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Sample records for psanz clinical practice

  1. Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Van Den Dool, Joost; Balash, Yacov

    2017-01-01

    issues still remain open in the clinical practice. We performed a systematic review of the literature on botulinum toxin treatment for CD based on a question-oriented approach, with the aim to provide practical recommendations for the treating clinicians. Key questions from the clinical practice were...... of anticoagulants, neurological comorbidities) should also be further explored....

  2. Hypothyroidism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Qari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points.

  3. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    . The analysis focuses on the emergence of general clinical work practice demands on guidance • An analysis of guidance demands from clinical work practice and business strategy, focusing on implications for the design of computerised CPGs. In my research, I have applied observation studies, interviews......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... and compliance with CPGs in most areas of clinical practice are deficient. Computerization of CPGs has been brought forward as a method to disseminate and to support application of CPGs. Until now, CPG-computerization has focused on development of formal expressions of CPGs. The developed systems have, however...

  4. Learning clinical practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How do you learn clinical practice? What should we do to ensure that the ... work to a curriculum, and within a programme, so that their learning can be managed. So, postgraduate medical ... Derek Bok (former president of Harvard University), if you think education is hard work, try working without it. Dr Richard Bregazzi.

  5. Good Clinical Practice Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Jaime; Chuck, Tina; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Foltz, Bridget; Gorman, Colleen; Hinrichs, Heidi; McHale, Susan; Merchant, Kunal; Shapley, Stephanie; Wild, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) is an international standard for the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analyses, and reporting of clinical trials. The goal of GCP is to ensure the protection of the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants and to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data and reported results. In the United States, trial sponsors generally require investigators to complete GCP training prior to participating in each clinical trial to foster GCP and as a method to meet regulatory expectations (ie, sponsor’s responsibility to select qualified investigators per 21 CFR 312.50 and 312.53(a) for drugs and biologics and 21 CFR 812.40 and 812.43(a) for medical devices). This training requirement is often extended to investigative site staff, as deemed relevant by the sponsor, institution, or investigator. Those who participate in multiple clinical trials are often required by sponsors to complete repeated GCP training, which is unnecessarily burdensome. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative convened a multidisciplinary project team involving partners from academia, industry, other researchers and research staff, and government to develop recommendations for streamlining current GCP training practices. Recommendations drafted by the project team, including the minimum key training elements, frequency, format, and evidence of training completion, were presented to a broad group of experts to foster discussion of the current issues and to seek consensus on proposed solutions. PMID:27390628

  6. Ketorolac in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Evgenyevich Karateev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the data available in the literature on the use of ketorolac in clinical practice. Ketorolac is a highly effective analgesic that has proven to be the best drug in the treatment of pronounced acute pain (during monotherapy and combination analgesic therapy in the postoperative period or after serious injuries. The drug is excellently combined with narcotic analgesics, which permits reductions in the dose of opioids and in the risk of their adverse reactions. When given in standard doses and used for a short period, Ketorolac is reasonably safe, which makes it the drug of choice to relieve acute pain in therapeutic practice. It may be successfully used in cases of acute lower back pain, toothache, migraine, renal and hepatic colics, and in many other situations requiring prompt and potent analgesia, but it is inexpedient to administer narcotic analgesics. Ketorolac should be regarded as a good alternative to metamizole (analgin that is still popular in our country.

  7. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Janet I

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. Methods The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO, the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Results Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most

  8. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Janet I; Jeffery, Heather E; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Gordon, Adrienne; Hirst, Jane; Hill, David A; Arbuckle, Susan

    2012-11-06

    Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG) improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO), the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most challenging theme to resolve. Tutors identified all themes for

  9. A method for developing standardised interactive education for complex clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although systematic use of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand internationally endorsed Clinical Practice Guideline for Perinatal Mortality (PSANZ-CPG) improves health outcomes, implementation is inadequate. Its complexity is a feature known to be associated with non-compliance. Interactive education is effective as a guideline implementation strategy, but lacks an agreed definition. SCORPIO is an educational framework containing interactive and didactic teaching, but has not previously been used to implement guidelines. Our aim was to transform the PSANZ-CPG into an education workshop to develop quality standardised interactive education acceptable to participants for learning skills in collaborative interprofessional care. Methods The workshop was developed using the construct of an educational framework (SCORPIO), the PSANZ-CPG, a transformation process and tutor training. After a pilot workshop with key target and stakeholder groups, modifications were made to this and subsequent workshops based on multisource written observations from interprofessional participants, tutors and an independent educator. This participatory action research process was used to monitor acceptability and educational standards. Standardised interactive education was defined as the attainment of content and teaching standards. Quantitative analysis of positive expressed as a percentage of total feedback was used to derive a total quality score. Results Eight workshops were held with 181 participants and 15 different tutors. Five versions resulted from the action research methodology. Thematic analysis of multisource observations identified eight recurring education themes or quality domains used for standardisation. The two content domains were curriculum and alignment with the guideline and the six teaching domains; overload, timing, didacticism, relevance, reproducibility and participant engagement. Engagement was the most challenging theme to resolve

  10. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  11. Improving clinical practice guidelines for practicing cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Dwyer, Edward M; Eberly, Shirley; Francis, Charles; Gillespie, John A; Goldstein, Robert E; Greenberg, Henry; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald J; Klein, Helmut; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Marcus, Frank I; Moss, Arthur J; Oakes, David; Ryan, Daniel H; Bloch Thomsen, Poul E; Zareba, Wojciech

    2015-06-15

    Cardiac-related clinical practice guidelines have become an integral part of the practice of cardiology. Unfortunately, these guidelines are often long, complex, and difficult for practicing cardiologists to use. Guidelines should be condensed and their format upgraded, so that the key messages are easier to comprehend and can be applied more readily by those involved in patient care. After presenting the historical background and describing the guideline structure, we make several recommendations to make clinical practice guidelines more user-friendly for clinical cardiologists. Our most important recommendations are that the clinical cardiology guidelines should focus exclusively on (1) class I recommendations with established benefits that are supported by randomized clinical trials and (2) class III recommendations for diagnostic or therapeutic approaches in which quality studies show no benefit or possible harm. Class II recommendations are not evidence based but reflect expert opinions related to published clinical studies, with potential for personal bias by members of the guideline committee. Class II recommendations should be published separately as "Expert Consensus Statements" or "Task Force Committee Opinions," so that both majority and minority expert opinions can be presented in a less dogmatic form than the way these recommendations currently appear in clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interprofessional Clinical Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses clinical education as a method for teaching interprofessional theory and practice. Pure and vicarious models are dealt with. A combined professional and interprofessional clinical experience is seen as the best compromise. (MT)

  13. Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without an external source. More than 50 million people in the United States have reported experiencing tinnitus, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 10% to 15% in adults. Despite the high prevalence of tinnitus and its potential significant effect on quality of life, there are no evidence-based, multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines to assist clinicians with management. The focus of this guideline is on tinnitus that is both bothersome and persistent (lasting 6 months or longer), which often negatively affects the patient's quality of life. The target audience for the guideline is any clinician, including nonphysicians, involved in managing patients with tinnitus. The target patient population is limited to adults (18 years and older) with primary tinnitus that is persistent and bothersome. The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians managing patients with tinnitus. This guideline provides clinicians with a logical framework to improve patient care and mitigate the personal and social effects of persistent, bothersome tinnitus. It will discuss the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the effect of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. The development group made a strong recommendation that clinicians distinguish patients with bothersome tinnitus from patients with nonbothersome tinnitus. The development group made a strong recommendation against obtaining imaging studies of the head and neck in patients with tinnitus, specifically to evaluate tinnitus that does not localize to 1 ear, is nonpulsatile

  14. Clinical Practice in Portuguese Sexology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Ribeiro, Sofia; Almeida, Joana; Giami, Alain

    2017-11-17

    Few studies explore the clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexuality, despite their role in the sexual-health socialization process. This study focuses on Portuguese sexologists engaged in clinical practice. It aims to characterize sexologists' sex education and training and their clinical practices, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This research followed the methodology of an European survey on sexology as a profession (Euro-Sexo). From the 91 respondents who completed questionnaires, 51 (56%) were active in clinical practice. Results indicate that the Portuguese clinical sexologist is significantly older, predominantly male, has had training in sexology, performs more scientific research, and is more engaged in teaching activities when compared to nonclinical working sexologists. This article describes the main sexual problems presented by patients to Portuguese clinical sexologists and highlights differences in the professional groups and approaches toward treating these problems by medical doctors and nonmedical professionals. Results reinforce the idea that there are intra-European differences in the educational background of sexologists and reveal important variations in Portuguese sexologists' education, training, and clinical practice. The representations and practices of the sexologists in Portugal, as in other European countries, are embedded in cultural scenarios and sexual cultures, with implications for the clinical practice.

  15. MAGNESIUM IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Trisvetova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is a macronutrient that is needed for normal body functions. Magnesium deficiency resulting from the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors, is diagnosed by clinical manifestations, resembling the known disease. Magnesium deficiency corrected with the magnesium therapy. Studies show the effectiveness of magnesium orotate for many cardiovascular diseases.

  16. MAGNESIUM IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Trisvetova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is a macronutrient that is needed for normal body functions. Magnesium deficiency resulting from the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors, is diagnosed by clinical manifestations, resembling the known disease. Magnesium deficiency corrected with the magnesium therapy. Studies show the effectiveness of magnesium orotate for many cardiovascular diseases.

  17. MAGNESIUM IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    E. L. Trisvetova

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is a macronutrient that is needed for normal body functions. Magnesium deficiency resulting from the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors, is diagnosed by clinical manifestations, resembling the known disease. Magnesium deficiency corrected with the magnesium therapy. Studies show the effectiveness of magnesium orotate for many cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Divorce in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, B E

    1981-03-01

    The family physician today has many families in his/her practice who have decided on divorce and who turn to the family physician for guidance. The effect of divorce for children from infancy to age three years is primarily related to the mother's emotional adjustment to the divorce. Preschool and school aged children are most at risk for personality disturbances because of their emerging sense of identity and need for both parents as figures of identification. The adolescent is initially the most painfully distressed by the divorce but, in fact, is in time the least affected of all the age groups. An intervention aimed at helping reduce the pathological effect on the child's development is outlined, which includes an emphasis on the parents working together for the benefit of the children, the suggestion that the children be allowed as much continuity in their lifestyle as possible, and the need for each parent not to deprecate or blame the other so that the child may have a positive image of both parents.

  2. Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

    2004-01-01

    The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

  3. Cherubism: best clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadaki Maria E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone. Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention.

  4. Cherubism: best clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Lietman, Steven A; Levine, Michael A; Olsen, Bjorn R; Kaban, Leonard B; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2012-05-24

    Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilateral and symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. In most patients, cherubism is due to dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable.Fibro-osseous lesions, including those in cherubism have been classified as quiescent, non-aggressive and aggressive on the basis of clinical behavior and radiographic findings. Quiescent cherubic lesions are usually seen in older patients and do not demonstrate progressive growth. Non-aggressive lesions are most frequently present in teenagers. Lesions in the aggressive form of cherubism occur in young children and are large, rapidly growing and may cause tooth displacement, root resorption, thinning and perforation of cortical bone.Because cherubism is usually self-limiting, operative treatment may not be necessary. Longitudinal observation and follow-up is the initial management in most cases. Surgical intervention with curettage, contouring or resection may be indicated for functional or aesthetic reasons. Surgical procedures are usually performed when the disease becomes quiescent. Aggressive lesions that cause severe functional problems such as airway obstruction justify early surgical intervention.

  5. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture.

  6. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  7. Leadership theory in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hui Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In current clinical settings, effective clinical leadership ensures a high-quality health care system that consistently provides safe and efficient care. It is useful, then, for health care professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognizing these styles not only enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders but also improves relationships with colleagues and leaders who have previously been challenging to work with. This article aims to use different leadership theories to interpret a common scenario in clinical settings in order to improve leadership effectiveness. Ultimately, it is found that different leadership styles are needed for different situations, and leaders should know which approach is most effective in a given scenario to achieve the organization's goals. Keywords: Leadership, Leadership theory, Clinical practice, Transformational leadership, Participative leadership, Transactional leadership

  8. NURSING LEADERSHIP IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Efstratiou,Fragkoula; Roumeliotis,Efstratios; Efstratiou,Nikoleta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Leadership is the influence of a person to a group or organization, and involves setting objectives, creating incentives for the production of work and contributing to the preservation of the group and its culture. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to inform about the role of the clinical nurse leader and its results in clinical practice of nursing. Methodology: The study was written depenting on articles that were found in the web and in electronic databases Science Di...

  9. Leadership theory in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    In current clinical settings, effective clinical leadership ensures a high-quality health care system that consistently provides safe and efficient care. It is useful, then, for health care professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognizing these styles not only enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders but also improves relationships with colleagues and leaders who have previously been c...

  10. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice is the official publication of the Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) established in 1997 and published ... Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Parts of Implant Material Surfaces · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Clinical radiopharmacy: principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, B A; Hladik, W B; Norenberg, J P

    1996-04-01

    On the average, radiopharmacists spend about 17.2% of their time in clinical activities if their practice setting is in an institution, and about 8.5% of their time if their practice setting is in a centralized nuclear pharmacy. A recent survey of radiopharmacists was conducted to determine: (1) the percentage of time they spend engaged in selected activities, and (2) the specific clinical activities in which they are involved. A few radiopharmacists spend as much as 50% of their time in clinical activities, but most spend only 5% to 20% of their time. Some of the clinical activities involve direct interactions with patients, such as explaining the reasons for administering the radioactive material or actually administering the dose. Other clinical activities are indirect, such as reviewing charts before or after studies and making recommendations to other health care professionals. About half of the pharmacists surveyed see a need for increasing their clinical activities. The need to maximize the time involved in providing pharmaceutical care is discussed and several patient-care activities/responsibilities are proposed.

  12. Handbook of clinical nursing practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asheervath, J.; Blevins, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Written in outline format, this reference will help nurses further their understanding of advanced nursing procedures. Information is provided on the physiological, psychological, environmental, and safety considerations of nursing activities associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Special consideration is given to the areas of pediatric nursing, nursing assessment, and selected radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures for each system. Contents: Clinical Introduction. Clinical Nursing Practice: Focus on Basics. Focus on Cardiovascular Function. Focus on Respiratory Function. Focus on Gastrointestinal Function. Focus on Renal and Genito-Urological Function. Focus on Neuro-Skeletal and Muscular Function. Appendices.

