6DoF mechanics while including other important tests needed for routine quality assurance. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N [Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH (United States); Laurel, A [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the

  7. Garantia de qualidade em citopatologia: aspectos da correlação cito-histopatológica Quality assurance in cytopathology: aspects of the cytohistological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. di Loreto

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a concordância diagnóstica cito-histológica de lesões de colo uterino e discutiram as eventuais discrepâncias. OBJETIVO. Averiguar o nível de concordância cito-histológica nos casos da Divisão de Patologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL e aprimorar a estratégia de garantia de qualidade na instituição. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Estudaram 157 casos consecutivos dos arquivos do IAL em que foram enviadas citologia cérvico-vaginal e biópsia. RESULTADO. Houve concordância absoluta em 119 (75,8% casos; nos demais, a citologia superestimou 11 lesões (7,0% e subestimou 27 (17,2%. Observou-se que em 5 casos, inicialmente diagnosticados como inflamatório pela citologia, dois foram, à revisão, considerados como NIC 1; os demais foram ratificados como inflamatórios, apesar de suas respectivas biópsias terem diagnóstico de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical. CONCLUSÃO. Tais resultados demonstram a importância da correlação cito-histológica para o sistema de garantia de qualidade em diagnóstico citológico e apontam para a colheita como um dos fatores determinantes nas discrepâncias diagnósticas.The cytohistologic diagnosis concordance of the cervix-uterine lesions was evaluated and the discordances are discussed. PURPOSE. To evalute the level of cytohistological diagnosis agreement in the Pathology Division of the Adolfo Lutz Institute and enhance parameters of quality assurance system developed in this institution. METHODS. The authors retrospectively evaluated 157 pairs of cytologyhistology consecutive cases from the files the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Division of Pathology. RESULTS. Agreement was found in 119 cases (75.8%; in the remaining cases cytologic diagnosis were higher than histology in 11 lesions (7.0% and lower in 27 (17.2%. We also observed that in 5 cases previously diagnosed as inflammatory, 2 of them were reclassified as CIN 1; after revision, the others remained as inflammatory even though they had a

  8. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter

  9. Revision of Brada Stimpson, 1853, and Bradabyssa Hartman, 1967 (Annelida, Flabelligeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-11-03

    Among flabelligerid genera Brada Stimpson, 1853 includes several species whose bodies are fusiform or club-shaped, often with a reduced number of chaetigers, and their members are found in temperate and polar waters. In contrast, Bradabyssa Hartman, 1967 is regarded as a monotypic genus with a single Antarctic species with a cylindrical body and a variable number of chaetigers. After examination of all type and non-type material available of both genera, two distinct body patterns were distinguished: one includes the type species for Brada, B. granosa Stimpson, 1853, has only 8 branchial filaments and the neurochaetae are thick, blunt, often falcate, whereas the other includes the type species of Bradabyssa, B. papillata Hartman, 1967, usually has many branchial filaments and neurochaetae are straighter and mucronate. Consequently, Brada is herein restricted to include only 5 species, one of which is new, Brada kudenovi n. sp. Bradabyssa is herein emended to include many species formerly regarded as belonging in Brada, as new combinations, and species can be separated into four groups according to the development of the tunic and its sediment load. Thirteen new species of Bradabyssa are also described: B. indica n. sp., B. mexicana n. sp., B. alaskensis n. sp., B. elinae n. sp., B. grangieri n. sp., B. levensteinae n. sp., B. harrisae n. sp., B. hartmanae n. sp., B. jirkovi n. sp., B. kirkegaardi n. sp., B. monnioti n. sp., B. mezianei n. sp. and B. willeyi n. sp. The species belonging to Brada are B. granosa, B. granulosa Hansen, 1880, B. incrustata Støp-Bowitz, 1948, B. inhabilis (Rathke, 1843), and B. kudenovi n. sp. The species belonging to Bradabyssa are separated into four groups according to the development of their tunic and its sediment load. Group crustosa includes B. indica n. sp., B. mexicana n. sp., B. minuta (Amoureux, 1986) n. comb., and B. sachalina (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1922) n. comb. Group nuda includes B. alaskensis n. sp., B. antarctica (Hartman

  10. Delfina Serrano Ruano (éd.), Crueldad y compasíon en la literatura árabe e islámica

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, François

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage constitue les actes du séminaire « Narrar y suscitar : violencia, compasíon y crueldad en la literatura árabe e islámica », qui s’est tenu en octobre 2008 à l’Institut des langues et cultures de la Méditerranée et du Proche-Orient (CCHS-CSIC, Madrid). Il s’inscrit dans le champ des recherches sur l’histoire des émotions, un domaine de plus en plus exploré (voir les travaux de C. Lutz et L. Abu-Lughod, B. H. Rosenwein, ou D. Boquet et P. Nagy), mais encore largement en friche en ce...

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003 and Lainson and Rangel (2005 have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  12. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  13. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  14. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  15. [Paths taken by Dr. Jorge Clarke Bleyer in the fields of tropical medicine and Brazilian prehistory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer Martins Costa, Terezinha de Jesus Thibes

    2003-01-01

    This research note presents a preliminary evaluation of the life history of Georg Carl Adolf Bleyer, physician, hygienist and naturalist who played a crucial role in the institution of public health in Santa Catarina and was a pioneer in tropical medicine, anthropology and archeology of Brazil. Adolpho Lutz was one of the main partners in Brazil of this equally multifacted physician who published important articles in German journals. His most thorough study was important to the history of the disciplines which which he worked; it provides the basis for understanding the conditions of medical and scientific practice in places far from the urban centers of southeastern Brazil that dominate the historiography of medicine and science.

  16. Quality assurance procedure for assessing mechanical accuracy of a radiation field center in stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Daisaku; Ienaga, Akinori; Nakada, Ryosei; Yomoda, Akane; Inoue, Makoto; Ichida, Takao; Hosono, Masako

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy requires a quality assurance (QA) program that ensures the mechanical accuracy of a radiation field center. We have proposed a QA method for achieving the above requirement by conducting the Winston Lutz test using an electronic portal image device (EPID). An action limit was defined as three times the standard deviation. Then, the action limits for mean deviations of the radiation field center during collimator rotation, gantry rotation, and couch rotation in clockwise and counterclockwise resulted in 0.11 mm, 0.52 mm, 0.37 mm, and 0.41 mm respectively. Two years after the QA program was launched, the mean deviation of the radiation field center during gantry rotation exceeded the above action limit. Consequently, a mechanical adjustment for the gantry was performed, thereby restoring the accuracy of the radiation field center. A field center shift of 0.5 mm was also observed after a micro multi-leaf collimator was unmounted. (author)

  17. L’amor come stile culturale. Auto-poiesi e strategie emozionali tra i giovani di Bubaque, Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’antropologia delle emozioni è legata in prevalenza a contesti etnografici descritti, direbbero Gupta e Ferguson (a cura, 1997, come “campi puri”. La maggior parte degli antropologi che lavora sulle emozioni, ha osservato William Reddy (1999, p. 256, utilizzano nelle loro etnografie il presente etnografico e si avvalgono di generalizzazioni che si fondano implicitamente su una concezione dei contesti culturali come ambiti di significati articolati logicamente in un sistema e segnati da confini precisi. Anche quando viene riconosciuta una molteplicità di discorsi contrastanti sulle emozioni, come nell’analisi di Lila Abu-Lughod (1986 delle performance emozionali tra i beduini awlad’ ali, l’ordine culturale all’interno del quale queste collisioni discorsive vengono comunque orchestrate getta un fondato sospetto sull’utilizzabilità degli strumenti di analisi proposti nel “manifesto” di Abu-Lughod e Lutz (a cura, 1990 in contesti meno puri o, forse, meno purificati.

  18. The atomic conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.

    1981-01-01

    This book provides a general view at the atomic programmes of several countries and makes an attempt to unmask the atomic industrial combines with their interlockings. The governments role is analysed as well as the atomic policy of the parties, union-trades and associations. Then, the anti-atomic movements in those countries, their forms of resistance, the resonance and the alternative proposals are presented. The countries concerned are Australia, the FRG, COMECON, Danmark, the EG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and the USA. For the pocket book version, Lutz Mez adds an updating epilogue which continues with the developments until springtime 1981. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species.

  20. Effects of azadirachtin on the development and mortality of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Coelho, Claudia Alves; de Souza, Nataly Araújo; Feder, Maria Denise; da Silva, Carlos Eugênio; Garcia, Elói de Souza; Azambuja, Patricia; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2006-03-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the standard diet on the development, mortality, and metamorphosis of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 were studied. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg of azadirachtin/mg of diet significantly increased larval mortality in comparison with nontreated insects. Concentrations 0.1 and 1.0 microg blocked the molt of larvae, which remained as third instars until the end of the experiment. The 10 microg/mg concentration resulted in greater molt inhibition. In this group, all insects stopped their development as second instars. Simultaneous addition of ecdysone (1 microg/mg) to the standard diet containing azadirachtin counteracted the effects of azadirachtin on mortality and inhibition of ecdysis. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent growth inhibitor of L. longipalpis.

  1. Severe agitation in severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease resolves with ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksay SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Suna Su Aksay, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Dementia-related behavioral disturbances are mostly treated with antipsychotics; however, the observed beneficial effects are modest and the risk of serious adverse effects high. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and severe agitation, whom we treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. A significant clinical improvement was achieved over eight ECT sessions, which were tolerated well without cognitive worsening, and lasted approximately 3 months. Our case demonstrates the safe and effective use of ECT in pharmacotherapy-resistant severe agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. The risk–benefit profile of ECT for dementia-related agitation should be further investigated in clinical trials. Keywords: dementia, electroconvulsive therapy, cognition, emotional distress, disinhibition.

  2. L'inutile nozione di "moneta naturale"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ASCHHEIM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of neutral money occupies a notable place in monetary theory, from neoclassical literature to the present. This paper reconsiders the meaning of the neutrality of money and the nature of the conditions that make for such neutrality. The author first focuses on Knut Wicksell’s pathbreaking formulation of the neutrality of the interest rate in a monetary economy. The subsequent expositions of the neutrality of money are considered with special reference to their recent analysis by Friedrich A. Lutz. The author finds that the neutrality of money is conceptually contradictory, and that the specification of conditions under which money would be neutral is inherently misleading. JEL: E43, B31, E40

  3. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  4. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  5. Achieving process intensification form the application of a phenomena based synthesis, Design and intensification methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John

    of PI still faces challenges [2] because the identification and design of intensified processes is not simple [3]. Lutze et al [3] has developed a systematic PI synthesis/design method at the unit operations (Unit-Ops) level, where the search space is based on a knowledge-base of existing PI equipment...... for the manufacture of methyl acetate by replacing with one single reactive distillation column the multi-step process which consisted of one reactor, extractive distillation, liquid-liquid separation and azeotropic distillation. However, except for reactive distillation and dividing wall columns, the implementation......, the starting point is knowledge of existing Unit-Ops and therefore a limitation arising from their application is that they are able to generate new integrations/combinations of intensified equipment but are unable to generate novel PI solutions employing new Unit-Ops. Therefore, incentives exist for a more...

  6. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  7. Syagrus schizophylla: Unconventional Food Plant of the Caatinga Biome with a high caloric value | Syagrus schizophylla: Planta alimentícia não convencional do bioma de caatinga com alto valor calórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Fátima Padilha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present day world concern relates to the effects of climate on plantations. In various parts of the world, forests, fields, plantations continue to disappear or are degraded. Brazil is a country that concentrates a great diversity of plants, this also refers to the Caatinga biome that participates in the vegetal cover of the state of Pernambuco, where this vegetation still displays the presence of unconventional food plants (UFP. Seeking to know in more detail the nutritional value of fruits of the palm Syagrus schizophylla known as Catolé coconut, this study sought to assess the centesimal composition of its almonds. Physico-chemical tests were performed in triplicate and according to methodologies of Instituto Adolfo Lutz-IAL. Before the results, it is concluded that the Catolé coconut almond is very nutritious and presents high caloric value.

  8. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  9. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.

  10. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  11. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o conteúdo de tocoferóis em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliação sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Sinigallia Taipina

    2009-01-01

    O conteúdo e o percentual de retenção de atividade de vitamina E, bem como, as características sensoriais foram analisados em amostras de alimentos fontes de vitamina E: nozes pecãs; biscoitos integrais e alimento fortificado em pó irradiados com doses de 1 e 3 kGy de radiação gama de 60Co. Para a determinação de vitamina E (como equivalentes em -tocoferol) foram utilizados três lotes dos produtos e aplicado método colorimétrico padronizado pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo. Para a anál...

  12. RECORRÊNCIA DE NOMINALIZAÇÔES DEVERBAIS em RESUMOS DE CARTAS científicAs em língua portuguesa E A INDEXAÇÂO TEMÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    da Silveira Guedes, Vânia Lisbôa; Veloso da Costa Santos, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo investiga a recorrência de nominalizações deverbais em resumo de cartas científicas em língua portuguesa, do arquivo da cientista Bertha Lutz, com intuito de estimar os graus de produtividade das nominalizações e observar suas funções de índice. A pesquisa situa-se entre a Linguística e a Ciência da Informação e objetiva contribuir para o refinamento da indexação. Estabeleceu-se a hipótese de que as nominalizações em -ção prevalecem, em cartas científicas, e exercem funções de índ...

  13. Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

    2014-09-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD.

  14. Monodeuterated methane in the outer solar system. I. Spectroscopic analysis of the bands at 1.55 and 1.95 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, B.L.; de Bergh, C.; Maillard, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of monodeuterated methane (CH 3 D) near 6400 cm -1 and 5100 cm -1 is presented as the first of a series of papers dealing with laboratory studies of this molecule and with observational searches for it in outer solar system objects. Three new parallel bands which have locally perturbed upper states connecting with the ground state are identified, and approximate rotational constants are derived. The band centered near 6425 cm -1 and the 9613 A band previously analyzed by Lutz, Danehy, and Ramsay are found to form an apparent vibrational progression with the ν 2 fundamental at 2200 cm -1 , and vibrational assignments of 3ν 2 and 5ν 2 , respectively, are proposed. Detailed comparison of the rotational constants of the states involved is shown to support these assignments

  15. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  16. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic structure of local populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munstermann, L E; Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M

    1998-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis in the New World tropics, has a broad but discontinuous geographical distribution from southern Mexico to Argentina. A baseline for population genetic structure and genetic variability for this species was obtained by analyzing 5 local, peridomestic populations at the approximate center of its distribution, the Magdalena River Valley of central Colombia. Three populations of L. longipalpis from El Callejón, a small rural community, were compared with 2 populations from neighboring areas 12 and 25 km distant for genetic variation at 15 isoenzyme loci. The mean heterozygosity ranged from 11 to 16%, with 1.2 to 2.3 alleles detected per locus. Nei's genetic distances among the populations were very low, ranging from 0.001 to 0.007. Gene flow estimates based on FST indicated high levels of gene flow among local L. longipalpis populations, with minimal population substructuring.

  18. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  19. The taxonomic status of genetically divergent populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on the distribution of mitochondrial and isozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Piñango, Hermes; Norris, Douglas; Alexander, Bruce; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2003-09-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) reputedly is a complex of cryptic species; however, there is currently no consensus as to the number of species in the complex or their geographic distributions. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of 31 populations from throughout the species range, using seven isozyme loci and genes in the mitochondrial genome. Analyses of these two independent sets of markers were largely concordant and revealed four distinct clades that support the existence of four species. The four clades have distinct geographic ranges: (1) Brazil (Species A = Lu. longipalpis sensu stricto), (2) Laran (Species B = Lu. pseudolongipalpis), (3) cis-Andean (Species C), and (4) trans-Andean (Species D). The cis-Andean clade may be subdivided further into two groups, one in Colombia and one in northwestern Venezuela, but their taxonomic status remains unresolved. Knowledge that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of species may ultimately shed light on anomalies in the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World.

  20. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

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    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  1. Relação entre a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos e aspectos epidemiológicos em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Relationship between intestinal parasites in food handlers and epidemiological factors in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Alexandre Costa Nolla

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a presença de enteroparasitas e os aspectos epidemiológicos em 238 indivíduos que trabalhavam em uma empresa de alimentos e trabalhadores de feiras livres e "sacolões", na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. As técnicas parasitológicas utilizadas neste estudo foram: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham e Faust, e as taxas de infecção parasitária encontradas, 42,85% e 47,06%, respectivamente. Os fatores sócio-econômicos, como distribuição de renda, escolaridade e categorias ocupacionais, foram importantes dentro deste contexto. O hábito de ingerir hortaliças e frutas foram os fatores mais associados ao alto grau de parasitismo. Conclui-se que, nesta cidade, os manipuladores de alimentos apresentaram elevados índices de parasitose, havendo necessidade de uma melhor vigilância epidemiológica por meio de exames parasitológicos e educação sanitária a todos esses indivíduos.The presence of intestinal parasites and epidemiological aspects were evaluated in 238 workers from a fast food company and other individuals working in street markets and farmers' produce markets in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Parasitological techniques used in this study were: Lutz, Baermann-Moraes, Graham, and Faust, and parasite infection rates were 42.85% and 47.06%, respectively. Socioeconomic factors such as income distribution, schooling, and occupational categories proved to be relevant in this context. Habitual daily intake of fruits and vegetables was the factor most heavily associated with infection. These data suggest that intestinal parasites are frequent among food handlers in this city and that there is a need for constant epidemiological surveillance through periodic parasitological tests and health education for this entire population segment.

  2. SU-E-T-373: A Motorized Stage for Fast and Accurate QA of Machine Isocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J; Velarde, E; Wong, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Precision delivery of radiation dose relies on accurate knowledge of the machine isocenter under a variety of machine motions. This is typically determined by performing a Winston-Lutz test consisting of imaging a known object at multiple gantry/collimator/table angles and ensuring that the maximum offset is within specified tolerance. The first step in the Winston-Lutz test is careful placement of a ball bearing at the machine isocenter as determined by repeated imaging and shifting until accurate placement has been determined. Conventionally this is performed by adjusting a stage manually using vernier scales which carry the limitation that each adjustment must be done inside the treatment room with the risks of inaccurate adjustment of the scale and physical bumping of the table. It is proposed to use a motorized system controlled outside of the room to improve the required time and accuracy of these tests. Methods: The three dimensional vernier scales are replaced by three motors with accuracy of 1 micron and a range of 25.4mm connected via USB to a computer in the control room. Software is designed which automatically detects the motors and assigns them to proper axes and allows for small shifts to be entered and performed. Input values match calculated offsets in magnitude and sign to reduce conversion errors. Speed of setup, number of iterations to setup, and accuracy of final placement are assessed. Results: Automatic BB placement required 2.25 iterations and 13 minutes on average while manual placement required 3.76 iterations and 37.5 minutes. The average final XYZ offsets is 0.02cm, 0.01cm, 0.04cm for automatic setup and 0.04cm, 0.02cm, 0.04cm for manual setup. Conclusion: Automatic placement decreased time and repeat iterations for setup while improving placement accuracy. Automatic placement greatly reduces the time required to perform QA

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  4. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

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    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças

  5. Intestinal parasites and commensals among individuals from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Parasitos e comensais intestinais entre indivíduos de um acampamento de sem-terras na área rural de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Maria Cecília Oliveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children and adults from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October to November 2001. Stool samples from 78 individuals were examined by both the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Fifty-one (65.4%; CI 54.8 - 76.0 individuals were found to be infected, 23 (45.1% children and 28 (54.9% adults, of whom 34 (66.7% were mono-infected, 9 (17.6% bi-infected, and 8 (15.7% poly-infected. In conclusion, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals suggests that parasitological exams should be periodically carried out in addition to the sanitation education and health special care in this population.Avaliou-se a ocorrência de parasitos e comensais intestinais entre crianças e adultos de um acampamento de sem-terras na área rural de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de outubro a novembro de 2001. Amostras de fezes dos 78 indivíduos foram examinadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e Lutz. Cinqüenta e um (65,4%; IC 54.8 - 76.0 indivíduos estavam infectados, 23 (45,1% crianças e 28 (54,9% adultos, dos quais 34 (66,7% estavam monoparasitados, 9 (17,6% biparasitados e 8 (15,7% poliparasitados. A elevada ocorrência de parasitos e comensais intestinais aponta para a necessidade da realização de exames parasitológicos periódicos, educação sanitária e acompanhamento das condições de saúde desta população.

  6. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  7. Proeminência na mídia, reputação em ciências: a construção de uma feminista paradigmática e cientista normal no Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional

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    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertha Lutz foi uma das mulheres de sua geração que desfrutaram de incontestável autoridade política e científica. Escreveu muito, e mais ainda se escreveu sobre ela, especialmente em sua época. Notícias de jornais, crônicas de Lima Barreto, inúmeras cartas, artigos científicos e textos inéditos da própria Bertha, comentados neste artigo, nos permitem observar que seu feminismo emprestou-lhe notoriedade e visibilidade - cuidadosamente construídas -, que se articulariam com seu desempenho profissional, impulsionando-o. A ciência lhe conferia prestígio social e garantia legitimidade para suas causas. Nesse período em que a comunidade científica tomou para si a tarefa de tornar públicas as suas conquistas, a proeminência feminista de Bertha na mídia emprestou-lhe reputação em ciências.Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism - inseparable from other dimensions of her life - fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  8. Land use history and population dynamics of free-standing figs in a maturing forest.

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    Larissa Albrecht

    Full Text Available Figs (Ficus sp. are often considered as keystone resources which strongly influence tropical forest ecosystems. We used long-term tree-census data to track the population dynamics of two abundant free-standing fig species, Ficus insipida and F. yoponensis, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, a 15.6-km2 island in Lake Gatún, Panama. Vegetation cover on BCI consists of a mosaic of old growth (>400 years and maturing (about 90-150 year old secondary rainforest. Locations and conditions of fig trees have been mapped and monitored on BCI for more than 35 years (1973-2011, with a focus on the Lutz Catchment area (25 ha. The original distribution of the fig trees shortly after the construction of the Panama Canal was derived from an aerial photograph from 1927 and was compared with previous land use and forest status. The distribution of both fig species (~850 trees is restricted to secondary forest. Of the original 119 trees observed in Lutz Catchment in 1973, >70% of F. insipida and >90% of F. yoponensis had died by 2011. Observations in other areas on BCI support the trend of declining free-standing figs. We interpret the decline of these figs on BCI as a natural process within a maturing tropical lowland forest. Senescence of the fig trees appears to have been accelerated by severe droughts such as the strong El Niño event in the year 1982/83. Because figs form such an important food resource for frugivores, this shift in resource availability is likely to have cascading effects on frugivore populations.

  9. Lutzomyia wellcomei Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae em Fragmento de Mata Atlântica do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Paulo Gomes Pinheiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. As leishmanioses podem afetar seres humanos e animais nas formas visceral e tegumentar. A forma tegumentar tem sido associada, entre outras espécies, a Lutzomyia wellcomei Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson, inicialmente encontrado na região amazônica. O estudo se baseou em coletas mensais de janeiro a dezembro em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica e em um ambiente peridomiciliar, com armadilhas luminosas CDC. Esse é o primeiro estudo sistematizado sobre essa espécie no Rio Grande do Norte. Os insetos foram identificados e analisados em relação às chuvas no local. Alguns espécimes de L. wellcomei foram metalizados sob fita de carbono, visualizados e fotografados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. A espécie mais abundante na área de mata foi Lutzomyia walkeri Newstead seguida por L. wellcomei. Do total capturado no ambiente de mata e no peridomicílio, cerca de 8% corresponde a L. wellcomei, sendo esta a espécie predominante no ambiente de mata no período chuvoso. Flebotomíneos L. wellcomei não foram capturados em ambiente peridomiciliar. Na mata essa espécie foi encontrada juntamente às espécies Lutzomyia whitmani Antunes & Coutinho e Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva. Machos e fêmeas Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva foram predominantes no ambiente peridomiciliar. A análise microscópica da morfologia externa de L. wellcomei revela detalhes da cabeça de machos e fêmeas.

  10. Alguns dados sobre a leishmaniose visceral americana e doença de Chagas no Nordeste Brasileiro (Relatório de uma excursão realizada nos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía

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    R. Pondé

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de nossas pesquisas, nas zonas emque trabalhamos, haviam sido asinalados cinco casos vivos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, três no Ceará e dois em Pernambuco. Alem desses, oito tinham sido evidenciados por viscerotomia na Baía, município de Jacobina. Já se tinha conhecimento tambem, de um caso de Doença de Chagas no Ceará. Na confecção do presente trabalho visitamos regiões dos Estados do Ceará, Pernambuco e Baía, onde realizamos rápidos inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre as duas protozooses. No Ceará, região do Cariri, encontramos dois novos casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica, e cinco de Doença de Chagas, evidenciandos pelos xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, F. villelai Mangabeira., F. limai Fonseca e F. nordestinus Mangabeira, assim com Panstrongylus megistus (Burm., 13.5% dos quais infectados. Examinamos animais domésticos (cães e gatos e silvestres com resultado negativo. Em Pernambuco, município de Exú, fizemos um inquérito sobre os dois casos de Leishmaniose Visceral Americana anteriormente assinalados, não encontrando outros. foram capturados F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, alem de Panstrongylus magistus (Burm. e Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva; nenhum deles estava infectado. Dos animais domésticos foram autopsiados três cães sendo encontrado um com leishmanias no fígado e no baço. O exame de 43 animais silvestres nada revelou. Na Baía, município de Jacobina, encontramos, na zona periférica da cidade, um caso de Leishmaniose visceral Americana e, em outras localidades do município, três outros casos, cujos diagnósticos foram confirmados pelo exame de esfregaços de polpa esplênica; encontramos, também dois casos de Doença de Chagas, evidenciados pelo xenodiagnóstico. Foram capturados F. evandroi Costa Lima, F. lenti Mangabeira e F. longipalpis Lutz & Neiva; Panstrongylus

  11. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

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    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  12. Macroinvertebrates as tadpole food: importance and body size relationships Macroinvertebrados como alimento de girinos: importância e relações com tamanho de corpo

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    Silvia L. Dutra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates as food were recorded for three anurans tadpoles: Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae, and Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. These species are commonly found in the mountain streams at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tadpoles were collected in pools of second-order reach in Mascates stream and third and fourth order reaches of Indaiá stream from March-October, 2003. Biometrical data were recorded before dissecting each individual and a feeding importance index was estimated. Eight taxa of chironomids and three taxa of mayfly exuviae were found in the guts, but no significantly differences were found between tadpole species (ANOVA, p > 0.05. The results support the drift transport hypothesis that predicts that tadpoles commonly ingest suspended matter in lotic ecosystems, are generalist feeders, and macroinvertebrates are probably incidental ingested.A presença de macroinvertebrados como item na dieta de girinos foi estudada para as espécies Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae e Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. Estas espécies são comumente encontradas nos córregos de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os girinos foram coletados em poções em um trecho de segunda ordem no córrego Mascates, e em trechos de terceira e quarta ordens no córrego Indaiá, entre março e outubro de 2003. Medidas biométricas foram mensuradas antes da dessecação de cada indivíduo e foi estimado um índice de importância de alimentação para os macroinvertebrados encontrados. Oito taxa de Chironomidae e três taxa de exúvias de Ephemeroptera foram encontrados, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os macroinvertebrados encontrados nas espécies de girinos (ANOVA, p > 0,05. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese de transporte por

  13. Narrativas da violência: a dimensão micropolítica das emoções Narratives of violence: the micropolitical dimension of emotions

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    Maria Claudia Coelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar as emoções presentes em relatos de experiências de vitimização em segmentos das camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. A proposta é explorar a fecundidade da vertente "contextualista" (Lutz & Abu Lughod 1990 da antropologia das emoções para a compreensão da violência, com foco na dimensão micropolítica dos discursos sobre as emoções ligadas à vitimização. Os dados analisados são um conjunto de oito entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com casais que passaram, marido e mulher, pela experiência de terem suas residências assaltadas enquanto estavam em casa. A análise está focada na recorrência de duas emoções presentes nas descrições que os entrevistados fazem de seus sentimentos em relação aos assaltantes: compaixão e desprezo. A emergência destas duas emoções, cujas relações com a hierarquia já foram apontadas pelas ciências sociais, é então interpretada como uma tentativa de restabelecer hierarquias que teriam sido ameaçadas pelos assaltos.This paper analyzes the emotions described in narratives of victimization among Rio de Janeiro's middle classes. It explores the so-called 'contextualist' trend (Lutz & Abu-Lughod 1990 in the anthropology of emotions as a means to understanding violence, focusing on the micropolitical dimension of emotion discourses on victimization. The data analyzed is derived from eight in-depth interviews with married couples who have been through the experience of having their residences assaulted while both of them were at home. The analysis focuses on the recurrence of two emotions in the interviewees' depictions of their feelings towards their assailants: sympathy and contempt. The emergence of these two emotions, whose relations to hierarchy have already been well documented by social scientists, is interpreted as an attempt to re-establish the hierarchies perceived to have been overturned by the assaults.

  14. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Litzenberg, D [Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Covington, E [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from

  15. Enteroparasitoses em escolares do Distrito de Martinésia, Uberlândia, MG: um estudo piloto

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    Carla Borges Ferreira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em estudantes do Distrito de Martinésia, município de Uberlândia (MG. Foram examinadas 103 crianças, no período de setembro a novembro de 1995, segundo o método de Lutz ou Hoffman, Pons & Janer. O coeficiente geral de prevalência foi de 22,3% e os índices de infecção mais elevados foram observados no grupo etário 8 a 9 anos (34,8%, nos moradores da vila (30,0% e no sexo feminino (26,9%. Helmintoses e protozooses apresentaram taxas de prevalência similares (10,7% e 12,6%, respectivamente. Giardia lamblia foi o único protozoário parasito verificado e apenas um caso de poliparasitismo foi encontrado. Conclui-se que a prevalência de enteroparasitoses no grupo estudado é menor do que o esperado para uma comunidade rural, o que é, provavelmente, uma conseqüência das boas condições sanitárias presentes naquele distrito.This work evaluates the occurence of intestinal parasites in the students of the Martinesia district, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State. A total of 103 children were examined, from september to november 1995, according to Lutz or Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The overall prevalence rate was 22.3% and the highest indices of infection were observed in 8-9 age group (34.8%, in village dwellers (30.0% and in females (26.9%. Helminthosis and protozoosis showed similar prevalence rates (10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Giardia lamblia was the unique protozoan parasite verified and only one case of poliparasitism was found. We concluded that: the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the studied group is lower than expectations for a rural community, what is, probably, a consequence of the good sanitary conditions presenting in that district.

  16. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  17. Estudios sobre leishmaniasis tegumentaria en el Perú: VI. Relación entre leishmaniasis tegumentaria y Phlebotomus

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    Arístides Herrer

    1951-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Son conocidas en el Perú 12 especies del género Phlebotomus, dos de las cuales aún no han sido identificadas. De acuerdo con la región geográfica donde han sido encontradas se las puede agrupar de la siguiente manera: a. Región occidental de los Andes y valle interandino del Santa. Entre éstas se encuentran: P. verrucarum TOWNSEND, P. peruensis SHANNON, P. noguchii SHANNON y una especie aún no identificada, la que ha sido hallada tan sólo en el valle del Santa. Los límites de altura de la distribución de estas especies van de los 1,000 a 3,000 metros. b. Valle interandino del Marañón, con las siguientes especies: P. battistinii HERTIG, P. pesceí HERTIG, P. imperatrix ALEXANDER y una no identificada. La altura sobre el nivel del mar de las localidades donde han sido obtenidas estas especies van de los 1,500 a los 2,800 metros. En esta región también ha sido hallado el P.verrucadum. c. Región selvática, con las siguientes especies: P. Panamensis. SHANNON, P. squamiventris LUTZ y NEIVA, P. intermedius LUTZ Y NEIVA Y P. amazonensis ROOT. Altura sobre el nivel del mar, alrededor de los 100 metros. 2. Sólo en alguno valles de la región occidental de la Cordillera de los Andes y en el llamado Callejón de Huaylas, se han llevado a cabo estudios entomológicos que permitan interpretar las relaciones existentes entre las diversas especies de phlebotomus y la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria. Según esto, el P. verrucarum y el P. peruensis serían las que muestran más estrechas relaciones con la distribución geográfica e incidencia de la uta, forma clínica de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria existente en regiones conocidas en el Perú con el nombre de sierra.

  18. Ensaio terapêutico com «mebendazole suspensão» nas helmintíases intestinais em crianças

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    Donald Huggins

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available O Autor medicou 24 crianças portadoras de poliverminoses, com idades entre 8 a 14 anos, todas do sexo feminino, com Mebendazole (suspensão, na dose de 5 ml (100 mg duas vezes por dia e durante três dias consecutives. O diagnóstico e o controle de cura parasitológica foram realizados pelas técnicas de Lutz, Willis, Baerman-Moraes e Graham, antes e no 7.°, 14.° e 21.° dias após o tratamento para as três primeiras, enquanto a última foi executada durante sete dias consecutivos a partir do sétimo dia de encerrada a terapêutica. Verificou cura parasitológica em 100% dos casos para ascariase e enterobiase, 69,2% para tricocefalíase, 36,36% para ancilostomíase e 0% para estrongiloidiase. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada pelos doentes.The Author reports the therapeutic activity of a new anthelmintic drug - Mebendazole suspension, in the treatment of twenty-four children, aged from 8 to 14 years-old, all females, with multiple intestinal parasitic infections. Mebendazole (suspension was given in a dose of 5 ml (100 mg two times per day (taken all at a morning after breakfast, and night after dinner, for three consecutives days. The diagnosis and the control laboratory data were made before the medication, and repeated 7th, 14th, 21th days after its completion and consisting of Lutz, Willis and Baerman-Moraes methods, and the anal swab technique was made for seven consecutives days, beginning the 7th day after completion of treatment. The percentual of parasitological cure rate obtained was the following: 100% for Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis; 69,2% for Trichuris trichiura; 36,36% for Ancylostomidae sp and 0% for Strongyloides stercoralis. The drug under observation did not produce any side-affects.

  19. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  20. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M; Litzenberg, D; Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M; Keranen, W; Covington, E; Moran, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from

  1. Doença de além-mar: estudos comparativos da oncocercose na América Latina e África Overseas disease: comparative studies of oncocercosis in Latin America and Africa

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    Magali Romero Sá

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A oncocercose é causada por um verme parasita, a Onchocerca, e transmitida pelo mosquito borrachudo, simuliídeo, podendo causar cegueira em seu estado agudo. Oriunda do continente africano onde é disseminada, foi descoberta na América Latina, na Guatemala, em 1917, com registros posteriores no México, Venezuela, Colômbia e Brasil. O estabelecimento da doença nas Américas tem intrigado os especialistas, e ainda hoje é uma questão em aberto. O projeto multidisciplinar descrito nesta nota de pesquisa objetiva investigar os aspectos históricos da introdução e disseminação da doença na América Latina, e realizar estudos comparativos sobre a história da doença nos dois continentes. A importância que adquiriu acarretou a revalorização das coleções de simuliídeos, cujas espécies brasileiras começaram a ser estudadas por Adolpho Lutz no início do século XX.Round worm is a parasite, Onchocerca, and is transmitted by a black fly, simuliídeo; it can cause blindness. Originally from the African continent, where it is widespread, in Latin America it was first discovered in Guatemala in 1917; later instances were recorded in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The establishment of this disease in the Americas has intrigued scientists since then and today it is an open question. The multidisciplinary project described in this research note aims to investigate historical aspects of the arrival and spread of the disease in Latin America and, to make comparative studies of the history of the disease on both continents. The increasing importance of the disease has meant greater value being attributed to collections of simuliídeo, whose Brazilian species were first studied by Adolpho Lutz at the beginning of the 20th century.