  13. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. [Good clinical practice in nebulization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, B; Fauroux, B; Bonfils, P; Diot, P; Faurisson, F

    1998-01-01

    A meeting on nebulization held in April 1997 defined good clinical practices. Guidelines that were proposed pertained to the following: pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers; delivering circuit, occluded or not, the choice of the tip being done according to the disease to treat and to the drugs to be delivered; various functions, depending on the type of nebulizer; the particle size, as it will indicate which disease may be treated: between 2 and 6 microns for bronchi, between 0.5 et 3 microns for lung, > 5 microns for ear, nose and throat diseases; compatibility between the type of nebulizer and drugs. Ten drugs are currently registered in France. Nebulization has multiple clinical indications, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, acute laryngitis, and in infants, acute bronchiolitis. The prescription must be detailed, and the physician should make sure that the medical staff put it into application.

  15. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  16. Supernumerary teeth in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Szkaradkiewicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition amounts 0.1-6.9%, and in deciduous dentition 0.4-0.8%. The presence of supernumerary teeth can be found in everyday dental practice.Case presentation: We describe 3 cases of patients with supernumerary teeth. First patient had supernumerary lateral incisor 12s, second - premolar fused, multicuspid, supernumerary deciduous tooth 64s of having several interconnected roots, and third - erupted odontoma between teeth 13 and 14. In all cases treatment involved the removal of the supernumerary tooth.Conclusions: The decision on proceeding with the supernumerary teeth should be based on the full clinical picture and interview. Early diagnosis and removal of supernumerary teeth allow to avoid or reduce possible complications.

  17. Infliximab in Russian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Lukina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of infliximab began (INF in Russia in 2001. It was the first genetically engineered biological agent (GEBA registered in our country to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. With the advent of infliximab, a Russian biological rheumatoid arthritis therapy registry started its work. In October 2005, it was set up on the basis of GEBA centers founded in the leading rheumatology clinics of Russia. Objective: to generalize the Russian experience in using INF (its efficacy, tolerance, and side effects in patients with RA in real clinical practice within the framework of a multicenter observational study. Subjects and methods. The register included patients with a valid diagnosis of RA in whom INF treatment was first started. The main indication for this was previous basic therapy failure. This investigation analyzed 396 patients receiving INF therapy. Prior to INF administration, all the patients were examined to identify whether they had possible latent tuberculosis, by applying chest X-ray study and Mantoux test. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria were used to evaluate the efficiency of INF therapy. The relationship between the therapeutic effects of the drug and its cumulative dose was specially used. The trend in X-ray progression was estimated using the Sharp method modified by van der Heijde. INF was given in a dose of 3 mg/kg by the classical regimen: at 0, 2, and 6 weeks, then every 8 weeks. The main assessment periods were at 22 and 46—54 weeks. Results. Analysis of the data of real clinical practice in Russia demonstrates that the use of INF in RA patients with the inadequate effect of traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs is able to cause a rapid and pronounced reduction in disease activity. There is significant evidence that the IFN-treated patients with RA had also suppressed bone destruction. INF treatment for early RA gives rise to remissions more frequently in the early stage of

  18. Research and clinical practice relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashammakhi N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: I highly value and greet the authors for their editorial. Many important issues related to medical education and its future in Libya have been discussed in this paper [1]. One important point that has been addressed and I feel deserves attention is the “abnormal” relationship between clinical practice and research in Libya. From discussions with colleagues, this problem somehow has evolved from a misconception about educational and training systems that may have occurred in the past. It may also be related to the lack of attention to research that has long existed in Libya [2,3]. The other aspect, shared with many other developing countries, is the misconception of research as unimportant or a luxury aspect of medicine. When it comes to understanding how a system (including healthcare can be updated and developed, the answer is vague! One important reason is a lack of understanding of the impact that research has on developing methods. In developed countries, research is the main academic distinction that leads to appointments for coveted positions in the system and is an important factor for academic promotion. In Libya, there remain arguments about who will be awarded Chair of university clinical departments. Such a post should no doubt be given to those with established academic achievements. When highly qualified persons are at the top of the pyramid this leads to further progress and enhanced research and advancement. The authors have discussed the point of having proper search committees for leadership and faculty positions. I believe that it will help eliminate the current stagnation and help to create innovative solutions. This should lead to improved medical education, health services, and ultimately impact the quality of life of all Libyan citizens.

  19. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  20. Procedures for Using Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Patricia; Griffer, Mona; Lund, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides information about clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to facilitate their application to the practice of speech-language pathology. CPGs are sets of recommendations based on evidence, including expert clinical opinion, that have been developed by a panel of reviewers. In this article, CPGs are defined and their…

  1. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 72 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  2. New developments in clinical practice guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence to: Dr Georg Kreymann, e-mail: georg_kreymann@baxter.com. New developments in clinical practice guidelines. During the last four years revised clinical practice guidelines have been published by the major nutritional societies: The American. Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (ASPEN),1 the ...

  3. Clinical Practice Informs Secure Messaging Benefits and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Hathaway, Wendy; Chavez, Margeaux; Antinori, Nicole; Vetter, Brian; Miller, Brian K; Martin, Tracey L; Kendziora, Lisa; Nazi, Kim M; Melillo, Christine

    2017-10-01

    Background Clinical care team members in Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) facilities nationwide are working to integrate the use of Secure Messaging (SM) into care delivery and identify innovative uses. Identifying best practices for proactive use of SM is a key factor in its successful implementation and sustained use by VA clinical care team members and veterans. Objectives A collaborative project solicited input from VA clinical care teams about their local practices using SM to provide access to proactive patient-centered care for veterans and enhance workflow. Methods This project implemented a single-item cross-sectional qualitative electronic survey via internal e-mail to local coordinators in all 23 Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISNs). Content analysis was used to manage descriptive data responses. Descriptive statistics described sample characteristics. Results VA clinical care team members across 15 of 23 VISNs responded to the questionnaire. Content analysis of 171 responses produced two global domains: (1) benefits of SM and (2) SM best practices. Benefits of SM use emphasize enhanced and efficient communication and increased access to care. Care team members incorporate SM into their daily clinical practices, using it to provide services before, during, and after clinical encounters as a best practice. SM users suggest improvements in veteran care, clinical team workflow, and efficient use of health resources. Clinical team members invested in the successful implementation of SM integrate SM into their daily practices to provide meaningful and useful veteran-centered care and improve workflow. Conclusion VA clinical care team members can use SM proactively to create an integrated SM culture. With adequate knowledge and motivation to proactively use this technology, all clinical team members within the VA system can replicate best practices shared by other clinical care teams to generate meaningful and useful interactions with SM

  4. Positron emission tomography clinical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Valk, Peter E; Bailey, Dale L; Townsend, David W; Maisey, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a contemporary reference to the science, technology and clinical applications of PET and PET/CT. The opening chapters summarize the scientific aspects of PET and PET/CT including physics, instrumentation, radiation dosimetry and radiation protection. A chapter on normal variants in FDG PET imaging serves as an introduction to the clinical chapters, which cover oncology applications and have been updated to include the impact of FDG PET/CT imaging in oncology. The book concludes with chapters on the use of PET and PET/CT in cardiology and neurology and PET imaging of infectio

  5. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garattini, Silvio; Jakobsen, Janus C; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature was consi......Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature...

  6. Supernumerary teeth in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K. Szkaradkiewicz; Tomasz M. Karpiński

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition amounts 0.1-6.9%, and in deciduous dentition 0.4-0.8%. The presence of supernumerary teeth can be found in everyday dental practice. Case presentation: We describe 3 cases of patients with supernumerary teeth. First patient had supernumerary lateral incisor 12s, second - premolar fu...

  7. Opioid detoxification: from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P. van der

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  8. Opioid Detoxification: From Controlled Clinical Trial to Clinical Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  9. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  10. How GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective......BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. METHODS: Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form...

  11. Impella ventricular support in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Doshi, Sagar N

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support represents an evolving field of clinical research and practice. Currently, several cardiac assist devices have been developed but, among different institutions and countries, a large variation in indications for use and device selection exists. The Impella platform...... and the operative protocols, this working group attempted to establish the best clinical practice with the technology. The present paper reviews the main theoretical principles of Impella and provides an up-to-date summary of the best practical aspects of device use which may help others gain the maximal advantage...... with Impella technology in a variety of clinical settings....

  12. Digital clinical photography: practical tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Sharad

    2010-01-01

    Photographs are the most preferred and easiest way of documentation of patient visual features. In aesthetic and cutaneous surgery, there is an increased need for proper photographic documentation, from a medicolegal view point. This article discusses the basic aspects of camera and photography which a dermatologist should be aware before he/she starts with clinical photography.

  13. Digital clinical photography: Practical tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Mutalik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photographs are the most preferred and easiest way of documentation of patient visual features. In aesthetic and cutaneous surgery, there is an increased need for proper photographic documentation, from a medicolegal view point. This article discusses the basic aspects of camera and photography which a dermatologist should be aware before he/she starts with clinical photography.

  14. Digital Clinical Photography: Practical Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Mutalik

    2010-01-01

    Photographs are the most preferred and easiest way of documentation of patient visual features. In aesthetic and cutaneous surgery, there is an increased need for proper photographic documentation, from a medicolegal view point. This article discusses the basic aspects of camera and photography which a dermatologist should be aware before he/she starts with clinical photography.

  15. Clinical Trials in Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION FORM. Although a clinical research associate. (CRA) usually completes the applica- tion, it is incumbent upon the investigators (usually represented by the. 'principal' investigators) to ensure that the study is both scientifically and ethically sound, and that the application is logically completed. Many CRAs do.

  16. HIV prevention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T J

    1999-01-01

    Since early in the HIV epidemic, it has been known that HIV is transmitted in very specific ways. However, many personal and societal issues make it difficult to convince people that modifying behaviors can decrease their chances of infection. Physicians are in a unique position to slow the spread of the epidemic, but many are not comfortable discussing risky behaviors and sexual practices with their patients. HIV-positive individuals need tailored interventions that teach how to assume responsibility for preventing HIV transmission. The epidemiology of HIV transmission in the U.S. is discussed.

  17. Social media in clinical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Meskó, Bertalan

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients using social media and the number of applications and solutions used by medical professionals online have been sky-rocketing in the past few years, therefore the rational behind creating a well-designed, clear and tight handbook of practical examples and case studies with simple pieces of suggestions about different social media platforms is evident. While the number of e-patients is rising, the number of web-savvy doctors who can meet the expectations of these new generations of patients is not, this huge gap can only be closed by providing medical professionals with ea

  18. Communities of clinical practice: the social organization of clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal

    2009-01-01

    The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur within communities of clinical practice. These are also major sites for clinical curriculum delivery, where clinical students learn not only clinical skills but also how to be health professionals. In this article, we apply Wenger's model of social learning within organizations to curriculum delivery within a health service setting. Here, social participation is the basis of learning. We suggest that it offers a powerful framework for recognizing and explaining paradox and incongruence in clinical teaching and learning, and also for recognizing opportunities, and devising means, to add value to students' learning experiences.

  19. Translating research findings to clinical nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Fry, Margaret; Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie

    2017-03-01

    To describe the importance of, and methods for, successfully conducting and translating research into clinical practice. There is universal acknowledgement that the clinical care provided to individuals should be informed on the best available evidence. Knowledge and evidence derived from robust scholarly methods should drive our clinical practice, decisions and change to improve the way we deliver care. Translating research evidence to clinical practice is essential to safe, transparent, effective and efficient healthcare provision and meeting the expectations of patients, families and society. Despite its importance, translating research into clinical practice is challenging. There are more nurses in the frontline of health care than any other healthcare profession. As such, nurse-led research is increasingly recognised as a critical pathway to practical and effective ways of improving patient outcomes. However, there are well-established barriers to the conduct and translation of research evidence into practice. This clinical practice discussion paper interprets the knowledge translation literature for clinicians interested in translating research into practice. This paper is informed by the scientific literature around knowledge translation, implementation science and clinician behaviour change, and presented from the nurse clinician perspective. We provide practical, evidence-informed suggestions to overcome the barriers and facilitate enablers of knowledge translation. Examples of nurse-led research incorporating the principles of knowledge translation in their study design that have resulted in improvements in patient outcomes are presented in conjunction with supporting evidence. Translation should be considered in research design, including the end users and an evaluation of the research implementation. The success of research implementation in health care is dependent on clinician/consumer behaviour change and it is critical that implementation strategy

  20. Neuropsychiatric Lupus in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alessi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease involving multiple organs, characterized by the production of autoantibodies and the development of tissue injury. The etiology of SLE is partially known, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. As many as 50% of patients with SLE have neurological involvement during the course of their disease. Neurological manifestations are associated with impaired quality of life, and high morbidity and mortality rates. Nineteen neuropsychiatric syndromes have been identified associated with SLE, and can be divided into central and peripheral manifestations. This article reviews major neuropsychiatric manifestations in patients with SLE and discusses their clinical features, radiological findings and treatment options.

  1. Placebo interventions, placebo effects and clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Klaus; Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role of placebo interventions and placebo effects in clinical practice. We first describe the relevance of different perspectives among scientists, physicians and patients on what is considered a placebo intervention in clinical practice. We then summarize how placebo effects have been investigated in randomized controlled trials under the questionable premise that such effects are produced by placebo interventions. We further discuss why a shift of focus from the pla...

  2. Collaborative Clinical Practice: An Alternate Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Amy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education in the 21st century is encountering increased scrutiny, added pressure, and escalating external regulations but does not have practical and immediate solutions for improving programs. While reforms in teacher education call for additional and improved clinical practice for candidates, through strengthened partnerships with local…

  3. Central venous pressure monitoring in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Katie

    This article provides an overview of central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in clinical practice. It explores the underpinning anatomy and physiology, as well as the indications and means of access, for the procedure. The mechanics and practicalities of measuring CVP are discussed and information for troubleshooting is provided.

  4. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Mission Statement The purpose of the Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice is to promote clinical and academic excellence in Medicine and Dentistry and allied sciences. To this end the Journal will publish its issues regularly and will ensure their prompt distribution to all subscribers and libraries ...

  5. Lexical Concept Distribution Reflects Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W.; Einbinder, Jonathan S.; Turchin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records.

  6. Clinical Practice Update: Pediculosis Capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Brittany; Evetts, Jessica; McClain, Kymberli; Rosenauer, Amanda; Stellitano, Emily

    2015-01-01

    A review of the current evidence on primary treatment modalities of head lice demonstrates increasing resistance to current regimens. New and alternative therapies are now available. A treatment algorithm was created to address safety and efficacy of treatments, as well as to guide clinicians through navigation of the regimens. Through an online journal search, 59 articles were selected for the review. Literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Ebsco Host, and CINAHL, with key search words of "Pediculosis capitis" and "head lice" in the title, abstract, and index. Meta-analyses and controlled clinical trials were viewed with greater weight if they had a large sample size, were statistically significant, and did not allude to bias. When resistant infestations are well-documented in a locality, changes to the treatment regimen are indicated, and alternative treatments should be considered. Recent studies and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals have changed the available treatment options for Pediculosis capitis, including benzyl alcohol, topical ivermectin, spinosad, and the LouseBuster. Further, environmental management and prevention measures should be taken to avoid reinfestation and to prevent the spread of head lice. Continued study is recommended to establish long-term safety of new and alternative agents.

  7. Voluntary informed consent and good clinical practice for clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most differences, shortcomings and contradictions regarding voluntary informed consent for participation in clinical research relate to the South African-specific guidance documents, i.e. South African Guidelines for Good Practice in the Conduct of Clinical Trials with Human Participants in South Africa (2006) and Ethics in ...

  8. The Red Book and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygott, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Jung's work is fundamentally an experience, not an idea. From this perspective, I attempt to bridge conference, consulting room and living psyche by considering the influence of the 'Red Book' on clinical practice through the subtle and imaginal. Jung's journey as a man broadens out to have relevance for women. His story is individual but its archetypal foundation finds parallel expression in analytic practice today. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. George Engel's Epistemology of Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, Michael; Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, J Donald

    2014-01-01

    George Engel's (1913-1999) biopsychosocial model, one of the most significant proposals for the renewal of medicine in the latter half of the 20th century, has been understood primarily as a multi-factorial approach to the etiology of disease and as a call to re-humanize clinical practice. This common reading of Engel's model misses the central aspect of his proposal, that the biopsychosocial model is an epistemology for clinical work. By stating the simple fact that the clinician is not dealing directly with a body, but first, and inevitably, with a person, Engel challenged the epistemology implicit in the classical clinical method-a method predicated on the possibility of direct access to the body. Framed in epistemological terms, the issue at stake is not the need to complement medical science with humane virtues, but rather to acknowledge that the object of clinical practice is not the body but the patient.

  10. Enhancing reflective practice through online learning: impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, J; Radloff, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol-driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author's doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was used to design and implement an online module for radiation therapists' CPD activities. The study aimed to determine if it is possible to enhance healthcare practitioners' reflective practice via online learning and to establish the impact of reflective learning on clinical practice. The objectives of the online module were to increase radiation therapists' knowledge in planning for radiation therapy for the breast by assisting them engage in reflective practice. The cyclical process of action research was used to pilot the module twice with two groups of volunteer radiation therapists (twenty-six participants) from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. The online module was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model. Evidence indicated that participants were empowered as a result of participation in the module. They began reflecting in the workplace while assuming a more proactive role and increased clinical responsibilities, engaged colleagues in collaborative reflections and adopted evidence-based approaches in advancing clinical practices. The study shows that it is possible to assist practitioners engage in reflective practice using an online CPD educational framework. Participants were able to apply the reflective learning they had developed in their workplace. As a result of their learning, they felt empowered to continue to effect changes in their workplace beyond the cessation of the online module.

  11. Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…

  12. Facilitating Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Deanna; And Others

    Activities to promote the transfer of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice have been developed to facilitate learning by individuals with various learning styles, reduce student stress, and improve teaching methods in a baccalaureate nursing program at the California State University, Chico. Specific activities included innovative…

  13. Introduction: Applying Clinical Psychological Science to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; DiVasto, Katherine A

    2017-05-01

    Mental illness is a prevalent and extraordinarily complex phenomenon. Psychologists have developed distinct approaches toward understanding and treating mental illness, rooted in divergent epistemology. This introduction to the Special Issue on Clinical Psychological Science and Practice provides a brief overview of the scientist-practitioner gap, and explores one step (of many) toward bridging this divide. Seven compelling case illustrations featured in this Special Issue apply empirical findings to case formulation, treatment selection, and assessment across complex and varied clinical presentations. This issue thereby demonstrates the feasibility of integrating research and clinical expertise in mental healthcare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  15. The shortcomings of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Leier, Carl V; Geleris, Paraschos; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of medical knowledge related to diagnosis and management over the last 5-6 decades has altered the course of diseases, improved clinical outcomes and increased survival. Thus, it has become difficult for the practicing physician to evaluate the long-term effects of a particular therapy on survival of an individual patient. Further, the approach by each physician to an individual patient with the same disease is not always uniform. In an attempt to assist physicians in applying newly acquired knowledge to patients, clinical practice guidelines were introduced by various scientific societies. Guidelines assist in facilitating the translation of new research discoveries into clinical practice; however, despite the improvements over the years, there are still several issues related to guidelines that often appear ‘lost in translation'. Guidelines are based on the results of randomized clinical trials, other nonrandomized studies, and expert opinion (i.e. the opinion of most members of the guideline committees). The merits and limitations of randomized clinical trials, guideline committees, and presentation of guidelines will be discussed. In addition, proposals to improve guidelines will be presented. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. The Bobath concept in contemporary clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Julie Vaughan; Eustace, Catherine; Brock, Kim; Swain, Elizabeth; Irwin-Carruthers, Sheena

    2009-01-01

    Future development in neurorehabilitation depends upon bringing together the endeavors of basic science and clinical practice. The Bobath concept is widely utilized in rehabilitation following stroke and other neurological conditions. This concept was first developed in the 1950s, based on the neuroscience knowledge of those times. The theoretical basis of the Bobath concept is redefined based on contemporary neuroscience and rehabilitation science. The framework utilized in the Bobath concept for the analysis of movement and movement dysfunction is described. This framework focuses on postural control for task performance, the ability to move selectively, the ability to produce coordinated sequences of movement and vary movement patterns to fit a task, and the role of sensory input in motor behaviour and learning. The article describes aspects of clinical practice that differentiate this approach from other models of practice. Contemporary practice in the Bobath concept utilizes a problem-solving approach to the individual's clinical presentation and personal goals. Treatment is focused toward remediation, where possible, and guiding the individual towards efficient movement strategies for task performance. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical framework on which future research into the Bobath concept can be based.

  17. How to develop guidelines for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, R; Jankowski, M; Brozek, J; Antonelli, M

    2009-09-01

    Recent decades have seen an explosion of clinical practice guidelines documents developed to inform clinicians about the best options for managing treatment, with the explicit intent to influence behaviour. As our exposure to guidelines has increased it has become clear that the process of guideline development should follow specific rules in order to avoid disagreement, misunderstanding, misleading recommendations, and confusion. In this article, we review the approach to developing clinical practice guidelines suggested by an international Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) workgroup. This approach suggests several steps for guideline development: 1. determine the purpose, scope, and intended audience; 2. select the panel of guideline authors; 3. specify the main focused clinical questions that the recommendations will address; 4. decide on the relative importance of outcomes; 5. find and summarize the evidence supporting each recommendation; 6. determine the quality of the available evidence; 7. evaluate the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences for a particular course of action; 8. formulate recommendations, including their strenght; and 9. consider a system for subsequent guideline implementation and evaluation. We aim to help the readers of practice guidelines asses those guidelines' quality and validity, as well as to assist the authors of future guidelines in systematically generating clinical recommendations.

  18. Good clinical practices: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, R L

    1995-03-01

    Clinical quality assurance has its roots in the evolution of the GCPs. Historically, the fundamental elements of GCPs provided a springboard to develop and refine a paradigm of standard measurements to assure the integrity and quality of research. The research community spontaneously responded by voluntarily establishing quality assurance units and implementing auditing functions to ensure the highest standards in an industry that encompasses science, medicine, and ethics. Although clinical quality assurance is still unregulated in the United States, the performance of good clinical practices has become an integral part of the clinical research process and has impacted the research community on worldwide basis. The establishment of the EC guidelines, the WHO guidelines, and the International Conference on Harmonization are testaments to the increasing emphasis on the future of GCP-related activities.

  19. The Advanced Practice Clinical Nurse Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ann M; Ray, Melinda Mercer; Chamblee, Tracy B; Urden, Linda D; Moody, Rachel

    The clinical nurse specialist (CNS), one of the 4 advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) categories, has a unique role to play in contributing to high-quality patient care and system-level change across multiple health care settings. CNS practice requires advanced knowledge and skills, including specialty expertise, the ability to integrate new knowledge and innovation into the system of care, the ability to consult and collaborate with all health professions, and the mentoring of nursing staff to support and fully implement that new knowledge. The purpose of this article was to describe the role of the CNS, explain the background of the CNS role as it relates to APRN practice, provide current CNS workforce statistics, and share opportunities for hospitals and health systems to strategically use CNSs to advance patient and organizational goals.

  20. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have rece...

  1. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  2. Caring during clinical practice: Midwives’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmajapi E. Chokwe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring forms the core of nursing and midwifery. Despite caring being an important emotional aspect of midwifery and nursing, there are general public complaints about uncaring behaviour in midwifery. Therefore, there is a need to explore caring from midwives’ point of view with the hope of identifying solutions and recommendations for midwifery practice. Furthermore, the study aimed to stimulate debate and discussion about the caring behaviour of midwives.Objective: To explore caring during clinical practice as perceived and experienced by midwives.Method: The study was contextual, exploratory and qualitative. The participants were midwives working in state and private hospitals in Tshwane,South Africa where BTech II and III midwifery learners were allocated for work integrated learning (WIL. Data collection was carried out through self-report using a questionnaire and focus group. Questionnaires were distributed to 40 midwives at private and state hospitals in Tshwane. This was followed by two focus group sessions to ensure that data is enriched. The hermeneutic interpretive approach was used to analyse data, and analysis continued until saturation.Results: Themes of caring and uncaring related to patient care and midwives emerged. Thefindings illustrated that the midwives had excellent theoretical knowledge of caring, but someof them did not display caring behaviour during clinical practice.Conclusion: Some of the midwives did not display caring behaviour. Implication for practicewas provided based on the research findings. Recommendations included measures of improving caring behaviours during midwifery practice.

  3. Regulating the placebo effect in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tracey E

    2015-01-01

    Recent research and ethical analysis have forced a clinical and ethical reappraisal of the utility of placebos in medical practice. The main concern of ethics and law is that using placebos in health care involves deception, which is antithetical to patient autonomy and trust in the physician-patient relationship. This article reviews the various, more nuanced scientific conceptions of the placebo effect, and evaluates the ethical and legal objections to deploying placebos in clinical practice. It argues that the placebo effect may be legitimately accommodated on the basis that it does not engage the requirement for material or quasi-fiduciary disclosures of information, and may also be justified by therapeutic privilege. In addition, this reconceptualisation of the placebo effect offers a new justification for therapeutic privilege in these contexts. Notwithstanding this, using the placebo effect in clinical practice raises regulatory issues that will require special regulatory supervision. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Informed consent in clinical practice: persistent doubts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Informed consent is the core aspect of the patient-physician relationship. Since its beginnings, clinical bioethics was opposed to the authoritarian paternalism characteristic of medicine since the 19th century. The informed consent was developed to provide patients with sufficient information to allow autonomous decisions when faced with medical diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives. In spite of bioethics’ effort to perfect informed consent, the discipline has been unable to avoid informed consent from becoming an impersonal and administrative procedure. Even though the major goal of this procedure is to provide sufficient information to allow patients an objective weighting of benefits and risks of medical practice, the uncertainties of medicine make full disclosure unattainable. Collecting more information finally leads to indecision and ultimate trust in medical advice. The clinical encounter is fundamentally a fiduciary relationship, and bioethics ought to accept that its main objective is to strengthen the trust bond that is essential to the clinical encounter. This goal may become incompatible with the quest for unlimited autonomy. Patients often will only require information as long as they distrust that medical institutions and their professionals are considering their interests and needs. The main proposal of this article is to temper bioethics’ insistence on autonomy, and accept that patients essentially seek to be protected and cared for. Informed consent ought to relent its efforts at full autonomy to the benefit of trustworthiness in medicine, and trust in clinical practice.