  2. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF Salmonella spp IN RED-FOOT-TORTOISES FROM WILDLIFE TRADE ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CEPAS DE Salmonella spp DE JABUTIS-PIRANGA ORIUNDOS DO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRES

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    Oberdan Coutinho Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Salmonella sp. in red-foot tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria because of the fact this particular reptile shows high frequency of illegal commerce, and also because this situation represents a serious risk for health. We collected feces of 89 turtles from the wildlife center “Chico Mendes” - IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Characteristic colonies of Salmonella sp. were isolated in 12.36% of the tortoises (11/89. Nine colonies were identificated at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, distributed into six different sorotypes: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan. All of them, according to literature, without previous description of infection in C. carbonaria whatsoever. However, there are previous cases of infections and antibiotics resistance involving these sorotypes, confirming the risk represented by wildlife trade to public health concerning the children’s exposition to the source of infection as well as the dissemination of resistant sorotypes.

    KEY WORDS: Epidemiology, reptiles, zoonosis.

    Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ocorrência de Salmonella sp. em jabutis-piranga (Chelonoides carbonaria, dada sua elevada frequência no comércio ilegal e risco que representa para a saúde. Coletaram-se fezes de 89 jabutis mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres Chico Mendes – IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Isolaram-se colônias características de Salmonella sp. em 12,36% dos jabutis (11/89. Destas, nove foram identificadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, distribuindo-se em seis diferentes sorovares: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan, todas, segundo a literatura consultada, sem prévia descrição para C. carbonária. No entanto, estão presentes em relatos de infecções e em estudos sobre resistência a antibióticos, confirmando o risco representado pelo tráfico de animais para a sa

  3. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Detecção de Cryptosporidium sp. em fezes não diarréicas de crianças, em uma escola de educação infantil de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therezinha T. Carvalho-Almeida

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Cryptosporidium sp. has been frequently detected in faeces from children with persistent diarrhoea. This work achieved to investigate an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, in a day care center, attending children of high socio-economic level, between 0 and six years old. The outbreak was detected through the network of public health, when stool samples, not diarrhoeic, were examined at the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. Among the 64 examined children, 13 (20.3% showed oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the faeces examined by Kinyoun technique: seven children one year old, three, two years old and three, three years old. Among the 23 examined adults, only a 22 years old woman, possibly having an immunocomprometiment, was positive. Clinical and epidemiological aspects were investigated by questionnaires, highlighting the occurrence of the outbreak in a very dry period.O protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. tem sido detectado com freqüência em fezes de crianças com diarréia persistente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar um surto de criptosporidiose, em uma escola de educação infantil, que atende crianças de classe média alta, de 0 a seis anos de idade. O surto foi detectado a partir de amostras fecais não diarréicas encaminhadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz através da rede de saúde pública. Das 64 crianças 13 (20,3% apresentaram oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes, examinadas pelo método de Kinyoun, sendo sete crianças com um ano de idade, três com dois anos de idade e três, com três anos de idade. Dos 23 adultos examinados, apenas uma mulher de 22 anos, com possível imunocomprometimento, foi positiva. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos foram investigados por meio de questionários, ressaltando-se que o surto ocorreu em período muito seco.

  4. Gastrointestinal parasites of swine raised in different management systems in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Alynne S. Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05. Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.

  5. Is automated platelet counting still a problem in thrombocytopenic blood?

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    Raimundo Antônio Gomes Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Reliable platelet counting is crucial for indicating prophylactic platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision and accuracy of platelet counting for thrombocytopenic patients, using four different automated counters in comparison with the Brecher & Cronkite reference method recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH. TYPE OF STUDY: Automated platelet counting assessment in thrombocytopenic patients. SETTING: Hematology Laboratory, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, and the Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Brecher & Cronkite reference method and four different automated platelet counters. PARTICIPANTS: 43 thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts of less than 30,000/µl RESULTS: The ADVIA-120 (Bayer, Coulter STKS, H1 System (Technicom-Bayer and Coulter T-890 automatic instruments presented great precision and accuracy in relation to laboratory thrombocytopenic samples obtained by diluting blood from normal donors. However, when thrombocytopenic patients were investigated, all the counters except ADVIA (which is based on volume and refraction index showed low accuracy when compared to the Brecher & Cronkite reference method (ICSH. The ADVIA counter showed high correlation (r = 0.947. However, all counters showed flags in thrombocytopenic samples. CONCLUSION: The Brecher & Cronkite reference method should always be indicated in thrombocytopenic patients for platelet counts below 30,000 plt /µl obtained in one dimensional counters.

  6. Análise físico-química e legalidade em bebidas de laranja
    Physical-chemical analysis and legality in orange beverages

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    R. FIGUEIRA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o °Brix, acidez titulável (AT e ratio em sucos concentrados, sucos, néctares e refrigerantes de laranja comerciais e compará-los com os seus Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ publicados pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA e Codex Alimentarius. Quatro sucos concentrados, vinte e dois sucos, sete néctares e treze refrigerantes foram analisados. A densidade das bebidas foi mensurada em densímetro digital e convertida para °Brix, utilizando uma tabela que relaciona estas variáveis. A AT foi calculada conforme as Normas Analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ratio foi obtido pela razão entre °Brix e AT. Todos os sucos concentrados estavam em acordo com o Codex Alimentarius. A grande maioria dos sucos e refrigerantes comerciais respeita a legislação brasileira. Os néctares de laranja não puderam ser comparados com padrões legais, pois estes são inexistentes tanto no MAPA quanto no Codex Alimentarius.

  7. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

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    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  8. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  9. Wing geometry as a tool for studying the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae complex

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    J De la Riva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Toro Toro (T and Yungas (Y have been described as genetically well differentiated populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 complex in Bolivia. Here we use geometric morphometrics to compare samples from these populations and new populations (Bolivia and Nicaragua, representing distant geographical origins, qualitative morphological variation ("one-spot" or "two-spots" phenotypes, ecologically distinct traits (peridomestic and silvatic populations, and possibly different epidemiological roles (transmitting or nor transmitting Leishmania chagasi. The Nicaragua (N (Somotillo sample was "one-spot" phenotype and a possible peridomestic vector. The Bolivian sample of the Y was also "one-spot" phenotype and a demonstrated peridomestic vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The three remaining samples were silvatic, "two-spots" phenotypes. Two of them (Uyuni and T were collected in the highlands of Bolivian where VL never has been reported. The last one (Robore, R came from the lowlands of Bolivia, where human cases of VL are sporadically reported. The decomposition of metric variation into size and shape by geometric morphometric techniques suggests the existence of two groups (N/Y/R, and U/T. Several arguments indicate that such subdivision of Lu. longipalpis could correspond to different evolutionary units.

  10. Sanitary quality of the rivers in the Communities of Manguinhos´ Territory, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

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    Natasha Berendonk Handam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation actions are rare in the communities of Manguinhos, so evaluation of the sanitary conditions of the river waters and the peridomestic soils of the communities allows the diagnosis of the risk of contamination. This study evaluated coliform levels (total coliforms and Escherichia coli by the filter membrane method, and parasitological (by adapted Lutz and Baermann-Moraes methods in the waters and soils of the Faria-Timbó, Jacaré and Canal do Cunha Rivers that pass through the communities of the Territory of Manguinhos, RJ, according to the standards established in Brazilian legislation. In all points of the rivers, the water was unfit, with an average level of Escherichia coli 3,800 times higher than that standardized in CONAMA Resolution No. 274/2000. Larvae, helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts were observed. Soil samples were also unfit, with mean total coliform level 77,000 times higher than that considered acceptable by SMAC Resolution 468/2010. The Escherichia coli average level was 53,000 times higher than that permitted by the legislation. However, helminths eggs were found in only one soil sample. It was concluded that the lack of sanitation in this locality results in the high coliform and parasitological levels of the river waters and in the peridomestic soils, and that immediate modifications are needed to the Brazilian environmental paradigm, which uses its water bodies as sewage disposal ditches.

  11. CINÉTICA DE FEIJÃO PRETO (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, L. EM SECADOR DE BANDEJA

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    Deyzi Santos Gouveia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propôs estudar a cinética de feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, l. em secador de bandeja a diferentes temperaturas do ar e posterior ajuste dos dados experimentais, obtidos com os diferentes modelos matemáticos ( Fick, Page e Cavalcante Mata. O teor de umidade inicial das sementes foi determinado pelo método padrão da estufa, 105 ± 3 °C, durante 72 h, com três repetições, de acordo com as regras do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Os tratamentos de secagem foram realizados em cinco níveis de temperaturas (40, 50, 60 ,70 e 80 ºC. Para cada tratamento de secagem foram utilizados em torno de 60 g de feijão por repetição. Para este fim utilizou-se um desidratador de frutas, Polidryer PD-25. O ar foi aquecido por meio de gás de cozinha, enquanto a temperatura foi controlada com o auxílio de um termopar, conectado ao secador. Os resultados mostraram que as equações propostas por Cavalcanti Mata e Page foram as que melhor representaram os dados experimentais, quando comparada com a equação de Fick utilizando um termo da série.

  12. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

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    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  13. How do males of Hypsiboas goianus (Hylidae: Anura respond to conspecific acoustic stimuli?

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    Alessandro R. Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of anurans. Acoustic signals, which can be used in different contexts such as mate attraction and territory defense, may mediate social interactions among individuals. Herein, we used playback experiments to test whether males of Hypsiboas goianus (Lutz, 1968 change their vocal behavior in response to conspecific advertisement calls. Specifically, we used different field playback experiments in which we modified the time interval between advertisement calls to simulate males with distinct states of motivation (Sequence A and B. We did not observe differences in the acoustic response of males of H. goianus between the two types of field playback experiments. On the other hand, we observed that H. goianus males reduce the dominant frequency of the advertisement call and increase the rate of aggressive calls in response to a conspecific competitor. Our results suggest that the acoustic plasticity observed in males of H. goianus represents an aggressive response that allows repelling conspecific individuals.

  14. Geohelminth contamination of public areas and epidemiological risk factors in Curitiba, Brazil

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    Lew Kan Sprenger

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the frequency of geohelminthic contamination of public parks and squares in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil, between August and December 2010. A total of 345 samples were collected from 69 sandboxes in different areas and were tested using the Faust, Lutz and Baermann parasitological techniques. Potential risk factors associated with soil contamination were also analyzed. A total of 36% of the samples (124/345 were positive for helminths and 65.2% of the areas (45/69 were classified as contaminated in one or more samples. The most commonly identified parasite eggs were Ancylostoma sp. (14.5%; 50/345; followed by Toxocara sp. (9.6%; 33/345 and the Strongyloidea superfamily (excluding hookworms (2.3%; 8/345. The analysis on the epidemiological risk factors indicated that the presence of dogs and feces in the sandboxes increased the chances of contamination of the site. Use of fences had a protective positive impact that reduced soil contamination. Health education programs should be applied within the community to minimize the risk of human contact with dogs' feces. Use of fencing in these areas is highly recommended to prevent or reduce the users' contact with animal excrement.

  15. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

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    Nao Hisakawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight, thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995. Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  16. Beyond-Born-Oppenheimer effects in sub-kHz-precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Mateusz; Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S.; Yamada, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takahashi, Kakeru; Takasu, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2017-12-01

    We present high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates of ytterbium atoms. The use of narrow Raman resonances and careful examination of systematic shifts enabled us to measure 13 bound-state energies for three isotopologues of the ground-state ytterbium molecule with standard uncertainties of the order of 500 Hz. The atomic interactions are modeled using an ab initio based mass-scaled Born-Oppenheimer potential whose long-range van der Waals parameters and total WKB phase are fitted to experimental data. We find that the quality of the fit of this model, of about 112.9 kHz (rms) can be significantly improved by adding the recently calculated beyond-Born-Oppenheimer (BBO) adiabatic corrections [J. J. Lutz and J. M. Hutson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 43 (2016), 10.1016/j.jms.2016.08.007] and by partially treating the nonadiabatic effects using distance-dependent reduced masses. Our BBO interaction model represents the experimental data to within about 30.2 kHz on average, which is 3.7 times better than the "reference" Born-Oppenheimer model. We calculate the s -wave scattering lengths for bosonic isotopic pairs of ytterbium atoms with error bars over two orders of magnitude smaller than previous determinations. For example, the s -wave scattering length for 174Yb is +5.55812 (50 ) nm.

  17. Gênero, emoções e vitimização: percepções sobre a violência urbana no Rio de Janeiro

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    Maria Claudia Coelho

    Full Text Available Este texto examina emoções relatadas em depoimentos de vítimas de assaltos a residências pertencentes às camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. Insere-se na área de antropologia das emoções, adotando como perspectiva teórica, o "contextualismo" de Catherine Lutz e Lila Abu-Lughod. O ponto central desta perspectiva é a atenção voltada à capacidade micropolítica das emoções, tributárias de uma "gramática" social, sendo capazes, por isso, de dramatizar/alterar/reforçar aspectos "macro" da organização social que modelam as relações interpessoais. Os dados são um conjunto de entrevistas com casais que vivenciaram assaltos às suas residências. O objetivo é examinar as atitudes "prescritas" em seus relatos como "ideais" ou "eficazes" para lidar com a condição de vítima e sua relação com identidades de gênero. O foco da análise são as formas de "controle emocional" presentes em seus relatos, com ênfase na oposição entre o controle da raiva e o controle do medo.

  18. Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S

    2004-06-01

    Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus Overstreet et Curran, 2002, infects the musculature of catfish, and the other, probably not B. confusus, does not infect catfish. However, at least four other pathogenic diplostomoids and a clinostomoid infect the catfish, and they use at least four different snail hosts, including the planorbids Planorbella trivolvis (Say) and Gyraulus parvus (Say), the physid Physella gyrina (Say) and a lymnaeid. Two metacercariae, B. damnificus and Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany et Wardle, 1999, infect the catfish and mature in the pelican; two others, Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Hysteromorpha cf. triloba (Rudolphi, 1819), mature in cormorants; one, Diplostomum sp., matures in seagulls and at least one, Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), matures in herons, egrets and other wading birds. Consequently, management of catfish ponds relative to digenean infections requires considerable biological information on the fish, bird, and snail hosts as well as the parasites.

  19. Occurrence and Probability Maps of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Filho, J D; Scholte, R G C; Amaral, A L G; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, O S; Caldeira, R L

    2017-09-01

    Leishmaniases are serious diseases caused by trypanosomatid protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. We analyzed records pertaining to Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) in Brazil from the following sources: the collection of phlebotomine sand flies of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou/Fiocruz (FIOCRUZ-COLFLEB), the "SpeciesLink" (CRIA) database, from systematic surveys of scientific articles and gray literature (dissertations, theses, and communications), and disease data obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases/Ministry of Health (SINAN/MS). Environmental data and ecological niche modeling (ESMS) using the approach of MaxEnt algorithm produced maps of occurrence probability for both Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in 229 Brazilian municipalities and Lu. cruzi in 27. The species were sympatric in 16 municipalities of the Central-West region of Brazil. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis is widely distributed and associated with the high number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis reported in Brazil. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  1. Novel topical therapy for mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis: focus on calcitriol

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    Lutz Kowalzick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz KowalzickDepartment of Dermatology and Allergology, HELIOS Vogtland-Klinikum Plauen GmbH Plauen, GermanyAbstract: The benefits of vitamin D derivatives for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis are well documented. Of importance is how compatible they are with, and how they compare to, other established treatments for psoriasis. This paper reviews 15 studies with calcitriol 3 µg g-1 ointment (Silkis®/Vectical™ ointment; Galderma Laboratories applied twice daily for up to 52 weeks. The ointment was found to be effective and safe for the treatment of mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis including sensitive skin areas. Calcitriol 3 µg g-1 ointment was found to be as effective as, or even superior to, other established treatment modalities and more highly tolerated than other local treatment modalities in most studies’ comparisons. It could be combined with other psoriasis treatment modalities such as ultraviolet B phototherapy or topical corticosteroids in order to achieve a faster response and in order to reduce the risk of adverse events.Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol, psoriasis, therapy

  2. The role of duplications in the evolution of genomes highlights the need for evolutionary-based approaches in comparative genomics

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    Levasseur Anthony

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding the evolutionary plasticity of the genome requires a global, comparative approach in which genetic events are considered both in a phylogenetic framework and with regard to population genetics and environmental variables. In the mechanisms that generate adaptive and non-adaptive changes in genomes, segmental duplications (duplication of individual genes or genomic regions and polyploidization (whole genome duplications are well-known driving forces. The probability of fixation and maintenance of duplicates depends on many variables, including population sizes and selection regimes experienced by the corresponding genes: a combination of stochastic and adaptive mechanisms has shaped all genomes. A survey of experimental work shows that the distinction made between fixation and maintenance of duplicates still needs to be conceptualized and mathematically modeled. Here we review the mechanisms that increase or decrease the probability of fixation or maintenance of duplicated genes, and examine the outcome of these events on the adaptation of the organisms. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Etienne Joly, Dr. Lutz Walter and Dr. W. Ford Doolittle.

  3. American visceral leishmaniasis: disease control strategies in dracen microregion in alta paulista, SP, Brazil

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    LAZ D'Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite measures adopted to control American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, the disease is spreading in a fast and worrying way throughout western São Paulo state. The aim of this work was to study the variables involved in the disease cycle as well as the effectiveness of controlling measures. The study was carried out in the microregion of Dracena, which is composed of twelve cities and belongs to Alta Paulista, a region of western São Paulo. The necessary data were provided by the Superintendence for Endemic Disease Control and Adolfo Lutz Institute, Regional Laboratory of Presidente Prudente. From August 2005 to January 2008, the following factors were observed: detection of phlebotomine sandflies in the cities and periods in which dogs or humans were diagnosed; number of human deaths; prevalence of suspected dogs tested by serology; percentage of euthanasia in suspected dogs; a possible correlation between positive dogs and cases of the disease in humans; and the disease prevalence among municipalities from the studied region. It was verified that, despite the strategies adopted in Dracena microregion to control AVL, the disease continues to rise. Thus, some procedures of the AVL Monitoring and Control Program should be reviewed, to grant the initiative more credibility and effectiveness.

  4. Feeding patterns of Haemagogus capricornii and Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro and Goiás).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2008-09-01

    We present the identification of bloodfeeding sources of Haemagogus (Haemagogus) capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different regions of Brazil, as analyzed by precipitin tests. Anti-sera for bird, bovine, equine, human, opossum, and rodent were used. Two hundred one mosquitoes were examined (147 Hg. leucocelaenus and 54 Hg. capricornii), of which 177 reacted for some anti-serum. For Hg. leucocelaenus, 86 (68.3%) reacted to one blood source, 38 (30.2%) to two sources, and two (1.6%) to three sources; the combinations of bird + human (18.4%), bird + rodent (15.8%), and bird + marsupial (15.8%) were the most frequent. For Hg. capricornii, 34 (66.7%) reacted to one blood source; combinations bird + rodent (37.5%) and bird + marsupial (25%) were the most frequent combinations. Mosquito preference for bloodfeeding sources was different in these areas, possibly because of the availability of sources. This diversity of sources can have important epidemiological implications.

  5. Ensaio terapêutico com «mebendazole suspensão» nas helmintíases intestinais em crianças

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    Donald Huggins

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available O Autor medicou 24 crianças portadoras de poliverminoses, com idades entre 8 a 14 anos, todas do sexo feminino, com Mebendazole (suspensão, na dose de 5 ml (100 mg duas vezes por dia e durante três dias consecutives. O diagnóstico e o controle de cura parasitológica foram realizados pelas técnicas de Lutz, Willis, Baerman-Moraes e Graham, antes e no 7.°, 14.° e 21.° dias após o tratamento para as três primeiras, enquanto a última foi executada durante sete dias consecutivos a partir do sétimo dia de encerrada a terapêutica. Verificou cura parasitológica em 100% dos casos para ascariase e enterobiase, 69,2% para tricocefalíase, 36,36% para ancilostomíase e 0% para estrongiloidiase. Nenhuma manifestação colateral foi relatada pelos doentes.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasites in food handlers, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Mizutani, Angelica Sayuri; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Ferreira, Erika Cristina; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and risk factors for enteroparasites were determined in food handlers from Maringá, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Fecal and subungual materials of 150 street food vendors were analyzed by the methods of Lutz, Faust, and Mello, respectively. A questionnaire on hygiene and sanitary conditions of the workplace and of domicile was applied. The prevalence of enteroparasites was 28%, and the protozoa infection was more expressive (21.3%) than by helminths (6.7%), but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Entamoeba coli was the most frequent species occurring in 15.3%, while the prevalence of protozoa pathogenic was low (Giardia lamblia: 2.7% and Entamoeba histolytica: 0.7%). The subungual material presented negative results. The presence of pets in domiciles has increased twice the risk of infection. The working conditions of the majority of street food vendors were inappropriate. The results highlight the need for more rigorous programs of continuing education, parasitological examination every six months, and health surveillance. In this way, the quality of the service provided to the population can be improved and the transmission of food-borne diseases can be prevented.

  7. Major Denice Santiago: uma mulher negra e feminista num lugar de poder da Polícia Militar da Bahia

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    Margarida Paredes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Major Denice Santiago foi uma das pioneiras da Polícia Militar da Bahia (PMBA, tendo ingressado em 1990 como sargenta nas primeiras turmas de praças e oficiais. Dois anos depois, foi admitida na primeira turma de oficiais para mulheres, ostentando hoje a patente de Major. Atualmente, também é uma das duas únicas oficiais da PMBA a ter quebrado o “teto de vidro” que impede a ascensão de mulheres em organizações dominadas pela “masculinidade hegemônica” e a ocupar um posto de comando na PM baiana, como comandante da Ronda Maria da Penha. Graduada em Psicologia, é Mestre em Desenvolvimento Territorial e Gestão Social pela UFBA. Em 2017, recebeu o Diploma Bertha Lutz, premiação do Senado Federal pela sua contribuição na defesa dos direitos das mulheres e políticas de gênero.

  8. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rodrigues Machado Eleuza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13% were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4% of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenole-pis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  11. APPLICATION OF IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ISOCENTER QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RADIOTHERAPY

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    Michał Niedźwiecki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major procedures for testing the geometrical accuracy of devices used in radiotherapy treatments is the test of the geometrical position of the radiation isocenter. The importance of the test reflects the fact that geometrical position of the radiation isocenter generally affects the tumor targeting. At present the geometric accuracy is assessed with the Winston-Lutz test which checks the position of an image of a ball marker with the respect to the center of the radiation field as projected on a detector plane. Obviously, determination of coordinates of a single marker is not sufficient to fully account for a complicated geometry of a therapeutic device. The purpose of the study was to design a new image analysis tool to better determine the isocenter. The proposed automated procedure for determining isocenter position uses projection data acquired for a special cube phantom. The projection images of a phantom are acquired for various angles of rotation of the gantry. A procedure is proposed to extract some geometric characteristics of a therapeutic device from the projection images.

  12. Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Angela; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Schönfeld, Pia; Brailovskaia, Julia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Research into positive aspects of the psyche is growing as psychologists learn more about the protective role of positive processes in the development and course of mental disorders, and about their substantial role in promoting mental health. With increasing globalization, there is strong interest in studies examining positive constructs across cultures. To obtain valid cross-cultural comparisons, measurement invariance for the scales assessing positive constructs has to be established. The current study aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement invariance of questionnaires for 6 positive constructs: Social Support (Fydrich, Sommer, Tydecks, & Brähler, 2009), Happiness (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999), Life Satisfaction (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld, & Becker, 2016), Optimism (revised Life Orientation Test [LOT-R]; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994) and Resilience (Schumacher, Leppert, Gunzelmann, Strauss, & Brähler, 2004). Participants included German (n = 4,453), Russian (n = 3,806), and Chinese (n = 12,524) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses and measurement invariance testing demonstrated at least partial strong measurement invariance for all scales except the LOT-R and Subjective Happiness Scale. The latent mean comparisons of the constructs indicated differences between national groups. Potential methodological and cultural explanations for the intergroup differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

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    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  14. Novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade nas taxas de resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas de pneumococo New susceptibility breakpoints in antimicrobial resistance rates of invasive pneumococcal strains

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    Paula Carolina Bejo Wolkers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar impacto dos novos pontos de corte de sensibilidade à penicilina nas taxas de resistência de cepas de pneumococo obtidas de crianças com pneumonia. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no laboratório de análises clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas de Uberlândia, Uberlândia (MG, a partir de amostras de pacientes internados foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo (SP, para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a dezembro de 2008 foram enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz 330 cepas de pneumococo, sendo 195 (59% provenientes de pacientes com diagnóstico de pneumonia. Destas, foram analisadas 100 cepas de pacientes com idade ≤ 12 anos; a idade dos pacientes variou de 1 a 12,6 anos, com média de 2,4 e mediana de 1,7 anos; 47 pacientes eram do sexo masculino; as fontes de recuperação foram sangue (42% e líquido pleural (58%. Foram detectadas 35 cepas oxacilina-resistentes: segundo os critérios do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI de 2007 [concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ≤ 0,06 µg/mL para sensibilidade (S, 0,12 a 1 µg/mL para resistência intermediária (RI e ≥ 2 µg/mL para resistência plena (RP], 22 cepas apresentaram RI e 11, RP para penicilina. De acordo com os critérios atuais do CLSI de 2008 (≤ 2 µg/mL para S, 4 µg/mL para RI e ≥ 8 µg/mL para RP apenas uma cepa confirmou RI à penicilina. Detectou-se resistência a cotrimoxazol (80%, tetraciclina (21%, eritromicina (13%, clindamicina (13% e ceftriaxona (uma cepa, simultaneamente resistente a penicilina. CONCLUSÕES: Com a aplicação dos novos pontos de corte para sensibilidade in vitro, as taxas de resistência a penicilina caíram 97%, de 33 para 1%.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of new penicillin susceptibility breakpoints on resistance rates of pneumococcal strains collected from children with pneumonia. METHODS

  15. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

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    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  16. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV/ AIDS patients in relation to their clinical and epidemiological status in a specialized medical service in Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa; Silva, Lorena de Freitas E; Dias, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães; Menezes Filho, Hélio Ranes de; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2018-03-08

    Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters. A total of 270 stool samples were analyzed by the Lutz technique, Rugai's method, Agar Plate Culture, Ritchie's method and specific staining, Ziehl-Neelsen modified technique, Kinyoun's method and the rapid safranin method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 28.88% including 3.8% of S. stercoralis, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora belli. There was a significant positive correlation between intestinal parasites and the clinical status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), smoking, CD4+ lymphocyte counts and sexual orientation. In conclusion, the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and health assistance contributed to the low prevalence of S. stercoralis and coccidiosis in patients with HIV/ AIDS who were followed up at the SAE.

  17. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  18. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  19. [Confusion about P. Schröder, W. Villinger and H. Heinze : The three chairmen of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education between 1940 and 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, K; Topp, S; Fangerau, H

    2017-03-01

    On 5 September 1940, the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH) was founded. In order to secure sustainable impact, the young professional association aimed to: (1) Increase its scientific reputation through the organization of regular conventions and publications, (2) Attain continuity in its leadership (board) and membership growth, and (3) Establish itself in national socialistic politics and society for health care policy matters. Due to the unexpected death of the first chairman, Paul Schröder, only nine months after DGKH's foundation, these objectives were seriously put into question. The search for a new chairman led to a struggle for power and direction involving rival medical and non-medical associations as well as governmental institutions. Rather contrary to current knowledge, newly discovered documents indicate that the DGKH definitely acted out and initially influenced healthcare policy both before and directly after Schroeder's death. To interpret the complexity of the succession decision process - which led to the more radical Hans Heinze being chosen over Werner Villinger - this study employs a qualitative historical network analysis approach. For the broader interpretation of results within the national socialistic healthcare context we refer to Lutz Raphael's concept of radical order theory.

  20. Examining the role of unmeasured confounding in mediation analysis with genetic and genomic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Sharon M; Thwing, Annie; Schmiege, Sarah; Kroehl, Miranda; Baker, Christopher D; Starling, Anne P; Hokanson, John E; Ghosh, Debashis

    2017-07-19

    In mediation analysis if unmeasured confounding is present, the estimates for the direct and mediated effects may be over or under estimated. Most methods for the sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounding in mediation have focused on the mediator-outcome relationship. The Umediation R package enables the user to simulate unmeasured confounding of the exposure-mediator, exposure-outcome, and mediator-outcome relationships in order to see how the results of the mediation analysis would change in the presence of unmeasured confounding. We apply the Umediation package to the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPDGene) study to examine the role of unmeasured confounding due to population stratification on the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5/3/B4 locus on pulmonary function decline as mediated by cigarette smoking. Umediation is a flexible R package that examines the role of unmeasured confounding in mediation analysis allowing for normally distributed or Bernoulli distributed exposures, outcomes, mediators, measured confounders, and unmeasured confounders. Umediation also accommodates multiple measured confounders, multiple unmeasured confounders, and allows for a mediator-exposure interaction on the outcome. Umediation is available as an R package at https://github.com/SharonLutz/Umediation A tutorial on how to install and use the Umediation package is available in the Additional file 1.

  1. Ensaios de micologia contribuição para o conhecimento das Esporotricoses

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    Octavio de Magalhães

    1956-10-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the forms found in material obtained from a human lesion localized in the mouth. The patient was a farmer and the diagnosis unknown. The author found yeast forms, some germinating, resembling those found in the mycosis of LUTZ. It was Sporotricosis and only once, in 96 cases, has the author found these fungous forms in the suspected material. The cultures in Sabouraud glucose and in many other media were positive for Sporotrichum, resembling that described by BENEDEK in 1926 (variety? principally by the reddish colour of some cultures. The author thinks there is, perhaps, a mutation influenced by the surroundings and the light in certain cultures and that the dark pigment is the dominant one. He considers that the pigment will not do for the differentiation of species and that it is, really, Sporotrichum Schencki-Beurmanni. The author calls attention to the question of diagnosis and studies separately, each of the elements in which his opinion is based, finding that only a macro and microscopic study of the cultures decides the question.

  2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current treatment options and critical appraisal of nintedanib

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    Bonella F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Bonella,1 Susanne Stowasser,2 Lutz Wollin3 1Interstitial and Rare Lung Disease Unit, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, 3Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is characterized by a poor prognosis, with an estimated 5-year survival of approximately 20%. Progressive and irreversible lung functional impairment leads to chronic respiratory insufficiency with a severely impaired quality of life. In the last 2 decades, novel treatments for IPF have been developed as a consequence of an increasing understanding of disease pathogenesis and pathobiology. In IPF, injured dysfunctional alveolar epithelial cells promote fibroblast recruitment and proliferation, resulting in scarring of the lung tissue. Recently, pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved for the treatment of IPF, having shown efficacy to slow functional decline and disease progression. This article focuses on the pharmacologic characteristics and clinical evidence supporting the use of nintedanib, a potent small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as therapy for IPF. After introducing the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, an overview of the safety and efficacy results from the most recent clinical trials of nintedanib in IPF is presented. Keywords: tyrosine kinase, disease progression, treatment outcome, usual interstitial pneumonia, therapeutics

  3. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  4. Bloodmeal Identification in Field-Collected Sand Flies From Casa Branca, Brazil, Using the Cytochrome b PCR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G M L; Rêgo, F D; Tanure, A; Silva, A C P; Dias, T A; Paz, G F; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-07-01

    PCR-based identification of vertebrate host bloodmeals has been performed on several vectors species with success. In the present study, we used a previously published PCR protocol followed by DNA sequencing based on primers designed from multiple alignments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene used to identify avian and mammalian hosts of various hematophagous vectors. The amplification of a fragment encoding a 359 bp sequence of the Cyt b gene yielded recognized amplification products in 192 female sand flies (53%), from a total of 362 females analyzed. In the study area of Casa Branca, Brazil, blood-engorged female sand flies such as Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1924), and Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) were analyzed for bloodmeal sources. The PCR-based method identified human, dog, chicken, and domestic rat blood sources. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.

  6. Automatic analysis of image quality control for Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) devices in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf

    2009-01-01

    On-board imagers mounted on a radiotherapy treatment machine are very effective devices that improve the geometric accuracy of radiation delivery. However, a precise and regular quality control program is required in order to achieve this objective. Our purpose consisted of developing software tools dedicated to an automatic image quality control of IGRT devices used in external radiotherapy: 2D-MV mode for measuring patient position during the treatment using high energy images, 2D-kV mode (low energy images) and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) MV or kV mode, used for patient positioning before treatment. Automated analysis of the Winston and Lutz test was also proposed. This test is used for the evaluation of the mechanical aspects of treatment machines on which additional constraints are carried out due to the on-board imagers additional weights. Finally, a technique of generating digital phantoms in order to assess the performance of the proposed software tools is described. Software tools dedicated to an automatic quality control of IGRT devices allow reducing by a factor of 100 the time spent by the medical physics team to analyze the results of controls while improving their accuracy by using objective and reproducible analysis and offering traceability through generating automatic monitoring reports and statistical studies. (author) [fr

  7. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a bioactive food blend

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    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of functional foods to decrease the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases has motivated the development of products with beneficial effects on fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The present study aimed at analyzing the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of a bioactive food blend developed to help the nutritional therapy provided to hypolipidemic and hyperglycemic patients with HIV/AIDS treated with antiretroviral therapy. The food blend was evaluated for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fats, fixed mineral residue, total fiber content, and fatty acid composition, according to the standards established by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Food safety was assessed by microbiological analyses for Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp, and coliforms. Sensory acceptance and intention to purchase were also evaluated. The food blend showed good nutritional potential, with low atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, good macronutrient balance, and high energy value. The adoption of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP resulted in a product suitable for consumption. With respect to sensory aspects, the food blend showed satisfactory indexes of acceptability and promising marketing potential.