  5. Clinical writing: additional ethical and practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S

    2012-03-01

    The recommendations by Sieck (2011, Obtaining clinical writing informed consent versus using client disguise and recommendations for practice, Psychotherapy, 49, pp. 3-11.) are a helpful starting point for considering the ethical issues involved in the decision to seek or not to seek informed consent from clients before writing about them. Sieck makes a compelling case for the idea that there are circumstances in which the most ethical choice would be to engage in clinical writing about a client without seeking informed consent, but instead disguising the client's identity. The present response raises a number of questions not considered in the article by Sieck. First, how should one disguise a case? Moreover, how should one assess whether the disguise is sufficient to preserve confidentiality while not distorting the clinical material to the point that the material is no longer useful to the field? Second, how can we estimate the likelihood of clients reading clinical writing, particularly in the age of the Internet? Given that psychologist-authored blogs that include reference to clinical material are beginning to emerge, it is crucial that we engage in a much deeper dialogue about the ethics of clinical writing. Third, how does the presentation of clinical material influence public perceptions of psychotherapy and confidentiality? If these public perceptions, in turn, could influence the likelihood of seeking psychotherapy, might these attitudes be important to consider in ethical thinking about clinical writing? Finally, where do we draw the line between clinical writing and single case study research (which requires informed consent)? PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, JIB

    2016-01-01

    The expectation of obstetrics is a perfect outcome. Obstetrics malpractice can cause morbidity and mortality that may engender litigation. Globally, increasing trend to litigation in obstetrics practice has resulted in high indemnity cost to the obstetrician with consequent frustration and overall danger to the future of obstetrics practice. The objective was to review litigations and the Obstetrician in Clinical Practice, highlighting medical ethics, federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO’s) ethical responsibility guideline on women's sexual and reproductive health and right; examine the relationship between medical ethics and medical laws; X-ray medical negligence and litigable obstetrics malpractices; and make recommendation towards the improvement of obstetrics practices to avert misconduct that would lead to litigation. Review involves a literature search on the internet in relevant journals, textbooks, and monographs. Knowledge and application of medical ethics are important to the obstetricians to avert medical negligence that will lead to litigation. A medical negligence can occur in any of the three triads of medicare viz: Diagnosis, advice/counseling, and treatment. Lawsuits in obstetrics generally center on errors of omission or commission especially in relation to the failure to perform caesarean section or to perform the operation early enough. Fear of litigation, high indemnity cost, and long working hours are among the main reasons given by obstetricians for ceasing obstetrics practice. Increasing global trend in litigation with high indemnity cost to the obstetrician is likely to jeopardize the future of obstetrics care especially in countries without medical insurance coverage for health practitioners. Litigation in obstetrics can be prevented through the Obstetrician's mindfulness of its possibility; acquainting themselves of the medical laws and guidelines related to their practice; ensuring adequate communication with, and consent of

  7. Narrative medicine in clinical genetics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J M

    2012-08-01

    Over the last 30 years medicine has undergone a significant paradigm shift. Due to the tremendous advances of modern medicine more and more people are living longer with their illnesses. These people have stories to tell, and they want these stories to be heard: They are reclaiming their voices. As clinical geneticists we need to hear what these voices are telling us, especially so in our area of clinical care where cures are rare, and disease states can be permanent. Narrative medicine is an important new skill set that hones abilities to do just that.This article highlights how integral narrative medicine is to clinical genetics practice, how geneticists already employ many of its tools and how they practice it diligently every day. I will show how geneticists can further improve their abilities to hear and honor patients' stories by writing and sharing stories with patients and with each other as doctors, counselors, and nurses, social workers and chaplains. The review presents the skills of close reading and how they improve patient care and illustrates how geneticists can, by using reflective writing, reshape their emotions in order to understand them, to let them go, and to make room for more. It presents the major types of illness narratives whose recognition allows us to hear and understand patients' stories. When used, the tools of narrative medicine can result in better patient care. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Best Practices in Clinical Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Phansalkar, Shobha; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Jenders, Robert A.; Bobb, Anne M.; Halamka, John D.; Kuperman, Gilad; Payne, Thomas H.; Teasdale, S.; Vaida, A. J.; Bates, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that clinical decision support (CDS) is a powerful tool for improving healthcare quality and ensuring patient safety. However, implementing and maintaining effective decision support interventions presents multiple technical and organizational challenges. Purpose To identify best practices for CDS, using the domain of preventive care reminders as an example. Methods We assembled a panel of experts in CDS and held a series of facilitated online and inperson discussions. We analyzed the results of these discussions using a grounded theory method to elicit themes and best practices. Results Eight best practice themes were identified as important: deliver CDS in the most appropriate ways, develop effective governance structures, consider use of incentives, be aware of workflow, keep content current, monitor and evaluate impact, maintain high quality data, and consider sharing content. Keys themes within each of these areas were also described. Conclusion Successful implementation of CDS requires consideration of both technical and socio-technical factors. The themes identified in this study provide guidance on crucial factors that need consideration when CDS is implemented across healthcare settings. These best practice themes may be useful for developers, implementers, and users of decision support. PMID:21991299

  9. [Asthma clinical practice guidelines: advantages and pitfalls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Vicente; Bellido-Casado, Jesús; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Rodrigo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on asthma have contributed towards unifying concepts and reaching a consensus on performances between different professional groups. However, they have failed in the overall improvement in the management of asthma, the final objective that they are meant to achieve. Today, almost 20 years after they appeared, the majority of asthmatic patients are still inadequately controlled, partly due to lack of follow up by doctors and the rest of health care staff who have to look after them. This lack of follow up of these recommendations is probably associated with a lack of well structured planning in their circulation and implementation. Also, although the recommendations of these guidelines agree in what is essential, they differ in other aspects, which in turn could be determining factors in clinical practice. The purpose of this article has been to establish the main differences in the recommendations that the principal clinical practice guidelines on the disease propose on the diagnosis, classification and treatment of asthma. To do this we have compared, The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2007, The Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention/Global Initiative for Asthma 2006 (GINA), the National Prevention program for Education on Asthma (Programa Nacional de Prevención para la Educación del Asma) (NAEPP), the Spanish Guide for the Management of Asthma (Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma 2003) (GEMA) and the ALAT y SEPAR guides, Latin-America and Spain. Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Asthma Exacerbation (América Latina y España. Recomendaciones para la Prevención y el Tratamiento de la Exacerbación Asmática 2008) (ALERTA).

  10. The Sherlock Holmes method in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopeña, B

    2014-04-01

    This article lists the integral elements of the Sherlock Holmes method, which is based on the intelligent collection of information through detailed observation, careful listening and thorough examination. The information thus obtained is analyzed to develop the main and alternative hypotheses, which are shaped during the deductive process until the key leading to the solution is revealed. The Holmes investigative method applied to clinical practice highlights the advisability of having physicians reason through and seek out the causes of the disease with the data obtained from acute observation, a detailed review of the medical history and careful physical examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical management of psoriasis: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, M; Feldman, S R; Walther, R; Shelk, J; Morgan, P; Gutkin, S W

    2001-01-01

    A chronic condition that compromises many patients' quality of life, psoriasis is treatable with a range of agents, either alone or in combination. Clinical management strategies using these therapies can be organized as a stepped-care approach. For mild disease, corticosteroids and other topical therapies (step 1) are often appropriate. When lesions are more pronounced or extensive, phototherapy (step 2) is often the treatment of choice, and topical treatments or the step 3 agent acitretin can be added to enhance or accelerate therapeutic responses. Step 3 agents, which also include cyclosporine and methotrexate, may be contemplated when psoriasis is moderate or severe. Acitretin may cause acute adverse effects, including mucocutaneous effects, which can be avoided by reducing dosage. Methotrexate treatment can lead to bone marrow suppression and hepatotoxicity, and cyclosporine can cause nephrotoxicity. The clinical uses of these agents are illustrated in part through case presentations drawn from the authors' practices, and the supportive role of the National Psoriasis Foundation is reviewed.

  12. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Cortelezzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice.

  13. Inflammatory diseases: Integrating biosimilars into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Steven R

    2015-06-01

    To discuss considerations regarding the selection, prescribing, and monitoring of biosimilars in the clinical management of patients with inflammatory disorders. A search of the Internet as well as PubMed was conducted through August 2014 for information related to the clinical use of biosimilars in chronic inflammatory disorders using the keywords biosimilar, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn׳s disease, ulcerative colitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites were searched for biosimilar guidelines. Articles and guidelines relating to integrating biosimilars into the clinical management of patients with inflammatory disorders have been published by regulatory agencies, professional associations, healthcare providers, and others. The recent approval of the biosimilar infliximab in some countries makes biosimilars a reality for rheumatologists and others involved in the care of patients with inflammatory disorders. To successfully and confidently integrate biosimilars into clinical practice, physicians must understand factors such as variation in innovator/reference products, extrapolation of data, naming and labeling, interchangeability and automatic substitution, and pharmacovigilance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, T J; Nikendei, C

    2016-01-01

    Today, skills laboratories or "skills labs", i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills. In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I) the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II) an outline of the underlying idea and (III) an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV) the training method's effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V) the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI) the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training.

  15. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, skills laboratories or “skills labs”, i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills.In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II an outline of the underlying idea and (III an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV the training method’s effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training.

  16. Clinical Practices in Collegiate Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Pepin, Michael J; Meehan, William P

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, sports leagues and sports medicine experts have developed guidelines for concussion management. The extent to which current clinical practice is consistent with guideline recommendations is unclear. At the collegiate level, there have been few examinations of concussion management practices and the extent to which meaningful differences across divisions of competition exist. The purposes of this study were to (1) examine current practices in concussion diagnosis and management at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges, (2) explore the extent to which current practices reflect current recommendations for concussion diagnosis and management, and (3) determine whether there are differences in management patterns across divisions of competition. Descriptive epidemiology study. An electronic questionnaire was sent to sports medicine clinicians at all NCAA member colleges during September and October 2013. Clinicians were asked about baseline assessments, diagnosis and management practices, return-to-play protocols, the perceived prevalence of underdiagnosis, and basic demographic information. Approximately 30% (n = 866) of contacted clinicians, representing nearly 50% (n = 527) of NCAA member colleges, responded to the questionnaire. Preparticipation baseline examinations were administered at the majority of schools (95%), but most (87.5%) administered baseline assessments only to selected high-risk athletes. Computerized neurocognitive testing and balance assessments were most commonly used as preseason baseline and postinjury assessments. Multimodal examination in line with NCAA and other guidance was used only at a minority of institutions. Athletic trainers most commonly administered and interpreted the preseason baseline examination. Most clinicians reported that their institutions' practices were in line with NCAA guidelines during the first 24 hours of an athlete's concussion diagnosis, with exact percentages varying

  17. Outcome of managing impotence in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G D

    1999-07-23

    Outside of controlled clinical trials, the outcome of treatment for unselected men with impotence is uncertain. This study aims to describe the clinical course of consecutive, unselected men referred to a specialist endocrinology private practice with a primary diagnosis of impotence. Consecutive men referred with a primary diagnosis of impotence between June 1995 and December 1997 were studied. After initial evaluation and appropriate investigation, treatment with testosterone in hypogonadal men and instruction in the use of a vacuum device and intracavernosal alprostadil (Caverject) in all men was offered. All men were followed up by telephone and/or questionnaire about erection outcome three to twelve months later. Nineteen diabetic men, aged 53.1+/-8.2 years and forty non-diabetic men, aged 54.8+/-11.6 years were seen. Follow-up information beyond three months was complete in fifty-three (90%). Eighteen eugonadal men chose no further therapy and four of these men had spontaneous return of erections. Eight men were hypogonadal and potency returned in two of six men treated with replacement testosterone. Nine men used the vacuum device, which was effective in three of them. Forty-one men had a trial of Caverject injection, which was effective in twenty-eight. Only twelve of these men used Caverject for longer than six months. Return of erections with therapy beyond three months in unselected men with impotence is successful in only about one-third. Unexpected hypogonadism is relatively common in impotent men, but testosterone replacement therapy has a low rate of improving erections. New therapies for impotence need careful follow-up studies to assess their effectiveness in clinical practice.

  18. [Progress in methodological characteristics of clinical practice guideline for osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, D; Wang, B; Lin, J H

    2017-06-01

    At present, several clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of osteoarthritis have been developed by institutes or societies. The ultimate purpose of developing clinical practice guidelines is to formulate the process in the treatment of osteoarthritis effectively. However, the methodologies used in developing clinical practice guidelines may place an influence on the transformation and application of that in treating osteoarthritis. The present study summarized the methodological features of individual clinical practice guideline and presented the tools for quality evaluation of clinical practice guideline. The limitations of current osteoarthritis guidelines of China are also indicated. The review article might help relevant institutions improve the quality in developing guide and clinical transformation.

  19. The Bobath concept - a model to illustrate clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Marc; Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Holland, Ann; Magri, Alba; Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2017-12-17

    The model of Bobath clinical practice provides a framework identifying the unique aspects of the Bobath concept in terms of contemporary neurological rehabilitation. The utilisation of a framework to illustrate the clinical application of the Bobath concept provides the basis for a common understanding with respect to Bobath clinical practice, education, and research. The development process culminating in the model of Bobath clinical practice is described. The use of the model in clinical practice is illustrated using two cases: a client with a chronic incomplete spinal cord injury and a client with a stroke. This article describes the clinical application of the Bobath concept in terms of the integration of posture and movement with respect to the quality of task performance, applying the Model of Bobath Clinical Practice. Facilitation, a key aspect of Bobath clinical practice, was utilised to positively affect motor control and perception in two clients with impairment-related movement problems due to neurological pathology and associated activity limitations and participation restrictions - the outcome measures used to reflect the individual clinical presentation. Implications for Rehabilitation The model of Bobath clinical practice provides a framework identifying the unique aspects of the Bobath-concept. The model of Bobath clinical practice provides the basis for a common understanding with respect to Bobath clinical practice, education, and research. The clinical application of the Bobath-concept highlights the integration of posture and movement with respect to the quality of task performance. Facilitation, a key aspect of Bobath clinical practice, positively affects motor control, and perception.

  20. AML in 2017: Advances in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jacob M

    2017-12-01

    Numerous advances have been made in the biology and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 2017. These include the integration of the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) into clinical practice, the approval and near approval of new agents, improvement in therapy for older patients, and the development of a number of promising new agents, including IDH inhibitors, a Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, and a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In addition, the concept of chemotherapy manipulation is still valid and can increase efficacy in some AML populations, and transplant patterns have shifted, enabling more patients to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. These and other advances are critical to improve the outcome for patients with AML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-compassion in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Christopher K; Neff, Kristin D

    2013-08-01

    Self-compassion is conceptualized as containing 3 core components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification, when relating to painful experiences. Research evidence demonstrates that self-compassion is related to psychological flourishing and reduced psychopathology. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) is an 8-week training program, meeting 2.5 hours each week, designed to help participants cultivate self-compassion. MSC contains a variety of meditations (e.g., loving-kindness, affectionate breathing) as well as informal practices for use in daily life (e.g., soothing touch, self-compassionate letter writing). A detailed clinical case illustrates the journey of a client through the 8 weeks of MSC training, describing the key features of each session and the client's response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical Understanding of Spasticity: Implications for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Bhimani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a poorly understood phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of spasticity on daily life and identify bedside strategies that enhance patient’s function and improve comfort. Spasticity and clonus result from an upper motor neuron lesion that disinhibits the tendon stretch reflex; however, they are differentiated in the fact that spasticity results in a velocity dependent tightness of muscle whereas clonus results in uncontrollable jerks of the muscle. Clinical strategies that address function and comfort are paramount. This is a secondary content analysis using a qualitative research design. Adults experiencing spasticity associated with neuromuscular disorder were asked to participate during inpatient acute rehabilitation. They were asked to complete a semistructured interview to explain and describe the nature of their experienced spasticity on daily basis. Spasticity affects activities of daily living, function, and mobility. Undertreated spasticity can lead to pain, immobility, and risk of falls. There were missed opportunities to adequately care for patients with spasticity. Bedside care strategies identified by patients with spasticity are outlined. Uses of alternative therapies in conjunction with medications are needed to better manage spasticity. Patient reports on spasticity are important and should be part of clinical evaluation and practice.

  3. Clinical Understanding of Spasticity: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Spasticity is a poorly understood phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to understand the effect of spasticity on daily life and identify bedside strategies that enhance patient's function and improve comfort. Spasticity and clonus result from an upper motor neuron lesion that disinhibits the tendon stretch reflex; however, they are differentiated in the fact that spasticity results in a velocity dependent tightness of muscle whereas clonus results in uncontrollable jerks of the muscle. Clinical strategies that address function and comfort are paramount. This is a secondary content analysis using a qualitative research design. Adults experiencing spasticity associated with neuromuscular disorder were asked to participate during inpatient acute rehabilitation. They were asked to complete a semistructured interview to explain and describe the nature of their experienced spasticity on daily basis. Spasticity affects activities of daily living, function, and mobility. Undertreated spasticity can lead to pain, immobility, and risk of falls. There were missed opportunities to adequately care for patients with spasticity. Bedside care strategies identified by patients with spasticity are outlined. Uses of alternative therapies in conjunction with medications are needed to better manage spasticity. Patient reports on spasticity are important and should be part of clinical evaluation and practice. PMID:25276432

  4. Pharmacotherapy of Obesity: Clinical Trials to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Kishore M; Pritham Raj, Y

    2017-05-01

    This review provides an overview of the current state of drug therapy for obesity, with a focus on four new drug therapies-lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg-which have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term management of obesity since 2012. Topics discussed in this paper include rationale for pharmacotherapy, history of antiobesity drugs, and efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials with implications for clinical practice. Weight loss achieved by currently approved drugs ranges from approximately 3 to 9%, above and beyond weight loss with lifestyle counseling alone, after a year. Response and attrition rates in clinical trials indicate that the benefits of pharmacotherapy range from substantial for some patients, modest for others, and no benefits for others still. Decisions regarding selection of a suitable drug from the available pharmacotherapy options and duration of treatment should be based on the expected and observed benefit-to-risk balance and tailored to the needs of each individual patient using the principles of shared decision-making.

  5. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE: CLINICAL GUIDELINES AND REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Shavarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Expert assessment of real clinical practice compliance with national guidelines on management of patients with chronic heart failure (HF before the opening of the Expert Center of HF treatment.Material and methods. All patients admitted to 2 city clinical hospitals of Moscow with HF were included into the register. Clinical, demographic, laboratory and instrumental characteristics and medical treatment before and during hospitalization were evaluated, as well as recommendations contained in the discharge summary.Results. 300 patients with HF were included into the register. The mean age was 75 years (39, 95; the proportion of men – 44%. 95% of patients had HF IIIV (NYHA, among them 24% HF II, 61% HF III, 15% HF IV (NYHA. HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF was found in 45% of patients. 22% of the patients did not receive medical treatment before admission. 34% of patients with HFrEF received ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, of which only 23% in effective dose. β-blockers were prescribed in 41% of HFeEF patients, of which 22% in the target dose. A third of patients needed in mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA received spironolactone. During hospitalization 81% of HFrEF patients received ACEI therapy, 12% – ARBs, 91% – β-blockers, 90% – MRA, 81% – loop diuretics and 13% – thiazide diuretics. According to the discharge summary 5% of patients did not receive post-discharge blocker of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system without explanation in the medical documentation. β-blocker with proven efficacy was prescribed to 70% of HFrEF patients. Spironolactone was recommended after discharge in 89% of HFrEF patients.Conclusion. Implementation of register of hospitalized patients with HF gives an opportunity to identify shortcomings in the provision of medical care both in outpatient and inpatient stages. 

  6. Evidence-based practice: a trainee clinical psychologist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the dominant model in health care; its aim is to increase the use of research evidence to inform clinical decision making. Clinical practice guidelines are the predominant method by which research is distilled into practice recommendations. Clinical psychology has its own model which promotes the integration of research evidence with clinical expertise, the scientist practitioner model (SPM). Recent developments within the United Kingdom health service, su...

  7. Factors affecting Korean nursing student empowerment in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yang-Heui; Choi, Jihea

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phenomenon of nursing student empowerment in clinical practice is important. Investigating the cognition of empowerment and identifying predictors are necessary to enhance nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. To identify empowerment predictors for Korean nursing students in clinical practice based on studies by Bradbury-Jones et al. and Spreitzer. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. This study was performed in three nursing colleges in Korea, all of which had similar baccalaureate nursing curricula. Three hundred seven junior or senior nursing students completed a survey designed to measure factors that were hypothesized to influence nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. Data were collected from November to December 2011. Study variables included self-esteem, clinical decision making, being valued as a learner, satisfaction regarding practice with a team member, perception on professor/instructor/clinical preceptor attitude, and total number of clinical practice fields. Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple regression analyses. All of the hypothesized study variables were significantly correlated to nursing student empowerment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that clinical decision making in nursing (t=7.59, pnursing student empowerment in clinical practice will be possible by using educational strategies to improve nursing student clinical decision making. Simultaneously, attitudes of nurse educators are also important to ensure that nursing students are treated as valued learners and to increase student self-esteem in clinical practice. Finally, diverse clinical practice field environments should be considered to enhance experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective study that aimed at studying the diagnostic stability of psychiatric diagnoses over a 4-year period. Three-hundred and twelve patients (n = 312) admitted more than once to Al Ain in-patient unit from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1993, were the subjects for this study. The sample included patients with the following index diagnoses: acute psychoses (n = 37), alcohol abuse (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 27), depressive disorders (n = 63), drug abuse (n = 21), hysteria (n = 23), neurotic disorders (n = 50) and schizophrenia (n = 76). Diagnoses on discharge for first admissions were considered the index diagnoses. The shift from index diagnoses to subsequent diagnoses was counted. Diagnostic stability was calculated as the percentages of index diagnoses that did not change over time. In nearly half of the patients the index diagnoses changed over the 4-year period. Highest diagnostic stability was found in patients with index diagnoses of alcohol abuse, schizophrenia and drug abuse (92%, 74% and 71% respectively), while the lowest stability was found in patients with neurotic, hysterical, depressive disorders, acute psychoses and bipolar disorders (38%, 48% and 45%, 42%, 52% respectively). Two distinct patterns of shifts were noted. First shift occurred between functional psychoses and second shift between depressive and neurotic disorders. This study provides further support to the notion that diagnostic stability in clinical practice is still far from being satisfactory.

  9. Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William

    2013-11-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.

  10. [Probiotics and prebiotics in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira Fuster, G; González-Molero, I

    2007-05-01

    This article revises the concepts of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics, and their use in different situations of daily clinical practice. With a high level of evidence, it is concluded that the use of certain strains of probiotics significantly reduces the risk for antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Although further studies are needed, the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics in people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (particularly ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis) might improve the rates of remission induction/maintenance. The administration of probiotics and symbiotics to patients with liver transplant, severe acute pancreatitis, and intensive and surgical care patients, emerges as a promising therapeutic option that seems to reduce the number of infections; however, it is currently no possible to establish evidence-based recommendations, with a need for a higher number of better designed works. About safety of probiotics and symbiotics, the benefits/risks ratio clearly favors the former since the risk for infection is low, even in immunosuppressed patients. There are, however, selected groups of patients in which caution is advised.

  11. The clinical nurse specialist and psychiatrist in joint practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shires, B W; Spector, P M

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a joint practice model between a clinical nurse specialist and psychiatrist. The authors address factors to consider in establishing a joint practice--negotiation of roles and benefits as well as clinical supervision. In addition, specific clinical responsibilities for the nurse specialist, as well as potential expanded duties, are outlined.

  12. Clinical Practice Patterns of Canadian Couple/Marital/Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, John; Dienhart, Anna; Schmidt, Jonathan; Turner, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This clinical practice pattern survey had two unique aspects. It was a national survey of American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) members in Canada that included all AAMFT membership categories, including student, affiliate, associate, clinical, and supervisor. It compared practice pattern data for clinical members from Canada…

  13. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  14. Science in chiropractic clinical practice: identifying a need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J R

    1991-06-01

    The chiropractic profession has resolved to establish chiropractic clinical care upon a scientifically acceptable foundation. In order for such an ambition to be realized, the cooperation and participation of field practitioners is required. A survey of chiropractors practicing in Australia demonstrated that respondents largely failed to appreciate the power of various research designs to provide clinical practice information. This paper suggests the chasm between professional resolve and clinical practice is not being adequately bridged at the level of field practitioners.

  15. Conceptualizing clinical nurse leader practice: an interpretive synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report identifies the clinical nurse leader as an innovative new role for meeting higher health-care quality standards. However, specific clinical nurse leader practices influencing documented quality outcomes remain unclear. Lack of practice clarity limits the ability to articulate, implement and measure clinical nurse leader-specific practice and quality outcomes. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Interpretive synthesis design and grounded theory...

  16. Pareto fronts in clinical practice for pinnacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tomas; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Franssen, Gijs; Damen, Eugène; van Vliet, Corine

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to develop a framework to objectively perform treatment planning studies using Pareto fronts. The Pareto front represents all optimal possible tradeoffs among several conflicting criteria and is an ideal tool with which to study the possibilities of a given treatment technique. The framework should require minimal user interaction and should resemble and be applicable to daily clinical practice. To generate the Pareto fronts, we used the native scripting language of Pinnacle(3) (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA). The framework generates thousands of plans automatically from which the Pareto front is generated. As an example, the framework is applied to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer patients. For each patient and each technique, 3000 plans are generated, resulting in a total of 60,000 plans. The comparison is based on 5-dimensional Pareto fronts. Generating 3000 plans for 10 patients in parallel requires on average 96 h for IMRT and 483 hours for VMAT. Using VMAT, compared to IMRT, the maximum dose of the boost PTV was reduced by 0.4 Gy (P=.074), the mean dose in the anal sphincter by 1.6 Gy (P=.055), the conformity index of the 95% isodose (CI(95%)) by 0.02 (P=.005), and the rectal wall V(65 Gy) by 1.1% (P=.008). We showed the feasibility of automatically generating Pareto fronts with Pinnacle(3). Pareto fronts provide a valuable tool for performing objective comparative treatment planning studies. We compared VMAT with IMRT in prostate patients and found VMAT had a dosimetric advantage over IMRT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing a Critical Practice of Clinical Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, W. John

    1985-01-01

    The etymology of the term "clinical supervision" is discussed. How clinical supervision can be used with teachers as an active force toward reform and change is then examined. Through clinical supervision teachers can assist each other to gain control over their own professional lives and destinies. (RM)

  18. Librarian contributions to clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Peggy; Protzko, Shandra

    2014-01-01

    Librarians have become more involved in developing high quality systematic reviews. Evidence-based practice guidelines are an extension of systematic reviews and offer another significant area for librarian involvement. This column highlights opportunities and challenges for the librarian working on guideline panels and provides practical considerations for meaningful contributions to the guideline creation process.

  19. Clinical education. Relating practical experiments to theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, B; Oldham, J

    Integrating theory into practice is not without its difficulties. Often concepts derived from the physical and behavioural sciences appear to be unrelated to nursing practice and although noted laboriously by student nurses no active learning occurs. As nurse education changes not only in curriculum content and teaching methodology but in who will do the teaching and in what venue, then the importance of ensuring the relevance of theoretical concepts to nursing practice will increase. This paper illustrates how physiological theory can be integrated into nursing practice by the use of ward-based practical experiments. Currently four such experiments have been introduced and are being evaluated. There is scope for developing further experiments and it is contended that this approach will enhance learning.

  20. At the Crossroads of Clinical Practice and Teacher Leadership: A Changing Paradigm for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard D.; Neel, Michael; Coulter, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the endemic separation between K-12 schools and colleges of education in teacher preparation. Specifically, we examine a new approach related to the promise of clinical practice--a clinical practice program that overlaps a public high school, a graduate-level teacher preparation program, and a professional practice doctoral…

  1. Uses of progesterone in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Shantha, S

    1999-01-01

    Progesterone is the natural progestagen produced by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. It is absorbed when administered orally, but is greater than 90% metabolized during the first hepatic pass. This greatly limits the efficacy of once-daily administration and also results in unphysiologically high levels of progesterone metabolites, particularly those reduced at the 5-a position. These metabolites can cause dizziness and drowsiness to the point of preventing the operation of a motor vehicle. Synthetic progestins, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethindrone acetate (NETA), have been specifically designed to resist enzymatic degradation and remain active after oral administration. However, these compounds exert undesirable effects on the liver and often cause severe psychological side effects. The permeability of the skin does not allow for administration of progesterone in the quantities normally produced by the corpus luteum, i.e., up to 25 mg/day during the mid-luteal phase. To avoid this problem, synthetic progestins such as NETA have been administered transdermally. These compounds, though, just like synthetic estrogens administered non-orally, retain undesirable hepatic effects even when administered transdermally. Transvaginal administration of progesterone is a practical non-oral route available for administering progesterone. Early experience was gained with vaginal suppositories, which lack manufacturing controls. Recently, a new progesterone gel formulation has been designed for vaginal use. The clinical acceptability of this product has been enhanced by the bioadhesive characteristics of its polycarbophil-based gel, which conveys controlled and sustained-released properties. Investigations have shown that because of local direct vagina-to-uterus transport, which results in a preferential uterine uptake of progesterone, this formulation given in conjunction with physiological amounts of estradiol produces endometrial changes similar to

  2. Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Ashok Kumar, Kaparaboyna; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2015-04-01

    This update of a 2007 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to manage adult rhinosinusitis, defined as symptomatic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer added to the update group, evidence from 42 new systematic reviews, enhanced information on patient education and counseling, a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships, expanded opportunities for watchful waiting (without antibiotic therapy) as initial therapy of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), and 3 new recommendations for managing chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this multidisciplinary guideline is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing adult rhinosinusitis and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. Specifically, the goals are to improve diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, promote appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management, and promote judicious use of systemic and topical therapy, which includes radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. The update group made strong recommendations that clinicians (1) should distinguish presumed ABRS from acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) caused by viral upper respiratory infections and noninfectious conditions and (2) should confirm a clinical diagnosis of CRS with objective documentation of sinonasal inflammation, which may be accomplished using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, or computed tomography. The update group made recommendations that clinicians (1) should either offer watchful waiting (without

  3. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  4. Participatory design for computerization of clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Pedersen, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    There have been made many attempts on computerization of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), none have, however achieved any general application in clinical work practice. The objective of this paper is: (1) to raise awareness about the impact the design method used for computerization of CPGs...