  8. A robust Hough transform algorithm for determining the radiation centers of circular and rectangular fields with subpixel accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Yang, James [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 94, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: wdu@mdanderson.org

    2009-02-07

    Uncertainty in localizing the radiation field center is among the major components that contribute to the overall positional error and thus must be minimized. In this study, we developed a Hough transform (HT)-based computer algorithm to localize the radiation center of a circular or rectangular field with subpixel accuracy. We found that the HT method detected the centers of the test circular fields with an absolute error of 0.037 {+-} 0.019 pixels. On a typical electronic portal imager with 0.5 mm image resolution, this mean detection error was translated to 0.02 mm, which was much finer than the image resolution. It is worth noting that the subpixel accuracy described here does not include experimental uncertainties such as linac mechanical instability or room laser inaccuracy. The HT method was more accurate and more robust to image noise and artifacts than the traditional center-of-mass method. Application of the HT method in Winston-Lutz tests was demonstrated to measure the ball-radiation center alignment with subpixel accuracy. Finally, the method was applied to quantitative evaluation of the radiation center wobble during collimator rotation.

  9. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  10. Measuring the wobble of radiation field centers during gantry rotation and collimator movement on a linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.

  11. Diurnal biting periodicity of parous Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors in the onchocerciasis Amazonian focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M-E; Villamizar, N J; Cortez, J; Frontado, H L; Escalona, M; Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M-G

    2005-05-01

    We describe the hourly patterns of parous biting activity of the three main simuliid vectors of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus straddling between Venezuela and Brazil, namely, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise; S. incrustatum Lutz, and S. oyapockense s.l. Floch and Abonnenc. Time series of the hourly numbers of host-seeking parous flies caught in five Yanomami villages during dry, rainy, and their transition periods from 1995 to 2001 were investigated using harmonic analysis (assuming an underlying circadian rhythm) and periodic correlation (based on Spearman's r). Parous S guianense s.l. showed a bimodal activity pattern, with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at 16:00 h. S. incrustatum exhibited mainly unimodal activity during either early morning or midday according to locality. S. oyapockense s.l. bit humans throughout the day mainly between 10:00 and 16:00 h but also showed bimodal periodicity in some localities. Superimposed on the endogenous, species-specific daily cycles, parous activity showed variation according to locality, season, air temperature and relative humidity, with biting being promoted by warmer and drier hours during wet seasons/periods and reduced during hotter times in dry seasons or transitions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for blackfly biology and ecology as well as onchocerciasis epidemiology and control.

  12. THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN THE INTERACTIVE SPACE OF CBME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.B Ovigli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that since the 1980’s it has a paradigm change, strengtheningthe perception of Science as a human construction and not as "natural truth", newapproaches of teaching emphasizes the importance of the History of Science inthe educational process, also recommended by the Brazilian PCNs. In thiscontext, it is presented the conclusion of the elaboration and evaluation of anillustrated historical panel that is in permanent exposition in the Interactive Spaceof Biotechnology of the CBME. It presents 25 pictures, inserted in a timeline thatselects important events related to cell biology, microbiology and immunology. Thetimeline is initiated in century XVI, with the microbial theory of the illnesses;spontaneous generation and the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani alsoare commented, as well as the production of the first vaccine. Koch, in centuryXIX, is remembered with its postulates and the discovery of some illnessescausative agents. Brazilians’ researchers - Adolfo Lutz, Oswaldo Cruz, Vital Braziland Carlos Chagas – and institutes are presented too. The panel revealed itself asan important source of information, awakening the interest of the visitors for thesubject. The idea was based on presenting Science as a human knowledgeadventure, emphasizing the scientific process in the construction of theknowledge, based on procedures, needs and different interests and values.

  13. Características físico-químicas dos méis do município de São Fidélis-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEREDO Maria Aparecida Alves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a tonalidade as amostras de mel foram divididas em grupos, armazenadas em diferentes condições e analisadas segundo os métodos adotados pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Laboratório Nacional de Referência Animal e Association of Official Analytical Chemists. As amostras foram acondicionadas em recipientes de vidro e de polipropileno e armazenadas à temperatura ambiente. Um grupo de amostras foi armazenada em luminosidade ambiente enquanto o outro grupo ao abrigo da luz. As determinações de umidade, pH, acidez, cor, açúcares redutores e não-redutores, hidroximetilfurfural e índices de Lugol, Lund, Fiehe e diastase foram efetuadas por um período de um ano de armazenamento. Os resultados obtidos indicam que as amostras analisadas mantiveram suas características dentre os padrões aceitáveis e que os produtores devem ser orientados para o uso de técnicas de acondicionamento e armazenamento dos méis, para garantir a qualidade dos seus produtos.

  14. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Filho, Adalberto Alves; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2018-02-20

    Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected in peridomiciliary areas on the tourist route from September 2012 to August 2013. The captured females were subjected to molecular analyses for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Sand flies were infected with four Leishmania species: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) was found in Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho, 1939) (2.1%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (1.7%); Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Nicole, 1908) infected Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw, and Lainson, 1971) (20%), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon and Del Ponte, 1927) (4.3%), Lu. longipalpis (3.7%), and Lu. whitmani (0.8%); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Lainson & Shaw, 1972) was found in Lu. whitmani (0.58%), while Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni infected Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936) (3.4%), Lu. longipalpis (1.06%), and Lu. whitmani (0.29%). The occurrence of these parasites requires control measures to reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to contain a possible epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease.

  15. Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil. Following the first records of AVL in this country, in 1934, the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912 was incriminated as the principal vector. It is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan in the saliva of flies from different populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l., may account for the variable clinical manifestations of AVL seen in different geographic regions. Distribution of AVL has been shown to extend throughout most of South and Central America, with the domestic dog serving as the principal reservoir of infection for man. However, while one hypothesis suggests that the causative parasite is Leishmania infantum, imported from Europe with the Portuguese and Spanish colonists, the demonstration of a high rate of benign, inapparent infection in foxes in Amazonian Brazil raised an opposing suggestion that the parasite is indigenous to the Americas. Recent reports of similar infections in native marsupials, and possibly rodents, tend to support this view, particularly as Lu. longipalpis is primordially a silvatic sandfly. Although effective control measures in foci of the disease will diminish the number of canine and human infections, the presence of such an enzootic in a variety of native animals will render the total eradication of AVL unlikely.

  16. Fine structure and distribution pattern of antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Bahia-Nascimento, Ana Cristina; Pinto, Luciana Conceição; Leal, Cynthia de Sousa; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2008-11-01

    The specific aims of this work were to examine the antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) adults and to characterize their typology and topography, with special attention to olfactory sensilla. The surfaces of the antennal segments of Lu. longipalpis males and females were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lu. longipalpis used in the current study were obtained from a colony originating from Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Microtrichiae and 11 subtypes of sensilla were observed and characterized according to the following categories: five subtypes of trichoid sensilla (short, medium, long blunt-tipped, long pointed-tipped, and apical), two coeloconic sensilla (grooved and praying hands), and campaniform, chaetic, basiconic, and squamiform sensilla. SEM analyses showed few differences between males and females in the typology, topography, and quantity of antennal sensilla described. The current study is the first to identify several categories of antennal sensilla of the genus Lutzomyia and their distribution patterns. The identification of these sensillar types may be important in planning future electrophysiological studies to develop alternative measures of control and monitoring of Lu. longipalpis.

  17. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.

  19. Clean air. Measures against fine dust and nitrogen oxide; Luftreinhalteplanung. Massnahmen gegen Feinstaub und Stickstoffoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th October, 2011, in Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Air pollution burden in Bavaria - Results from actual investigations (Juergen Diemer); (2) Winter spreading services: Reduction of particulate matter by means of CMA (Wolfgang Hafner); (3) Scenarios for the development of immission loads by NO{sub 2} at traffic-orientated air quality measuring stations in Bavaria (Frank Duennebeil); (4) Photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide coatings in the reduction of the loading by nitrous oxides (Anja Baum); (5) Environmental zone Berlin (Martin Lutz); (6) Environmental zones in the Ruhr district (Cornelia Wappenschmidt); (7) Environmental zone Augsburg (Manfred Ertl); (8) Reduction of NO{sub x} by Euro 6 diesel passenger cars (Thomas Fortner); (9) (e)-Mobility leads to a new era. The next step in the evolution of the automobility (BMW Group); (10) Experience report on the FE project: 'Testing of diesel particle filters for the utilization in the inland navigation' (Torsen Mundt); (11) Reduction of the pollution burden by means of an ecological traffic control: Analysis and control of the pollution control by means of 'smart' IT solutions (Stefen Schaefer); (12) Emissions reductions at busses by means of SCRT upgrading (Detlef Plachta).

  20. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  1. Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Felippe, Isis Moreira; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2018-04-23

    We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy. The presumptive identification showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98.8, 92.5 and 97.9 %, respectively. Macroscopic analysis of MTBC isolates that would have been erroneously classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria based solely on microscopic morphology enabled us to direct them rapidly to DST, representing a substantial gain to patients. In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times.

  2. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  3. Synthetic Sex Pheromone Attracts the Leishmaniasis Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Traps in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D. P.; Bandi, K. K.; Brazil, R. P.; Oliveira, A. G.; Hamilton, J.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world’s burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly as vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of AVL, Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies, attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world’s most important neglected diseases, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. Then by formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, demonstrating the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  4. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Anthropophily of Lutzomyia wellcomei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  7. Variabilidad genética en Lutzomyia ( verrucarum evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, vector de Leishmaniosis visceral americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Porter

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, Lutzomyia longipalpis
    (Lutz y Neiva, 1912 y Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938, son los
    vectores de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, en el neotrópico. Lu. evansi ha sido incriminada como vector en zonas rurales de la Costa Caribe Colombiana, y algunas zonas de Venezuela y Nicaragua. A pesar de que esta especie reviste gran importancia en Salud Pública, no existen a la fecha estudios sobre su variabilidad genética, desconociéndose si existe o no flujo genético entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas, endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniosis visceral (LV. Con base en los genes mitocondriales Citocromo b, RNA de transferencia para Serina, subunidades uno y cuatro de la NADH deshidrogenasa, se estudió la variabilidad genética entre las distintas poblaciones de Lu. evansi en la Costa Caribe, incluyendo la población
    geográficamente aislada de Isla Fuerte, y una población de Venezuela.

     

  8. Age structure, blood-feeding behavior, and Leishmania chagasi infection in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is endemic. Subsamples of sand flies collected weekly from pigpens, the interior of houses, and natural outdoor resting sites were dissected to determine physiological age and Leishmania chagasi Cunha & Chagas infection rates. Eleven female L. longipalpis had flagellates in their gut, 2 of which were successfully cultured and identified as Leishmania chagasi. The reproductive status, stage of ovarian development, and trophic history of female sand flies varied among sites, habitats, and time of collection. The percentage of parous females ranged from about one-third to two-thirds overall and varied seasonally. Of most relevance to AVL transmission was the finding that 8% of L. longipalpis females were multiparous. In addition, our data suggest that L. longipalpis rest inside houses after blood-feeding outdoors, and that this species can blood-feed more than once during a single gonotrophic cycle.

  9. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  10. [Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at a suburban focus of visceral leishmaniasis in the Chicamocha Canyon, Santander, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Mónica; Martínez, Junny Patricia; Gutiérrez, Reinaldo; Luna, Katherine Paola; Serrano, Victor Hugo; Ferro, Cristina; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2006-10-01

    Between 1998 and 2000, the occurrence of 8 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in children from a recently established human settlement in Guatiguará, in the municipality of Piedecuesta (Santander, Colombia) indicated the possible presence of Leishmania transmission in this locality. This observation motivated the current entomological investigation. To determine the relative frequency of Lutzomyia longipalpis inside houses and outdoors, and the natural infection of this vector with Leishmania spp. CDC light traps were used for sampling inside houses and outdoors, and sand flies were collected on human volunteers and domestic animals, and in resting places, during the period from May 1999 through September 2000. Natural infection was determined by PCR, in pools of female Lutzomyia longipalpis. A total of 7,391 phlebotomine sand flies were collected. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), representing 99.5% of captures. In the sand flies collected with CDC light traps, L. longipalpis was more frequently collected indoors than outdoors (p = 0.0001). The total rate of natural infection was 1.93% and a positive correlation was observed between months with higher abundance and the number of infected females entering human dwellings. The results indicate that in Guatiguará Lutzomyia longipalpis, shows marked tendency for the indoors, which has important implications for leishmaniasis transmission. Furthermore, transmission risk is increased during the months of higher abundance due to the entry of a higher number of infected females. From the standpoint of control, this behaviour permits the design of strategies to reduce indoor transmission.

  11. Impact of habitat degradation on phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) of tropical dry forests in Northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travi, Bruno L; Adler, Gregory H; Lozano, Margarita; Cadena, Horacio; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2002-05-01

    We examined changes in the phlebotomine fauna resulting from human intervention in a tropical dry forest of Northern Colombia where visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic. A natural forest reserve (Colosó) and a highly degraded area (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) were sampled monthly for 8 mo using Shannon traps, sticky traps, and resting-site collections. Overall abundances were higher in Colosó (15,988) than in SAS (2,324). and species richness of phlebotomines was greater in the forest reserve (11 species) than in the degraded habitat (seven species). Fisher alpha, a measure of diversity, reinforced this trend. Both sand fly communities were dominated by Lutzomyia evansi (Nuòez-Tovar), vector of Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas), representing 92 and 81% of all captures in Colosó and SAS, respectively. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the common vector of visceral leishmaniasis, accounted for 4-7% of the sand fly community. Lutzornyia panamensis (Shannon) and Lutzomya gomezi (Nitzulescu), putative vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna), had low abundances at both study sites. The zoophilic species Lutzomyia cayennensis (Floch & Abonneuc) and Lutzomyia trinidadensis (Newstead) were present in variable numbers according to trapping methods and site. Habitat degradation negatively affected sand fly communities, but medically important species were able to exploit modified environments, thereby contributing to Lishmania endemicity.

  12. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  13. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  14. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  15. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara Freqüência de Blastocystis hominis e outros enteroparasitas em amostras de fezes examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara

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    Júlio César Miné

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis homins is a protozoan that causes an intestinal infection known as human blastocystosis. This infection is diagnosed by means of parasitological examination of stools and by permanent staining techniques. The present study was developed to evaluate the frequency of Blastocystis hominis infection among inhabitants of the Araraquara region, State of São Paulo, and to compare different methods for investigating this protozoan in feces samples. Evaluations on 503 stool samples were performed by means of direct fresh examination and using the techniques of Faust et al., Lutz and Rugai et al. In addition, the iron hematoxylin, trichrome and modified Kinyoun staining techniques were used. Out of the 503 samples examined, 174 (34.6% were found to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites. The most frequent protozoa and helminths were Entamoeba coli (14.6% and Strongyloides stercoralis (6.7%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis was present in 23 (4.6% fecal samples, with a predominately pasty consistency and without characterizing a condition of diarrhea. Despite the low frequency of Blastocystis hominis found in the Araraquara region, compared with other regions of Brazil, it is important to perform laboratory diagnostic tests for this protozoan. Its finding in fecal material is indicative of food and drinking water contamination. Since the transmission route for this parasite is accepted to be oral-fecal, this implies that the population needs guidance regarding hygiene and basic sanitation measures as a means for controlling health problems caused by enteroparasites.Blastocystis hominis é um protozoário, causador de infecção intestinal denominada blastocistose humana, cujo diagnóstico é realizado pelo exame coproparasitológico e por meio de técnicas de coloração permanente. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por Blastocystis hominis em habitantes da região de Araraquara/SP, bem

  16. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

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    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  17. Estudo preliminar do SISCOLO-Qualidade na rede de saúde pública de São Paulo SISCOLO-quality control system in the health public laboratories: preliminary study

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    Marina Yoshiê Sakamoto Maeda

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisar criticamente os primeiros resultados do Sistema de Informação Laboratorial do Programa Nacional de Combate ao Câncer de Colo Uterino (SISCOLO-Qualidade. Foram utilizados esfregaços cervicovaginais corados pelo método de Papanicolaou, provenientes da rotina diagnóstica do Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica da Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo (FOSP e referentes a março de 2000. Esses casos foram reavaliados em estudo cego pela equipe do Setor de Citologia Oncótica da Divisão de Patologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz/São Paulo. O Programa SISCOLO-Qualidade seleciona, entre os casos analisados no período, todas as citologias positivas (ASCUS, AGUS, NIC e carcinomas e, para completar 10% do total das lâminas, todos os casos insatisfatórios e negativos aleatoriamente. Dos 8.370 casos da rotina da FOSP, o SISCOLO-Qualidade selecionou 837 amostras. Entre as amostras selecionadas, 23,4% apresentaram material representativo da junção escamocolunar, 5% foram considerados material insatisfatório e 71,1%, material satisfatório, mas limitado. O resultado da análise foi 86,62% de concordância, 12,42% de discordância de um grau e 0,96% de discordância de mais de um grau. Concluímos que o Programa SISCOLO-Qualidade é aplicável na rede de saúde pública para monitoramento externo, atendendo às expectativas de qualidade exigidas pelo Ministério da Saúde.The aim of the present work was to analyses critically the preliminary results of the computerized Quality System of gynecologycal cytology, implanted by the Public Health Ministry of Brazil - SISCOLO. Cervicovaginal smears stained by the Papanicolaou method were utilized. These smears were obtained through the diagnostic routine undertaken at the Oncocentro Foundation Pathology Laboratory of pathology, comprising cases of March 2000. Such cases were rescreened in a blind study, by the staff of the Pathology Division of the SP Adolpho Lutz Institute's Cytology Section. The

  18. Caracterização física, química e sensorial de cookies confeccionados com farinha de talo de couve (FTC e farinha de talo de espinafre (FTE ricas em fibra alimentar Phisical, chemical, and sensorial characterization of cookies made with kale stalk flour (KSF and spinach stalk flour (SSF rich in nourishing fiber

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    Ana Karina Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se utilizar Farinhas de Talos (FT na confecção de cookies. As farinhas foram obtidas a partir de talos de couve manteiga e espinafre desidratados. Confeccionaram-se 3 tipos de cookies por modificação da formulação padrão de sugar-sanap cookie, método 10-50D (AMERICAN..., 1995: cookie controle, cookie com 15% de FTC e com 15% de FTE. Realizou-se a composição centesimal nas FT segundo as metodologias descritas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995, sendo as fibras alimentares analisadas pelo método de van Soest (1963. Nos cookies, procedeu-se às seguintes análises: peso, espessura, diâmetro, volume e densidade aparente segundo método 10-50D da AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, acidez titulável e pH através da técnica do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (SÃO PAULO, 1985, rendimento e fator térmico. A composição centesimal dos cookies seguiu normas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 e, para aceitação dos experimentais, utilizou-se escala hedônica de 9 pontos. Constatou-se que as FT possuem baixa densidade energética e alto teor de fibra alimentar e cinzas. Os cookies experimentais apresentaram maior (p The objective of the study was to use Stalk Flours (SF to prepare cookies. The ST was made with dehydrated Kale Stalks (KSF and Spinach Stalks (SSF. Three kinds of cookies were prepared by modification of the sugar-snap cookie formula, 10-50D method (AMERICAN..., 1995: control cookie, cookie with 15% of KSF, and cookie with 15% of SSF. The centesimal composition was performed on the SF by the AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 and the nourishing fibers were prepared according to van Soest (1963. The following parameters were analyzed: weight, thickness, diameter, volume, and apparent density according to the 10-50D method of the AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, titratable acidity and pH using the Adolfo Lutz Institute (2005 technique, and also revenue and caloric factor. The determination of the centesimal composition of the cookies followed the AOAC regulations

  19. Biting activity of Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Haemagogus mosquitoes in Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae Atividade hematófaga de mosquitos Aedes scapularis (Rondani e Haemagogus no sul do Brasil (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The biting activity of a population of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz and Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon in Southern Brazil was studied between March 1980 and April 1983. Data were obtained with 25-hour human bait catches in three areas with patchy residual forests, named "Jacaré-Pepira", "Lupo" Farm, and "Sta. Helena" Farm, in the highland region of S. Paulo State (Brazil. Data obtained on Ae. scapularis were compared with those formerly gathered in the "Ribeira'' Valley lowlands, and were similar, except in the "Lupo" Farm study area, where a precrepuscular peak was observed, not recorded at the "Jacaré-Pepira" site or in the "Ribeira" Valley. In all the areas this mosquito showed diurnal and nocturnal activity, but was most active during the evening crepuscular period. These observations support the hypothesis about the successful adaptation of Ae. scapularis to man-made environments and have epidemiological implications that arise from it. As for Haemagogus, results obtained on the "Lupo" and "Sta. Helena" regions agree with previous data obtained in several other regions and show its diurnal activity. The proximity of "Lupo" Farm, where Hg. capricornii and Hg. leucocelaenus showed considerable activity, to "Araraquara" city where Aedes aegypti was recently found, raises some epidemiological considerations about the possibility of urban yellow fever resurgence.No período de março de 1980 a abril de 1983 foi estudada a atividade hematófaga de uma população de Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar e Shannon, na região sul do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos com o emprego de isca humana, mediante captura de 25 horas de duração e correspondente a três áreas, contendo manchas de floresta residual, denominadas Jacaré-Pepira, Fazenda Lupo e Fazenda Santa Helena. Os resultados relativos a Ae. scapularis foram comparados com as coletas anteriormente feitas em áreas de

  20. TOXOCARIASIS: SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS BY INDIRECT ANTIBODY COMPETITION ELISA Diagnóstico sorológico da toxocaríase através do método de ELISA indireto de competição

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    Cáris Maroni NUNES

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is caused by infection of man by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. Non specific reactions are observed mainly due to cross-reactivity with Ascaris sp antigens. This investigation aimed at developing and evaluating an indirect antibody competition ELISA (IACE employing a specific rabbit IgG anti-Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens as the competition antibody, in order to improve indirect ELISA specificity performed for toxocariasis diagnosis. For that, the rabbit IgG was previously absorbed by Ascaris suum adult antigens. Sensitivity and specificity of IACE were first evaluated in 28 serum samples of mice experimentally infected with T. canis embryonated eggs. Adopting cut-off value established in this population before infection, sensitivity and specificity were 100% after 20 days post-inoculation. For human population IACE was evaluated using sera from 440 patients with clinical signs of toxocariasis and the cut-off value was established with 60 serum samples from apparently healthy individuals. Using as reference test the indirect ELISA performed by Adolfo Lutz Institute, sensitivity was 60.2%, specificity was 98% and concordance was 77.3%. Repeatability of IACE was evaluated by the inter-reactions variation coefficient (2.4%.A toxocaríase, uma emergente zoonose, é uma síndrome clínica decorrente da infecção humana por larvas de Toxocara canis e Toxocara cati, parasitas intestinais de cães e gatos, respectivamente. A dificuldade de detecção das larvas nos tecidos e a inespecificidade dos sinais clínicos tornam os testes sorológicos os meios diagnósticos mais adequados. Os antígenos excretores-secretores de T. canis empregados nos testes sorológicos, embora tenham contribuído para melhorar a especificidade destes, apresentam reações cruzadas com diversos parasitas

  1. Yellow fever epizootics in non-human primates, São Paulo state, Brazil, 2008-2009 Epizootias de febre amarela em primatas não humanos no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%. Most of the epizootics (46.6% were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.Desde 2000, vem sendo observada a expansão da febre amarela (FA no Sudeste do Brasil, sendo detectados casos em áreas consideradas silenciosas por décadas. Epizootias em primatas não humanos (NHPs são considerados eventos sentinela para a detecção de casos humanos. É importante relatar eventos epizoóticos que podem ter impacto sobre o estado de conservação de espécies sensíveis. Descrevemos as epizootias, notificadas em NHPs no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Noventa e um eventos epizoóticos, envolvendo 147 animais, foram notificados em 36 municípios. As amostras foram obtidas a partir de 65 animais (44,2%. A maioria das epizootias (46,6% foram

  2. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised children at Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase em crianças imunodeprimidas e imunocompetentes na cidade de Uberlândia, MG, Brasil

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    Fabiana Martins de PAULA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological and immunological diagnoses were part of a study conducted among 151 children, 83 immunocompromised (IC and 68 non-immunocompromised (non-IC aged from zero to 12, seen at the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from February, 1996, to June, 1998. Three fecal samples from each child were analyzed for the parasitological diagnosis by Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis to detect IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT with cryo-microtome sections of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides ratti larvae as antigens and by the ELISA test with an alkaline extract of S. ratti as the antigens. Of the 151 children 5 (3.31% were infected with larvae of S. stercoralis (2 cases IC, 2.41%, and 3 cases non-IC, 4.41%. The IFAT-IgG detected 7 (8.43% serum samples positive among IC, and 2 (2.94% cases among non-IC. The ELISA-IgG test detected 10 (12.05% serum samples positive among IC, and 1 (1.47% case among non-IC. The IFAT-IgM detected 6 (7.22% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. ELISA-IgM test detected 10 (12.05% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. It was concluded that the immunological tests can help in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised children.O diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase foi realizado em 151 crianças (83 imunodeprimidas -ID e 68 imunocompetentes -IC de zero a 12 anos de idade internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. Para o diagnóstico parasitológico três amostras de fezes de cada indivíduo foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e de Lutz. O diagnóstico imunológico para a detecção de anticorpos IgG e IgM foi realizado através das reações de imunofluorescência indireta

  3. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Enteroparasitas e comensais em crianças de quatro bairros da periferia de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7 were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%, southern (47.5%, eastern (57.5% and western (55%. The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%, 5-10 years (21.2% and 10-15 years (10%. Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001. The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%, Entamoeba coli (20.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%, Hymenolepis nana (7.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (5%, hookworms (3.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, Endolimax nana (2.5%, Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3% and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%. The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de quatro bairros periféricos, localizados nos setores norte, sul, leste e oeste em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, utilizando os métodos de Baermann modificado por Moraes, e de Lutz. Dos 160 indivíduos estudados, 93 (58,1%, IC: 50,4-65,7 estavam infectados, assim distribuídos: setor norte (72,5%, sul (47,5%, leste (57,5% e oeste (55%. A positividade por faixa etária foi: 0 - 5 anos (26,9%, 5 - 10 (21,2% e 10 - 15 anos (10%. As crianças do sexo masculino mostraram 2,7 maior risco de infecção (OR: 2,7, IC: 1052-7001. Os agentes identificados foram: Giardia lamblia (27,5%, Entamoeba coli (20,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14,4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8,8%, Hymenolepis nana

  4. Enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soils of two indigenous territories, State of Paraná, southern Brazil Contaminación por enteroparásitos en el suelo peridomiciliar de dos territorios indígenas del estado de Paraná, en el sur del Brasil

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    Fabiana de Toledo Moura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine 1 the degree of soil contamination by parasites; 2 the prevalence of contaminated samples; 3 the overall number of parasitic forms, by distance between the collection site and the domicile; 4 the mean number of parasite forms per peri-household area; and 5 the variables associated with the total number of parasite forms. METHODS: Soil samples were collected in the peridomicile of 18 (out of a total sample of 63 and 22 (out of 190 residences of the Faxinal and Ivaí indigenous territories (ITs, respectively, from March 2005 through October 2006, and evaluated by the methods of Baermann, modified Faust et al., and Lutz. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of samples contaminated by enteroparasites of humans or of animals with zoonotic potential was 75.7% (84 out of 111 in Faxinal and 96.2% (127 out of 132 in Ivaí. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris spp., Isospora spp., and Toxocara spp. Positive statistical associations were observed between the number of parasitic forms per domicile and the following variables: time of year (season, the presence of bathrooms in the domicile, and the presence of excrement on peridomiciliar soil. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of soil contamination in Faxinal and Ivaí 1 constitutes a potential source of parasitic infection and 2 suggests that the treatment of human and animal excreta continues to be inadequate.OBJETIVOS: Determinar: 1 el grado de contaminación parasitaria del suelo; 2 la prevalencia de muestras contaminadas; 3 el número general de formas parasitarias, en función de la distancia entre el sitio donde se tomaron las muestras y el domicilio; 4 el número promedio de formas parasitarias por área peridomiciliar y 5 las variables relacionadas con el número total de formas parasitarias. MÉTODOS: Se recogieron muestras del suelo de los alrededores de 18 (de una muestra total de 63 y 22 domicilios (de una muestra total de 190 situados en los territorios indígenas Faxinal e

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais em crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B, depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos

  6. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença

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    David Jamil Hadad

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between January 1989 and February 1991, the Section of Mycobacteria of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, isolated MAC from 103 patients by culturing different sterile and no-sterile processed specimens collected from 2304 patients seen at the AIDS Reference and Training Center and/or Emilio Ribas Infectology Institute. Disseminated disease was diagnosed in 29 of those patients on the basis of MAC isolation from blood and/or bone marrow aspirate. The other 74 patients were divided into categories highly (5, moderately (26 and little suggestive of disease (43 according to the criteria of DAVIDSON (198910. The various criteria for MAC isolation from sterile and non-sterile specimens are discussed.Anterior a pandemia de AIDS, o Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC era responsável pela maioria das vezes, por pneumopatias acometendo pacientes com doença pulmonar crônica de base como enfisema e bronquite crônica36. Em 1981, com o advento da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA, o MAC passou a representar uma das doenças bacterianas mais frequentes em pacientes com esta síndrome, sendo a doença disseminada a principal forma de manifestação clínica da infecção8. Entre Janeiro de 1989 e Fevereiro de 1991, no Setor de Micobactérias do Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo, o MAC foi isolado de 103 pacientes a partir do cultivo de diferentes espécimes estéreis e não estéreis processados, coletados de 2.304 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência e

  7. Infecção por clonorchis sinensis em imigrantes asiáticos no Brasil: tratamento com praziquantel Clonorchis sinensis infection in asian immigrants in Brazil: treatment with praziquantel

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    O. H. M. Leite

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se quinze pacientes com infecção assintomática por Clonorchis sinensis, revelada através de exame parasitológico de fezes. Todos eram de origem asiática e procuraram o Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz para se submeterem a exames laboratoriais necessários à regularização de sua situação, face à nova legislação sobre imigrantes. Eram todos indivíduos adultos, seis pertencendo ao sexo feminino e nove ao masculino. Os quinze pacientes com clonorquíase foram internados no Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP e tratados com Praziquantel, na dosagem de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal, dividida em duas tomadas. Foram realizados exames coprológicos quantitativos (método de Kato-Katz, antes do tratamento específico e no 15º, 30º e 60º dias após a terapêutica. Na última avaliação (60? dia após terapêutica, em nove pacientes (60,0% não se encontraram ovos do trematódeo nas fezes e nos seis (40,0%, que continuavam eliminando ovos, notou-se redução na quantidade eliminada (superior a 90% em cinco e a 30% no paciente restante. Os pacientes foram também submetidos a exames subsidiários, para avaliação do estado geral e função hepática, antes da administração de Praziquantel e, posteriormente, no seguimento ambulatorial. A medicação foi relativamente bem tolerada pelos pacientes, verificando-se a ocorrência de efeitos colaterais representados por náuseas e vômitos (dois casos, vertigens e tonturas (dois casos, epigastralgia (dois casos e diarréia no 3? dia após tratamento (um caso.Fifteen adult patients with assymptomatic infection due to Clonorchis sinensis, diagnosed by coprological examination, were studied. They all came from Asia (twelve from Taiwan, two from South Korea and one from Hong Kong and were examined at the Adolfo Lutz Institute and the Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. Six patients were women and nine men. All

  8. Fraude em azeites de oliva do comércio brasileiro: avaliação pelo perfil de ácidos graxos, diferença do ECN 42 e parâmetros de qualidade | Fraud in olive oils of Brazilian market: evaluation by fatty acid profile, difference of ECN 42 and quality parameters

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    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Considerando a alta incidência de adulterações no azeite de oliva comercializado no Brasil, é fundamental o monitoramento contínuo deste produto. Objetivo: No presente estudo foram avaliadas 41 amostras de 18 marcas, sendo 26 declaradas como azeite de oliva extra virgem (AOEV e 15 como azeite de oliva (AO. Método: As amostras foram analisadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brasil, entre os anos de 2014 e 2016. Foram determinados: o perfil de ácidos graxos, os índices de acidez e peróxidos a extinção específica a 270 nm, a diferença do ECN 42, o perfil de tocoferóis e a adequação da informação nutricional. Resultados: Dezenove amostras (46%, de 12 marcas, não apresentaram perfil de ácidos graxos característico. A diferença do ECN 42 mostrou-se sensível para indicar a adulteração de outras duas amostras cujo perfil de ácidos graxos era de azeite autêntico. Das 26 amostras declaradas como AOEV, somente 9 enquadraram-se nesta categoria. Vinte e duas amostras apresentaram teor de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (AGM e/ou poli-insaturados (AGP variando mais que 20% do declarado no rótulo. Conclusões: As amostras adulteradas foram envasadas no Brasil, evidenciando a necessidade de um controle mais rigoroso na produção e na comercialização do produto com vistas à segurança nutricional deste alimento. =============================================== Introduction: Considering the high incidence of adulterations in olive oil marketed in Brazil, a continuous monitoring of this product is fundamental. Objective: In the present study, 41 samples from 18 brands were evaluated, of which 26 were declared as extra virgin olive oil (AOEV and 15 as olive oil (AO. Method: The samples were analyzed at Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2014 and 2016. Fatty acids profile, acidity and peroxides indexes, specific extinction at 270 nm, ECN 42 difference, tocopherols profile and adequacy of nutritional

  9. Soroprevalência da hepatite B e avaliação da resposta imunológica à vacinação contra a hepatite B por via intramuscular e intradérmica em profissionais de um laboratório de saúde pública Hepatitis B seroprevalence and evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination using intramuscular and intradermal routes in public health laboratory employees

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    Regina Célia Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência dos marcadores da hepatite B (HBsAg e anti-HBs e avaliar a resposta à vacinação contra hepatite B por via intradérmica (ID em profissionais de saúde que não responderam à vacinação por via intramuscular (IM. MÉTODO: Todos os funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL foram convidados a participar do estudo. Amostras de soro foram colhidas no momento da administração da primeira dose de vacina (Engerix® B e o HBsAg e o anti-HBs foram pesquisados, utilizando-se kits comerciais (Laboratórios Abbott®. Aos funcionários que não responderam à vacinação convencional (três doses por via IM foram oferecidas doses de 5µg da mesma vacina por via ID. RESULTADOS: Foram envolvidos nesse estudo 404 funcionários do IAL, dos quais dois (0,5% eram HBsAg e 42 (10,5%, anti-HBs reagentes. Dos 360 voluntários com sorologia negativa, 316 (87,8% receberam três doses de vacina (IM e, desses, 259 colheram soros para avaliação pós-vacinal. Do total, 242 (93,4% apresentaram anticorpos acima de 10 UI/L após completarem o esquema inicial. Foram administradas duas doses de reforço, porém sete funcionários permaneceram sem resposta imunológica. A vacinação intradérmica foi realizada em cinco voluntários, e todos produziram anticorpos após a utilização dessa via de administração. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da hepatite B não foi maior nessa população do que na população geral. A vacinação por via intradérmica pode ser uma boa alternativa na imunização de pessoas que não respondem ao esquema convencional.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs and to evaluate the response of intradermal hepatitis vaccination in healthcare workers non-responsive to previous repeated intramuscular vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All of the employees from Instituto Adolfo Lutz were invited to participate on this study. Serum samples were obtained and HBsAg and anti-HBs were detected