  5. The Challenges of Clinical Practice as Experienced by First Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nursing students internalise the art of nursing through clinical practice. The study was exploratory-descriptive and sought to answer the question, "what are the clinical practice experiences and coping strategies of first year general nursing students" ?. The objectives of the study were to: identify the students' ...

  6. IT support for administrative planning of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Jan; Joustra-Enquist, Ingrid; Hedberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The administration of clinical practice placements for nursing students is a highly complex and information driven task. This demonstration is intended to give insight into the web based system KliPP (a Swedish acronym for Clinical Practice Planning) and to discuss the possibilities for further development and use.

  7. Cancer vaccines: from research to clinical practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bot, Adrian; Obrocea, Mihail; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    ..., for both solid and blood borne cancers. Cancer Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities in Translation is the first text in the field to bring immunotherapy treatments from the laboratory trial to the bedside for the practicing oncologist. Cancer Vaccines...

  8. Good documentation practice in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bargaje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common inspection findings in investigator site inspections is lack of reliable, accurate and adequate source documentation. This also happens to be the most common pitfall identified during sponsor audits. The importance of good documentation practice needs to be emphasized to investigator sites to ensure that the study results are built on the foundation of credible and valid data. This article focuses on the key principles of good documentation practice and offers suggestions for improvement.

  9. Conceptualizing clinical nurse leader practice: an interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report identifies the clinical nurse leader as an innovative new role for meeting higher health-care quality standards. However, specific clinical nurse leader practices influencing documented quality outcomes remain unclear. Lack of practice clarity limits the ability to articulate, implement and measure clinical nurse leader-specific practice and quality outcomes. Interpretive synthesis design and grounded theory analysis were used to develop a theoretical understanding of clinical nurse leader practice that can facilitate systematic and replicable implementation across health-care settings. The core phenomenon of clinical nurse leader practice is continuous clinical leadership, which involves four fundamental activities: facilitating effective ongoing communication; strengthening intra and interprofessional relationships; building and sustaining teams; and supporting staff engagement. Clinical nurse leaders continuously communicate and develop relationships within and across professions to promote and sustain information exchange, engagement, teamwork and effective care processes at the microsystem level. Clinical nurse leader-integrated care delivery systems highlight the benefits of nurse-led models of care for transforming health-care quality. Managers can use this study's findings to frame an implementation strategy that addresses theoretical domains of clinical nurse leader practice to help ensure practice success. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [What everybody should know about good clinical practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Lyda

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of countries are adopting good clinical practices guidelines as part of the regulation of clinical studies to register pharmaceutical products and other health-related products. Consequently, all parties involved in the research and development of these products should know them, implement them and ensure their compliance. However, good clinical practices guidelines are just one of the initiatives seeking to achieve the highest ethical and scientific standards in health research and in other areas where humans are research subjects. This review defines such practices and their objectives presenting in a practical manner their legal framework in Colombia, and clarifying their application in studies where interventions use no medications or those that are not clinical trials. Finally, the work discusses the challenges to ensure that good clinical practices contribute to the protection of research participants, the education of trustworthy health professionals, and a culture of respect for human beings.

  11. Failing Clinical Practice & the Unsafe Student: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Judith Marlene; Chernomas, Wanda M

    2016-10-13

    Students who fail clinical courses is a long standing issue in nursing education. Although faculty intuitively "know" a student is in clinical difficulty, the research literature is limited to delineating and describing characteristics of these students. A retrospective analysis of students' files in which there was at least one clinical failure was conducted to identify clinical failure indicators. Files included students who were successful, required to withdraw, or voluntarily withdrew. This study integrates these characteristics in a manner not discussed in the literature. Two themes emerged that characterize student practices: (i) How students are in practice and (ii) Aspects of practice. A third theme surfaced as clinical teachers responded to these students by labelling the practice unsafe and increasing vigilance. A model was developed that shows the relationship between these characteristics and unsafe student practice.

  12. Vagus nerve stimulation in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Albu-Soda, Ahmed; Aziz, Qasim

    2016-11-02

    The diverse array of end organ innervations of the vagus nerve, coupled with increased basic science evidence, has led to vagus nerve stimulation becoming a management option in a number of clinical disorders. This review discusses methods of electrically stimulating the vagus nerve and its current and potential clinical uses.

  13. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring clinical trials: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Síle F; Henley, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the processes and procedures involved in planning, conducting and reporting monitoring activities for large Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products (CTIMPs), focusing on those conducted in resource-limited settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Good clinical practice : Historical background and key aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Andreas; Maier-Lenz, Herbert; Dierckx, Rudi A.

    Clinical research trials (both academic and industry sponsored) are increasingly playing a role in various medical disciplines, including younger fields of clinical trial interest, such as nuclear medicine research. Knowledge for and compliance with good clinical practice (GCP) is essential for

  16. Sterilization and Disinfection Practices in Selected Dental Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the sterilization and disinfection practices in selected dental clinics in Cameroon. The study conducted in the second half of 2009 included 41 dental clinics in 4 out of the 10 provinces in Cameroon. Questionnaire was used to obtain information about the ownership and location of the clinic, washing and packing ...

  17. Clinical librarians as facilitators of nurses' evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia; Wallmyr, Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and ward-based clinical librarians' reflections on ward-based clinical librarians as facilitators for nurses' use of evidences-based practice. Nurses' use of evidence-based practice is reported to be weak. Studies have suggested that clinical librarians may promote evidence-based practice. To date, little is known about clinical librarians participating nurses in the wards. A descriptive, qualitative design was adopted for the study. In 2007, 16 nurses who had been attended by a clinical librarian in the wards were interviewed in focus groups. Two clinical librarians were interviewed by individual interviews. In the analysis, a content analysis was used. Three themes were generated from the interviews with nurses: 'The grip of everyday work', 'To articulate clinical nursing issues' and 'The clinical librarians at a catalyst'. The nurses experienced the grip of everyday work as a hindrance and had difficulties to articulate and formulate relevant nursing issues. In such a state, the nurses found the clinical librarian presence in the ward as enhancing the awareness of and the use of evidence-based practice. Three themes emerged from the analysis with the librarians. They felt as outsiders, had new knowledge and acquired a new role as ward-based clinical librarians. Facilitation is needed if nurses' evidence-based practice is going to increase. The combined use of nurses and clinical librarians' knowledge and skills can be optimised. To achieve this, nurses' skills in consuming and implementing evidence ought to be strengthened. The fusion of the information and knowledge management skill of the ward-based clinical librarian and the clinical expertise of the nurses can be of value. With such a collaborative model, nurse and ward-based clinical librarian might join forces to increase the use of evidence-based practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Transition questions in clinical practice - validity and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2008-01-01

    Transition questions in CLINICAL practice - validity and reproducibility Lauridsen HH1, Manniche C3, Grunnet-Nilsson N1, Hartvigsen J1,2 1   Clinical Locomotion Science, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. e-mail: hlauridsen......@health.sdu.dk 2   Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Odense, Denmark 3   Backcenter Funen, Part of Clinical Locomotion Science, Ringe, Denmark   Abstract  Understanding a change score is indispensable for interpretation of results from clinical studies...

  19. Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Research and Clinical Practice: Introduction to the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Hershenberg, Rachel; Vivian, Dina; Wolfe, Barry E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2013-01-01

    This Special Section, developed by the American Psychology Association's Division 12 (Clinical) 2011 Committee on Science and Practice, highlights different ideas to help bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, and notes recent innovations that help make research–practice integration feasible. The articles consider how to break down the barriers to enhance researcher–practitioner dialogue, as well as how to make ongoing outcome assessment feasible for clinicians. Moreover, the articles address how to promote training in evidence-based practice, and how to translate efficacy research into clinical practice and clinical insight into empirical study to better establish a two-way bridge between research and practice. Ultimately, we hope this series can speak to many different types of psychologists, whether they work mainly as researchers or practitioners, so they can see new ways to integrate and learn from both research and practice. PMID:22642515

  20. Bridging the gap between clinical research and clinical practice: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A; Drabick, Deborah A G; Hershenberg, Rachel; Vivian, Dina; Wolfe, Barry E; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2012-06-01

    This Special Section, developed by the American Psychology Association's Division 12 (Clinical) 2011 Committee on Science and Practice, highlights different ideas to help bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, and notes recent innovations that help make research-practice integration feasible. The articles consider how to break down the barriers to enhance researcher-practitioner dialogue, as well as how to make ongoing outcome assessment feasible for clinicians. Moreover, the articles address how to promote training in evidence-based practice, and how to translate efficacy research into clinical practice and clinical insight into empirical study to better establish a two-way bridge between research and practice. Ultimately, we hope this series can speak to many different types of psychologists, whether they work mainly as researchers or practitioners, so they can see new ways to integrate and learn from both research and practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. A brain cancer pathway in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Emilie Lund; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Danish healthcare seeks to improve cancer survival through improved diagnostics, rapid treatment and increased focus on cancer prevention and early help-seeking. In neuro-oncology, this has resulted in the Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway (IBCP). The paper explores how the pathway works in the ini...... in the initial phase in a clinical setting with emphasis on pathway criteria....

  2. Clinical Practice Realities: World and African Perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current initiatives. Education is needed to increase knowledge and skills for both nursing and midwifery services, not only to improve care outcomes through clinical skills, but also to offer better leadership and the educa- tion to teach and mentor others. Registered nurses with diploma level education have been sponsored.

  3. How to critically appraise a clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Adrian B; Dahm, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines play a critical role in guiding the evidence-based clinical practice of urology. We describe a systematic approach to critical appraisal of urology guidelines. Based on a focused clinical question derived from a clinical scenario, we identified a relevant clinical practice guideline that we critically appraised using the Users' Guide to the Medical Literature framework as to whether the results are valid, what are the results, and can they be applied to the care of an individual patient. A clinical practice guideline by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence on the use of sunitinib as the first line treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma was identified. The guideline development process was found to be appropriately rigorous and included an explicit rating of the quality of evidence. The recommendations were clearly stated and appeared applicable to the specific patient in the clinical scenario. Clinical practice guidelines should be developed using rigorous evidence-based methodology. Urologists should have the skills and knowledge to critically appraise a guideline before applying it to the care of their patients.

  4. Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Research and Clinical Practice: Introduction to the Special Section

    OpenAIRE

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Hershenberg, Rachel; Vivian, Dina; Wolfe, Barry E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2012-01-01

    This Special Section, developed by the American Psychology Association's Division 12 (Clinical) 2011 Committee on Science and Practice, highlights different ideas to help bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, and notes recent innovations that help make research–practice integration feasible. The articles consider how to break down the barriers to enhance researcher–practitioner dialogue, as well as how to make ongoing outcome assessment feasible for clinicians. Moreo...

  5. Change in stated clinical practice associated with participation in the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers have attempted many methods to translate scientific evidence into routine clinical practice, with varying success. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide an important, practitioner-friendly venue to test these methods. Dentist practitioner-investigators from the Den...

  6. Clinical Scientists Improving Clinical Practices: In Thoughts and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the author comments on aspects of Kamhi's (2014) article, which caused the author to think more deeply about definitions of language, theories of learning, and how these two core components of intervention prepare clinical scientists as they search the literature for new knowledge. Interprofessional collaborative…

  7. [Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrli, Hans

    2014-07-02

    In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.

  8. Evaluating clinical dermatology practice in medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J M; Sanmartín, V; Martí, R M; Morales, J L; Soler, J; Purroy, F; Pujol, R

    2014-06-01

    The acquisition of competences (the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a job to a professional level) is considered a fundamental part of medical training. Dermatology competences should include, in addition to effective clinical interviewing and detailed descriptions of skin lesions, appropriate management (diagnosis, differentiation, and treatment) of common skin disorders and tumors. Such competences can only be acquired during hospital clerkships. As a way of certifying these competences, we propose evaluating the different components as follows: knowledge, via clinical examinations or critical incident discussions; communication and certain instrumental skills, via structured workplace observation and scoring using a set of indicators; and attitudes, via joint evaluation by staff familiar with the student. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical practice: vocal nodules in dysphonic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Branco, Anete; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Gramuglia, Andrea Cristina Jóia

    2013-09-01

    Common among children, vocal symptoms are a cause of concern for parents who seek elucidation of their diagnosis and treatment. Vocal nodules are the major cause of dysphonias in children and are related to vocal abuse. We conducted a literature review considering clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, and histological aspects of vocal nodules, as well as diagnostic methods, highlighting the main studies addressing this issue. The controversial points of treatments were also discussed.

  10. EVALUATION OF PLATELET AGGREGATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Mirzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of platelet function with subsequent modification of antiplatelet therapy regimen is one of the areas of personalized medicine. Analysis of the causes of inadequate antiplatelet action of clopidogrel, the association of residual platelet reactivity with clinical outcomes and a review of the research on the change of antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischemic heart disease after percutaneous interventions based on the results of platelet function testing, were the aim of this review.

  11. Role of Cardiac PET in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Brian M; Singh, Parmanand

    2017-11-09

    Early identification of atherosclerosis and at-risk lesions plays a critical role in reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease. While invasive coronary angiography serves as the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease, non-invasive imaging techniques provide visualization of both anatomical and functional atherosclerotic processes prior to clinical presentation. The development of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has greatly enhanced our capability to diagnose and treat patients with early stages of atherosclerosis. Cardiac PET is a powerful, versatile non-invasive diagnostic tool with utility in the identification of high-risk plaques, myocardial perfusion defects, and viable myocardial tissue. Cardiac PET allows for comparisons of myocardial function both at time of rest and stress, providing accurate assessments of both myocardial perfusion and viability. Furthermore, novel PET techniques with unique radiotracers yield clinically relevant data on high-risk plaques in active progressive atherosclerosis. While PET exercise stress tests were previously difficult to perform given short radiotracer half-life, the development of the novel radiotracer Flurpiridaz F-18 provides a promising future for PET exercise stress imaging. In addition, hybrid imaging with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides integration of cardiac function and structure. In this review article, we discuss the principles of cardiac PET, the clinical applications of PET in diagnosing and prognosticating patients at risk for future cardiovascular events, compare PET with other non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities, and discuss future applications of PET in CVD evaluation and management.

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - Vol 12, No 3 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in childhood sepsis in clinical practice at Onitsha · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E.O Obidike, G Anigbo, C Igbodo ...

  14. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Joseph; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  15. Improving clinical practices for children with language and learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G

    2014-04-01

    This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions, components of language therapy, grammar goals, and goal prioritization for students with language and learning difficulties. The gaps that exist between current knowledge about learning, language development, and clinical practice often do not receive as much attention as the gaps in the evidence base that addresses the efficacy and effectiveness of language intervention practices and service delivery models. Fortunately, clinicians do not have to wait for future intervention studies to apply their knowledge of learning and language development to clinical practices.

  16. Orienting Nursing Students to Cost Effective Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Muriel W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes five principles for cost-effective clinical practice: efficient use of self, efficient use of equipment and supplies, delegation of work, critical path method, and organization of the environment. (SK)

  17. Clinical Activity in General Practice and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Cancer is a common, serious disease and early diagnosis is a cornerstone in the effort to improve the outcome from cancer disease. The general practitioner (GP) plays a crucial role in achieving this goal. Little is known about GPs’ suspicion of cancer and the activities the GPs...... institute in relation to such suspicion. Knowledge is also sparse on any effects of different diagnostic activities in general practice. The overall aims of this thesis were therefore: -to describe how often Danish GPs suspected cancer or other serious diseases and how they acted on the suspicion......, and to analyse how a suspicion influenced the demand for health care services and predicted a future diagnosis of serious disease - to investigate whether variation in GPs’ diagnostic activity influences cancer patients’ prognosis in relation to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prostate cancer...

  18. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Obsessions before Freud: history and clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the significance of the concept of "obsession" in nineteenth-century alienism. From a clinical point of view, Esquirol's description was completed by other authors (Jules Falret, Legrand du Saulle). In the area of psychopathological studies, French alienism, with Morel's emotional delirium or Janet's psychasthenia, defended the emotional theory, as opposed to the intellectual disorder proposed by German doctors. Lastly, the importance of the cultural framework is stressed in the appearance of obsessive symptoms and their interpretation. Along these lines, the article discusses the relationship of religious scruples to melancholy or the appearance of diagnostic categories subject to fin de siècle codes and mentalities.

  20. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Coroneos, Christopher J.; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R.; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and childr...

  1. Risk management in clinical practice. Part 10. Periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P; Needleman, I

    2010-12-11

    A sizeable proportion of patients in clinical practice will have some form of periodontal disease and most of these patients can be well managed in primary care. Unfortunately, dento-legal claims regarding inappropriate periodontal care are increasing rapidly and are now one of the most common reasons for litigation in dentistry. In this paper we will look at aspects of contemporary management of periodontal disease in clinical practice and offer guidance for examination, management and referral.

  2. Sabbatical leaves for nurse-midwives in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, K C

    1993-01-01

    The demands of clinical practice seldom allow for time to pursue academic writing, teaching, or the development of individual advanced skills. The burnout rate in professions such as nurse-midwifery cannot be ignored. This article describes how one nurse-midwifery clinical practice implemented a short, rotating sabbatical; specific goals and guidelines are presented. It concludes that a sabbatical leave can be considered as one of many job-related benefits.

  3. Clinical Photography for Trichology Practice: Tips and Tricks

    OpenAIRE

    Ashique, KT; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2011-01-01

    Clinical photography of hair disorders is an extension of photography in dermatology practice. Some points should be kept in mind while taking images of the hair and hair bearing areas in view of the reflection of light and the subsequent glare that may spoil the result. For documentation of most conditions of the hair, the same general rules of dermatological photography apply. The correct lighting is the most important aspect of clinical photography in trichology practice and can be achieve...

  4. Present Status of Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duehmke, Eckhart

    Aims of radiation oncology are cure from malignant diseases and - at the same time preservation of anatomy (e.g. female breast, uterus, prostate) and organ functions (e.g. brain, eye, voice, sphincter ani). At present, methods and results of clinical radiotherapy (RT) are based on experiences with natural history and radiobiology of malignant tumors in properly defined situations as well as on technical developments since World War II in geometrical and biological treatment planning in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Radiobiological research revealed tolerance limits of healthy tissues to be respected, effective total treatment doses of high cure probability depending on histology and tumor volume, and - more recently - altered fractionation schemes to be adapted to specific growth fractions and intrinsic radiosensitivities of clonogenic tumor cells. In addition, Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), such as cis-platinum, oxygen and hyperthermia may steepen cell survival curves of hypoxic tumor cells, others - such as tetrachiordekaoxid (TCDO) - may enhance repair of normal tissues. Computer assisted techniques in geometrical RT-planning based on individual healthy and pathologic anatomy (CT, MRT) provide high precision RT for well defined brain lesions by using dedicated linear accelerators (Stereotaxy). CT-based individual tissue compensators help with homogenization of distorted dose distributions in magna field irradiation for malignant lymphomas and with total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, e.g. for leukemia. RT with fast neutrons, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), RT with protons and heavy ions need to be tested in randomized trials before implementation into clinical routine.

  5. Potential Uses of Probiotics in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Jass, Jana; Sebulsky, M. Tom; McCormick, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions. PMID:14557292

  6. Clinical Practice Guideline for Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and its metabolites have clinical significance because they play a critical function in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Although not all of the pathologic mechanisms have been adequately described, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as measured by low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, are associated with a variety of clinical conditions including osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly, decreased immune function, bone pain, and possibly colon cancer and cardiovascular health.2 Apart from inadequate dietary intake, patients may present with low levels of vitamin D if they receive inadequate sunlight. The astronaut population is potentially vulnerable to low levels of vitamin D for several reasons. Firstly, they may train for long periods in Star City, Russia, which by virtue of its northern latitude receives less sunlight in winter months. Secondly, astronauts are deprived of sunlight while aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In addition, ISS crew members are exposed to microgravity for prolonged durations and are likely to develop low bone mineral density despite the use of countermeasures. Therefore, closely monitoring and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is important for the astronaut corps.

  7. Viral asthma: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Menendez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Menendez1, Michael D Goldman21Allergy and Asthma Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Pulmonary Division, UCLA Gaffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The natural history of asthma appears to be driven primarily by the timing and duration of viral respiratory infections. From the very high rate of infections in childhood, to the more sporadic pattern seen in adults, the cycle of acute injury followed by an inefficient repair process helps explain the clinical patterns of asthma severity currently recognized by asthma guidelines. Why the asthmatic host responds to viral injury in a particular way is largely a mystery and the subject of intense investigation. The role of viruses in asthma extends not just to intermittent but to persistent disease, and to both the atopic as well as nonatopic phenotypes. Future therapeutic strategies should include primary prevention via the development of antiviral innate immunity-enhancing vaccines, as well as secondary prevention via the use of antiviral agents, or immunomodulators designed to boost the antiviral response or interrupt the proinflammatory cascade.Keywords: asthma, rhinoviruses, exacerbations, epidemiology, phenotypes, clinical trials

  8. A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

  9. Active Interventions in Clinical Practice: Contributions of Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)

  10. Characteristics and Clinical Practices of Rural Marriage and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a subset of data collected from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Practice Research Network project conducted in 2002. A sample of 47 clinical members of AAMFT who indicated they practiced in a rural community provided descriptive information on demographic characteristics, training, clinical…

  11. [Impact of digital technology on clinical practices: perspectives from surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X J

    2016-04-09

    Digital medical technologies or computer aided medical procedures, refer to imaging, 3D reconstruction, virtual design, 3D printing, navigation guided surgery and robotic assisted surgery techniques. These techniques are integrated into conventional surgical procedures to create new clinical protocols that are known as "digital surgical techniques". Conventional health care is characterized by subjective experiences, while digital medical technologies bring quantifiable information, transferable data, repeatable methods and predictable outcomes into clinical practices. Being integrated into clinical practice, digital techniques facilitate surgical care by improving outcomes and reducing risks. Digital techniques are becoming increasingly popular in trauma surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, imaging and anatomic sciences. Robotic assisted surgery is also evolving and being applied in general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and orthopedic surgery. Rapid development of digital medical technologies is changing healthcare and clinical practices. It is therefore important for all clinicians to purposefully adapt to these technologies and improve their clinical outcomes.

  12. Recommendations for the integration of genomics into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdin, Sarah; Gilbert, Adel; Bedoukian, Emma; Carew, Christopher; Adam, Margaret P; Belmont, John; Bernhardt, Barbara; Biesecker, Leslie; Bjornsson, Hans T; Blitzer, Miriam; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Deardorff, Matthew A; Demmer, Laurie; Elliott, Alison; Feldman, Gerald L; Glass, Ian A; Herman, Gail; Hindorff, Lucia; Hisama, Fuki; Hudgins, Louanne; Innes, A Micheil; Jackson, Laird; Jarvik, Gail; Kim, Raymond; Korf, Bruce; Ledbetter, David H; Li, Mindy; Liston, Eriskay; Marshall, Christian; Medne, Livija; Meyn, M Stephen; Monfared, Nasim; Morton, Cynthia; Mulvihill, John J; Plon, Sharon E; Rehm, Heidi; Roberts, Amy; Shuman, Cheryl; Spinner, Nancy B; Stavropoulos, D James; Valverde, Kathleen; Waggoner, Darrel J; Wilkens, Alisha; Cohn, Ronald D; Krantz, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of diagnostic clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) is changing the scope of practice for clinical geneticists. Many large institutions are making a significant investment in infrastructure and technology, allowing clinicians to access CGES, especially as health-care coverage begins to extend to clinically indicated genomic sequencing-based tests. Translating and realizing the comprehensive clinical benefits of genomic medicine remain a key challenge for the current and future care of patients. With the increasing application of CGES, it is necessary for geneticists and other health-care providers to understand its benefits and limitations in order to interpret the clinical relevance of genomic variants identified in the context of health and disease. New, collaborative working relationships with specialists across diverse disciplines (e.g., clinicians, laboratorians, bioinformaticians) will undoubtedly be key attributes of the future practice of clinical genetics and may serve as an example for other specialties in medicine. These new skills and relationships will also inform the development of the future model of clinical genetics training curricula. To address the evolving role of the clinical geneticist in the rapidly changing climate of genomic medicine, two Clinical Genetics Think Tank meetings were held that brought together physicians, laboratorians, scientists, genetic counselors, trainees, and patients with experience in clinical genetics, genetic diagnostics, and genetics education. This article provides recommendations that will guide the integration of genomics into clinical practice.Genet Med 18 11, 1075-1084.

  13. An internet portal for the development of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, W J; Karge, T; Siegmund, B; Preiss, J; Hoffmann, J C; Zeitz, M; Fölsch, U R

    2010-01-01

    The complexity and quality requirements for the development of clinical practice guidelines steadily increase. Internet technologies support this process by optimizing the development process. The aim of this internet based solution was to facilitate the development of clinical practice guidelines. An internet portal was developed allowing for a shared workplace to support clinical practice guideline authoring. It is based on a Content Management System and combines different tools for document handling and editing, communication as well as process and team steering. Until now, the internet portal has been successfully implicated in the development of six evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines. Additional German and European clinical practice guidelines are currently generated with support of the internet portal. The available tools allow for a flexible design of the scheduled workflow, depending on the requirements of the respective group. An additional strength of the platform is the advantage to transfer all data from a previous version of a guideline into the next 'life-cycle'. The application of the portal results in a considerable reduction of costs and development time of the resulting clinical practice guidelines.

  14. NEUROSYPHILIS IN THERAPEUTIC PRACTICE: CLINICAL OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of neurosyphilis diagnosed in a therapeutic inpatient facility.Materials and methods. Female patient T., 61, was hospitalized in the therapeutic department of a general hospital with referral diagnosis of “Stage II hypertensive heart disease, risk 4. Hypertensive crisis of 03.12.2015” with complaints of general fatigue, episodes of transient memory loss with full recovery, unstable blood pressure level. The patient was examined: She underwent treponemal and nontreponemal serological tests for antibodies against Treponema рallidum, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus; electrocardiogram; angiography of carotid and vertebral arteries; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the brain with contrast; serological and microscopic examinations of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF.Results. The patient»s medical history described episodes of transient global amnesia with full memory recovery, more frequent in the last year; arterial hypertension; chronic urinary tract infection; and chronic cholecystitis with frequent courses of antibacterial therapy (ceftriaxone. Since 1986, a positive serological reaction for syphilis was observed (Wassermann reaction (WR +++ due to a history of primary syphilis. Considering reliable history of syphilis, positive serum confirmation tests for syphilis (nontreponemal: rapid plasma reagin test 3+; treponemal: passive hemagglutination reaction 4+, antibodies against T. pallidum (total – present, history of neuropsychological symptoms (transient amnesia and acute neurological symptoms before hospitalization (transient ischemic attack, brain MRI data (2 lesions of cerebral circulation disorders of ischemic type in the cortical branches of left and right mesencephalic arteries, a diagnosis of neurosyphilis was proposed, and lumbar puncture was performed for confirmation. Inflammatory characteristics of the CSF (cytosis 19/3, neutrophilia up to 12 cells, insignificant lymphocytosis up

  15. Investigators' perspectives on translating human microbiome research into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slashinski, M J; Whitney, S N; Achenbaum, L S; Keitel, W A; McCurdy, S A; McGuire, A L

    2013-01-01

    Human microbiome research has the potential to transform the practice of medicine, fundamentally shifting the ways in which we think not only about human health, illness and disease, but also about clinical practice and public health interventions. Drawing from a larger qualitative study on ethical, legal and social dimensions of human microbiome research, in this article, we document perspectives related to the translation of human microbiome research into clinical practice, focusing particularly on implications for health, illness and disease. We conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009-2010) with 63 researchers and National Institutes of Health project leaders ('investigators') involved with human microbiome research. The interviews explored a range of ethical, legal and social implications of human microbiome research, including investigators' perspectives on potential strategies for translating findings to clinical practice. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. We identified 3 themes: (1) investigators' general perspectives on the clinical utility of human microbiome research, (2) investigators' perspectives on antibiotic use, overuse and misuse, and (3) investigators' perspectives concerning future challenges of translating data to clinical practice. The issues discussed by investigators concerning the clinical significance of human microbiome research, including embracing a new paradigm of health and disease, the importance of microbial communities, and clinical utility, will be of critical importance as this research moves forward. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for use of tumor markers in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturgeon, Catharine M; Hoffman, Barry R; Chan, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. METHODS: One subcommittee developed guidelines for analytical quality relevant to serum and tissue-based tumor...