  10. Substituição da gordura hidrogenada por óleo de soja na elaboração de pães de linhaça e avaliação da aceitabilidade Substitution of hydrogenated fat by soy oil in the elaboration of flaxseed bread and evaluation of sensory acceptance

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    Valéria Alcântara Santos Calderelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A semente de linhaça apresenta cerca de 60% de ácidos graxos ômega-3, os quais auxiliam na prevenção de células malignas, enquanto que os ácidos graxos trans podem levar a implicações nutricionais negativas. Foi objetivo do trabalho elaborar uma nova formulação de pão de linhaça com a substituição da gordura hidrogenada por óleo de soja. Foi verificada a aceitação e realizada a quantificação dos ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos ômega-3 e ômega-6 nos produtos padrão e modificado. Foram, ainda, avaliados parâmetros instrumentais de cor e textura. As análises físico-químicas e de composição centesimal seguiram as metodologias do Instituto Adolf Lutz e AOAC. Para determinação de ácidos graxos utilizou-se cromatografia gasosa. A nova formulação apresentou maiores teores de ácidos graxos ômega-6 e ômega-3 e de poliinsaturados em relação ao padrão. Inversamente, a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans foi significativamente maior no pão padrão. Não foi observada diferença na cor de casca, mas a formulação com óleo de soja apresentou miolo mais amarelado e maior maciez que o padrão. O pão formulado com óleo de soja apresentou boa aceitação sensorial.Flaxseed presents about 60% omega-3 fatty acids, which aid in the prevention of the growth of cancerous cells, while trans fatty acids can lead to negative nutritional implications. This work aimed at elaborating a novel formulation of flaxseed bread with the substitution of hydrogenated fat by soy oil. Sensory acceptance was verified and the quantification of trans fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was accomplished in the modified and standard products. Instrumental parameters of color and texture were evaluated. Physical-chemical analysis and proximate composition were carried out according to Adolfo Lutz Institute and AOAC methodology. Gas chromatography was used to determine fatty acid composition. The novel formulation presented higher

  11. Espécies de flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae coletadas em ambiente urbano em municípios com transmissão de Leishmaniose Visceral do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Species of phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae collected in urban municipalities with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os flebotomíneos são os vetores naturais de alguns agentes etiológicos de doenças humanas e de animais, tais como protozoários do gênero Leishmania Ross, 1903. A fauna flebotomínica no Mato Grosso do Sul é relativamente bem conhecida e até o momento compõe-se de 54 espécies. O presente estudo baseia-se no levantamento de flebotomíneos em área urbana de 18 municípios com transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, com objetivo de verificar as principais espécies e fornecer subsídios para o programa de controle das leishmanioses. As coletas foram realizadas com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas mensalmente durante três noites consecutivas, das 18:00 horas às 6:00, no período de dois anos. Foram coletadas 36 espécies dentre os 34.799 exemplares identificados. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes, 1939 foram as espécies mais dispersas, a primeira foi encontrada em 16 e a segunda em 15 dos 18 municípios investigados, contudo, Lu. longipalpis foi predominante em todos esses municípios Ny. whitmani não predominou em nenhum deles. Corumbá contribuiu com 40.92% de todos flebotomíneos capturados e nesse município Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 respondeu por 92.50% dos exemplares coletados. Ressalta-se que as espécies do gênero Lutzomyia e Nyssomyia whitmani podem estar envolvidas com a transmissão de leishmanioses no Mato Grosso do Sul.The phlebotomine sand flies are the natural vectors of some etiological agents of human and animal diseases, such as the protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, 1903. The phlebotomine fauna in Mato Grosso do Sul is relatively well known and so far consists of 54 species. The present study is based on the survey of the phlebotomine fauna of the urban area of the 18 municipal districts with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, for the purpose of verifying the main species and

  12. Human vaccinia-like virus outbreaks in São Paulo and Goiás States, Brazil: virus detection, isolation and identification Surtos de vírus Vaccinia-like nos Estados de São Paulo e Goiás, Brasil: detecção, isolamento e identificação viral

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    Teresa Keico Nagasse-Sugahara

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2001, the Adolfo Lutz Institute has been receiving vesicular fluids and scab specimens of patients from Paraíba Valley region in the São Paulo and Minas Gerais States and from São Patricio Valley, in the Goiás State. Epidemiological data suggested that the outbreaks were caused by Cowpox virus or Vaccinia virus. Most of the patients are dairy milkers that had vesiculo-pustular lesions on the hands, arms, forearms, and some of them, on the face. Virus particles with orthopoxvirus morphology were detected by direct electron microscopy (DEM in samples of 49 (66.21% patients of a total of 74 analyzed. Viruses were isolated in Vero cell culture and on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of embryonated chicken eggs. Among 21 samples submitted to PCR using primers for hemagglutinin (HA gene, 19 were positive. Restriction digestion with TaqI resulted in four characteristic Vaccinia virus fragments. HA nucleotide sequences showed 99.9% similarity with Cantagalo virus, described as a strain of Vaccinia virus. The only difference observed was the substitution of one nucleotide in the position 616 leading to change in one amino acid of the protein in the position 206. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates clustered together with Cantagalo virus, other Vaccinia strains and Rabbitpox virus.A partir de outubro de 2001, o Instituto Adolfo Lutz tem recebido amostras de líquido vesicular e crostas de lesões de pele de pacientes das regiões do Vale do Paraíba, Estado de São Paulo e do Vale do São Patricio, Estado de Goiás. Os dados clínicos e epidemiológicos sugeriam que os surtos poderiam ser causados por Cowpox virus ou Vaccinia virus. A maioria dos pacientes era ordenhadores que tinham lesões vesicopustulares nas mãos, braços, antebraços e alguns na face. A análise por microscopia eletrônica direta (MED detectou partículas com morfologia de vírus do gênero Orthopoxvirus em amostras de 49 (66,21% pacientes dos 74

  13. Avaliação da qualidade da fluoretação de águas de abastecimento público em 88 municípios da região Nordeste do estado de São Paulo (Brasil | Quality Assessment of fluoridation of public water supply in 88 municipalities in the Northeast region of the state of São Paulo (Brazil

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    Sergio Dovidauskas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Durante um ano, o Núcleo de Ciências Químicas e Bromatológicas do Centro de Laboratório Regional do Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brasil aumentou o número de amostras de águas de abastecimento público analisadas para concentração de fluoreto em relação ao que é normalmente solicitado por 88 Vigilâncias Sanitárias Municipais do Nordeste do estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Objetivo: Verificar se os valores dos Indicadores de Fluoretação variam quando se aumenta o número de amostras analisadas e avaliar a qualidade da fluoretação na região. Método: Fluoreto foi determinado por cromatografia de íons em amostras coletadas pelas Vigilâncias Sanitárias. Resultados: Os valores dos Indicadores de Fluoretação obtidos nas duas amostragens (das Vigilâncias e as ampliadas foram similares para a maioria dos casos. O mapeamento indicou um maior número de municípios com indicadores maiores que 80% nos Departamentos Regionais de Saúde de Barretos e Franca, enquanto nos de Araraquara e Ribeirão Preto prevalecem indicadores menores que 40%. Conclusões: Investimento e assessoria técnica são insuficientes para elevar os indicadores a valores acima de 80% em municípios com populações pequenas. Para os casos em que os valores são menores que 40% sugere-se uma abordagem baseada na similaridade entre municípios para se aumentar esses valores. ========================================== Introduction: During 1 year, the Núcleo de Ciências Químicas e Bromatológicas do Centro de Laboratório Regional do Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirão Preto (SP, Brasil has increased the number of public water supply samples analyzed for fluoride concentration in relation to what is usually requested by 88 Municipal Sanitary Surveillance of Northeast State of São Paulo (Brazil. Objective: To verify if fluoridation indicators values will vary when increasing the number of samples analyzed and to assess the quality of

  14. A febre amarela na região de Ribeirão Preto durante a virada do século XIX: importância científica e repercussões econômicas

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    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão histórica, descreve-se a situação precária da saúde pública no Brasil durante o século XIX devido as múltiplas epidemias de febre amarela. Descreve-se, também, os precários conhecimentos que haviam, à época, sobre a enfermidade. Faz- se um breve histórico sobre a Região de Ribeirão Preto, situada no Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, seus desbravadores, imigrantes e fazendeiros de café pioneiros, incluindo-se Luiz Pereira Barreto. Relatam-se as 3 epidemias de febre amarela ocorridas na cidade de São Simão, nos anos de 1896. 1898, 1902 e uma ocorrida em Ribeirão Preto, no ano de 1903. Mostra-se que as medidas de saúde pública tomadas para o controle dos surtos mostraram-se eficientes quando Emílio Ribas promoveu, de forma pioneira, o combate ao mosquito transmissor, o Aedes aegypti. Descrevem-se os experimentos efetuados por Emílio Ribas, com a participação de Adolpho Lutz e de Luiz Pereira Barreto, visando confirmar a transmissão vetorial da febre amarela e afastar outras formas de contágio. Obseva-se que as epidemias de febre amarela causaram prejuízo ao desenvolvimento da Cidade de São Simão, colaborando para a transferência do polo econômico regional para Ribeirão Preto. Ressalta-se a importância das medidas de controle vetorial e a dos experimentos sobre o mecanismo de transmissão da febre amarela, no desenvolvimento da ciência médica, e da saúde pública no Brasil.Yellow fever in the Region of Ribeirão Preto at the turn of XIX century: scientific importance and economic repercussion. This historical review describes the bad situation of public health in Brazil during the XIX Century caused by multiple yellow fever outbreaks. The knowledge regarding to yellow fever at that time is also described. A short history is presented of the development of the Region of Ribeirão Preto, located in the Northeast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, emphasising the actuation of immigrants and pioneer coffee

  15. Iogurte adicionado de polpa de abacaxi, base mel: Elaboração, perfil microbiológico e físico-químico

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    Y. F. Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos lácteos, são fonte importante para se obter nutrientes necessários para um bom funcionamento do organismo humano. Com o mercado consumidor em alta, sentiu-se a necessidade de adicionar ingredientes que auxiliam tanto na aceitação do produto final, quanto o tornando uma refeição mais nutritiva. Objetivou-se a elaboração de iogurte natural que uniu as propriedades nutritivas do abacaxi e do mel de abelha. As três formulações do produto (A,B e C foram submetidas à análises microbiológicas (Coliformes à 35ºC e 45ºC, Salmonella sp/25g., Staphylococcus spp., Contagem total de bactérias aeróbias Mesófilas (CTM e Psicotróficas seguindo metodologia descrita por Silva (2010 e à análises físico-químicas (Umidade, Cinzas, Sólidos Solúveis (ºBrix, pH, Acidez e Proteínas utilizando metodologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008. As três formulações apresentaram ausência emtodos os parâmetros microbiológicos analisados, exceto para CTM, apresentando valores de 1x 10 e 1,5x 10UFC/g, estando dentro dos padrões estabelecidos. Nas análises físico-químicas, esteve dentro dos padrões para acidez (0.803, 0.904 e 0.934 e proteínas (2.98, 3.75 e 4.39 e fora dos padrões para ºBrix (37.1, 37.4 e 41.5, não existindo padrões específicos para os demais parâmetros. Conclui-se que todas as formulações estão aptas a comercialização, dependendo apenas da preferência sensorial dos consumidores.Yogurt added pineapple pull, honey base: Development, microbiological profile and physicochemicalAbstract: Dairy products are an important font to obtain nutrients necessary for proper functioning of the human body. In the consumer market for high, felt the need to add ingredients which assist both the acceptance of the final product, as becoming a more nourishing meal. Aimed to the development of natural yogurt that united the nutritional properties pineapple and honey. The three product formulations (A, B and C were subjected

  16. Transpedicular screw fixation in the thoracic and lumbar spine with a novel cannulated polyaxial screw system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Weise

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Weise, Olaf Suess, Thomas Picht, Theodoros KombosNeurochirurgische Klinik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyObjective: Transpedicular screws are commonly and successfully used for posterior fixation in spinal instability, but their insertion remains challenging. Even using navigation techniques, there is a misplacement rate of up to 11%. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a novel pedicle screw system.Methods: Thoracic and lumbar fusions were performed on 67 consecutive patients for tumor, trauma, degenerative disease or infection. A total of 326 pedicular screws were placed using a novel wire-guided, cannulated, polyaxial screw system (XIA Precision®, Stryker. The accuracy of placement was assessed post operatively by CT scan, and the patients were followed-up clinically for a mean of 16 months.Results: The total medio-caudal pedicle wall perforation rate was 9.2% (30/326. In 19 of these 30 cases a cortical breakthrough of less than 2 mm occurred. The misplacement rate (defined as a perforation of 2 mm or more was 3.37% (11/326. Three of these 11 screws needed surgical revision due to neurological symptoms or CSF leakage. There have been no screw breakages or dislocations over the follow up-period.Conclusion: We conclude that the use of this cannulated screw system for the placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine is accurate and safe. The advantages of this technique include easy handling without a time-consuming set up. Considering the incidence of long-term screw breakage, further investigation with a longer follow-up period is necessary.Keywords: spinal instrumentation, pedicle screws, misplacement, pedicle wall perforation

  17. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in caves of the Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice A. B. Galati

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phlebotomine species captured during the period from January 1998 to June 2000 in 12 caves located in the Serra da Bodoquena, situated in the south central region of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Three of the caves are situated further north (in Bodoquena county, seven in the central area (Bonito county and two in the south (Jardim county. These last two caves and three of those in Bonito are located at the west side of the ridge. Eighteen species of phlebotomines were captured within the caves: Brumptomyia avellari (Costa Lima, 1932, Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrousse, 1920, Brumptomyia cunhai (Mangabeira, 1942, Brumptomyia galindoi (Fairchild & Hertig, 1947, Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989, Lutzomyia almerioi Galati & Nunes, 1999, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1970, Micropygomyia acanthopharynx (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1962, Micropygomyia peresi (Mangabeira, 1942, Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar, 1929, Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939, Psathyromyia campograndensis (Oliveira, Andrade-Filho, Falcão & Brazil, 2001, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch & Abonnenc, 1944, Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929, Pintomyia kuscheli (Le Pont, Martinez, Torrez-Espejo & Dujardin, 1998, Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927 and Sciopemyia sp. A total of 29,599 phlebotomine sandflies was obtained. Lutzomyia almerioi was absolutely predominant (91.5% over the other species on both sides of the Bodoquena ridge, with the exception of the southern caves in which it was absent. It presents summer predominance, with nocturnal and diurnal activities. The species breeds in the caves and was captured during daytime both in the dark area and in the mouth of the caves. Martinsmyia oliveirai, the second most frequent sandfly, also presents a summer peak and only predominated over the other species in one cave, in which there

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-01-01

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm

  19. SU-F-J-53: A 3D Printed Phantom for the Use of Daily Quality Assurance Alignment Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K; Ayan, A; Woollard, J; Gardner, N; Gupta, N [Ohio State University Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To discuss experiences and results for a 3D printed QA phantom used for daily alignment purposes for a six degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) table Methods: A 3D model was created using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer using free online computer-aided design (CAD) software. The model has been under use for daily QA alignment tests for a 6DoF couch. An aligned and angled baseplate were also printed in order to introduce known angles for 6DoF corrections during image-guidance. Unique registration contours were created on the faces of the phantom in order to achieve a better cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) match using an auto-registration algorithm. A BB was also introduced at the center of the phantom in order to deliver an integrated daily Winston-Lutz (WL) test. Translational, rotational, and WL results were tabulated over one month. Results: The ’honeycomb’ structure of the print was apparent in the EPID images for the WL test, which affected the results of the analysis software. This was fixed by inserting a cube made of polyoxymethylene within the 3D phantom that encompass the BB. Auto-registration results for the three translational and three rotational from a known offset to the BB isocenter consistently fell within 1 mm and 0.2°, respectively. WL tests resulted in an average of 0.71 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: 3D printed models allow for accurate builds that can be customized to a variety of clinical needs. Results from translational, rotational, and WL show consistent results over a month’s time. Given its relatively cheap and streamlined workflow, 3D printing could be implemented into any clinic looking to create customized phantoms.

  20. SU-F-J-53: A 3D Printed Phantom for the Use of Daily Quality Assurance Alignment Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K; Ayan, A; Woollard, J; Gardner, N; Gupta, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss experiences and results for a 3D printed QA phantom used for daily alignment purposes for a six degrees-of-freedom (6DoF) table Methods: A 3D model was created using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer using free online computer-aided design (CAD) software. The model has been under use for daily QA alignment tests for a 6DoF couch. An aligned and angled baseplate were also printed in order to introduce known angles for 6DoF corrections during image-guidance. Unique registration contours were created on the faces of the phantom in order to achieve a better cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) match using an auto-registration algorithm. A BB was also introduced at the center of the phantom in order to deliver an integrated daily Winston-Lutz (WL) test. Translational, rotational, and WL results were tabulated over one month. Results: The ’honeycomb’ structure of the print was apparent in the EPID images for the WL test, which affected the results of the analysis software. This was fixed by inserting a cube made of polyoxymethylene within the 3D phantom that encompass the BB. Auto-registration results for the three translational and three rotational from a known offset to the BB isocenter consistently fell within 1 mm and 0.2°, respectively. WL tests resulted in an average of 0.71 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: 3D printed models allow for accurate builds that can be customized to a variety of clinical needs. Results from translational, rotational, and WL show consistent results over a month’s time. Given its relatively cheap and streamlined workflow, 3D printing could be implemented into any clinic looking to create customized phantoms.

  1. A retrograde y-stenting of the trachea for treatment of mediastinal fistula in an unusual situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Michael Steinheimer,1 Thomas Schneider,1 Naim Benhassen,1 Holger Rupprecht,3 Lutz Freitag4 1Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of General, Vascular and Thoracical Surgery, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, 4Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital Essen, University of Essen-Duisburg, Essen, Germany Introduction: Stents have been used for quite some time for the treatment of benign and malignant airway stenosis. Silicon stents are preferred for benign situations, whereas metallic self-expanding stents are preferred for malignant comorbidities.Patient and methods: In general, stents can be placed in different approach directions, although in pulmonary medicine it is logical to apply only antegrade techniques – until now. A 63-year-old patient, 168 cm height and 53 kg weight on referral, suffered chronical diseases. The patient was diagnosed with a papillary thyroid carcinoma in 1989, which was treated by resection and radiotherapy. In the following years, she developed a stenosis of the esophagus. The decision to try endobronchial stenting was made upon the plan to close that fistula with a pedicled omentum majus replacement through the diaphragmal opening of the esophagus. This surgical plastic needed an abutment and a secured continuous airway replacement above the tracheostoma level. A Freitag stent (FS, 11 cm in length (110–25–40 and an inner diameter of 13 mm, was placed successfully retrograde into the trachea and completely bridged the big fistula. Unfortunately the patient passed away due to pulmonary infections after several weeks.Discussion: In this case report, a successful but unusual case of retrograde stent placement of a modified

  2. Frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la educación escolar básica de Escuelas Públicas de Ciudad del Este, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elena Cardozo Ocampos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades parasitarias tienen amplia distribución mundial, y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los organismos de salud, siguen siendo un problema especialmente en los países en vias de desarrollo como el nuestro. El objetivo del presente trabajo, debidamente evaluado por la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Bioética en Paraguay, fue la de determinar la tasa de frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica de Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. En el periodo de setiembre a diciembre del año 2006, fueron visitadas 48 escuelas públicas, durante el cual se recolectó muestras de materia fecal de 388 niños y niñas, entre 7 a 9 años, escogidos aleatoriamente. Las muestras colectadas fueron examinadas por cuatro métodos para la búsqueda de enteroparásitos, el Directo en fresco, Faust, Ritchie and Lutz. El porcentaje de las muestras positivas fue de 94,23%, donde fueron identificados siete tipos de protozoarios y cinco tipos de helmintos. La frecuencia de los enteroparasitos hallados en la población estudiada de la forma en la que sigue: Giardia duodenalis 67%; Entamoeba coli 52%; Blastocystis hominis 45%; Endolimax nana 31%; Chilomastix mesnili 8 %; Iodamoeba butschilii 3% ; Entamoeba histolytica 2% ; Hymenolepis nana 12%; Enterobius vermicularis 1%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2%; Ascaris lumbricoides 1% ; Uncinarias 2%.

  3. Environment informatin systems. Data requests and acquisition of information acording to the theme environment and health; Umweltinformationssysteme. Datenanforderungen und Informationsgewinnung zum Themenbereich Umwelt und Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    Within the workshop of the working group 'Environmental Information System' of the specialized group 'Informatics in environmental protection' from 27th to 28th May, 2010, in Leipzig (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Environment and health: Data for deeds (Hedi Schreiber); (2) Fundamental data to describe health-related environmental pollution of humans in Germany (Andre Conrad); (3) Noxen information system NIS - a material information system for the Public Health Service (Cerstin Finke); (4) Biocide portal ''Fly-swatter instead of spray can' (Gunnar Minx); (5) The web supported information portal nature protection and health (NatGesIS) in the Federal Office for Nature Conservation (Beate Job-Hoben); (6) The information system of ecologic building materials WECOBIS (Rainer Weidemann); (7) Integration of remote sensing data, geodata and health data in geographical information infrastructure for the prediction of environmentally influenced health hazards - EO2HEAVEN (Silke Richter); (8) Transnational data of the state of soil tools and requirements from the view of the Federal Environment Office (Falk Hilliges); (9) Information system for the monitoring of forests in Europa data management in the EU project FutMon (Friedhelm Hosenfeld); (10) Environmental performance and urban development - On the urban space distribution of health relevant environmental pollution in the region Berlin (Heinz-Josef Klimeczek); (11) InGrid {sup registered} - a software for the development of environmental information systems (Fred Kruse); (12) Linked environmental data (Maria Ruether); (13) HIPPOLYTOS - Intuitive, overlapping research of environmental data and geological data by means of semantic technologies (Gergely Lukacs); (14) Tool for a flexible data exchange between specialized information systems (Rene Poeschel); (15) A technical concept of research information systems of the EU project ICT-ENSURE (Richard Lutz).

  4. Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Provensi, Gustavo; Ricca, Valdo; Lutz, Thomas; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding behavior based not only on the homeostatic, but also on the hedonic aspects of food intake. The prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, binge eating and obesity, poses an enormous clinical burden, and involves an ever-growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical and preclinical research is constantly adding new information to the field and orienting further studies with the aim of providing a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches to pathological conditions. A recent symposium at the XVI Congress of the Societá Italiana di Neuroscienze (SINS, 2015) 'Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back' brought together basic scientists and clinicians with the objective of presenting novel perspectives in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Clinical studies presented by V. Ricca illustrated some genetic aspects of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Preclinical studies addressed different issues ranging from the description of animal models that mimic human pathologies such as anorexia nervosa, diet-induced obesity, and binge eating disorders (T. Lutz), to novel interactions between peripheral signals and central circuits that govern food intake, mood and stress (A. Romano and G. Provensi). The gut-brain axis has received increasing attention in the recent years as preclinical studies are demonstrating that the brain and visceral organs such as the liver and guts, but also the microbiota are constantly engaged in processes of reciprocal communication, with unexpected physiological and pathological implications. Eating is controlled by a plethora of factors; genetic predisposition, early life adverse conditions, peripheral gastrointestinal hormones that act directly or indirectly on the central nervous system, all are

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang [Northeast Cancer Centre, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  6. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  7. Desenvolvimento de um creme de laranja e avaliação da qualidade físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Schuck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma formulação alimentícia de creme de laranja com controle de qualidade adequado, avaliar sua aceitabilidade sensorial e determinar o valor nutricional para que este possa ser utilizado com fins comerciais em padarias e confeitarias. Para a formulação do creme foram utilizadas laranjas Valência (Citrus sinensis, açúcar, gemas, gelatina em pó incolor, manteiga e creme de leite. Foi empregado um processo térmico de pasteurização em banho-maria com variações de tempo e temperatura. As análises da composição proximal do creme de laranja foram realizadas segundo metodologia preconizada pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008 e o valor calórico segundo Lehninger (2011. A análise sensorial foi realizada através de ficha de análise de atributos. As contagens de Estafilococos Coagulase positiva e de Coliformes Termotolerantes 45ºC encontraram-se dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. Não foi detectada a presença de Salmonella. Encontrou-se um índice de 44,30% de umidade, 0,36% de cinzas, 29,68% de lipídeos , 1,68% de fibras, 13,02% de proteínas, 10,95% de carboidratos e um total de 366,42kcal/100g. O Índice de Aceitabilidade (IA para a impressão global foi superior a 70%, aferindo a este produto uma aceitação sensorial satisfatória.

  8. CACHAÇA QUALITY ASSESSMENT PRODUCED IN NORTH MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pellenz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of cachaça and the possibility of exportation are increasingly requiring that producers seek to improvement the quality of the drink. Cachaça is defined as a typical and exclusive name for brandy forsugar cane produced in Brazil, with alcoholic graduation of 38-48% by volume at 20 º C, with peculiar sensory characteristics. A good cachaça must have in its composition and minimum values of contaminants and congeners limited values established by legislation to ensure minimum standards of beverage quality (color, aroma, flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of cachaça produced in northern Mato Grosso. We collected five samples of cachaça in the region, and then these were evaluated parameters for total acidity, fixed acidity and volatile acidity, total esters, solids, copper and level alcohol according to standards of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz . The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means compared by tukey test at 5% probability. Of cachaças analyzed, 4 had results outside the standard set by legislation, where cachaça C showed values of 329.07 and 902.70 mg/100 mL of anhydrous alcohol for the parameter of volatile acid and esters respectively. The cachaça D, B and E showed values of total esters of 452.30, 258.66 and 243.16 mg/100mL anhydrous alcohol respectively. For level of copper rum E showed values above the permitted with 57.08 mg / L of sample and dry extract of 0.1309 g / mL. As the level of alcoool, only cachaça D showed alcohol level below the limit minimum.

  9. Energetic use of renewable fuels. Logistics of energy carrier supply, technologies of usage, boundary conditions for economically efficient use of biomass. Proceedings; Energetische Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe - Logistik der Energietraegerbereitstellung, Technologien der Energietraegernutzung, Rahmenbedinungen fuer den wirtschaftlichen Einsatz von Biomasse. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 14th international conference 'Energetical use of renewable fuels' at Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) at 11th and 12th September, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) State of the legislation procedure for the revision of the Renewable Energy Resources Act and Renewable Energy Resources Heat Act (Bernhard Dreher); (b) Power generation from biomass - A task of investigation? (Martin Kaltschmitt); (c) A physical-chemical online analysis of fine dust emissions from wood furnaces (Michael Sattler, Christian Gaegauf, Nicolas Meyer, Maaren Heringa); (d) Actual state of standardization of biogenic solid fuels (Andreas Neff, Frank Baur); (e) Combined heat and power coupling with thermal gasification of biomass - State of the art and actual developments (Juergen Karl); (f) Wood power generation in the practice - Possibilities and potentials (Michael Hoeffling); (g) Biological natural gas - An analysis and evaluation (Alexander Vogel, Stephan Ramesohl); (h) Digestion of biomass ensures a high yield of biogas (Thilo Lehmann, Christina Dornack); (i) Market for wood pellets in the Federal Republic of Germany - State of the art, development, perspectives (Martin Bentele); (j) Report on the expert opinion ''Utilization of biomass for power generation'' of the Scientific Advisory Council agrarian policy at BMELV (Thomas De Witte); (k) About the ecology of short rotation plants (Heino Wolf); (l) Generation of electricity and heat on the basis of straw - The first straw-fired heating plant in Germany (Rainer Knieper); (m) Standardization of liquid fuels in European context (Thomas Brehmer, Franz Heger); (n) Bio fuels of the second generation: Production, quantities of biomass and strategies of supply (Lutz Freytag); (o) Biomass-fired heating plant Simmering (Ludwig Gockner); (p) Industrial network Renewably Energy in the Free State of Saxony (Klaus Beumler); (q) Exemplary regional conversion of an intelligent, decentralised

  10. SEISPLN: Reference manual for the SEISPLN earthquake analysis package on the DEC MicroVAX II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, E.

    1989-01-01

    The SEISPLN package generates statistically significant fault surfaces for subsets of an earthquake database. The parameters used are up to the discretion of the user, but the package is based primarily on the geometric relationships of the foci locations and the location errors of the foci. The technique employed to locate subsets of foci which are considered to be subplanar concentrations of foci is as follows: First, a three dimensional grid system is created with elongated cells which will ultimately count the number of foci per cell for every possible strike and dip orientation of the grid system. A table is output which gives the number of foci per cell for every strike orientation. There is a corresponding table for each frequency table which calculates the relative change in frequency between neighboring cells. These tables bring out the relative concentrations of foci regardless of how many foci are in the cell. This is a significant benefit compared to the Fehler, Lutz, and Michelinni and Bolt techniques, which tend to wash out low frequency foci concentrations. Second, the user can run the next program to pull out subsets of the foci which are considered to be good picks'' from the frequency tables. Third, the next program will take the subset of foci and find the best fit surface using a multiple linear regression technique. The calculated surface can be planar (first order), arcuate (second order), or of very complex surface geometry (third order). Finally, the last program plots all the foci, along with the foci pick, surface fit, and fault trace, in a stereographic projection which can be rotated and multipulated in an almost infinite variety of ways. 11 figs.

  11. SU-G-TeP4-12: Individual Beam QA for a Robotic Radiosurgery System Using a Scintillator Cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuinness, C; Descovich, M; Sudhyadhom, A [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The targeting accuracy of the Cyberknife system is measured by end-to-end tests delivering multiple isocentric beams to a point in space. While the targeting accuracy of two representative beams can be determined by a Winston-Lutz-type test, no test is available today to determine the targeting accuracy of each clinical beam. We used a scintillator cone to measure the accuracy of each individual beam. Methods: The XRV-124 from Logos Systems Int’l is a scintillator cone with an imaging system that is able to measure individual beam vectors and a resulting error between planned and measured beam coordinates. We measured the targeting accuracy of isocentric and non-isocentric beams for a number of test cases using the Iris and the fixed collimator. The average difference between plan and measured beam position was 0.8–1.2mm across the collimator sizes and plans considered here. The max error for a single beam was 2.5mm for the isocentric plans, and 1.67mm for the non-isocentric plans. The standard deviation of the differences was 0.5mm or less. Conclusion: The CyberKnife System is specified to have an overall targeting accuracy for static targets of less than 0.95mm. In E2E tests using the XRV124 system we measure average beam accuracy between 0.8 to 1.23mm, with maximum of 2.5mm. We plan to investigate correlations between beam position error and robot position, and to quantify the effect of beam position errors on patient specific plans. Martina Descovich has received research support and speaker honoraria from Accuray.

  12. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with HIV/AIDS by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies strongly indicate Dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. METHODS: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis associated with the causes of diarrhea in 82 HIV/ AIDS patients hospitalized at the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from September 2006 to November 2008. RESULTS: In total, 105 samples were collected from 82 patients. Unprotected sex was the most frequent cause of HIV infection (46.3%, followed by the use of injectable or non-injectable drugs (14.6%. Patients presented with viral loads of 49-750,000 copies/ mL (average: 73,849 ± 124,850 copies/mL and CD4 counts ranging of 2-1,306 cells/mm³ (average: 159 ± 250 cells/mm³. On an average, the odds of obtaining a positive result by using the other techniques (Hoffman, Pons and Janer or Lutz; Ritchie were 2.7 times higher than the chance of obtaining a positive result by using the simplified iron hematoxylin method. Significant differences were found between the methods (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: The other techniques can detect a significantly greater amount of parasites than the simplified iron hematoxylin method, especially with respect to Isospora belli, Cryptosporidium sp., Schistosoma mansoni, and Strongyloides stercoralis, which were not detected using hematoxylin. Endolimax nana and D. fragilis were detected more frequently on using hematoxylin, and the only parasite not found by the other methods was D. fragilis.

  13. Desigualdades de gênero na política na América Latina e as eleições presidenciais do Brasil em 2010

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    Suzana Cavenaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Women in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC managed to reverse or reduce gender inequalities in recent decades. They have surpassed men in indicators of life expectancy and average years of schooling. In the labor market, there was an increase in the rate of female labor force participation, even though there is still an occupational segregation, wage discrimination and the permanence of traditional sexual division of labor. In the parliamentary representation in LAC women grew from 13% on representatives in the Lower House in January 1997 to 23% in January 2012. However, in Brazil, where occurred a strong women's empowerment, including the election of a woman to the presidency in 2010 – there are just 8.8% of women in the Chamber of Deputies. Female participation in the Brazilian Legislature is very low and contrasts with the reality of the rest of the region. This article provides a brief overview of gender inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean to then focus on an overview of gender inequalities in politics in Brazil. At first presents data on voting intentions of the 2010 presidential election, according to voter sex, using data from 45 surveys of the 4 largest pool institutions. Then, it is carried out an exploratory multivariate analysis – by fitting tree classification model – on voter’s intention to the major candidates, using data collected in the Consortium Bertha Lutz (research group created to analyze the Brazilian elections of 2010 from a gender perspective to find population segments that have similar vote intention. Finally, it was applied a multinomial logistic regression to investigate which of the voter’s and candidates’ characteristics have significant and strongest relationships to stated vote intention.

  14. Fuel cells science and engineering. Materials, processes, systems and technology. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Brennstoffzellen (IEF-3)

    2012-07-01

    The second volume is divided in four parts and 19 chapters. It is structured as follows: PART V: Modeling and Simulation. Chapter 23: Messages from Analytical Modeling of Fuel Cells (Andrei Kulikovsky); 24: Stochastic Modeling of Fuel-Cell Components (Ralf Thiedmann, Gerd Gaiselmann, Werner Lehnert and Volker Schmidt); 25: Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Using Supercomputer Calculation Capacity (Ralf Peters and Florian Scharf); 26 Modeling Solid Oxide Fuel Cells from the Macroscale to the Nanoscale (Emily M. Ryan and Mohammad A. Khaleel); 27: Numerical Modeling of the Thermomechanically Induced Stress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Murat Peksen); 28: Modeling of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (Peter Heidebrecht, Silvia Piewek and Kai Sundmacher); Chapter 29: High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Modeling (Uwe Reimer); Chapter 30: Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel-Cell Components (Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen); 31: Modeling of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Stacks (Yun Wang and Ken S. Chen). PART VI: Balance of Plant Design and Components. Chapter 32: Principles of Systems Engineering (Ludger Blum, Ralf Peters and Remzi Can Samsun); 33: System Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Nguyen Q. Minh); 34: Desulfurization for Fuel-Cell Systems (Joachim Pasel and Ralf Peters); 35: Design Criteria and Components for Fuel Cell Powertrains (Lutz Eckstein and Bruno Gnoerich); 36: Hybridization for Fuel Cells (Joerg Wilhelm). PART VII: Systems Verification and Market Introduction. Chapter 37: Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation (Kerry-Ann Adamson); 38: Demonstration Projects and Market Introduction (Kristin Deason). PART VIII: Knowledge Distribution and Public Awareness. Chapter 39: A Sustainable Framework for International Collaboration: the IEA HIA and Its Strategic Plan for 2009-2015 (Mary-Rose de Valladares); 40: Overview of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Organizations and Initiatives Worldwide (Bernd Emonts) 41: Contributions for

  15. SU-E-T-282: Dose Measurements with An End-To-End Audit Phantom for Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R; Artschan, R [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Thwaites, D [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lehmann, J [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Report on dose measurements as part of an end-to-end test for stereotactic radiotherapy, using a new audit tool, which allows audits to be performed efficiently either by an onsite team or as a postal audit. Methods: Film measurements have been performed with a new Stereotactic Cube Phantom. The phantom has been designed to perform Winston Lutz type position verification measurements and dose measurements in one setup. It comprises a plastic cube with a high density ball in its centre (used for MV imaging with film or EPID) and low density markers in the periphery (used for Cone Beam Computed Tomography, CBCT imaging). It also features strategically placed gold markers near the posterior and right surfaces, which can be used to calculate phantom rotations on MV images. Slit-like openings allow insertion of film or other detectors.The phantom was scanned and small field treatment plans were created. The fields do not traverse any inhomogeneities of the phantom on their paths to the measurement location. The phantom was setup at the delivery system using CBCT imaging. The calculated treatment fields were delivered, each with a piece of radiochromic film (EBT3) placed in the anterior film holder of the phantom. MU had been selected in planning to achieve similar exposures on all films. Calibration films were exposed in solid water for dose levels around the expected doses. Films were scanned and analysed following established procedures. Results: Setup of the cube showed excellent suitability for CBCT 3D alignment. MV imaging with EPID allowed for clear identification of all markers. Film based dose measurements showed good agreement for MLC created fields down to 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm. Conclusion: An end-to-end audit phantom for stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed and tested.

  16. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre o conteudo de tocoferois em produtos naturais e industrializados e avaliacao sensorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  17. PRODUÇÃO DE UMA FARINHA DE ALBEDO DE LARANJA COMO FORMA DE APROVEITAMENTO DE RESÍDUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmira Bublitz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores de suco de laranja e exporta cerca de 70% da sua produção. Durante o processamento do suco de laranja são gerados subprodutos, como o bagaço denominado também de albedo. Visando a diversificação tecnológica, este trabalho possui como objetivo a elaboração de uma farinha a partir de um subproduto da indústria de sucos, que possa ser utilizada como enriquecimento nutricional em formulações de produtos de panificação. A farinha foi obtida pela trituração úmida, lavagem, secagem e trituração seca do resíduo desidratado das laranjas. As análises físico-químicas da farinha de albedo de laranja foram realizadas segundo as metodologias preconizadas pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2008. A umidade (11,75% da farinha ficou dentro do máximo permitido pela legislação brasileira; apresentou um baixo teor de gorduras (0,42% e calorias em torno de 18% a menos que a farinha de trigo. A fibra bruta da farinha de albedo da laranja (16,20% é cinco vezes maior, em comparação a uma farinha tradicional de trigo (3,2%, podendo ser considerada um ingrediente funcional. A farinha de albedo de laranja é uma excelente alternativa para enriquecimento de produtos de panificação, agregando não só valor econômico como valor nutricional, com considerável teor de fibras.

  18. Elaboração e avaliação da qualidade sensorial e fisico-química de geleia de cajá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Silveira da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A cajazeira (Spondias mombin L. é uma árvore frutífera encontrada principalmente nos estados do Norte e Nordeste, seus frutos possuem excelente sabor, aroma, boa aparência e qualidade nutritiva. A geleia é o produto obtido pela cocção das frutas inteiras ou em pedaços, da polpa ou do suco de frutas, adicionados de açúcar e água e concentrado até a consistência gelatinosa. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade química e sensorial de três amostras de geleias de cajá, sendo duas delas adicionadas pectina natural e ácido cítrico. As amostras foram avaliadas por 60 julgadores não treinados, utilizando uma escala hedônica de nove pontos, avaliando os atributos de cor, sabor, aroma, textura, e teste do consumidor, o qual foi analisado a intenção de consumo da geleia de cajá, se estivesse disponível no mercado ao consumidor. Realizaram-se análises de  pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, vitamina C, açucares (redutores, não redutores e totais. de acordo com as Normas Analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (2004. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que as geleias estão dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação em vigor. Palavras-chave: Aceitabilidade, Amostras, Provadores, Teste de aceitação.

  19. SU-E-T-54: A New Method for Optimizing Radiation Isocenter for Linac-Based SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S [Southeast Missouri Hospital, Cape Girardeau, MO (United States); Hyer, D; Nixon, E [University Of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new method to minimize deviation of linac x-ray beams from the centroid of the volumetric radiation isocenter for all combinations of gantry and table angle. Methods: A set of ball-bearing (Winston-Lutz) images was used to determine the gantry radiation isocenter as the midrange of deviation values. Deviations in the cross-plane direction were minimized by calibration of MLC leaf position offset, and by adjusting beam position steering for each energy. Special attention was also paid to matching the absolute position of isocenter across all energies by adjusting position steering in the gun-target axis. Displacement of table axis from the gantry isocenter, and recommended table axis adjustment for contemporary Elekta linacs, was also determined. Eight images were used to characterize the volumetric isocenter for the full range of gantry and table rotations available. Tabulation of deviation for each beam was used to test compliance with isocenter tolerance. Results: Four contemporary Elekta linacs were evaluated and the radius in the gun-target axis of the radiation isocenter was 0.5 to 0.7 mm. After beam steering adjustment, the radius in the cross-plane direction was typically 0.2 to 0.4 mm. Position matching between energies can be reduced to 0.28 mm. Maximum total deviation was 0.68 to 1.07 mm, depending primarily on the effect of systematic table axis wobble with rotation. Conclusion: This new method effectively facilitates minimization of deviation between beam center and target position. The test, which requires a few minutes to perform, can be easily incorporated into a routine machine QA program. A tighter radiation isocenter for contemporary Elekta linacs would require reducing the effect of gantry arm flex and/or table axis wobble that are the two main components of deviation from the designated isocenter point.

  20. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  1. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz Yanomami villages were selected among sentinel communities of the ivermectin control program, representing hypo- to hyperendemicity conditions of infection. Spatial variation was explored via increasing village altitude on two river systems (A: Ocamo-Putaco and B: Orinoco-Orinoquito). Temporal variation was studied between 1995 and 1999 by sampling the biting population during dry and rainy mouths. Environmental variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  2. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Catherine R; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2013-11-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] ( Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. SU-G-TeP2-04: Comprehensive Machine Isocenter Evaluation with Separation of Gantry, Collimator, and Table Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S [Southeast Missouri Hospital, Cape Girardeau, MO (United States); Clements, C [Radiological Imaging Technology, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Hyer, D; Nixon, E [University Of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Martin, E; Wang, B [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Jani, S [Sharp Memorial Hospital, San Diego, CA (United States); Gossman, M [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Ashland, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate application of a method that characterizes deviation of linac x-ray beams from the centroid of the volumetric radiation isocenter as a function of gantry, collimator, and table variables. Methods: A set of Winston-Lutz ball-bearing images was used to determine the gantry radiation isocenter as the midrange of deviation values resulting from gantry and collimator rotation. Also determined were displacement of table axis from gantry isocenter and recommended table axis adjustment. The method, previously reported, has been extended to include the effect of collimator walkout by obtaining measurements with 0 and 180 degree collimator rotation for each gantry angle. Twelve images were used to characterize the volumetric isocenter for the full range of available gantry, collimator, and table rotations. Results: Three Varian True Beam, two Elekta Infinity and four Versa HD linacs at five institutions were tested using identical methodology. Varian linacs exhibited substantially less deviation due to head sag than Elekta linacs (0.4 mm vs. 1.2 mm on average). One linac from each manufacturer had additional isocenter deviation of 0.3 to 0.4 mm due to jaw instability with gantry and collimator rotation. For all linacs, the achievable isocenter tolerance was dependent on adjustment of collimator position offset, transverse position steering, and alignment of the table axis with gantry isocenter, facilitated by these test results. The pattern and magnitude of table axis wobble vs. table angle was reproducible and unique to each machine. Conclusion: This new method provides a comprehensive set of isocenter deviation values including all variables. It effectively facilitates minimization of deviation between beam center and target (ball-bearing) position. This method was used to quantify the effect of jaw instability on isocenter deviation and to identify the offending jaw. The test is suitable for incorporation into a routine machine QA

  4. Environment informatin systems. Data requests and acquisition of information acording to the theme environment and health; Umweltinformationssysteme. Datenanforderungen und Informationsgewinnung zum Themenbereich Umwelt und Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    Lutz).

  5. Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS: a review of surgical procedures using stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Carl Erb,2 Anselm GM Jünemann,3 Friedemann Kimmich4 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Augenklinik am Wittenbergplatz, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Ophthalmology University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 4eyecons, Karlsruhe, Germany Abstract: Over the last decade several novel surgical treatment options and devices for glaucoma have been developed. All these developments aim to cause as little trauma as possible to the eye, to safely, effectively, and sustainably reduce intraocular pressure (IOP, to produce reproducible results, and to be easy to adopt. The term “micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS” was used for summarizing all these procedures. Currently MIGS is gaining more and more interest and popularity. The possible reduction of the number of glaucoma medications, the ab interno approach without damaging the conjunctival tissue, and the probably safer procedures compared to incisional surgical methods may explain the increased interest in MIGS. The use of glaucoma drainage implants for lowering IOP in difficult-to-treat patients has been established for a long time, however, a variety of new glaucoma micro-stents are being manufactured by using various materials and are available to increase aqueous outflow via different pathways. This review summarizes published results of randomized clinical studies and extensive case report series on these devices, including Schlemm’s canal stents (iStent®, iStent® inject, Hydrus, suprachoroidal stents (CyPass®, iStent® Supra, and subconjunctival stents (XEN. The article summarizes the findings of published material on efficacy and safety for each of these approaches. Keywords: glaucoma, micro-invasive glaucoma surgery, MIGS, iStent, iStent inject, CyPass, Hydrus, XEN

  6. Structural characterization of acetylcholinesterase 1 from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, I V; Balbino, V Q; Valenzuela, J G; Sonoda, I V; Ramalho-Ortigão, J M

    2007-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in cholinergic impulse transmission, and it is the target enzyme for organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Two genes, AceI and AceII, have been characterized from different insect species, and point mutations in either gene can lead to significant resistance to these classes of insecticides. In this report, we describe the partial characterization of the AceI gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and we show that the possibility exists for the development of a resistant phenotype to organophosphates and carbamates in sand flies. Our results point to the presence of a single AceI gene in L. longipalpis (LlAce1) and that AChE activity is inhibited by organophosphorus at a concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M. Regarding insecticide resistance, analysis of the truncated LlAce1 cDNA suggests that a single missense mutation leading to a glycine-to-serine substitution at amino acid position 119 (G119S) may arise in L. longipalpis, similar to what has been detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. Another missense mutation involved in resistant phenotypes, F331W, detected in Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, is less likely to occur in L. longipalpis, because it faces codon constraint in this sand fly species. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the deduced amino acid sequence of the truncated LLAChE1 with that of An. gambiae and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus also suggests that similar structural modifications due to the missense amino acid changes in the active site gorge are detected in all three insects.

  7. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Serra district - area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study characterizes some ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL situated in the Serra district, Iporanga municipality where the hostels for tourists visiting the PETAR are located. Captures were undertaken on a smallholding and a small farm situated near the hostels, monthly between January/2001 and December/2003 with automatic light traps (ALT in pigsty, hen-house and veranda of a domicile at the two sites, and in peridomicile of the small farm also with black/white Shannon traps. With the ALT a total of 87,224 phlebotomines representing 19 species and also two hybrids of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto and two anomalous specimens were captured. The standardized index species abundance was for Ny. intermedia = 1.0 and Ny. neivai = 0.935. The highest frequencies of the smallholding occurred in the pigsty, the Williams' mean/capture for Ny. intermedia being 63.7 specimens and for Ny. neivai 29.2, and on the small farm, in the hen-house, Ny. intermedia 402.6 and Ny. neivai 116.2. A total of 863 phlebotomines (Ny. intermedia: 75.4%; Ny. neivai: 24.3% were captured with black/white Shannon traps; females of both species being predominant in the white trap. The high frequencies of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, both implicated in CL transmission, indicate the areas presenting risk of the disease.

  8. Holding fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourville, John T

    2005-06-01

    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital.

  9. SU-G-TeP4-12: Individual Beam QA for a Robotic Radiosurgery System Using a Scintillator Cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinness, C; Descovich, M; Sudhyadhom, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The targeting accuracy of the Cyberknife system is measured by end-to-end tests delivering multiple isocentric beams to a point in space. While the targeting accuracy of two representative beams can be determined by a Winston-Lutz-type test, no test is available today to determine the targeting accuracy of each clinical beam. We used a scintillator cone to measure the accuracy of each individual beam. Methods: The XRV-124 from Logos Systems Int’l is a scintillator cone with an imaging system that is able to measure individual beam vectors and a resulting error between planned and measured beam coordinates. We measured the targeting accuracy of isocentric and non-isocentric beams for a number of test cases using the Iris and the fixed collimator. The average difference between plan and measured beam position was 0.8–1.2mm across the collimator sizes and plans considered here. The max error for a single beam was 2.5mm for the isocentric plans, and 1.67mm for the non-isocentric plans. The standard deviation of the differences was 0.5mm or less. Conclusion: The CyberKnife System is specified to have an overall targeting accuracy for static targets of less than 0.95mm. In E2E tests using the XRV124 system we measure average beam accuracy between 0.8 to 1.23mm, with maximum of 2.5mm. We plan to investigate correlations between beam position error and robot position, and to quantify the effect of beam position errors on patient specific plans. Martina Descovich has received research support and speaker honoraria from Accuray

  10. Experimental confirmation of a new semiconductor detector principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.; Schuster, K.; Sterzik, M.; Strueder, L.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1990-01-01

    A new detector-amplification principle proposed by Kemmer and Lutz in 1986 has been experimentally verified. Outstanding features of this device are the built-in amplification, the signal charge storage capability and the possibility of repeated non-destructive readout. The device was used for detection of X-rays from a 241 Am and from an 55 Fe source. Very low noise figures (σ=30 electrons corresponding to an energy resolution of FWHM=250 eV at 6 keV energy) have been obtained at room temperature. Various applications of the structure either as detector or as purely electronic element are possible. One of the most intriguing is the use as a pixel detector with random access non-destructive readout. This device may be operated at very low power, as only reading (of one single pixel at a time), not storing, consumes power. Further options of the device are fast clearing, gating and variation of the pixel size during readout. The latter property can be used to drastically increase the readout speed compared to more standard two dimensional devices as e.g. CCD detectors, as one may restrict the high density readout to regions of interest determined beforehand by a coarse scan of the whole detector. An alternative use of the device is as an analog or digital memory, or as a simple transistor by a coarse scan of the whole detector. An alternative use of the device is as an analog or digital memory, or as a simple transistor with drastically reduced parasitic capacitances. Possible further developments are the combination with a novel three dimensional analog storage device which may either be used as a detector with built-in storage of several charge images or as a three-dimensional analog memory. (orig.)

  11. DISTANCE SCALE ZERO POINTS FROM GALACTIC RR LYRAE STAR PARALLAXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Barnes, Thomas G. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Feast, Michael W. [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Harrison, Thomas E. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Bean, Jacob L.; Kolenberg, Katrien [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menzies, John W.; Laney, C. D. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Chaboyer, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Fossati, Luca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Nesvacil, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Smith, Horace A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kochukhov, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Nelan, Edmund P.; Taylor, Denise [STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Freedman, Wendy L. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and {kappa} Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 {+-} 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 {+-} 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 {+-} 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 {+-} 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 {+-} 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 {+-} 0.23 mas; and {kappa} Pav, 5.57 {+-} 0.28 mas; an average {sigma}{sub {pi}}/{pi} = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M{sub V} -[Fe/H] and M{sub K} -[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  12. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 in the western region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Maria Alves Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of HIV-1-infected mothers and infant pairs living in the municipalities of São Paulo Regional Health Departments DRS II (Araçatuba and DRS XI (Presidente Prudente. From March 2001 to March 2006, blood samples were collected and referred to the Molecular Biology Unit of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI, Presidente Prudente. HIV-1-RNA viral load was determined by bDNA assay. RESULTS: The number of births (109/217, 50.2% and vertical HIV-1 transmissions (6/109, 5.5% that occurred in DRS II was similar to births (108/217, 49.8% and vertical transmissions (7/108, 6.5% in DRS XI (p > 0.05. Although 80% (4/5 of the infected children were male in DRS II, while in DRS XI, 75% (6/8 were female, no differences between sex regarding infected and noninfected children in the regions of Araçatuba and Presidente Prudente were verified. The overall vertical HIV-1 transmission rate was 6%. No consistent reduction in the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission occurred over the years. About 20% of mothers did not know the HIV-1 status of their newborns eight months after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, MTCT prevalence rates were about 70% higher than those previously determined in the State of São Paulo, with noreduction throughout the period.Furthermore, a significant number of mothers did not know the HIV-status of their newborns eight months after delivery.

  13. The Effects of Caffeine on Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Performance in Division I Collegiate Fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Taylor P; Lutz, Rafer S; Pellegrino, Joseph K; Sanders, David J; Arent, Shawn M

    2016-11-01

    Doyle, TP, Lutz, RS, Pellegrino, JK, Sanders, DJ, and Arent, SM. The effects of caffeine on arousal, response time, accuracy, and performance in Division I collegiate fencers. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3228-3235, 2016-Caffeine has displayed ergogenic effects on aerobic performance. However, sports requiring precision and quick reaction may also be impacted by central nervous system arousal because of caffeine consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of caffeine on arousal, response time (RT), and accuracy during a simulated fencing practice. Using a randomized, within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, Division I male and female college fencers (N = 13; 69.1 ± 3.5 kg) were administered caffeine doses of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5 mg·kg during separate testing days. Performance was assessed via RT and accuracy to a 4-choice reaction task. A total of 25 trials were performed each day using a random 2- to 8-s delay between trials. Arousal was assessed using the activation-deactivation adjective check list. Results of repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant dose effect (p = 0.02) on performance. Follow-up analyses indicated this was due to a significant effect for RT (p = 0.03), with the dose-response curve exhibiting a quadratic relationship. Response time was significantly faster (p performance (p performance beginning to deteriorate at 7.5 mg·kg. Energetic arousal, tiredness, tension, and calmness all significantly changed as a function of caffeine dose (p ≤ 0.05). Based on these results, caffeine improves RT and overall performance in fencers, particularly as doses increase up to 4.5-6.0 mg·kg. Above this level, performance begins to deteriorate, consistent with an "inverted-U" model of arousal and performance.

  14. Gamma radiation effect on tocopherol content in natural and industrialized products and sensory evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigallia

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E content, the percentage of activity retention and the sensory characteristics were analyzed in samples of vitamin E rich foods: pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and a fortified powder formula irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy of 60 Co gamma radiation. For the vitamin E determination (as -tocopherol equivalents) three different samples lots were employed using the colorimetric method standardized by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz of Sao Paulo. For sensory analysis, the Multiple Comparison or Control Difference Test was used for all products, comparing the irradiated samples to the non-irradiated controls and measuring the difference rate in total terms, concerning appearance, odor, texture and flavor, in a category scale of 9 points, ranging from 1 = no difference to 9 = extreme difference to the control. The experimental outline employed was that of randomized complete blocks design, in two consecutive sessions. The obtained data were submitted to variance analysis, ANOVA, and means comparison by Dunnett test, at 5% significance. The results show that there was no E vitamin loss in the pecan nuts, whole grain cookies and powder food samples, irradiated with 1 and 3 kGy doses. With regard to the sensory analysis, the 3 kGy gamma irradiation produced significant changes in the sensory properties of pecan nuts for the attributes: appearance, odor, texture and flavor. The 1 kGy dose did not cause a significant difference for these attributes. Concerning the sensory analysis of whole grain cookies and fortified powder food, significant differences were observed in all the irradiated products, although the difference grades were significantly low, compared to those of the non-irradiated samples, especially when 1 kGy dose was applied. (author)

  15. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females.

  17. Behavioral aspects of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in urban area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, E F; Silva, E A; Casaril, A E; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Gamarra, R M; Ribeiro, A A; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G

    2013-03-01

    The study of some of the behavioral aspects of the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas in the Americas, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), such as dispersion, population size, and vector survival rates, is important for the elucidation of the mechanisms of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. These parameters were studied by means of capture-mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area of Campo Grande municipality, an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, situated in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Six capture-mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken between November 2009 and November 2010 and once in January 2012 with a view to assessing the population size and survival rate of Lu. longipalpis. The insects were released in a peridomicile surrounded by 13 residences. The recaptures were undertaken with automatic light traps for four consecutive weeks after release in the surrounding area. In total, 3,354 sand flies were captured, marked, and released. The overall recapture rate during the capture-mark-release-recapture experiments was 4.23%, of which 92.45% were recaptured at the release site, indicating limited dispersal. The greatest distance recorded from the release site was 165 m for males and 241 m for females. The male daily survival rate, calculated on the basis of regressions from the numbers of marked recaptured insects during the 15 successive days after release was 0.897. The estimated male population size measured by the Lincoln Index was 10,947.127. Though Lu. longipalpis presented a limited dispersion the physical barriers typical of urban environments did not prevent the sand flies from flying long distances.

  18. Diagnostic doses and times for Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) using the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Creswell, Joseph A; Anderson, J Laine; Reese, Conor K; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2016-04-15

    Insecticide resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides is a worldwide concern in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of Leishmania spp. parasites. The CDC bottle bioassay assesses resistance by testing populations against verified diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for an insecticide, but the assay has been used limitedly with sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. Bioassays were conducted in 1,000-ml glass bottles each containing 10-25 sand flies from laboratory colonies of L. longipalpis or P. papatasi. Four pyrethroids, three organophosphates, two carbamates and one organochlorine, were evaluated. A series of concentrations were tested for each insecticide, and four replicates were conducted for each concentration. Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. For the pyrethroids and DDT, diagnostic doses were determined for both the exposure bioassay and after a 24-hour recovery period. Both species are highly susceptible to the carbamates as their diagnostic doses are under 7.0 μg/ml. Both species are also highly susceptible to DDT during the exposure assay as their diagnostic doses are 7.5 μg/ml, yet their diagnostic doses for the 24-h recovery period are 650.0 μg/ml for Lu. longipalpis and 470.0 μg/ml for P. papatasi. Diagnostic doses and diagnostic times can now be incorporated into vector management programs that use the CDC bottle bioassay to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Lu. longipalpis and P. papatasi. These findings provide initial starting points for determining diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for other sand fly vector species and wild populations using the CDC

  19. Training Emotion Cultivates Morality: How Loving-Kindness Meditation Hones Compassion and Increases Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankard, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Traditional moral philosophy has long focused on rationality, principled thinking, and good old-fashioned willpower, but recent evidence strongly suggests that moral judgments and prosocial behavior are more heavily influenced by emotion and intuition. As the evidence mounts, rational traditions emphasizing deliberative analysis and conscious decision making are called into question. The first section highlights some compelling evidence supporting the primacy of affective states in motivating moral judgments and behavior. The real challenge is finding a way to align intuition with desired behavior. In cool reflective states, one may desire to be a kind and loving person. But when it is time to act, the moment is often accompanied by strong affect-laden intuitions. I argue that if affective states are the primary motivators of behavior, then moral sentiments must be trained through habituation in order to increase prosocial behavior. The second section provides empirical evidence linking emotional training with increased prosociality. To highlight this connection, focus is placed on the relationship between habitual meditation training, compassion, and prosocial behavior. Recent studies by Antoine Lutz, Richard Davidson, Susanne Leiberg, and others show that various meditation practices can dramatically affect the human person at various levels, i.e., increased physical health, neural restructuring, regulation and development of emotions, and increased helping behavior, to name a few. The current article focuses on the impact the habit of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has on compassion and prosocial behavior. Recent studies strongly support the conclusion that LKM training hones compassion and ultimately leads to an increase in compassionate behavior.

  20. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Martins Alzira

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute, Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606, were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs; 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs; 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens.

  1. ELABORAÇÃO DE CERVEJA COM DIFERENTES TEORES ALCOÓLICOS ATRAVÉS DE PROCESSO ARTESANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Einloft da SILVA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo elaborar cerveja de alto e médio teor alcoólico, através do processo artesanal, verifi cando-se o teor alcoólico, a quantidade de açúcares totais e a aceitabilidade das amostras. Foram analisadas sensorialmente três amostras de cervejas: alto e médio teor alcoólico elaboradas por processo artesanal e outra industrializada adquirida comercialmente. Sessenta avaliadores não treinados receberam uma fi cha de avaliação, com os seguintes atributos: odor, sabor, aparência, textura, coloração e concentração de gás. Para a determinação de açúcares totais e teor alcoólico seguiu-se a metodologia descrita pelo Instituto Adolf Lutz. As cervejas elaboradas neste estudo tiveram menor aceitação na aparência, coloração, odor, textura, sabor e gás. A cerveja de alto teor alcoólico apresentou maior concentração de açúcares. O teor alcoólico não apresentou diferença estatística entre os tratamentos. Com isso, sugerem-se novas pesquisas relacionadas à produção de cerveja artesanal, pois o assunto é de grande relevância na literatura, de acordo com o consumo de cervejas no Brasil.

  2. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paschoalette Rodrigues Bachur

    Full Text Available Enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with HIV/AIDS, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with HIV/AIDS seen at two hospitals in Ceará , Brazil, was compared in the pre-HAART (Group 1; n = 482 and HAART (Group 2; n = 100 eras. Fecal parasitologic examinations (FPE were performed using the direct, Lutz, Baermann-Moraes and modified Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The following parasites were detected in Groups 1 and 2, respectively: Strongyloides stercoralis - 30.1% and 11% (p<0.0001, Ascaris lumbricoides - 15.6% and 2% (p<0.0001, hookworms - 13.7% and 2% (p<0.0001, Trichuris trichiura - 13.1% and 1% (p<0.0001, Hymenolepis nana - 0 and 1% (p = 0.1718, Giardia duodenalis - 7.9% and 1% (p = 0.0076, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar - 3.3% and 1% (p = 0.3301, Isospora belli - 4.8% and 1% (p = 0.0993, Cryptosporidium sp. - 8.1% and 0 (p = 0.0007, and non-pathogenic protozoans as well. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of enteroparasites between the eras (63.9% to 24%; p<0.0001. In the HAART era, the following observations were made: greater frequency of enteroparasites in patients without antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.0575, as in those with AIDS (p = 0.08, and diarrhea (36% of the patients; lack of association with positive FPE (p = 0.626; and non-detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Strongyloides stercoralis showed an elevated prevalence in the two eras and was more frequent in men (32.41% than women (19.04% of Group 1 (p = 0.018, a finding suggesting the transmission of the helminth through sodomy. The advent of the HAART modified the profile of opportunistic infections, including parasites, probably due to the reconstitution of cellular immunity and the direct action of HAART on the parasites.

  3. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Peter Eschstruth,2 Stefan Häsemeyer,3 Ulrich Thelen,4 Christian Foja,5 Richard Leaback,6 Stefan Pfennigsdorf7 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Ophthalmology Practice, Kiel, 3Eye Center Kraichgau, Wiesloch, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, Münster, 5Ophthalmology Practice, Leipzig, Germany; 6Allergan Holdings Ltd., Marlow, UK; 7Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, Germany Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg in a clinical practice setting. Methods: This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results: A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001. In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7% and hyperemia (1.4%. Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7% or equal to (43.6% prior treatment in

  4. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae en un foco suburbano de leishmaniosis visceral en el Cañón del Chicamocha en Santander, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Flórez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Entre los años 1998-2000 la aparición de 8 casos de leishmaniosis visceral americana en niños de un asentamiento humano de reciente establecimiento en la localidad de Guatiguará del municipio de Piedecuesta (Santander Colombia, señaló la posible presencia de un ciclo de transmisión de Leishmania en dicho lugar que motivó el presente estudio entomológico. Objetivos. Determinar frecuencia relativa en el intra y peridomicilio de Lutzomyia longipalpis y la infección natural de este vector con Leishmania spp. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron para el muestreo trampas CDC intra y peridomiciliares, capturas sobre cebo humano, cebo animal y en sitios de reposo, en el periodo de mayo de 1999 a septiembre del 2000. La infección natural se determinó mediante la técnica de PCR, en pooles de hembras de Lutzomyia longipalpis. Resultados. Se capturaron 7.391 flebótomos. La especie predominante fue Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, con un 99,5% de las capturas. En las recolecciones con trampas de luz CDC, L. longipalpis tuvo una mayor frecuencia en el intradomicilio que en el peridomicilio (p=0,0001. La tasa total de infección natural fue del 1,93% y se observó una correlación positiva entre los meses de mayor abundancia y el número de hembras infectadas que ingresan al domicilio. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que en la localidad de Guatiguará Lutzomyia longipalpis, presenta tendencias marcadas hacia el intradomicilio, lo cual tiene serias implicaciones en la transmisión por cuanto el riesgo de transmisión se ve aumentado durante los meses de mayor abundancia por el ingreso de un mayor número de hembras infectadas. Desde el punto de vista de control este comportamiento permite diseñar estrategias que disminuyan la transmisión del parásito en el interior del domicilio.

  5. Preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: results of an open-label observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Carl Erb,2 Auli Ropo,3 Friedemann Kimmich,4 Norbert Pfeiffer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Augenklinik am Wittenbergplatz, Berlin, Germany; 3Santen Europe, Helsinki, Finland; 4eyecons, Pfinztal, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Mainz University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany Background: Efficacy, tolerability and safety of the novel preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015%/timolol 0.5% (Taptiqom® were investigated in an observational study in Germany.Objective: To assess efficacy, tolerability and safety of the preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015%/timolol 0.5% in a real-life setting.Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP was recorded for each eye at baseline (any previous therapy or untreated and 4–16 weeks after changing medical treatment to or initiating treatment with the preservative-free fixed combination of tafluprost 0.0015%/timolol 0.5%. Change in IOP was evaluated over the study period for all patients and for specific pretreatment subgroups. Clinical signs such as conjunctival hyperemia and lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF were recorded using standardized comparative photographs. Corneal staining, subjective symptoms and local comfort were measured using a four-step scale. All adverse events were recorded.Results: Among 1,157 patients enrolled, 1,075 patients were treated with the preservative-free fixed combination as the only medication at the final visit. Medical treatment was initiated in 741 patients because of an insufficient IOP-lowering effect of the prior medication. In 343 patients, medication was changed because of tolerability issues. The preservative-free fixed combination lowered IOP significantly in the subgroup of naïve patients, all subgroups with prior monotherapy and patients with prior fixed combinations: naïve patients: −8.9 mmHg, alpha-2-agonists: −6.4 mmHg, beta-blockers: −5.7 mmHg, carbonic

  6. Discovering transits of HD 209458-b type planets with Hipparcos and FAME photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy Paul

    The motivation and prospects for success of a search for transits of short-period extrasolar planets of late-type main sequence stars in the Hipparcos satellite photometry archive is outlined. Recent extrasolar planet discoveries by the radial velocity (RV) method reveal that 1 in 20 spectral type F, G and K dwarfs possess short-period planets. Careful consideration of the transit detection probability as a function of stellar spectral type and planet orbit size results in the expectation that 6 to 24 transiting planets may be found among the 118,204 Hipparcos catalog stars. A search algorithm based on the known properties of the single known transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458-b was applied to carefully- selected samples of stars. The results of these searches and simulations of the detection efficiency for idealized transits are presented. Statistical and catalog-based methods for discriminating transits from intrinsic stellar variability and eclipses due to stellar companions are developed and described. Candidate lists that are the results of these searches are presented. Each candidate is placed in a color magnitude diagram based on Hipparcos derived distances and absolute magnitudes in order to clearly identify evolved stars. The effect of Lutz-Kelker bias on this main sequence membership determination is discussed in an Appendix. A Hipparcos-photometry-based intrinsic stellar variability determination is performed and compared to ground-based measurements. It is shown that intrinsic stellar variability of late-type main sequence stars is not a major concern for extrasolar jovian planet transit searches. The prospects for transit detection by the higher precision measurements of several hundred thousand main sequence stars to be made by the upcoming Full Sky Astrometric Explorer (FAME) satellite are similarly explored. A novel method for directly determining the mass of a transiting planet's parent star from timing measurements is introduced briefly in an

  7. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  8. Verification of the linac isocenter for stereotactic radiosurgery using cine-EPID imaging and arc delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O' Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:Verification of the mechanical isocenter position is required as part of comprehensive quality assurance programs for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments. Several techniques have been proposed for this purpose but each of them has certain drawbacks. In this paper, a new efficient and more comprehensive method using cine-EPID images has been introduced for automatic verification of the isocenter with sufficient accuracy for stereotactic applications. Methods: Using a circular collimator fixed to the gantry head to define the field, EPID images of a Winston-Lutz phantom were acquired in cine-imaging mode during 360 deg. gantry rotations. A robust matlab code was developed to analyze the data by finding the center of the field and the center of the ball bearing shadow in each image with sub-pixel accuracy. The distance between these two centers was determined for every image. The method was evaluated by comparison to results of a mechanical pointer and also by detection of a manual shift applied to the phantom position. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were tested and it was also applied to detect couch and collimator wobble during rotation. Results:The accuracy of the algorithm was 0.03 ± 0.02 mm. The repeatability was less than 3 μm and the reproducibility was less than 86 μm. The time elapsed for the analysis of more than 100 cine images of Varian aS1000 and aS500 EPIDs were ∼65 and 20 s, respectively. Processing of images taken in integrated mode took 0.1 s. The output of the analysis software is printable and shows the isocenter shifts as a function of angle in both in-plane and cross-plane directions. It gives warning messages where the shifts exceed the criteria for SRS/SRT and provides useful data for the necessary adjustments in the system including bearing system and/or room lasers. Conclusions: The comprehensive method introduced in this study uses cine-images, is highly accurate, fast, and independent

  9. The next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P

    2017-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 113(1) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2017-26058-001).In the article, all citations to McCrae and Costa (2008), except for the instance in which it appears in the first paragraph of the introduction, should instead appear as McCrae and Costa (2010). The complete citation should read as follows: McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2010). NEO Inventories professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. The attribution to the BFI-2 items that appears in the Table 6 note should read as follows: BFI-2 items adapted from "Conceptualization, Development, and Initial Validation of the Big Five Inventory-2," by C. J. Soto and O. P. John, 2015, Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Association for Research in Personality. Copyright 2015 by Oliver P. John and Christopher J. Soto. The complete citation in the References list should appear as follows: Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2015, June). Conceptualization, development, and initial validation of the Big Five Inventory-2. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Association for Research in Personality, St. Louis, MO. Available from http://www.colby.edu/psych/personality-lab/ All versions of this article have been corrected. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Three studies were conducted to develop and validate the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2), a major revision of the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Study 1 specified a hierarchical model of personality structure with 15 facet traits nested within the Big Five domains, and developed a preliminary item pool to measure this structure. Study 2 used conceptual and empirical criteria to construct the BFI-2 domain and facet scales from the preliminary item pool. Study 3 used data from 2 validation samples to evaluate the BFI-2's measurement properties and substantive relations with self-reported and peer-reported criteria. The results of these studies

  10. A febre amarela na região de Ribeirão Preto durante a virada do século XIX: importância científica e repercussões econômicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão histórica, descreve-se a situação precária da saúde pública no Brasil durante o século XIX devido as múltiplas epidemias de febre amarela. Descreve-se, também, os precários conhecimentos que haviam, à época, sobre a enfermidade. Faz- se um breve histórico sobre a Região de Ribeirão Preto, situada no Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, seus desbravadores, imigrantes e fazendeiros de café pioneiros, incluindo-se Luiz Pereira Barreto. Relatam-se as 3 epidemias de febre amarela ocorridas na cidade de São Simão, nos anos de 1896. 1898, 1902 e uma ocorrida em Ribeirão Preto, no ano de 1903. Mostra-se que as medidas de saúde pública tomadas para o controle dos surtos mostraram-se eficientes quando Emílio Ribas promoveu, de forma pioneira, o combate ao mosquito transmissor, o Aedes aegypti. Descrevem-se os experimentos efetuados por Emílio Ribas, com a participação de Adolpho Lutz e de Luiz Pereira Barreto, visando confirmar a transmissão vetorial da febre amarela e afastar outras formas de contágio. Obseva-se que as epidemias de febre amarela causaram prejuízo ao desenvolvimento da Cidade de São Simão, colaborando para a transferência do polo econômico regional para Ribeirão Preto. Ressalta-se a importância das medidas de controle vetorial e a dos experimentos sobre o mecanismo de transmissão da febre amarela, no desenvolvimento da ciência médica, e da saúde pública no Brasil.

  11. Cost efficiency and ressource efficiency in the waste management. Proceedings; Kosten- und Ressourceneffizienz in der Abfallwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bergs, C.G. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Kosak, G. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IBK-Kosak GmbH, Neustadt/Weinstrasse (Germany); Wallamnn, R. (eds.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IGW Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen Fricke und Turk GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 68th information discussion of ANS e.V., the following lectures were held: (a) Supply of resources from the German waste management (S. Harmening); (b) Ressource management: A contribution to environment, climate and fees (R. Siechau); (c) Climate protection and protection of resources by means of export of technology and know-how (A. Jaron); (d) The future of the markets of secondary raw materials (E. Rehbock, T. Probst); (e) Potentials of increase of the contributions o the waste management to climate protection and protection of resources (G. Dehoust, U. Fritsche); (f) Evaluation of new strategic efforts to disposal of domestic wastes under consideration of resource efficiency and relevance of climate (M. Kranert, G. Hafner); (g) REACh and secondary raw materials (B. Kummer); (h) What is the effect of the regulation of chemicals (REACh) on the recycling economy? (A. Ochs, H. Kleinwege); (i) Motivation and steps of planning according to rekommunalisation (K.-H. Kellermann); (j) Chances and risks of private disposers (P. Kurth); (k) Cost advantages and boundary conditions at intercommunal cooperations of procurement (H. Gassner); (l) From BAB to budgeting - why does a new advertising of service contracts not result in an improvement of the communal efficiency? (W.P. Bauer, K. Ihmels); (m) Benchmarking as an instrument of control in the waste management (K. Gellenbeck); (n) Minimizing financial costs - the funding programs of KW in the waste management (M. von Zedlitz); (o) Innovative models of cooperation, financing and operating models for the establishment of new fermentation plants (M. Zeifang); (p) BEKON dry fermentation for production of biogas from organic waste (P. Lutz); (q) New methods for process control during composting - a component in the enhancement of efficiency of utilization of biological wastes (Frank Scholwin, Gereon Stolle); (r) Enhancement of the output of biogas by means of specific loading materials (Heinrich Josef

  12. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  13. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rasmus Rivinius,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Bastian Schmack,2 Christian Erbel,1 Christian A Gleissner,1 Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Fabrice F Darche,1 Patrick A Schweizer,1 Dierk Thomas,1 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Tom Bruckner,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, 3Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF and mortality after HTX.Methods: Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone. Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival.Results: Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0% received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105. Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this

  14. Dermatite alérgica sazonal em ovinos deslanados no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane de A. Portela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatite alérgica sazonal foi diagnosticada em um rebanho de 40 ovinos da raça Santa Inês no município de Jucurutú, Estado de Rio Grande do Norte. Para o estudo epidemiológico e observação dos sinais clínicos a propriedade foi visitada periodicamente entre 2007 e 2010. Os ovinos eram criados extensivamente em campo nativo cortado pelo rio Piranhas e com um açude permanente. Entre 2007 e 2009 adoeceram 13 (32,5% ovinos de um total de 40. As lesões eram observadas durante a época da chuva e regrediam total ou parcialmente durante a seca, reaparecendo no próximo período chuvoso. Os animais que foram retirados da área se recuperaram. No final de 2009 foram eliminados os animais susceptíveis e três novos casos apareceram em 2010. A pele apresentava lesões alopécicas, crostosas, enrugadas, esbranquiçadas e com intenso prurido, localizados na região da cabeça (orelhas, ao redor dos olhos e região frontal, região dorsal do corpo e garupa. Histologicamente, a epiderme apresentou hiperqueratose, acantose, hipergranulose e moderada espongiose. Na derme havia infiltrado inflamatório, principalmente perivascular, composto por eosinófilos, macrófagos e plasmócitos. Observou-se queratose de folículos pilosos e dilatação das glândulas sudoríparas. No hemograma, os valores de todos os animais estavam dentro dos valores normais. Em abril e junho de 2010 foram realizadas capturas de insetos com armadilhas luminosas CDC, sendo 110 dípteros capturados, dos quais 43 foram identificados como Culicoides insignis Lutz. Considerando que esta espécie tem sido associada à dermatite alérgica em outras regiões conclui-se que a doença é uma dermatite alérgica sazonal associada à picada de C. insignis.

  15. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    a contributing source in London. Overall, the source of biomass burning in London was likely a background regional source from mainland Europe overlaid by high contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future control strategies during winter. References Fuller, G.W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., Wagener, S., 2013. New Directions: Time to tackle urban wood burning? Atmospheric Environment 68, 295-296.

  16. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS TAX AVOIDANCE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide crisis has made multinational companies that are engaged in corporate social responsibility actions to manage their businesses through the lens of various tax avoidance practices. The content of this paper is important due to the fact that tries to identify the impact in case of companies active in corporate social responsibility actions versus their tax structures orientation. Corporate social responsibility literature did not paid enough attention on the impact of the tax avoidance practices of companies. Tax, as a concept, brings in itself an important corporate financial impact with subsequent effects for the life of multiple citizens in countries where private entities are operating. Even though companies are usually expressing their ethical and responsible conduct in respect of the social environment, there are many cases when the business practices were not aligned with the declared corporate behavior. This paper seeks firstly to examine whether companies engaged in tax avoidance practices (ex. offshore tax havens consider that continue to act socially responsible. Secondly, the paper examines the influence on attending the stakeholders’ goals for those companies practicing tax avoidance and its implications on corporate social responsibility actions. Moreover, the paper focuses also on the aspects described before from the perspective of the corporate entities operating in Romania. This paper’s intention is to use and to develop the results of previous research carried out by Lutz Preus (University of London and, subsequently, by Senators Levin, Coleman and Obama in their “Stop Tax Haven Abuse Bill”. The implications and the objectives of this material are to highlight, to identify and to spot clearly the relations and the influences of the tax haven practices of corporations versus their undertaken social responsibility actions. Moreover, this paper brings a fresh perspective of this topic from the

  17. EXACTRAC x-ray and beam isocenters--What's the difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tideman Arp, Dennis; Carl, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of the isocenter of an image-guidance system, as implemented in the exactrac system from brainlab, relative to the linear accelerator radiation isocenter. Subsequently to correct the x-ray isocenter of the exactrac system for any geometric discrepancies between the two isocenters. Methods: Five Varian linear accelerators all equipped with electronic imaging devices and exactrac with robotics from brainlab were evaluated. A commercially available Winston-Lutz phantom and an in-house made adjustable base were used in the setup. The electronic portal imaging device of the linear accelerators was used to acquire MV-images at various gantry angles. Stereoscopic pairs of x-ray images were acquired using the exactrac system. The deviation between the position of the external laser isocenter and the exactrac isocenter was evaluated using the commercial software of the exactrac system. In-house produced software was used to analyze the MV-images and evaluate the deviation between the external laser isocenter and the radiation isocenter of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, the deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system was calculated. A new method of calibrating the isocenter of the exactrac system was applied to reduce the deviations between the radiation isocenter and the exactrac isocenter. Results: To evaluate the geometric accuracy a 3D deviation vector was calculated for each relative isocenter position. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system varied from 0.21 to 0.42 mm. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the linac radiation isocenter ranged from 0.37 to 0.83 mm. The 3D deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system ranged from 0.31 to 1.07 mm. Using the new method of calibrating the exactrac isocenter the 3D deviation of one linac was reduced from 0.90 to 0.23 mm. The

  18. SU-F-T-640: Feasibility of Using a Commercially Available Surface Guided Radiotherapy System with An Open-Face SRS Immobilization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Roeske, J; Surucu, M [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the inherent accuracy of using a surface guided radiotherapy system (SGRT) in the setup and monitoring of patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery with an open-face SRS immobilization system. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom was set up using the Qfix Encompass SRS Immobilization System on a Varian Edge with OSMS and Varian TrueBeam with AlignRT. The phantom was positioned at 0° gantry and couch. A reference image was acquired using the SGRT system and an ROI was created over the mask opening. The couch and gantry were rotated to different combinations focusing on clinically used SRS gantry/couch combinations and those blocking the SGRT cameras. Perceived surface deviation by the SGRT system from the reference image was recorded. A Winston-Lutz test was performed on couch angles tested and used to exclude couch walkout. The deviation magnitude was calculated using translational values and rotational raw values were recorded. Results: The maximum couch walkouts were: 0.4mm (Edge) and 0.5mm (TB). Solely rotating the gantry resulted in a median couch deviation of 0.2mm and range of 0.1–0.3mm for both linacs. Only rotating the couch (0° gantry) resulted in median deviations of 0.6mm and 0.5mm with ranges of 0.3–1.0mm and 0.3–0.7mm for the Edge and TB, respectively. Combining gantry and couch rotations, the median deviations were 0.7mm and 0.9mm with ranges of 0.3–1.1mm and 0.2–1.9mm for the Edge and TB, respectively. Including all combinations, rotation, roll, and pitch median deviations ranged from 0.1–0.3° with pitch demonstrating consistently higher values and a maximum deviation of 1.0° (both linacs). Conclusion: SGRT is a reliable monitoring tool, though taking into account system fluctuations, 1mm is too restrictive a site tolerance to use with the Qfix Encompass mask. Gantry rotation has little effect on system fluctuation even with camera blockage, whereas couch rotation has a larger effect.

  19. SU-F-T-640: Feasibility of Using a Commercially Available Surface Guided Radiotherapy System with An Open-Face SRS Immobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Roeske, J; Surucu, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the inherent accuracy of using a surface guided radiotherapy system (SGRT) in the setup and monitoring of patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery with an open-face SRS immobilization system. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom was set up using the Qfix Encompass SRS Immobilization System on a Varian Edge with OSMS and Varian TrueBeam with AlignRT. The phantom was positioned at 0° gantry and couch. A reference image was acquired using the SGRT system and an ROI was created over the mask opening. The couch and gantry were rotated to different combinations focusing on clinically used SRS gantry/couch combinations and those blocking the SGRT cameras. Perceived surface deviation by the SGRT system from the reference image was recorded. A Winston-Lutz test was performed on couch angles tested and used to exclude couch walkout. The deviation magnitude was calculated using translational values and rotational raw values were recorded. Results: The maximum couch walkouts were: 0.4mm (Edge) and 0.5mm (TB). Solely rotating the gantry resulted in a median couch deviation of 0.2mm and range of 0.1–0.3mm for both linacs. Only rotating the couch (0° gantry) resulted in median deviations of 0.6mm and 0.5mm with ranges of 0.3–1.0mm and 0.3–0.7mm for the Edge and TB, respectively. Combining gantry and couch rotations, the median deviations were 0.7mm and 0.9mm with ranges of 0.3–1.1mm and 0.2–1.9mm for the Edge and TB, respectively. Including all combinations, rotation, roll, and pitch median deviations ranged from 0.1–0.3° with pitch demonstrating consistently higher values and a maximum deviation of 1.0° (both linacs). Conclusion: SGRT is a reliable monitoring tool, though taking into account system fluctuations, 1mm is too restrictive a site tolerance to use with the Qfix Encompass mask. Gantry rotation has little effect on system fluctuation even with camera blockage, whereas couch rotation has a larger effect.

  20. Análise química de folhas de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Soares Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cactáceas do gênero Pereskia são utilizadas na alimentação como hortaliça, ainda considerada não convencional. Neste contexto, faz-se necessário estudar as características nutricionais das plantas através de análises químicas visando possível consumo humano. Com o objetivo de caracterizá-las, determinou-se a composição centesimal, teor de fenólicos e nitrato nas três espécies de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia, em três tratamentos pós-colheita (seca in natura, liofilizada e cozida e seca, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, resultando em trinta e seis amostras analisadas. Foram utilizadas quatro plantas-matrizes para cada espécie, cultivadas em vasos no mesmo viveiro. O teor de fenólicos foi determinado com uso do reagente Folin-Ciocalteau, a partir de extrato etanólico; o teor de nitrato foi determinado após extração com água, por espectrofotometria. A análise da composição centesimal foi realizada de acordo com métodos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O teor de fenólicos foi influenciado tanto pela espécie quanto pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas liofilizadas. O teor de nitrato também foi influenciado pela espécie e pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas secas in natura e na espécie Pereskia grandifolia Haw. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as espécies em nenhum dos nutrientes avaliados pela composição centesimal. Em relação ao processamento houve diferença significativa somente no teor de cinzas, que foi maior nas plantas secas in natura. Os nutrientes avaliados apresentaram resultados próximos aos já determinados para a espécie mais consumida como alimento, a Pereskia aculeata Miller.

  1. Factors that affect the level of detectability of objects of low contrast in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Vargas, F.

    2001-01-01

    appropriate conditions for the study of the radiological badges. The low-contrast anatomical structures are difficult to appreciate even for experienced doctors. In the following project, a mannequin developed by Lutz to evaluate the detection of low-contrast objects. This contains 13 cylinders of polivinilo chloride (PVC), of 16 mm of diameter and variable heights from 5 mm. (Author) [es

  2. Characteristics and performance of the first commercial multileaf collimator for a robotic radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fürweger, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.fuerweger@cyber-knife.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 EA, The Netherlands and European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany); Prins, Paulette; Coskan, Harun; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam 3075 EA (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The “InCise™ multileaf-collimator (MLC)” is the first commercial MLC to be mounted on a robotic SRS/SBRT platform (CyberKnife). The authors assessed characteristics and performance of this novel device in a preclinical five months test period. Methods: Commissioning beam data were acquired with unshielded diodes. EBT3 radiochromic films were employed for measurement of transmission, leaf/bank position accuracy (garden fence) before and after exercising the MLC, for end-to-end testing and further characterization of the beam. The robot workspace with MLC was assessed analytically by transformation to an Euler geometry (“plane,” “gantry,” and “collimator” angles) and by measuring pointing accuracy at each node. Stability over time was evaluated in picket fence and adapted Winston–Lutz tests (AQA). Results: Beam penumbrae (80%–20%, with 100% = 2 × dose at inflection point for field sizes ≥ 50 × 50 mm{sup 2}) were 2.2–3.7 mm for square fields in reference condition (source-axis-distance 800 mm, depth 15 mm) and depended on field size and off-axis position. Transmission and leakage did not exceed 0.5%. Accessible clinical workspace with MLC covered non-coplanar gantry angles of [−113°; +112°] and collimator angles of [−100°; +107°], with an average robot pointing accuracy of 0.12 ± 0.09 mm. For vertical beams, garden fence tests exhibited an average leaf positioning error of ≤0.2 mm, which increased by 0.25 and 0.30 mm (banks X1 and X2) with leaves traveling parallel to gravity. After execution of a leaf motion stress routine, garden fence tests showed slightly increased jaggedness and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.38 ± 0.05 mm in nine end-to-end tests. Picket fence and AQA tests displayed stable results over the test period. Conclusions: The InCise™ MLC for CyberKnife showed high accuracy and adequate characteristics for SRS/SBRT applications. MLC performance

  3. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  4. TH-AB-201-07: Filmless Treatment Localization QA for the CyberKnife System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, J [Gibbs Cancer Center & Research Institute - Pelham, Greer, SC (United States); Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, Greenville, SC (United States); Noll, M [Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuray recommends daily evaluation of the treatment localization and delivery systems (TLS/TDS) of the CyberKnife. The vendor-provided solution is a Winston-Lutz-type test that evaluates film shadows from an orthogonal beam pair (known as AQA). Since film-based techniques are inherently inefficient and potentially inconsistent and uncertain, this study explores a method which provides a comparable test with greater efficiency, consistency, and certainty. This test uses the QAStereoChecker (QASC, Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI), a high-resolution flat-panel detector with coupled fiducial markers for automated alignment. Fiducial tracking is used to achieve high translational and rotational position accuracy. Methods: A plan is generated delivering five circular beams, with varying orientation and angular incidence. Several numeric quantities are calculated for each beam: eccentricity, centroid location, area, major-axis length, minor-axis length, and orientation angle. Baseline values were acquired and repeatability of baselines analyzed. Next, errors were induced in the path calibration of the CK, and the test repeated. A correlative study was performed between the induced errors and quantities measured using the QASC. Based on vendor recommendations, this test should be able to detect a TLS/TDS offset of 0.5mm. Results: Centroid shifts correlated well with induced plane-perpendicular offsets (p < 0.01). Induced vertical shifts correlated best with the absolute average deviation of eccentricities (p < 0.05). The values of these metrics which correlated with the threshold of 0.5mm induced deviation were used as individual pass/fail criteria. These were then used to evaluate induced offsets which shifted the CK in all axes (a clinically-realistic offset), with a total offset of 0.5mm. This test provided high and specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: From setup to analysis, this filmless TLS/TDS test requires 4 minutes, as opposed to 15–20

  5. Aspectos epidemiológicos, sociais e sanitários de uma área no Rio Negro, estado do Amazonas, com especial referência às parasitoses intestinais e à infecção chagásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coura José R.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado na população residente em um de cada quatro domicílios habitados na cidade de Barcelos (no norte do Estado do Amazonas, na margem direita do Rio Negro, a 490km de Manaus por via fluvial, visando a avaliar as condições sociais, sanitárias e os indicadores específicos para as parasitoses intestinais e para infecção chagásica. No inquérito, foram aplicados dois questionários, um domiciliar para avaliar os aspectos sociais e sanitários, e outro individual, para a avaliação das condições sociais e epidemiológicas da população. Uma amostra por conglomerado familiar de 171 domicílios foi estudada. De cada um dos 658 habitantes, foi requisitada uma amostra de fezes para exame parasitológico pelas técnicas de sedimentação de Lutz e de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho, modificado por Willcox & Coura (1989, 1991 e coletada uma amostra de sangue em papel de filtro para a reação de imunofluorescência para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi pelo método de Fife & Muschel modificado por Camargo (1966 e Souza & Camargo (1966 e Petana & Willcox (1975. O exame de fezes mostrou 69,4% das amostras com um ou mais parasitos. O Ascaris lumbricoides foi predominante, com 51% de positividade, e o Entamoeba histolytica, embora com exame não específico, foi positivo em 19,7%. Surpreendentemente, 20,1% das 658 amostras de sangue foram reativas para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi na diluição de 1:20, e 13,7%, na diluição de 1:40. Houve forte correlação entre esses resultados e o nível de contato da população humana com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como piolho-da-piaçava, e conseguimos isolar por xenodiagnóstico uma cepa de T. cruzi de um paciente (nº 209-1 com sorologia positiva para infecção chagásica, natural da área e que havia trabalhado na agricultura, transportando piaçava, e que conhecia muito bem o piolho-da-piaçava.

  6. CTI capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Climate technology and energy efficiency. Challenges and changes for climate technology. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    use of energy (Peter Loeffler); (24) The interaction between the EU CHP Directive and the New Danish Regulation (Ture Hammar); (25) The future of CHP in Russia (Igor Bashmakov); (26) The CHP competence centres in the Slovak Republic: Developed strategies and work program (Vladimir Hecl); (26) Discussant Notes: Session building renovation and employment effects (Mihael Tomsic); (27) Initiative for climate protection and job creation in Berlin-Brandenburg (Lutz Mez); (28) Analysis of building renovation projects in Latvia: Energy, climate and socioeconomic aspect (Dagnija Blumberga); (29) Employment effects of building renovation projects (Adam Gula); (30) Developing and implementing a uniform German certificate for buildings (Felicitas Kraus); (31) Discussant notes: Session building renovation and employment effects (Valia Peeva).

  7. Flow cytometry for intracellular SPION quantification: specificity and sensitivity in comparison with spectroscopic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich RP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ralf P Friedrich,1 Christina Janko,1 Marina Poettler,1 Philipp Tripal,1 Jan Zaloga,1 Iwona Cicha,1 Stephan Dürr,1,2 Johannes Nowak,3 Stefan Odenbach,3 Ioana Slabu,4 Maik Liebl,4 Lutz Trahms,4 Marcus Stapf,5 Ingrid Hilger,5 Stefan Lyer,1 Christoph Alexiou1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine, University hospital Erlangen, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology, University hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, 3Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Dresden, 4Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin, Berlin, 5Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Experimental Radiology, University hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: Due to their special physicochemical properties, iron nanoparticles offer new promising possibilities for biomedical applications. For bench to bedside translation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, safety issues have to be comprehensively clarified. To understand concentration-dependent nanoparticle-mediated toxicity, the exact quantification of intracellular SPIONs by reliable methods is of great importance. In the present study, we compared three different SPION quantification methods (ultraviolet spectrophotometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, atomic adsorption spectroscopy and discussed the shortcomings and advantages of each method. Moreover, we used those results to evaluate the possibility to use flow cytometric technique to determine the cellular SPION content. For this purpose, we correlated the side scatter data received from flow cytometry with the actual cellular SPION amount. We showed that flow cytometry provides a rapid and reliable method to assess the cellular SPION content. Our data also demonstrate that internalization of iron oxide nanoparticles in human

  8. SU-E-J-123: Targeting Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Intracranial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y; Wen, N; Zhao, B; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracies of image-guided intracranial radiosurgery across several different linear accelerator platforms. Methods: A CT scan with a slice thickness of 1.0 mm was acquired of a Rando head phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) in a U-frame mask (BrainLAB AG). The phantom had three embedded BBs, simulating a central, left, and anterior lesion. The phantom was setup with each BB placed at the radiation isocenter under image guidance. Four different setup procedures were investigated: (1) NTX-ExacTrac: 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) correction on a Novalis Tx (BrainLAB AG) with ExacTrac localization (BrainLAB AG); (2) NTX-CBCT: 4D correction on the Novalis Tx with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); (3) TrueBeam-CBCT: 4D correction on a TrueBeam (Varian) with CBCT; (4) Edge-CBCT: 6D correction on an Edge (Varian) with CBCT. The experiment was repeated 5 times with different initial setup error at each BB location on each platform, and the mean (μ) and one standard deviation (σ) of the residual error was compared.The congruence between radiation and imaging isocenters on each platform was evaluated by acquiring Winston Lutz (WL) images of a WL jig followed by imaging using ExacTrac or CBCT. The difference in coordinates of the jig relative to radiation and imaging isocenters was then recorded. Results: Averaged over all three BB locations, the residual vector setup errors (μ±σ) of the phantom in mm were 0.6±0.2, 1.0±0.5, 0.2±0.1, and 0.3±0.1 on NTX-ExacTrac, NTX-CBCT, TrueBeam-CBCT, and Edge-CBCT, with their ranges in mm being 0.4∼1.1, 0.4∼1.9, 0.1∼0.5, and 0.2∼0.6, respectively. And imaging isocenter was found stable relative to radiation isocenter, with the congruence to radiation isocenter in mm being 0.6±0.1, 0.7±0.1, 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, respectively, on the four systems in the same order. Conclusion: Millimeter accuracy can be achieved with image-guided radiosurgery for intracranial lesions based on this set of experiments.

  9. SU-E-T-406: Use of TrueBeam Developer Mode and API to Increase the Efficiency and Accuracy of Commissioning Measurements for the Varian EDGE Stereotactic Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, S; Gulam, M; Song, K; Li, H; Huang, Y; Zhao, B; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Varian EDGE machine is a new stereotactic platform, combining Calypso and VisionRT localization systems with a stereotactic linac. The system includes TrueBeam DeveloperMode, making possible the use of XML-scripting for automation of linac-related tasks. This study details the use of DeveloperMode to automate commissioning tasks for Varian EDGE, thereby improving efficiency and measurement consistency. Methods: XML-scripting was used for various commissioning tasks,including couch model verification,beam-scanning,and isocenter verification. For couch measurements, point measurements were acquired for several field sizes (2×2,4×4,10×10cm 2 ) at 42 gantry angles for two couch-models. Measurements were acquired with variations in couch position(rails in/out,couch shifted in each of motion axes) compared to treatment planning system(TPS)-calculated values,which were logged automatically through advanced planning interface(API) scripting functionality. For beam scanning, XML-scripts were used to create custom MLC-apertures. For isocenter verification, XML-scripts were used to automate various Winston-Lutz-type tests. Results: For couch measurements, the time required for each set of angles was approximately 9 minutes. Without scripting, each set required approximately 12 minutes. Automated measurements required only one physicist, while manual measurements required at least two physicists to handle linac positions/beams and data recording. MLC apertures were generated outside of the TPS,and with the .xml file format, double-checking without use of TPS/operator console was possible. Similar time efficiency gains were found for isocenter verification measurements Conclusion: The use of XML scripting in TrueBeam DeveloperMode allows for efficient and accurate data acquisition during commissioning. The efficiency improvement is most pronounced for iterative measurements, exemplified by the time savings for couch modeling measurements(approximately 10 hours

  10. ASTROMETRY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF PLANETARY NEBULA NUCLEI NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, AND DeHt 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT 2 M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, σ π /π = 5%. Derived distances are: d NGC6853 = 405 +28 -25 pc, d NGC7293 = 216 +14 -12 pc, d Abell31 = 621 +91 -70 pc, and d DeHt5 = 345 +19 -17 pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 M odot , close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well-determined distances and masses, we compare all the PNNi with cooler white

  11. EXACTRAC x-ray and beam isocenters--What's the difference?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tideman Arp, Dennis; Carl, Jesper [Department of Medical Physics, Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Hobrovej 18-22, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of the isocenter of an image-guidance system, as implemented in the exactrac system from brainlab, relative to the linear accelerator radiation isocenter. Subsequently to correct the x-ray isocenter of the exactrac system for any geometric discrepancies between the two isocenters. Methods: Five Varian linear accelerators all equipped with electronic imaging devices and exactrac with robotics from brainlab were evaluated. A commercially available Winston-Lutz phantom and an in-house made adjustable base were used in the setup. The electronic portal imaging device of the linear accelerators was used to acquire MV-images at various gantry angles. Stereoscopic pairs of x-ray images were acquired using the exactrac system. The deviation between the position of the external laser isocenter and the exactrac isocenter was evaluated using the commercial software of the exactrac system. In-house produced software was used to analyze the MV-images and evaluate the deviation between the external laser isocenter and the radiation isocenter of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, the deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system was calculated. A new method of calibrating the isocenter of the exactrac system was applied to reduce the deviations between the radiation isocenter and the exactrac isocenter. Results: To evaluate the geometric accuracy a 3D deviation vector was calculated for each relative isocenter position. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system varied from 0.21 to 0.42 mm. The 3D deviation between the external laser isocenter and the linac radiation isocenter ranged from 0.37 to 0.83 mm. The 3D deviation between the radiation isocenter and the isocenter of the exactrac system ranged from 0.31 to 1.07 mm. Using the new method of calibrating the exactrac isocenter the 3D deviation of one linac was reduced from 0.90 to 0.23 mm. The

  12. The use of concentrated heat after insect bites/stings as an alternative to reduce swelling, pain, and pruritus: an open cohort-study at German beaches and bathing-lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before

  13. Practice of the utilization of biomass from waste materials; Praxis der Verwertung von Biomasse aus Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Witzenhaeuser Biomass Conference from 10th to 11th November, 2010, in Witzenhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Consequences of the amendment of the law of life-cycle management and biological waste regulations for the practice of acquisition and utilization of biological wastes (Claus-Gerhard Bergs); (2) An eco-efficient handling with biological wastes and composting wastes (Siegfried Kreibe); (3) Perspectives of the biological waste management (Michael Kern); (4) Assessment of waste biogas plants by environmental verifiers - implementation of the EEG novella (Michael Hub); (5) Fermentation of biogenic residuals - State of the art and perspectives (David Wilken); (6) Energy from cultivation masses and waste biomasses - Perspectives for Europe (Katja Bunzel); (7) Optimization of a biogas plant in practical operation (Michael Buchheit); (8) Odour situation and germ situation before and after an integration of a biogas plant in a composite system (Juergen Roth); (9) Aspects of immission protection rights according to the requirements on the permission and operation of biogas plants (Norbert Suritsch); (10) Actual veterinary regulatory, fertilizer regulatory and waste regulatory requirements on the treatment and utilization of fermentation products (Andreas Kirsch); (11) Utilization of fermentation residues from biological waste: Basic conditions and technology of processing (Thomas Raussen); (12) Practical experiences and new developments using selected examples: Pohlsche Heide, Baar (Switzerland) and Cesena (Italy) (Peter Lutz); (13) New facility concepts of dry fermentation in Lohfelden and Uelzen (Gunnar Ziehmann); (14) New facility concepts of plug flow fermentation (Michael Oertig); (15) Further development of the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} systems (Sandra Striewski); (16) Optimization of the gas yield and reduction of disruptive substances in the processing of biological wastes for the wet fermentation

  14. Análise sensorial da água de coco anão verde processada e comercializada no sertão paraibano e cearense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suziane Alves Josino Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, atualmente, possui uma grande tendência de crescimento do cultivo do coqueiro anão verde, onde o principal objetivo deste se da para a produção da água de coco, sua cultura esta distribuída em todo o território nacional, destacadamente na região Nordeste onde se concentram os maiores plantios do país. A água de coco é um produto natural que vem ganhando espaço no mercado como uma bebida de vasto potencial comercial, pois além de ser um produto natural é praticamente livre de contaminações, possui baixo teor calórico, considerável valor nutricional e apresenta aroma e sabor suaves e agradáveis. Neste contexto se faz necessário a avaliação da qualidade sensorial da água de coco industrializada e comercializada de forma a garantir a qualidade do produto para o consumidor. Com isso este trabalho objetivou avaliar sensorialmente á água de coco anão verde, produzidas comercialmente e envasadas, por indústrias do Sertão Paraibano e do Ceará. As amostras de água de coco proveniente das indústrias, foram analisadas sensorialmente no laboratório de microbiologia do CVT – UFCG - Pombal, utilizando o teste de comparação múltiplas utilizando uma escala hedônica de 9 pontos (9 = gostei extremamente, até 1 desgostei, também foi aplicado o teste de intenção de compra utilizando-se uma escala estruturada de 5 pontos (1 = certamente compraria, até 5 = Certamente compraria, conforme metodologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Os resultados dos testes somente se deram até o 15 dias de armazenamento, onde 70% dos copos de água de coco armazenados, apresentaram-se turvos e com produção de gás, demonstrando apartir deste ponto impróprios para o consumo. Com 30 dias de armazenamento todas as amostras apresentaram insatisfatórios para consumo, demonstrando resultados preocupantes quanto a estabilidade da qualidade do produto durante sua validade comercial. Sugere-se como forma de garantia e manutenção da qualidade

  15. Verification of the linac isocenter for stereotactic radiosurgery using cine-EPID imaging and arc delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O' Connor, Daryl J.; Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales 2310, Australia and School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose:Verification of the mechanical isocenter position is required as part of comprehensive quality assurance programs for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments. Several techniques have been proposed for this purpose but each of them has certain drawbacks. In this paper, a new efficient and more comprehensive method using cine-EPID images has been introduced for automatic verification of the isocenter with sufficient accuracy for stereotactic applications. Methods: Using a circular collimator fixed to the gantry head to define the field, EPID images of a Winston-Lutz phantom were acquired in cine-imaging mode during 360 deg. gantry rotations. A robust matlab code was developed to analyze the data by finding the center of the field and the center of the ball bearing shadow in each image with sub-pixel accuracy. The distance between these two centers was determined for every image. The method was evaluated by comparison to results of a mechanical pointer and also by detection of a manual shift applied to the phantom position. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were tested and it was also applied to detect couch and collimator wobble during rotation. Results:The accuracy of the algorithm was 0.03 {+-} 0.02 mm. The repeatability was less than 3 {mu}m and the reproducibility was less than 86 {mu}m. The time elapsed for the analysis of more than 100 cine images of Varian aS1000 and aS500 EPIDs were {approx}65 and 20 s, respectively. Processing of images taken in integrated mode took 0.1 s. The output of the analysis software is printable and shows the isocenter shifts as a function of angle in both in-plane and cross-plane directions. It gives warning messages where the shifts exceed the criteria for SRS/SRT and provides useful data for the necessary adjustments in the system including bearing system and/or room lasers. Conclusions: The comprehensive method introduced in this study uses cine-images, is highly accurate, fast, and

  16. "The next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power": Correction to Soto and John (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Reports an error in "The Next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and Assessing a Hierarchical Model With 15 Facets to Enhance Bandwidth, Fidelity, and Predictive Power" by Christopher J. Soto and Oliver P. John ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Apr 7, 2016, np). In the article, all citations to McCrae and Costa (2008), except for the instance in which it appears in the first paragraph of the introduction, should instead appear as McCrae and Costa (2010). The complete citation should read as follows: McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2010). NEO Inventories professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. The attribution to the BFI-2 items that appears in the Table 6 note should read as follows: BFI-2 items adapted from "Conceptualization, Development, and Initial Validation of the Big Five Inventory-2," by C. J. Soto and O. P. John, 2015, Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Association for Research in Personality. Copyright 2015 by Oliver P. John and Christopher J. Soto. The complete citation in the References list should appear as follows: Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2015, June). Conceptualization, development, and initial validation of the Big Five Inventory-2. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Association for Research in Personality, St. Louis, MO. Available from http://www.colby.edu/psych/personality-lab/ All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-17156-001.) Three studies were conducted to develop and validate the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2), a major revision of the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Study 1 specified a hierarchical model of personality structure with 15 facet traits nested within the Big Five domains, and developed a preliminary item pool to measure this structure. Study 2 used conceptual and empirical criteria to construct the BFI-2 domain and facet scales from the preliminary item pool

  17. TH-AB-201-07: Filmless Treatment Localization QA for the CyberKnife System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersh, J; Noll, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accuray recommends daily evaluation of the treatment localization and delivery systems (TLS/TDS) of the CyberKnife. The vendor-provided solution is a Winston-Lutz-type test that evaluates film shadows from an orthogonal beam pair (known as AQA). Since film-based techniques are inherently inefficient and potentially inconsistent and uncertain, this study explores a method which provides a comparable test with greater efficiency, consistency, and certainty. This test uses the QAStereoChecker (QASC, Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI), a high-resolution flat-panel detector with coupled fiducial markers for automated alignment. Fiducial tracking is used to achieve high translational and rotational position accuracy. Methods: A plan is generated delivering five circular beams, with varying orientation and angular incidence. Several numeric quantities are calculated for each beam: eccentricity, centroid location, area, major-axis length, minor-axis length, and orientation angle. Baseline values were acquired and repeatability of baselines analyzed. Next, errors were induced in the path calibration of the CK, and the test repeated. A correlative study was performed between the induced errors and quantities measured using the QASC. Based on vendor recommendations, this test should be able to detect a TLS/TDS offset of 0.5mm. Results: Centroid shifts correlated well with induced plane-perpendicular offsets (p < 0.01). Induced vertical shifts correlated best with the absolute average deviation of eccentricities (p < 0.05). The values of these metrics which correlated with the threshold of 0.5mm induced deviation were used as individual pass/fail criteria. These were then used to evaluate induced offsets which shifted the CK in all axes (a clinically-realistic offset), with a total offset of 0.5mm. This test provided high and specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: From setup to analysis, this filmless TLS/TDS test requires 4 minutes, as opposed to 15–20

  18. Information and research needs of acute-care clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spath, M; Buttlar, L

    1996-01-01

    The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should

  19. Analysis of gaseous ammonia (NH3) absorption in the visible spectrum of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Bowles, Neil; Braude, Ashwin S.; Garland, Ryan; Calcutt, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the visible/near-infrared reflectance spectrum of Jupiter have been made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument in the spectral range 0.48-0.93 μm in support of the NASA/Juno mission. These spectra contain spectral signatures of gaseous ammonia (NH3), whose abundance above the cloud tops can be determined if we have reliable information on its absorption spectrum. While there are a number of sources of NH3 absorption data in this spectral range, they cover small sub-ranges, which do not necessarily overlap and have been determined from a variety of sources. There is thus considerable uncertainty regarding the consistency of these different sources when modelling the reflectance of the entire visible/near-IR range. In this paper we analyse the VLT/MUSE observations of Jupiter to determine which sources of ammonia absorption data are most reliable. We find that the band model coefficients of Bowles et al. (2008) provide, in general, the best combination of reliability and wavelength coverage over the MUSE range. These band data appear consistent with ExoMOL ammonia line data of Yurchenko et al. (2011), at wavelengths where they overlap, but these latter data do not cover the ammonia absorption bands at 0.79 and 0.765 μm, which are prominent in our MUSE observations. However, we find the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) are not reliable at wavelengths less than 0.758 μm. At shorter wavelengths we find the laboratory observations of Lutz and Owen (1980) provide a good indication of the position and shape of the ammonia absorptions near 0.552 μm and 0.648 μm, but their absorption strengths appear inconsistent with the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) at longer wavelengths. Finally, we find that the line data of the 0.648 μm absorption band of Giver et al. (1975) are not suitable for modelling these data as they account for only 17% of the band absorption and cannot be extended reliably to the cold

  20. Characteristics and performance of the first commercial multileaf collimator for a robotic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürweger, Christoph; Prins, Paulette; Coskan, Harun; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The “InCise™ multileaf-collimator (MLC)” is the first commercial MLC to be mounted on a robotic SRS/SBRT platform (CyberKnife). The authors assessed characteristics and performance of this novel device in a preclinical five months test period. Methods: Commissioning beam data were acquired with unshielded diodes. EBT3 radiochromic films were employed for measurement of transmission, leaf/bank position accuracy (garden fence) before and after exercising the MLC, for end-to-end testing and further characterization of the beam. The robot workspace with MLC was assessed analytically by transformation to an Euler geometry (“plane,” “gantry,” and “collimator” angles) and by measuring pointing accuracy at each node. Stability over time was evaluated in picket fence and adapted Winston–Lutz tests (AQA). Results: Beam penumbrae (80%–20%, with 100% = 2 × dose at inflection point for field sizes ≥ 50 × 50 mm"2) were 2.2–3.7 mm for square fields in reference condition (source-axis-distance 800 mm, depth 15 mm) and depended on field size and off-axis position. Transmission and leakage did not exceed 0.5%. Accessible clinical workspace with MLC covered non-coplanar gantry angles of [−113°; +112°] and collimator angles of [−100°; +107°], with an average robot pointing accuracy of 0.12 ± 0.09 mm. For vertical beams, garden fence tests exhibited an average leaf positioning error of ≤0.2 mm, which increased by 0.25 and 0.30 mm (banks X1 and X2) with leaves traveling parallel to gravity. After execution of a leaf motion stress routine, garden fence tests showed slightly increased jaggedness and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.38 ± 0.05 mm in nine end-to-end tests. Picket fence and AQA tests displayed stable results over the test period. Conclusions: The InCise™ MLC for CyberKnife showed high accuracy and adequate characteristics for SRS/SBRT applications. MLC performance after

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of Pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos; Arthur, Valter

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This research evaluated the effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 on pequi fruits antioxidant properties. The capacity of some foods in neutralizing free radicals have taking been importance due its relationship with decrease of chronic degenerative diseases as the cancer. It becomes important the study of the conservation processes effects on these properties. Pequi fruits come from Ceres-GO (Brazil) were wrapped in polyethylene sacks, sealed at vacuous and storage at -18 deg C until irradiation process. Fruits were irradiated at 0.0 (control) kGy, 0.4 kGy, 0.6 kGy and 1.0 kGy doses in Gammacell irradiator with Cobalt-60 source (IPEN/USP), in agreement with ANVISA recommendations. After irradiated, fruits were maintained at refrigerator until the analysis. Samples were analyzed to total carotenoids (TC) described by Rodrigues and Penteado (1989), antioxidant capacity (AC) by reduction of DPPH method and Vitamin C (VC) by Tillmans method agreement to Adolfo Lutz Institute recommendations (IAL, 1985). Was observed a decrease on CT content of the order of 42,56% to 0.4 kGy dose, 53,42% to 0.6 kGy dose and 65,97% to 1.0 kGy dose compared to control, demonstrating a proportional effect to used doses, this is due the carotenoids be sensitive to the gamma radiation. This effect have been related in other foods as carrots, oranges etc, due susceptibility of carotenoids to the gamma radiation. Total carotenoids content presented in the control (167.4 mg/100g) is comparable with another fruits as carrots, palm and other rich ones in carotenes. There was a decrease in the Vitamin C content proportional to applied doses, with losses of the order of 49.37% for 0.4 kGy dose, 82,30 % for 0.6 kGy dose and 85,25% for 1.0 kGy dose. The antioxidant activity, evaluated in the capacity of food to reduce DPPH, it presented similar behavior to indicate for total carotenoids and Vitamin C analyses. This show the narrow relationship between the content of these nutritious

  2. SU-F-J-177: A Novel Image Analysis Technique (center Pixel Method) to Quantify End-To-End Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, N; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, K [Henry Ford Hospital System, Detroit, MI (United States); Scheib, S [Varian Medical System, Barton (Switzerland); Qin, Y; Li, H [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a novel image analysis technique, “center pixel method”, to quantify end-to-end tests accuracy of a frameless, image guided stereotactic radiosurgery system. Methods: The localization accuracy was determined by delivering radiation to an end-to-end prototype phantom. The phantom was scanned with 0.8 mm slice thickness. The treatment isocenter was placed at the center of the phantom. In the treatment room, CBCT images of the phantom (kVp=77, mAs=1022, slice thickness 1 mm) were acquired to register to the reference CT images. 6D couch correction were applied based on the registration results. Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)-based Winston Lutz (WL) tests were performed to quantify the errors of the targeting accuracy of the system at 15 combinations of gantry, collimator and couch positions. The images were analyzed using two different methods. a) The classic method. The deviation was calculated by measuring the radial distance between the center of the central BB and the full width at half maximum of the radiation field. b) The center pixel method. Since the imager projection offset from the treatment isocenter was known from the IsoCal calibration, the deviation was determined between the center of the BB and the central pixel of the imager panel. Results: Using the automatic registration method to localize the phantom and the classic method of measuring the deviation of the BB center, the mean and standard deviation of the radial distance was 0.44 ± 0.25, 0.47 ± 0.26, and 0.43 ± 0.13 mm for the jaw, MLC and cone defined field sizes respectively. When the center pixel method was used, the mean and standard deviation was 0.32 ± 0.18, 0.32 ± 0.17, and 0.32 ± 0.19 mm respectively. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the center pixel method accurately analyzes the WL images to evaluate the targeting accuracy of the radiosurgery system. The work was supported by a Research Scholar Grant, RSG-15-137-01-CCE from the American

  3. Estudo seccional sobre esquistossomose mansônica no Município de Riachuelo, Estado de Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paulo de Menezes

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fizeram um estudo clínico e epidemioiógico, visando estudar a morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica, na cidade de fíiachuelo, Sergipe, área considerada de alta endemicidade. Foi selecionada de maneira sistemática uma amostra da população local, constituída por 850 pessoas. Destas pessoas, foram realizados 835 exames de fezes, pelos métodos de Lutz (Hoffman, Pons e Janner e/ou Kato. Fez-se também 393 reações intradérmicas com antígeno de verme adulto. Da mesma maneira, realizou-se o exame clínico das pessoas da amostra, visando a determinar a gravidade da doença. Foram localizados os focos onde existiam caramujos transmissores da esquistossomose e deles coletados exemplares nos quais se verificou o índice de infecção. A prevalência global obtida através do exame de fezes foi igual a 50,54%. O estudo da prevalência através da coproscopia mostrou não haver diferença entre os sexos, porém entre as raças ocorreu predominância dos resultados obtidos entre os não brancos sobre os brancos. Quanto i idade, a prevalência foi baixa até os 5 anos de vida, subindo após os 11 anos a níveis elevados, caindo após os 50 anos. O estudo feito através da reação intradérmica permitiu tirar conclusões semelhantes ao feito por coproscopia, exceto na faixa etária que compreendia os maiores de 50 anos, onde quase todo o grupo apresentou reações positivas. Das 850 pessoas da amostra, 422 eram portadores de ovos de S. mansoni nas fezes. Destes, 410 foram examinados clinicamente, sendo 73,17% classificados como tipo I, 24,39% como tipo II e 2,43% como tipo III. Segundo esta classificação clínica não se demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os sexos ou entre os grupos raciais, porém a maioria dos portadores de hepatoesplenomegalia (tipo III tinha mais de 40 anos de idade. Do levantamento malacológico, determinou-se os focos de infecção de onde se coletou 1.208 exemplares de caramujos vetores

  4. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerweger, C [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); European Cyberknife Center Munich, Munich, DE (Germany); Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm{sup 2}) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm{sup 2}) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The

  5. SU-F-T-647: Linac-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: Detailed Description of SRS Procedural Technique and Reported Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Stepp, T; Camarata, P; Wang, F [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter cone using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy

  6. Relationship between thermotectonic evolution of Serra do Mar mountain range and Santos Basin, SP, Brazil, accessed through fission track analysis in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadler, J.C; Tello, S.C.A; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S; Hackspacher, P; Paulo, S.R; Ribeiro, L.F.B

    2001-01-01

    the laboratory use. Through these models, these times are extrapolated to geological ones. The most employed model was proposed by Laslett et al. (1987). It is based on the best fit of the annealing data set by Green et al. (1986). By this model, a track length distribution can be obtained from both the thermal history and age of a sample. However, what one can obtain through the FTM is the track length distribution and what one wants is the thermal history. The employment of the model in this 'inverse' way was proposed by Lutz and Omar (1991) and is widely accepted since then. In this work, the 'inverse model' was utilized to determine the thermal history of a group of samples collected in Serra do Mar Mountain Range (SMMR). As these samples were collected in the same tectonic unit, a common thermal history is a plausible expectation. To show the consistence of this analysis, the relationship between the obtained thermal history and stratigraphic data of Santos Basin is presented (au)

  7. Effects of vildagliptin (Galvus® therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueler I

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Gueler,1 Susanne Mueller,1 Matthias Helmschrott,1 Christian U Oeing,1 Christian Erbel,1 Lutz Frankenstein,1 Christian Gleißner,1 Arjang Ruhparwar,2 Philipp Ehlermann,1 Thomas J Dengler,3 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 3Department of Cardiology, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn, Bad Friedrichshall, Germany Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a common comorbidity in patients after heart transplantation (HTx and is associated with adverse long-term outcomes. Methods: The retrospective study reported here analyzed the effects of vildagliptin therapy in stable patients post-HTx with T2DM and compared these with control patients for matched-pairs analysis. A total of 30 stable patients post-HTx with T2DM were included in the study. Fifteen patients (mean age 58.6 ± 6.0 years, mean time post-HTx 4.9 ± 5.3 years, twelve male and three female were included in the vildagliptin group (VG and 15 patients were included in the control group (CG (mean age 61.2 ± 8.3 years, mean time post-HTx 7.2 ± 6.6 years, all male. Results: Mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in the VG was 7.4% ± 0.7% before versus 6.8% ± 0.8% after 8 months of vildagliptin therapy (P = 0.002 vs baseline. In the CG, HbA1c was 7.0% ± 0.7% versus 7.3% ± 1.2% at follow-up (P = 0.21. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in mean blood glucose in the VG, from 165.0 ± 18.8 mg/dL to 147.9 ± 22.7 mg/dL (P = 0.002 vs baseline, whereas mean blood glucose increased slightly in the CG from 154.7 ± 19.7 mg/dL to 162.6 ± 35.0 mg/dL (P = 0.21. No statistically significant changes in body weight (from 83.3 ± 10.8 kg to 82.0 ± 10.9 kg, P = 0.20, total cholesterol (1.5%, P = 0.68, or triglyceride levels (8.0%, P = 0.65 were seen in the VG. No significant changes in immunosuppressive drug levels or dosages were observed in either group

  8. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência

  9. “Denervation” of autonomous nervous system in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension by low-dose radiation: a case report with an unexpected outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Filiz Oezkan,3 Christian Mahnkopf,4 Gerhard Grabenbauer,5 Alfons Kreczy,6 Rolf Bartunek,7 Kaid Darwiche,3 Lutz Freitag,3 Qiang Li,8 Haidong Huang,8 Thomas Vogl,9 Patrick LePilvert,10 Theodora Tsiouda,11 Kosmas Tsakiridis,12 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Clinic, University of Würzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 4II Medizinische Klinik, Klinik für Kardiologie, Angiologie, Pneumologie, Klinikum Coburg, 5Department of Radiotherapy, 6Department of Pathology, Cytology and Molecular Diagnostics, 7Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Coburg Clinic, University of Wüerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 8Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 9Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 10Interventional Drug Delivery Systems and Strategies (ID2S2, Medical Cryogenics, Lakeland Court Jupiter, FL, USA; 11Internal Medicine Unit, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, 12Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Saint Luke Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Vasointestinal peptide metabolism plays a key physiological role in multimodular levels of vasodilatory, smooth muscle cell proliferative, parenchymal, and inflammatory lung reactions. In animal studies, vasointestinal peptide relaxes isolated pulmonary arterial segments from several mammalian species in vitro and neutralizes the pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin. In some animal models, it reduces pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo and

  10. FABRICAÇÃO DE DOCE DE GOIABA COM APROVEITAMENTO DO ALBEDO DO MARACUJÁ AMARELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia C. Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    Brix igual a 71.00% (F1 e 72.00% (F2. Os doces obtidos foram acondicionados em postes de plástico atóxico, de cor branca, previamente sanitizados e secos. Realizou-se a determinação do pH, sólidos solúveis totais (°Brix, acidez e umidade. Seguindo as normas analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (1985. Sensorialmente foram avaliados quanto à aparência, cor, textura e sabor, utilizando-se uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. De acordo com o teste de médias, em relação à cor e sabor, a amostra comercial obteve maior aceitabilidade, seguida da F2, com menor concentração de albedo. Palavras chave: goiaba, albedo do maracujá, °Brix, pH, análise sensorial.

  11. Water 2010. Abstracts; Wasser 2010. Kurzreferate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    - Comparison of pre-ozonation, intermediar ozonation and intermediar Advanced Oxidation Process O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (H. Lutze); (15) Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation of NOM - Effect on the fouling of ceramic membranes (J. Winter); (16) The relevance of lowland moors in the material balance of watersheds (S. Pfeiffer); (17) Hydrologic control of biogeochemistry and trace gas fluxes of a minerotrophic fen (H. Knorr); (18) Dynamics of mass transport from lowland moors (C. Weyer); (19) The relevance of the hydrologic residence time in the biogeochemical processes in lowland moors (S. Frei); (20) Mobilization of solved organic carbon from wooded watersheds (S. Strohmeier); (21) Antiviral compounds in the aquatic environment - Analysis and appearance (C. Prasse); (22) Appearance and behaviour of artificial sweeteners in the waste water purification and in the drinking water purification (M. Scheurer); (23) Properties and distribution of perfluorinated substances in the environment - Models and reality (V. Gellrich); (24) Identification of odorants and flavorings after the reaction of amino acid derived DOC with chlorine (A. Gruebel); (25) Polyoxomethylene solid phase extraction for studying the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (M. Kah); (26) Specifying of chromium in waste materials and aqueous eluats (M. Delay); (27) Determination of anthropogenic markers carbamazepin in the circulation of waters by means of newly developed immuno assays (ELISA) (A. Bahlmann); (28) The behaviour, transport and toxicity of nanoparticles in te aquatic environment (S. Ottofuelling).

  12. Regional variation in post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation care among veteran residents in community nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huanguang Jia,1 Qinglin Pei,1 Charles T Sullivan,1 Diane C Cowper Ripley,1 Samuel S Wu,1 W Bruce Vogel,1 Xinping Wang,1 Douglas E Bidelspach,2 Jennifer L Hale-Gallardo,1 Barbara E Bates3 1Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, 3Aleda E. Lutz VA Medical Center, Saginaw, MI, USA Introduction: Effective post-acute multidisciplinary rehabilitation therapy improves stroke survivors’ functional recovery and daily living activities. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA places veterans needing post-acute institutional care in private community nursing homes (CNHs. These placements are made under the same rules and regulations across the VA health care system and through individual per diem contracts between local VA facilities and CNHs. However, there is limited information about utilization of these veterans’ health services as well as the geographic variation of the service utilization. Aim: The aims of this study were to determine rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans with stroke in VA-contracted CNHs and to assess risk-adjusted regional variations in the utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care. Methods: This retrospective study included all veterans diagnosed with stroke residing in VA-contracted CNHs between 2006 and 2009. Minimum Dataset (a health status assessment tool for CNH residents for the study CNHs was linked with veterans’ inpatient and outpatient data within the VA health care system. CNHs were grouped into five VA-defined geographic regions: the North Atlantic, Southeast, Midwest, Continental, and Pacific regions. A two-part model was applied estimating risk-adjusted utilization probability and average weekly utilization days. Two dependent variables were rehabilitation

  13. SU-C-BRB-04: Characteristics and Performance Evaluation of the First Commercial MLC for a Robotic Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerweger, C; Prins, P; Coskan, H; Heijmen, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess characteristics and performance of the “Incise™” MLC (41 leaf pairs, 2.5mm width, FFF linac) mounted on the robotic SRS/SBRT platform “CyberKnife M6™” in a pre-clinical 5 months (11/2014–03/2015) test period. Methods: Beam properties were measured with unshielded diodes and EBT3 film. The CyberKnife workspace for MLC was analyzed by transforming robot node coordinates (cranial / body paths) into Euler geometry. Bayouth tests for leaf / bank position accuracy were performed in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after exercising the MLC for 10+ minutes. Total system and delivery accuracy were assessed in End-to-End tests and dosimetric verification of exemplary plans. Stability over time was evaluated in Picket-Fence-and adapted Winston-Lutz-tests (AQA) for different collimator angles. Results: Penumbrae (80–20%, with 100%=2*dose at inflection point; SAD 80cm; 10cm depth) parallel / perpendicular to leaf motion were 2.87/2.64mm for the smallest (0×76×0.75cm 2 ) and 5.34/4.94mm for the largest (9.76×9.75cm 2 ) square field. MLC circular field penumbrae exceeded fixed cones by 10–20% (e.g. 60mm: 4.0 vs. 3.6mm; 20mm: 3.6 vs. 2.9mm). Interleaf leakage was <0.5%. Clinically accessible workspace with MLC covered (non-coplanar) gantry angles of [-113°;+112°] (cranial) and [-108°;+102°] (body), and collimator angles of [-100°;+107°] (cranial) and [-91°;+100°] (body). Average leaf position offsets were ≤0.2mm in 14 standard A/P Bayouth tests and ≤0.6mm in 8 non-standard direction tests. Pre-test MLC exercise increased jaggedness (range ±0.3mm vs. ±0.5mm) and allowed to identify one malfunctioning leaf motor. Total system accuracy with MLC was 0.39±0.06mm in 6 End-to-End tests. Picket-Fence and AQA showed no adverse trends during the test period. Conclusion: The Incise™ MLC for CyberKnife M6™ displayed high accuracy and mechanical stability over the test period. The specific Cyber

  14. Accuracy of cranial coplanar beam therapy using an oblique, stereoscopic x-ray image guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinci, Justin P.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Neck, Daniel W.

    2008-01-01

    isocenter and radiation isocenter as documented by daily clinical Lutz tests. Based on results of comparisons of measured with calculated positions of the 80% dose lines along the major anatomical axes, a 1.25, 1.0, and 1.0 mm (0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 mm) gross tumor volume (GTV)-planning target volume (PTV) margin to account for delivery error would be appropriate for the P-A, R-L, and I-S axes, respectively, for an acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). It typically took 2 (3) ExacTrac x-ray image sets to achieve and verify acceptance criteria of 1 mm/1 deg. (0.4 mm/0.4 deg. ). Our results demonstrated a measurement technique using a CIRS anthropomorphic head phantom with a modified film cassette, radiographic film (Kodak EDR2) with a custom film cutting template, and film dosimetry software has been developed and successfully applied to our clinic. It is recommended that a third party offer this service. Our goal of achieving accuracy of delivery of 1 mm or better in each of the three major anatomical axes was almost, but not quite achieved, not because of the accuracy of the image guidance system, but likely due to inaccuracy of laser isocenter and other systematic errors

  15. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Fernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hace por lo menos dos billones de años que las formas primitivas de vida incorporaron el uso del oxígeno como aceptor final de electrones en la cadena respiratoria. El fenómeno de óxido-reducción permitió pasar de producir 2 ATP a partir de una mol de glucosa a entregarles a las células 36 ATP, proceso que cambió para siempre la habilidad para obtener la energía en la mayoría de los organismos vivos. Hoy en día, los órganos de la mayoría de mamíferos son altamente sensibles a las limitaciones de oxígeno; sin embargo, algunos vertebrados ectotérmicos están extraordinariamente adaptados a la tolerancia a este estrés. Tortugas de agua de los géneros Trachemys y Chrysemys utilizan la anaerobiosis como estrategia para vivir varios meses en condiciones de anoxia durante el invierno (Ultsch, 1989. Estas tortugas han sido juiciosamente estudiadas por la adaptación que les permite a sus órganos sobrevivir sin oxígeno (Krivoruchko y Storey, 2010. Sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares relacionados con tolerancia a la anoxia en tortugas marinas no han sido caracterizados. Las tortugas dulceacuícolas Trachemys y Chrysemys han sido mundialmente utilizadas como modelos para identificar y entender los mecanismos moleculares de tolerancia a la anoxia y las bases moleculares de las lesiones producidas por la hipoxia/isquemia que ocurren en organismos sensibles al oxígeno, así como los problemas médicos, como el ataque cardíaco y accidente cerebrovascular, y la posible forma de evitarlos, así como enfermedades producidas por el estrés oxidativo, tales como parkinson o alzheimer (Buck, 2004. Además, podría conducir a la obtención de técnicas mejoradas para manipular y ayudar a preservar la viabilidad de órganos durante la cirugía, e incluso a mejorar la tecnología para su uso en hipotermia o crioconservación de tejidos y órganos, previo a trasplantación. Lutz, Prentice y Milton (2003 propusieron que las tortugas pueden ser

  16. Environmental politics. Actual research projects in the area of sectional themes of renewable energies; Umweltpolitik. Aktuelle Forschungsvorhaben im Bereich Querschnittsthemen der erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Gisela; Boehme, Dieter; Nikol, Claudia (comps.)

    2006-08-15

    market (Karsen Burges); (15) BioRegio strategies for a sustainable energetic utilization of biomass in selected model regions (Frank Baur); (16) Future expansion of renewable energy supports under special consideration of the Federal States (Lutz Mez); (17) Climate protection and renewable energies, international teamwork (Hendrik Vygen); (18) An investigation of the sociological acceptance of the renewable energies - Relevant parameters and socially solutions (Petra Schweizer-Ries); (19) Acceptance and strategies for the expansion of renewable energies at local and regional level (Timon Wehnert); (20) Energy region Lausitz - New impulses for the acceptance and utilization of renewable energies (Dorothee Keppler); (21) General and fundamental aspects of renewable energies (Andrea Meyer); (22) New ways for the improvement of the environmental communication - the project 'World of experience renewable energy: powerado' (Michael Sharp); (23) Communication for multiplicators in technical school education. University and advanced training (Sigrid Jannsen); (24) Renewable energy: Data and statistics - information and communication (Frithjof Staiss); (25) Efficiency of the expansion of renewable energies on the German labour market under special consideration of the foreign trade (Frithjof Staiss); (26) External costs und utilization of renewable energies (Wolfram Krewitt); (27) The safety-political importance of renewable energies (Alexander Carius); (28) Review on the approval and licensing of plants for the use of renewable energies (Sefan Klinski).

  17. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barter, Garrett. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reichmuth, David. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Westbrook, Jessica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yoshimura, Ann S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Meghan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manley, Dawn Kataoka [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzman, Katherine Dunphy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Donna M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    greenhouse gas(GHG) emission by the LDV fleet. However, EVs alone cannot drive compliance with the most aggressive GHG emission reduction targets, even as the current electricity source mix shifts away from coal and towards natural gas. Since ICEs will comprise the majority of the LDV fleet for up to forty years, conventional vehicle efficiency improvements have the greatest potential for reductions in LDV GHG emissions over this time.These findings seem robust even if global oil prices rise to two to three times current projections. Thus,investment in improving the internal combustion engine might be the cheapest, lowest risk avenue towards meeting ambitious GHG emission and petroleum consumption reduction targets out to 2050.3 Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank Dr. Andrew Lutz, Dr. Benjamin Wu, Prof. Joan Ogden and Dr. Christopher Yang for their suggestions over the course of this project. This work was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Ages of Globular Clusters from HIPPARCOS Parallaxes of Local Subdwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Carretta, Eugenio; Clementini, Gisella; Corsi, Carlo E.; Lattanzi, Mario

    1997-12-01

    We report here initial but strongly conclusive results for absolute ages of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs). This study is based on high-precision trigonometric parallaxes from the HIPPARCOS satellite coupled with accurate metal abundances ([Fe/H], [O/Fe], and [α/Fe]) from high-resolution spectroscopy for a sample of about thirty subdwarfs. Systematic effects due to star selection (Lutz-Kelker corrections to parallaxes) and the possible presence of undetected binaries in the sample of bona fide single stars are examined, and appropriate corrections are estimated. They are found to be small for our sample. The new data allow us to reliably define the absolute location of the main sequence (MS) as a function of metallicity. These results are then used to derive distances and ages for a carefully selected sample of nine globular clusters having metallicities determined from high-dispersion spectra of individual giants according to a procedure totally consistent with that used for the field subdwarfs. Very precise and homogeneous reddening values have also been independently determined for these clusters. Random errors for our distance moduli are +/-0.08 mag, and systematic errors are likely of the same order of magnitude. These very accurate distances allow us to derive ages with internal errors of ~12% (+/-1.5 Gyr). The main results are: 1. HIPPARCOS parallaxes are smaller than corresponding ground-based measurements, leading, in turn, to longer distance moduli (~0.2 mag) and younger ages (~2.8 Gyr). 2. The distance to NGC 6752 derived from our MS fitting is consistent with that determined using the white dwarf cooling sequence. 3. The relation between the zero-age HB (ZAHB) absolute magnitude and metallicity for the nine program clusters is MV(ZAHB)=(0.22+/-0.09)([Fe/H]+1.5)+(0.49+/-0.04) . This relation is fairly consistent with some of the most recent theoretical models. Within quoted errors, the slope is in agreement with that given by the Baade-Wesselink (BW

  19. Characteristics of a novel treatment system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ning; Li, Haisen; Song, Kwang; Chin-Snyder, Karen; Qin, Yujiao; Kim, Jinkoo; Bellon, Maria; Gulam, Misbah; Gardner, Stephen; Doemer, Anthony; Devpura, Suneetha; Gordon, James; Chetty, Indrin; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ajlouni, Munther; Pompa, Robert; Hammoud, Zane; Simoff, Michael; Kalkanis, Steven; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-07-08

    deviation between the OSMS and CBCT was -0.4 ± 0.2 mm, 0.1± 0.3mm, and 0.0 ± 0.1 mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions. The mean values and standard deviations of the average deviation and maximum deviation of the daily Winston-Lutz tests over three months are 0.20 ± 0.03 mm and 0.66 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. Initial testing of this novel system demonstrates the technology to be highly accurate and suitable for frameless, linac-based SRS and SBRT treatment.

  20. Transtracheal single-point stent fixation in posttracheotomy tracheomalacia under cone-beam computer tomography guidance by transmural suturing with the Berci needle – a perspective on a new tool to avoid stent migration of Dumon stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1,9 Bernd Linsmeier,2 Paul Zarogoulidis,3 Lutz Freitag,4 Kaid Darwiche,4 Robert Browning,5 J Francis Turner,6 Haidong Huang,7 Qiang Li,7 Thomas Vogl,8 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,3 Johannes Brachmann,9 Harald Rittger1 1Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany; 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Medinos Clinic Sonneberg, Sonnerberg, Germany; 3Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital Essen, University of Essen-Duisburg, Tueschener Weg, Essen, Germany; 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Interventional Pulmonology, National Naval Medical Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Division of Interventional Pulmonology and Medical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Western Regional Medical Center, Goodyear, AZ, USA; 7Department of Respiratory Diseases Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 9II Medical Clinic, “Coburg” Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, GermanyAbstract: Tracheomalacia or tracheobronchomalacia (TM or TBM is a common problem especially for elderly patients often unfit for surgical techniques. Several surgical or minimally invasive techniques have already been described. Stenting is one option but in general long-time stenting is accompanied by a high complication rate. Stent removal is more difficult in case of self-expandable nitinol stents or metallic stents in general in comparison to silicone stents. The main disadvantage of silicone stents in comparison to uncovered metallic stents is migration and plugging. We compared the operation time and in particular the duration of a sufficient Dumon stent

  1. Estudo seccional sobre esquistossomose mansônica no Município de Riachuelo, Estado de Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paulo de Menezes

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fizeram um estudo clínico e epidemioiógico, visando estudar a morbidade da esquistossomose mansônica, na cidade de fíiachuelo, Sergipe, área considerada de alta endemicidade. Foi selecionada de maneira sistemática uma amostra da população local, constituída por 850 pessoas. Destas pessoas, foram realizados 835 exames de fezes, pelos métodos de Lutz (Hoffman, Pons e Janner e/ou Kato. Fez-se também 393 reações intradérmicas com antígeno de verme adulto. Da mesma maneira, realizou-se o exame clínico das pessoas da amostra, visando a determinar a gravidade da doença. Foram localizados os focos onde existiam caramujos transmissores da esquistossomose e deles coletados exemplares nos quais se verificou o índice de infecção. A prevalência global obtida através do exame de fezes foi igual a 50,54%. O estudo da prevalência através da coproscopia mostrou não haver diferença entre os sexos, porém entre as raças ocorreu predominância dos resultados obtidos entre os não brancos sobre os brancos. Quanto i idade, a prevalência foi baixa até os 5 anos de vida, subindo após os 11 anos a níveis elevados, caindo após os 50 anos. O estudo feito através da reação intradérmica permitiu tirar conclusões semelhantes ao feito por coproscopia, exceto na faixa etária que compreendia os maiores de 50 anos, onde quase todo o grupo apresentou reações positivas. Das 850 pessoas da amostra, 422 eram portadores de ovos de S. mansoni nas fezes. Destes, 410 foram examinados clinicamente, sendo 73,17% classificados como tipo I, 24,39% como tipo II e 2,43% como tipo III. Segundo esta classificação clínica não se demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os sexos ou entre os grupos raciais, porém a maioria dos portadores de hepatoesplenomegalia (tipo III tinha mais de 40 anos de idade. Do levantamento malacológico, determinou-se os focos de infecção de onde se coletou 1.208 exemplares de caramujos vetores

  2. Smart grids and e-mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    integration of electric vehicles and plug-in-vehicles in the power system (H. Seljeseth); (21) Implications of vehicle-to-grid strategies on lithium-ion batteries and grids (M. Hackmann); (22) A methodology for evaluating the hosting capacity margins for PEVs on distribution grids (I.M. Gianinoni); (23) Integration of fast EV charging systems into the distribution grid (M. Zamalloa); (24) The need for innovative functionalities for on-board electrical vehicle chargers (J.A. Pecas Lopes); (25) Towards a system for accessing real-time, cross-provider electric mobility charging station information (T. Lutz); (26) Concept evaluation of an inductive charging system for electric vehicles (H. Barth); (27) System integrated testing of EV batteries (O. Gehrke); (28) Requirements analysis for a smart charging infrastructure enabling maximum use of renewable energy (R. Ponnette); (29) The hybrid power supply system for Truong Sa Islands using solar and wind energy (T.Q. Vinh); (30) Intelligent local network management for the integration of distributed generation and storage systems (W. Heckmann); (31) Network of value creation networks for e-mobility - An analysis of the collaboration competitive advantage (R. Colmom); (32) Project netquality (R. Witzmann); (33) The interdependences between electric vehicles and offshore wind energy - An investigation for the North-Western Region of Germany (M. Buchmann); (34) Testing platform for e-mobility (TPE) (J. Prior); (35) Experiences from integrating DG in rural MV networks (M.K. Istad); (36) MUGIELEC: A comprehensive approach to EV recharge infrastructure (A. Arzuaga); (37) Model region electric mobility Munich - Drive eCharged (W. vom Eyser).

  3. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Pisa and the librarian Pozzetti at Bologna, and Karin Reich describes and edits Bessel's book critique of Gauss' Theoria Motus. How many one-time astronomers have to earn their living in other ways, become distracted from astronomical research, and vanish from the horizon of astronomical history? In the ninth paper, Hans-Joachim Ilgauds has traced the life of Georg Koch (1851-1905), who started his career as an astronomer at Leipzig Observatory in 1874. Later Koch worked at Hamburg Observatory, and then became an employee at the statistical office in Kiel, and finally director of the statistical office of the Hamburg revenue service. He was a collaborator for the statistical yearbook of German cities, and also contributed to a book investigating the causes and the impact of the cholera epidemic of 1892 in Hamburg. The last two papers deal with the circumstances of the discovery of the first Near-Earth asteroid (433) Eros. It was recorded on photographic plates taken at the Urania-Sternwarte Berlin and at Nice Observatory. The Berlin observer Witt announced the discovery, and only later, the Nice observer Charlois published a position of Eros. While all plates have disappeared, the authors Hans Scholl and Lutz D. Schmadel could prove that the Nice plate was poorly guided and Charlois would have been unable to discover the object. From a copy of the Berlin plate, published 50 years after the discovery by Witt's co-observer F. Linke, the exact position was determined, and the time of observation (which had not been published) was derived. The second article, by Lutz D. Schmadel, deals with the life of the Eros co-discoverer Felix Linke (1879-1959), who later worked in statistic offices, was a frequent writer of popular scientific articles, and later the editor of a journal, "Technik im Hotel'', and author of a book of the same title. As can be seen from the summaries given above, this collection of essays deals mainly with historical events that occurred in Germany and

  4. 7ª Contribuição ao estudo dos Flebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: descrição dos machos de 24 novas espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mangabeira Filho

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The A. and his co-workers captured in trips in the hinterland of Brazil more tham 17.000 flebotomi from which 35 are new ones, 11 discribed by, him in previous papers. The A. found these insects in groups of species living in different habitats, some ones of them not yet known: ondoors, or outdoors attracted by light or animal baits, without Shannon’s trap, in great or small caves, in the jungle in tree’s holes, holes in stones, holes in the soil habited by animals like armadillos, pacas (Aguti paca, wild rats, cururú toad (Bufo sp.. He observed the life history of 13 species: Flebotomus longipalpis Lutz& Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus intermedius Lutz & Neiva, 1912, Flebotomus avellari Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus aragãoi costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus lutzianus Costa Lima, 1932, Flebotomus limai fonseca, 1935, Flebotomus rickardi Costa Lima, 1936, Flebotomus dasipodogeton Castro, 1939, Flebotomus oswaldoi n. sp., Flebotomus villelai n. sp., Flebotomus triacanthus n. sp., Flebotomus longispinus n. sp. And flebotomus travassosi n. sp. He describes the male of 24 n. sp., explaining the differential diagnose of group or nearly allied species. He inclued F. rooti n. sp. And F. hirsutus n. sp. In the sub-genus Shannonomyia. The first one, very allied to F. davisi Root is different from it, for presenting in the dorsal side of the abdomen bristles and not scales and to have the median claspers longer than his inner appendage and F. hirsutus quite different from the others which show 3 spines on distal segment of the upper clasper and for being the only one who presents the bristles of inner appendage of median clasper longer than it. Only the females of F. amazonensis Root and f. chagasi Costa Lima, are known and then it is possible that they belong to one of the species of this sub-genus from whom only the male have been described. F. choti Floch & Abonnenc, captured also at Pará, F. triacanthus n. sp. F. trispinosus n. sp. And F. equatorialis n. sp

  5. Contribuição para o conhecimento da intoxicação pelo veneno dos "escorpiões"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons travaillé à Bello Horizonte, Etat de Minas, avec le venin de 4 espèces de Scorpions: Tityus bahiensis (C. L. KOCK, 1836. Tityus serrulatus (LUTZ-MELLO, 1922. Tityus dorsomaculatus (LUTZ – MELLO, 1922. Bothriurus (espèce em étude, sur un total de 13.640 individus. Nous avons essayé et observe l’action du venin sur 97 espèces differentes d’êtres vivants – depuis les chlamydozoaires jusqu’à l’«Homo sapiens». Nous avons cherché à déterminer une unité toxique «plus précise, plus régulierè». Les étalons dits «unité vésicule», «unité morsure» sont inconstants et sans rigueur. Tout au plus, peuvent ils server à l’étude de l’action générale du venin, et cela meme, dans certains cas seulement. Nous avons employé la pesée pour determiner l’unité toxique. Ce qui est important pour qui étudie ces sujets ce n’est pás lê nombre de vésicules, mais bien la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent. La balance, pour notre travail, est um moyen indicateur de bien plus grande précision que la «vésicule» ou la «morsure». Nous sommes parvenus à prouver qu’il existe une relation constante entre le poid brut des vésicules et la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent dans leur intérieur. Donc em pesant les vésicules, nous pesons indirectement le venin. Peu nous importe qu’il y ait 10 ou 100 vésicules. Il nous importe seulement de savoir combien elles pèsent, et de déterminer par ce fait, la quantité proportionnelle de vain pur. La technique générale est la suivante: Nous pesons um certain nombre de vésicules. Nous triturons ensuite, dans um mortier stérilisé et nous emulsionnons, par l’addition consécutive d’eau distillée, stérilisée. Nous filtrons l’émulsion sur le papier filtre employé em chimie, préalablement taré et desséché dans une atmosphere de chlorure de calcium. Après le filtrage on sèche à nouveau les

  6. Considerações gerais sôbre a vegetação do Estado de Goiás: notas preliminares sôbre a fitosociologia do Planalto Central do Brasileiro Preliminary observations on the vegetation of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique P. Veloso

    1948-03-01

    , direta ou indiretamente, nos auxiliaram, especialmente a Dra. BERTHA LUTZ, a quem devemos o resumo deste trabalho em Inglês.In June 1947, I had the opportunity to study the phyto-ecological conditions of certain stretches of the state of Goiás, by appointment of the Dr. Henrique Aragão, Director of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz andin connection with bio-geographical work related to the choice of a new Federal Capital. Forner work, from 1945 on (see Mem. Inst. Osw. Cr., 44, (4 1946 páginas 579-603 and Mem. Inst. Osw. Cr., 45, (1 1947 pág. 253-272 in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso, had already given me some insight into the importance of the CERRADO, both as a climatic unit and in regard to the bio-geography of Brazil. This type of vegetation, while well known from the point of niew of systematics, is practically unknown as to the role the component species within the associations and their reactions to the habitats. The observations now made in Goiás and those carried out before in the above-mentioned states will help to make it possible to attempt a monograph on the Vegetation of Western Central Brazil later, especially after gaining a general view of the whole region and completing sociological surveys of the Cerrado Associations of these states and that of Bahia.

  7. Time, Quantum and Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Leaf [Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2004-04-09

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before

  8. Time, Quantum and Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Leaf

    2004-01-01

    Time, Quantum and Information, a paean to Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, commemorates his 90th birthday. The range of Professor Weizsaecker's endeavours is an exhilarating example of what can be accomplished by one freely-soaring human spirit, who is at the same time a physicist, a philosopher, and a humanitarian. The editors, Lutz Castell and Otfried Ischebeck, have assembled an admirable collection of essays and articles written by Weizsaecker?s past students, collaborators, colleagues and acquaintances. Time, Quantum and Information offers the reader a panoply of unique insights into twentieth century science and history. Entangled with the stories about Weizsaecker?s influence on the lives of some of the contributors are discussions of the activities of German scientists during and following World War II, emphasizing their reluctance to work on atomic weapons following the war. By outlining Weizsaecker?s role in the early development of numerous tributaries of physical science, the book gives us a new glimpse into the origins of some of its disparate domains, such as nuclear physics, the physics of stellar nucleosynthesis, cosmic ray physics, fluid turbulence, and the formation of the solar system. We physicists have all studied Weizsaecker?s semi-empirical mass formula describing the binding energy of nuclei. We are aware too that both he and Hans Bethe independently discovered the nuclear cycles that provide stars with their enduring energy output. We have studied the Weizsaecker--Williams technique of calculating the bremsstrahlung of relativistic electrons. But how many of us know of Weizsaecker's work in fluid turbulence that he, like Werner Heisenberg under whom he had earned his doctorate, pursued while holed up in Farm Hall? And how many of us are aware of his introduction of turbulent viscosity to account for the origin of planetary orbits, involving the migration of mass inwards and angular momentum outwards? Moreover, before finally

  9. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    investigating organic solar cell technology. In spring 2011, Nanotechnology launches a new section wholly dedicated to the coverage of new and stimulating research into energy sources based on nanoscale science and technology. There is at present considerable concern over how to fuel the planet in a sustainable manner with the increasingly energy-thirsty human population. Yet the Earth receives more solar energy in one hour than the world population consumes in one year [8]. No wonder research into photovoltaics and ways of increasing the efficiency with which this energy can be harnessed continues to hold so much fascination. References [1] Levin I and White C E 1949 J. Chem. Phys. 18 417 [2] Chirvase D, Parisi J, Hummelen J C and Dyakonov V 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1317 [3] Kwong C Y, Choy W C H, Djurišić A B, Chui P C, Cheng K W and Chan W K 2004 Nanotechnology 15 1156 [4] Krebs F C, Thomann Y, Thomann R and Andreasen J W 2008 Nanotechnology 19 424013 [5] Zeng T-W, Lin Y-Y, Lo H-H, Chen C-W, Chen C-H, Liou S-C, Huang H-Y and Su W-F 2006 Nanotechnology 17 5387 [6] Dissanayake D M N M, Hatton R A, Lutz T, Curry R J and Silva S R P 2009 Nanotechnology 20 245202 [7] Nicholson P G and Castro F A 2010 Nanotechnology 21 492001 [8] http://www.solarenergyworld.org/solar-energy-facts/

  10. User-driven generation of standard data services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Laura; Granell, Carlos; Gould, Michael; Huerta, Joaquín.

    2010-05-01

    (3), 271-294. Bernard, L, U Einspanier, M Lutz & C Portele. Interoperability in GI Service Chains The Way Forward. In: M. Gould, R. Laurini & S. Coulondre (Eds.). 6th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science 2003, Lyon: 179-188. INSPIRE. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community. (2007) Masser, I. GIS Worlds: Creating Spatial Data Infrastructures. Redlands, California. ESRI Press. (2005) Masser, I., Rajabifard, A., Williamson, I. 2008. Spatially enabling governments through SDI implementation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Vol. 22, No. 1, (2008) 5-20 Rajabifard, A., Feeney, M-E. F., Williamson, I. P. 2002. Future directions for SDI development. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4 (2002) 11-22

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    - Accident reporting system; the Rosis experience (M. Coffey, J. Cunningham, Rosis, Ireland); 20 - Side effects of radiotherapy: general management (J. Bourhis, Estro); 21 - Cell therapy treatment for radiation induced cutaneous damage (JJ. Lataillade, Percy Military Hospital, Clamart); 22 - The Equipment: safety, commissioning, re-commissioning - calibration, A medical physicist point of view (A. Lisbona, Centre A. Gauducheau, Nantes, France); 23 - A manufacturer's point of view (U. Lutz, SNITEM - Siemens, Germany); 24 - The staff; radiation oncologist-Physicists, technologists, engineers: organisation, missions, responsibility. The Radiation Therapist profession: a challenge and an opportunity to improve the safety and the patient care in Radiation Oncology (G. Brusadin, EFRS); 25 - The EFOMP approach in reducing errors in Radiotherapy (H.J Van Kleffens, EFOMP); 26 - Education and training. The IAEA experience (R. Czarwinski, IAEA); 27 - The IAEA quality audits in radiotherapy (J. Izewska, IAEA); 28 - The external beam controls: Equal-Estro Experience (A. Veres, Equal-Estro); 29 - The Norwegian Program on Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy (KVIST) - Organisation, Benefits and Experiences of this initiative for stakeholders involvement (H.M. Olerud, NRPA, Norway); 30 - Audits in radiotherapy in Switzerland (A. Stuessi, FOPH, Switzerland); 31 - Clinical Audits: who should control what? - European guidelines (H. Jarvinen, STUK - Finland); 32 - The ICPR take home message (P. Ortiz Lopez, ICRP); 33-37 - National regulators experiences (C. Flannery, CRCPD, USA; J. Griebel, BFS, Germany; U. O'Doherty, UK; K. Petrova, Czech republic; JL. Godet, France); 38 - A road-map for Cancer Radiotherapy in France (D. Maraninchi, InCA); 39-40 - Synthesis and conclusions (A.C. Lacoste, M. Bourguignon, ASN)

  12. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    down time. In October of 2000 Hugo returned to Chile to work at CTIO. After his demonstrated technical, scientific, and social skills drumming the NOT into shape, he was the natural choice to be the CTIO staff member assigned to the 4-m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope sited at Cerro Pachon. Over the next six years Hugo worked closely with Steve Heathcote and the SOAR technical staff to improve the telescope's operational capacity. Hugo's scientific work dealt with late stages of stellar evolution, particularly planetary nebulae, and stellar polarimetry. Higher resolution optical and infrared imaging of He 2-104 led to its being known as the Southern Crab Nebula (Schwarz, Aspin, & Lutz, ApJ, L29, p. 344, 1989). Unlike the northern supernova remnant, this southern object (a nebula surrounding a symbiotic binary) looks very much like a crab. Their images of it appeared in magazines and books around the world. In 1992, along with Romano Corradi (a Ph.D. student of Hugo's) and Jorge Melnick, Schwarz published "A catalogue of narrow band images of planetary nebulae" (A&A, 96, p. 23, 1992). This was the first extensive, and still the largest, CCD image catalogue of PNe. Hugo edited the conference proceedings of a meeting held in La Serena in January 1992 (Mass Loss on the AGB and Beyond). The talks and published papers strengthened some of Hugo's ideas about the importance of evolution in binary systems, in particular the interaction of compact stellar companions and the formation of accretion disk winds and their precession in the formation of non-symmetrical planetary nebulae. In a highly cited paper, Corradi & Schwarz (A&A, 293, p. 871, 1995) were able to show that bipolar nebulae are produced from higher-mass progenitors than other morphological classes. Hugo knew that you wanted to model PNe in three dimensions, not just in two. He went on to make 3-D photoionization models of PNe with his final PhD student Hektor Monteiro (Schwarz & Monteiro, ApJ, 648

  13. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  14. EDITORIAL: Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale Quantum science and technology at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    molecular spins [8]. Nanofabrication techniques have seen tremendous advances that have enabled scientists to realise new experimental electronics architectures. Using photolithography, chemical etching and electrodeposition, a collaboration of researchers in China, France and the US has fabricated mechanically controllable break junctions with finely adjustable nanogaps between two gold electrodes on solid state chips [9]. The structures can be used to characterize the electron transport properties of single molecules. In many ways, experimental realization of quantum phenomena has invigorated theoretical endeavours; experiments on the Kondo effect, for example, have renewed interest in finding new approximate solutions for the single impurity Anderson model. Researchers in Brazil present work on finding solutions to the Anderson Hamiltonian based on the atomic approach, which is simple to implement and has a low computational cost [10]. Theoretical descriptions have developed into powerful and sophisticated tools for explaining, understanding and even predicting the behaviour of quantum systems. Recent progress in the theoretical description of correlation and quantum fluctuation phenomena in charge transport through single molecules, quantum dots, and quantum wires is provided in a topical review by researchers in Germany [11]. While a claim to a complete understanding of quantum phenomena may be premature, certainly vast progress has been made in learning how to navigate new territory in the quantum world. And what is more, in exploring novel systems and the continued efforts to develop devices with capabilities enhanced due to quantum effects, we are learning to exploit it. References [1] Eddington A S 1929 The Nature of the Physical World (New York: The University Press) [2] Crommie M F, Lutz C P and Eigler D M 1993 Science 262 218-20 [3] Trbovic J, Minder N, Freitag F and Schönenberger C 2010 Superconductivity-enhanced conductance fluctuations in few-layer graphene

  15. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2010 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2011-06-01

    particle image velocimetry (PIV), wherein 'instantaneous' planes of the velocity field are obtained. (The planar information, of course, falls short of the volumetric data that would be required for a complete measurement strategy.) In this paper [1] the authors first provide a valuable review of the literature in this area before presenting their original contribution. Operating with the constraint of incomplete information, the authors have significantly advanced this aspect of fluid mechanics measurements by: (i) performing error analysis evaluations of the extant methodologies, and (ii) introducing the use of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) techniques to smooth the PIV data. Three globally unsteady flow fields are investigated in this paper. Two of the subject flows are simulations where the pressure can be compared with the inferred value using simulated PIV results—with the addition of typical measurement uncertainties—and the third test case is the unsteady flow in a planar diffuser. This paper is a benchmark contribution on the path to accurately inferring pressure values in the interior of a flow field. 2010 Award Award Winner—Measurement Science Achieving high effective Q-factors in ultra-high vacuum dynamic force microscopy Jannis Lübbe, Lutz Tröger, Stefan Torbrügge, Ralf Bechstein, Christoph Richter, Angelika Kühnle and Michael Reichling Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany Nanoworld Services GmbH, Schottkystraße 10, 91058 Erlangen, Germany Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Jakob-Welder Weg 11, 55099 Mainz, Germany This paper [2] presents a detailed methodology to achieve good Q-factors in a scanning force microscope. Whilst this instrument, operated in the non-contact mode (NC-AFM), has become a standard tool for atomic scale surface characterization, the paper deals specifically with its operation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Performance of the system

  16. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    /Saclay Irfu/SPP FRANCAVILLA, Paolo IFAE Barcelona GATAULLIN, Marat California Institute of Technology GATTO, Corrado INFN-Napoli GAUDIO, Gabriella INFN-Pavia GERMANI, Stefano INFN-Perugia Goldenzweig, Pablo University of Rochester GRAF, Norman SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory GROOM, Don Lawrence Berkeley Lab GUARDINCERRI, Elena Los Alamos National Laboratory HAUPTMAN, John Iowa State University HENRIQUES, Ana CERN HUANG, Jin Los Alamos National Laboratory HU, Tao IHEP-Beijing, CAS JIANG, Xiaodong Los Alamos National Laboratory JUI, Charles University of Utah KAPUSTINSKY, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory KIBILKO, Mark SE Technical Sales, Inc. KIRSCHENMANN, Henning University of Hamburg KISTENEV, Edouard Brookhaven National Laboratory KLIMEK, Pawel Stockholm Universitet KROEGER, Robert University of Mississippi LECOQ, Paul CERN LEE, Sehwook Texas Tech University LEE, Sung-Won Texas Tech University LIVAN, Michele Pavia University LUTZ, Benjamin DESY MAGILL, Stephen Argonne National Laboratory MATHIS, Mark College of William and Mary MATTHEWS, John University of Utah MENKE, Sven Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik MOULSON, Matthew INFN-Frascati NAGEL, Martin Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik NAKAMURA, Isamu KEK NEMECEK, Stanislav FZU AVCR Praha NESSI-TEDALDI, Francesca ETH Zurich NOVOTNY, Rainer 2nd Physics Institute, University Giessen OREGLIA, Mark University of Chicago PERLOFF, Alexx Texas A&M University PETYT, David Rutherford Appleton Laboratory RAHMAT, Rahmat University of Mississippi RAMILLI, Marco Hamburg Universitaet ROSIER LEES, Sylvie LAPP- IN2P3-CNRS RUTHERFOORD, John University of Arizona SAKUMA, Tai Texas A&M University SANTIAGO CERQUEIRA, Augusto Federal University of Juiz de Fora SARRA, Ivano INFN-Frascati SEIDEL, Sally University of New Mexico SEIFERT, Frank TU Dresden, Germany SHAMIM, Mansoora University of Oregon SIMON, Frank Max-Planck-Institute for Physics STAFFAN, Paul Wiener Plein and Baus, Corp Dr. STAROVOITOV, Pavel DESY TABARELLI DE FATIS, Tommaso

  17. A Glimpse of the Young Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    metal-deficient stars that is currently being carried out at Hamburger Sternwarte [4]. Over a period of more than 10 years, a large collection of photographic pictures of the southern sky were obtained with the ESO 1-m Schmidt Telescope, a wide-angle telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile that has now been decommissioned. Thanks to a large glass prism in the front of the telescope, every object in the observed sky field - stars as well as galaxies - was imaged as a small spectrum, providing a first rough idea about its type and composition. The main aim of this "Hamburg/ESO survey" (with Dieter Reimers , Associate Director of the Hamburger Sternwarte, as Principal Investigator and Lutz Wisotzki , now at Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany, as Project Scientist) was to find quasars (particularly active centres of galaxies), a task that was accomplished most successfully, cf. e.g., ESO PR 10/97 and ESO PR 08/00 (Report F). A very welcome by-product of this survey has been a rich harvest of very metal-poor stars . This part of the project is led by Norbert Christlieb , also from the Hamburg Observatory, and now on sabbatical leave at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University (Canberra, Australia). Using fast computers and advanced pattern-recognition software to analyze the photographic exposures and thus to sift through millions of registered stellar spectra, about 8000 candidates for very metal-poor stars were found. These stars are now being scrutinized spectroscopically one-by-one with many medium-sized telescopes all over the world. Confirmed candidates are then observed with the largest telescopes in the world in order to obtain very detailed spectra (of high spectral resolution), which allow the astronomers to determine their chemical composition accurately. The very metal-deficient star HE 0107-5240 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 ESO PR Photo 25a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 458 pix - 86k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 915

  18. only: A Case Study In Projective Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craige Roberts

    2010-12-01

    only’. Ms., The Ohio State University.Roberts, C. 2010. ‘Resolving Focus’. Ms., The Ohio State University.Roberts, C., Simons, M., Beaver, D. & Tonhauser, J. 2009. ‘Presupposition, implicature and beyond: A unified account of projection’. Workshop on Presupposiition, ESSLLI ’09, Bordeaux. Available on Roberts’ website.Rooth, M. 1985. Association with Focus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Rooth, M. 1992. ‘A theory of Focus Interpretation’. Natural Language Semantics 1: 75–116.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02342617Schwarzschild, R. 1999. ‘Givenness, AvoidF, and other constraints on the placement of accent’. Natural Language Semantics 7: 141–177.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008370902407Schwenter, S. 2002. ‘Pragmatic variation between negatives: evidence from Romance’. In D. Johnson & T. Sanchez (eds. ‘University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, vol. 8.3: Papers from NWAV 30’, 249–263. University of Pennsylvania.Simons, M. 2000. ‘On the Conversational Basis of Some Presuppositions’. Proceedings of SALT 11, Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications.Simons, M. 2007. ‘Observations on embedding verbs, evidentiality, and presupposition’. Lingua 117, no. 6: 1034–1056.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.05.006Simons, M., Tonhauser, J., Beaver, D. & Roberts, C. 2010. ‘What projects and why’. In Nan Li & David Lutz (eds. ‘Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT 20’, 309–327. Ithaca, NY: CLC Publications.Soames, S. 1989. ‘Presupposition’. In D. Gabbay & F. Guenther (eds. ‘Handbook of Philosophical Logic, vol. IV’, 553–616. Dordrecht: Reidel.Stalnaker, R. 1973. ‘Presuppositions’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2: 447–457.Stalnaker, R. 1974. ‘Pragmatic presuppositions’. In Milton Munitz & Peter Unger (eds. ‘Semantics and Philosophy’, 197–213. NYU Press.Thomason, R. 1990. ‘Accommodation, meaning, and implicature: Interdisciplinary foundations for pragmatics’. In P. Cohen

  19. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    and Chalazonitis N 1961 Excitatiory and inhibitory processes initiated by light and infra-red radiations in single identifiable nerve cells Nervous Inhibition ed. E Florey (New York: Pergamon) pP 194-231 [5] Fork R L 1971 Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia Science 171 907-8 [6] Allegre G, Avrillier S and Albe-Fessard D 1994 Stimulation in the rat of a nerve fiber bundle by a short UV pulse from an excimer laser Neurosci. Lett. 180 261-4 [7] Hirase H, Nikolenko V, Goldberg J H and Yuste R 2002 Multiphoton stimulation of neurons J. Neurobiol. 51 237-47 [8] Callaway E M and Yuste R 2002 Stimulating neurons with light Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12 587-92 [9] Ellis-Davies G C 2007 Caged compounds: photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and physiology Nat. Methods 4 619-28 [10] Shoham S, O'Connor D H, Sarkisov D V and Wang S S 2005 Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns Nat. Methods 2 837-43 [11] Nikolenko V, Poskanzer K E and Yuste R 2007 Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits Nat. Methods 4 943-50 [12] Lutz C, Otis T S, DeSars V, Charpak S, DiGregorio D A and Emiliani V 2008 Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters Nat. Methods 5 821-7 [13] Nikolenko V, Watson B O, Araya R, Woodruff A, Peterka D S and Yuste R 2008 SLM microscopy: scanless two-photon imaging and photostimulation with spatial light modulators Front. Neural Circuits 2 5 [14] Zahid M, Velez-Fort M, Papagiakoumou E, Ventalon C, Angulo M C and Emiliani V Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices PLoS One 5 e9431 [15] Boyden E S, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G and Deisseroth K 2005 Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity Nat. Neurosci. 8 1263-8 [16] Zhang F, Aravanis A M, Adamantidis A, de Lecea L and Deisseroth K 2007 Circuit-breakers: optical technologies for probing neural signals and systems Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 577-81 [17] Gradinaru V, Zhang F, Ramakrishnan

  20. Selective Photonic Disinfection; A ray of hope in the war against pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2016-06-01

    -type="journal"> Gaffney K J Davis P H Piletic I R Levinger N E Fayer M D 2002 Hydrogen bond dissociation and reformation in methanol oligomers following hydroxyl stretch relaxation J. Phys. Chem. A 106 12012 12023 12012-23 10.1021/jp021696g citation> 5 citation publication-type="journal"> O'Connell C Sherlock R Ball M D Aszalos-Kiss B Prendergast U Glynn T J 2009 Investigation of the hydrophobic recovery of various polymeric biomaterials after 172 nm UV treatment using contact angle, surface free energy and XPS measurements Appl. Surf. Sci. 255 4405 4413 4405-13 10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.11.034 citation> 1 citation publication-type="journal"> Dykeman E C Sankey O F 2010 Atomistic modeling of the low-frequency mechanical modes and Raman spectra of icosahedral virus capsids Phys. Rev. E 81 021918 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.021918 citation> 2 citation publication-type="journal"> Yan Y X Gamble E B Nelson K A 1985 Impulsive stimulated scattering: general importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications J. Chem. Phys. 83 5391 5399 5391-9 10.1063/1.449708 citation> 3 citation publication-type="book"> Tsen K T Dykeman E C Sankey O F Tsen S W D Kiang J G 2009 Contemporary Trends in Bacteriophage Research Adams H T Hauppauge, NY Nova Science Publishers pp 151 177 151-77 citation> 4 citation publication-type="book"> Arfken G 1970 Mathematical Methods for Physicists 2nd edn New York Academic citation> 5 citation publication-type="book"> Davydov A S 1965 Quantum Mechanics Palo Alto, CA Addison-Wesley citation> 6 citation publication-type="journal"> Nelson K A Miller R J D Lutz D R Fayer M D 1982 Optical generation of tunable ultrasonic waves J. Appl. Phys. 53 1144 1149 1144-9 10.1063/1.329864 citation> 7 citation publication-type="journal"> De Silvestri S Fujimoto J G Ippen E P 1985 Femtosecond time-resolved measurements of optic phonon dephasing by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering in α-perylene crystal from 20 to 300 K Chem. Phys. Lett. 116 146 152 146-52 10

  1. Dergilerden Özetler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Korkut Gülmen

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available EROİN AŞIRI ALIMLARINDA MORFİN VE MORFİN GLUKURONİDLERİNİN POSTMORTEM DAĞILIM ÖZELLİĞİ Postmortem distribution pattern of morphine and morphine glucuronides in heroin overdose G. Skopp, R. Lutz, B. Ganssmann, R. Mattern, R. Aderjari Int J Legal Med 1996;109:118-124. Eroin aşırı alımlı dört olguda morfin ve metabolitlerinin postmortem dağılımını, kan konsantrasyonlarını etkileyen bazı etmenleri ortaya koyabilmek amacı ile araştırdık. Araştırmada, morfin konjugatlarının kimyasal stabiliteleri, hemokonsantrasyon, ilacın inkomp- let dağılımı ve diffüzyon işlevi, değişkenler olarak alındı. Aort, Vena Cava İnferiorun infra ve supra renal kısımlarından, femoral ve subklavian venlerden, sağ ve sol ventrikülden alınan kan örneklerinde, morfin, morfin-3-glukuronid ve morfin-6-glukuronid, hematokrit ve su içeriği araştırıldı. İlaç konsantrasyonları, HPLC ile analitlerin doğal fluoresansında değerlendirildi. Morfin glukuronidlerinin 72 saate kadar stabil oldukları kanıtlandı. Su içeriği %65~83, hematokrit değerleri %25-75 arasında değişkenlik göstermekte idi, ilaç konsantrasyonlarında ise kan örneğinin alındığı bölgeye göre dramatik değişkenlikler izlendi. Bu değişkenlikler ne yaşam sırasındaki inkomplet dağılıma, ne de morfin ve konjugatlarının farklı dağılım volümlerine bağlı bir diffüzyon işlemine bağlanabildi. Far- makokinetik araştırmalarda morfin dozları sonrasında gözlendiği gibi morfin ve glukuronidlerinin molar konsantrasyon oranları arasında kesin bir ilişki kurulamadı. Konunun daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için, daha fazla olgunun değişik zaman dilimlerinde ve doku konsantrasyonlarında analizi gerekmektedir. DENTAL PULPADAN PCR-DNA ANALİZİNDE ÇEVRESEL FAKTÖRLERİN ETKİSİ Effect of environmental factors on PCR-DNA analysis from dental pulp. A. Alvarez Garcia, I. Munoz, C. Pestoni, M.V. Lareu, M.S. Rodriguez-Calvo, A

  2. Dergilerden Özetler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Ünüvar Atılmış

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available ASI VE BAĞLA BOĞMA VAKALARINDA BİYOLOJİK DELİLLERİN TAŞINMASI Transfer of biological traces in cases of hanging and ligature strangulation. Bohnert M, Faller-Marquardt M, Lutz S, Amberg R, Weisser H], Poliak S. Forensic Sei Int. 2001;116(2-3:107-15 Boyun, ya deriye uygulanan bası izi ya da üst epidermal tabakanın kaybına neden olan sıyrıklarla, ası ve bağla boğma olgularında bir işaret taşır. Boğma materyaline boyundaki üst deri tabakası ve giysilerin lifleri yapışabilir. Bunlar bazen çıplak gözle görülebileceği gibi bazen de gümüş parçacıkları ile görülür hale gelir. Bu çalışmada, ası ve bağla boğmaya bağlı, epidermisin bu araçlara yapışma şekilleri 14 vakada gösterilmiştir. Bu biyolojik örneklerin PCR metoduna dayalı karşılaştırmalı DNA tiplendirmesinde yararlı olduğu görülmüştür. 14 vakanın 9'unda genomik DNA tiplendirmesi başarılı olmuştur. Genomik DNA tiplendirilmesinin başarılı olmadığı 2 vakada ise mtDNA analizi başarılı olmuştur. Bu makale salt epider-mik parçaların kullanılmasının yanı sıra, seröz ve yağlı doku sıvılarının da boğma aracından elde edilmesini anlatmaktadır. BEBEKLERDE ÖLÜMCÜL SUBDURAL KANAMA kaza mi - İstismar mi? Lethal subdural bleedings of babies-accident or abuse? Maxeiner H. Med Law. 2001;20(3:463-82. Son yıllarda infantil subdural kanamalar hakkında oldukça farklı görüşler öne sürülmektedir. Buna, çoğunlukla sarsılmış bebek sendromundaki gibi istismarın neden olduğu görüşü tartışmalı olup, kazaların önemli rolüne vurgulamalar yapılmaktadır. Pek çok bildirimde görülenin aksine köprü ven rüptürünün araştırılması enstitümüzde postmortem incelemenin standart bir bileşenidir. Bu sayede çocukta bir mekanik travma hiç bir şüpheye yer bırakmadan ölüm sebebi olarak tanımlanabilir ve çok sayıda köprü ven yırtığı bize önemli derecede bir travmanın varlığını d

  3. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    the development of SINFONI for nearly 7 years. Some of the members of the Commissioning Teams are depicted in PR Photos 24g/04 and 24h/04; in addition to the SPIFFI team members present on the second photo, Walter Bornemann, Reinhard Genzel, Hans Gemperlein, Stefan Huber have also been working on the reintegration/commissioning in Paranal. Notes [1] This press release is issued in coordination between ESO, the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany, and the Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie in Leiden, The Netherlands. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2004/pressemitteilung20040824/index.html and a Dutch version at http://www.astronomy.nl/inhoud/pers/persberichten/30_08_04.html. [2] The SINFONI team consists of Roberto Abuter, Andrew Baker, Walter Bornemann, Ric Davies, Frank Eisenhauer (SPIFFI Principal Investigator), Hans Gemperlein, Reinhard Genzel (MPE Director), Andrea Gilbert, Armin Goldbrunner, Matthew Horrobin, Stefan Huber, Christof Iserlohe, Matthew Lehnert, Werner Lieb, Dieter Lutz, Nicole Nesvadba, Claudia Röhrle, Jürgen Schreiber, Linda Tacconi, Matthias Tecza, Niranjan Thatte, Harald Weisz (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Anthony Brown, Paul van der Werf (NOVA, Leiden, The Netherlands), Eddy Elswijk, Johan Pragt, Jan Kragt, Gabby Kroes, Ton Schoenmaker, Rik ter Horst (ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands), Henri Bonnet (SINFONI Project Manager), Roberto Castillo, Ralf Conzelmann, Romuald Damster, Bernard Delabre, Christophe Dupuy, Robert Donaldson, Christophe Dumas, Enrico Fedrigo, Gert Finger, Gordon Gillet, Norbert Hubin (Head of Adaptive Optics Dept.), Andreas Kaufer, Franz Koch, Johann Kolb, Andrea Modigliani, Guy Monnet (Head of Telescope Systems Division), Chris Lidman, Jochen Liske, Jean Louis Lizon, Markus Kissler-Patig (SINFONI Instrument Scientist), Jerome Paufique, Juha Reunanen