  17. Current clinical practices in Aphasia Therapy in Finland: challenges in moving towards national best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippi, A; Sellman, J; Heikkinen, P; Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discover and document the state of clinical practices for aphasia therapy in Finland and to gather information for developing national best practice. Two surveys were administered in Finland that explored current clinical practices in aphasia rehabilitation and the resources available to speech and language therapists (SLTs). We integrated and compared the results of these surveys. The results are based on the responses of the 88 (45 + 43) returned questionnaires from SLTs. Four principle themes were identified: planning the aphasia therapy, measures and assessment methods, current therapy service provision, and development suggestions and barriers to change. The results of this study showed considerable consistency in clinical practices among the respondents to the surveys. However, we noticed that there are some discrepancies between the recent research findings and present clinical practices. The findings from this study indicate that there are many challenges in clinical decision-making at the moment in Finland. The article helps clinicians to evaluate the practices they use and to execute justified modifications in order to implement more effective models of practice. It is evident that national best practice guidelines for aphasia therapy would support SLTs in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Digital clinical records and practice administration in primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, I-V; Ireland, R S; Eaton, K A

    2008-04-12

    Usually, a 'computerised dental practice' has included a series of diagnostic instruments, intra-oral cameras, digital radiographic systems, treatment planning systems, CAD-CAM systems, management systems etc. However, these 'island solutions' have not been integrated into one system. Nevertheless, it is possible to produce fully integrated systems for digital clinical records, based on established physiologic and cognitive-ergonomic concepts. The first part of this paper outlines the philosophy behind the development of such a totally integrated system for digital clinical records. The second--digital practice administration--considers how the 'digital revolution' has impacted upon practice administration.

  19. Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

  20. Early infant feeding practices of mothers attending a postnatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine feeding practices of mothers of infants 8 weeks of age or younger, attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study of mothers attending the postnatal clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital using a standardised interview schedule. Results: A total of 150 mothers were ...

  1. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R

    2017-09-01

    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  2. Ichthyosis: clinical manifestations and practical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Vinzenz; Traupe, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Ichthyoses constitute a large group of cornification disorders that affect the entire integument. The skin is characterized by visible scaling and in many cases by inflammation, for example, in bullous/keratinopathic ichthyosis or Netherton syndrome. From the viewpoint of classification it is useful to distinguish non-syndromic from syndromic types of ichthyosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris and recessive X-linked ichthyosis are common disorders - often of delayed onset, in contrast to congenital ichthyoses, which belong to the group of rare diseases and present at birth with either the features of collodion membrane or congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. The diagnostic steps are based on clinical data, analyses such as the steroid sulfatase activity test, skin biopsies, and genetic results. However, the dramatic increase in knowledge about the pathophysiology of these conditions has not led to a curative therapy so far. The therapeutic management is multidisciplinary and involves ichthyosis patient organizations in many countries. The mainstay of treatment remains with moisturizing creams containing, for example, urea, lactic acid and other humectants and keratolytics, regular bathing, and mechanical scale removal. Patients with lamellar ichthyosis or ichthyosiform erythroderma in particular profit from oral therapy with retinoids or retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents.

  3. Portal of Clinical Practice Guidelines: Digital Strategy for the Dissemination of Clinical Practice Guidelines Developed in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Obando, Fernando; Médico, MSc. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística, así como del Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Médico MSc. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon Jairo; MSc. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; De La Hoz Bradford, Ana Maria; Médico MSc. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; Ruiz Morales, Álvaro; Médico MSc. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología Clínica y Bioestadística, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; Maldonado Rivera, Patricia; Médico. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.; López, Pilar; Médico. Miembro del Departamento de Epidemiología y Bioestadística, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In response to the necessity of concise,accurate and practical information to supportclinical decision making, the Colombian government,in partnership with universities and scientificsocieties, has heavily invested in the developmentof clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Objectives:To develop a Web portal for the dissemination andcommunication of CPG and its clinical recommendations.Methodology: Development of the ColombianGPC web portal based on the principlesof adult learning,...

  4. Communication course for midwives teaching students in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Pernille Mølholt

    taking place in clinical practice and try to align the educational efforts in school and clinical settings for the benefit of the students PERSPECTIVES It is known that students in medical education find that clinical learning experiences do not reinforce the communication skills they learn pre......BACKGROUND The course was initiated by the midwifery department at University College North Denmark in cooperation with the leaders of the maternity units where the affiliated students have their clinical education. The purpose of the course was to enhance the quality of communication education......-clinically (Rosenbaum et al. 2013) and our own experience teaching Danish midwifery students indicates the same problem in our program. Providing an opportunity for the clinical teachers to learn, discuss and practice communication issues with each other and with theoretical teachers can represent an important...

  5. NHS Lanarkshire's leadership development programme's impact on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Angela M; Dodd, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of a clinical leadership programme on senior clinicians within National Health Service Lanarkshire, in terms of key constituents for fostering leadership development, specific skills developed and impact this has had on clinical practice. A qualitative research design was employed over several stages, involving 44 senior clinical managers, with member validation substantiating findings and thematic analysis used to analyse data collected. The programme's impact was evident in acknowledged change to participants' attitude, behaviour and performance with examples conveyed to demonstrate both the effect on clinical practice and perceived organisational benefits gained. The use of role play, scenario planning and enquiry-based learning approaches were deemed critical in achieving such change. Time constraints merited two different cohorts being examined simultaneously during the various stages of the programme. A longitudinal study is underway encompassing the evaluations of several cohorts through various stages of the programme to enable time-based comparisons to be made and enhance the rigour and scrutiny of the programme's impact on clinical practice. The paper is foremost in determining structure and processes employed on the programme, specific leadership skills developed, subsequent effect on clinical practice and perceived organisational benefits gained but not necessarily contemplated by staff prior to embarking on the programme, such as the emergence of communities of practice.

  6. Exchange students crossing language boundaries in clinical nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, K

    2011-12-01

    This article examines challenges and learning outcomes for nursing students from a Central European university of applied sciences who completed 3 months of clinical practice in Norway. The clinical practice was supervised in English by Norwegian nurses and nursing teachers. English is not the primary language in any of the countries. Increases in global migration have contributed to the need for an international dimension in nursing education. Personal mobility is a crucial part of the European Union's goal of becoming a knowledge society. Clinically based experiences pose challenges that are additional to and often more complex than traditional course-based experiences. Students who come from a non-English-speaking country for clinical practice in Norway face challenges regarding language. Accepting incoming students is a way of achieving higher quality and more relevant education in nursing. The study shows that clinical practice in a foreign country gives added value compared with clinical practice at home. Greater self-confidence and understanding of core concepts in nursing is described by the participants. Language differences are not regarded as a problem but as a way of developing personal and professional competence. The ability to compare healthcare systems in the two counties is important in developing competencies in nursing. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  7. A model for reflection for good clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, John I; Heneghan, Carl; Glasziou, Paul; Thompson, Matthew; Balla, Margaret E

    2009-12-01

    Rationale and aim The rapidly changing knowledge base of clinical practice highlights the need to keep abreast of knowledge changes that are most relevant for the practitioner. We aimed to develop a model for reflection on clinical practice that identified the key elements of medical knowledge needed for good medical practice. Method The dual theory of cognition, an integration of intuitive and analytic processes, provided the framework for the study. The design looked at the congruence between the clinical thinking process and the dual theory. A one-year study was conducted in general practice clinics in Oxfordshire, UK. Thirty-five general practitioners participated in 20-minute interviews to discuss how they worked through recently seen clinical cases. Over a one-year period 72 cases were recorded from 35 interviews. These were categorized according to emerging themes, which were manually coded and substantiated with verbatim quotations. Results There was a close fit between the dual theory and participants' clinical thinking processes. This included instant problem framing, consistent with automatic intuitive thinking, focusing on the risk and urgency of the case. Salient features accounting for these choices were recognizable. There was a second reflective phase, leading to the review of initial judgements. Conclusions The proposed model highlights the critical steps in decision making. This allows regular recalibration of knowledge that is most critical at each of these steps. In line with good practice, the model also links the crucial knowledge used in decision making, to value judgments made in relation to the patient.

  8. A practical guide to writing clinical articles for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, B

    2012-04-01

    The sharing of nursing knowledge between clinicians can strengthen the profession. Clinicians often underestimate the relevance and importance of what they may contribute and feel daunted by the idea of writing for publication. This article presents a practical approach to writing clinical articles for publication in professional journals such as Nursing Older People. It considers: what is a clinical article; the structure of a clinical article (Why? Where? How? What? What now?); choosing the journal; and understanding the editorial process.

  9. Clinical learning spaces: Crucibles for practice development in physiotherapy clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Narelle; Higgs, Joy; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-10

    This paper, through a deep examination of clinical workplaces as learning spaces, uses a holistic interpretation of clinical education and offers a practice development crucible metaphor as a useful way to deepen how clinical education can be conceptualized. An in-depth conceptualization of clinical education is needed if educators are able to develop wise educational practice and optimize the time students spend in clinical learning settings. The research reported here was undertaken in the qualitative paradigm guided by philosophical hermeneutics. Data collection strategies included observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and photo-elicitation. Twenty-four undergraduate physiotherapy students and twelve physiotherapy clinical supervisors participated in this research. Consistent with hermeneutic principles of dialogue of question and answer and hermeneutic circle, data analysis was achieved through an iterative process of reading, interpreting and re-reading the transcripts resulting in the emergence of a deeper understanding of clinical education that is represented for the reader. Clinical education has been revealed as a multidimensional learning space where workplace influences, engagement in professional practices, clinical supervisors' intentions and actions in combination with students' dispositions interact to shape and challenge students' clinical learning. A practice development crucible metaphor has been introduced as a way to represent this complexity and conceptualize clinical education, not as a set of techniques or supervision ratios but as a relational, fluid, complex space where learning is catalyzed. Importantly, the crucible metaphor assists academics, clinical supervisors and students to harness the power of clinical education to facilitate learning during clinical placements.

  10. Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.

  11. Truth telling in medical practice: students' opinions versus their observations of attending physicians' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko

    2013-07-01

    Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (ptruth telling of attending physicians (mean ± SD=7.33 ± 1.74). However, our data also show that when cancer patients were informed of bad news, they all experienced medium to above average distress (5.93 ± 2.19). To develop the ability to tell the truth well, one must receive regular training in communication skills, including experienced attending physicians. This study found a significant difference between medical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Expediting the transfer of evidence into practice: building clinical partnerships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Gagnon, Anita J.

    2000-01-01

    A librarian/clinician partnership was fostered in one hospital through the formation of the Evidence-based Practice Committee, with an ulterior goal of facilitating the transfer of evidence into practice. The paper will describe barriers to evidence-based practice and outline the committee's strategies for overcoming these barriers, including the development and promotion of a Web-based guide to evidence-based practice specifically designed for clinicians (health professionals). Educational strategies for use of the Web-based guide will also be addressed. Advantages of this partnership are that the skills of librarians in meeting the needs of clinicians are maximized. The evidence-based practice skills of clinicians are honed and librarians make a valuable contribution to the knowledgebase of the clinical staff. The knowledge acquired through the partnership by both clinicians and librarians will increase the sophistication of the dialogue between the two groups and in turn will expedite the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:10928710

  13. Reexamination of the ethics of placebo use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Atsushi; Kadooka, Yasuhiro

    2013-05-01

    A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard treatments, clinical use of placebo usually involves deception and is therefore ethically problematic. Our attitudes toward the clinical use of placebo, which inevitably includes deception or withholding information, have a tremendous effect on our practice regarding truth-telling and informed consent. A casual attitude towards it weakens the current practice based on shared decision-making and mutual trust between patients and healthcare professionals. Issues concerning the clinical use of placebo are thus intimately related to patient-provider relationships, the public's trust in medicine, and medical education. A review of recent survey studies suggests that the clinical use of placebo appears to be fairly well accepted among healthcare professionals and is common in clinical settings in various countries. However, we think that an ethical discussion is urgently needed because of its controversial nature. If judged to be ethically wrong, the practice should end. In the present paper, we discuss the ethicality of the clinical use of placebo with deception and argue against it, concluding that it is unethical and should be banned. We will show that most arguments in favor of the clinical use of placebo can be refuted and are therefore incorrect or weak. These arguments will be presented and examined individually. Finally, we will briefly consider issues relevant to the clinical use of placebo without deception. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Clinical indications for antibiotic use in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Siersma, Volkert

    2017-01-01

    from electronic prescriptions are accessible and available to provide an overview of drug use, in casu antibiotic prescriptions, in Danish general practice. These clinical indications may be further explored in detail to assess rational drug use and congruence with guidelines, but validation......Objective: To assess the availability and applicability of clinical indications from electronic prescriptions on antibiotic use in Danish general practice. Design: Retrospective cohort register-based study including the Danish National Prescription Register. Setting: Population-based study...... of routine electronic antibiotic prescriptions from Danish general practice. Subjects: All 975,626 patients who redeemed an antibiotic prescription at outpatient pharmacies during the 1-year study period (July 2012 to June 2013). Main outcome measures: Number of prescriptions per clinical indication. Number...

  15. Clinical photography for trichology practice: tips and tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashique, Kt; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2011-01-01

    Clinical photography of hair disorders is an extension of photography in dermatology practice. Some points should be kept in mind while taking images of the hair and hair bearing areas in view of the reflection of light and the subsequent glare that may spoil the result. For documentation of most conditions of the hair, the same general rules of dermatological photography apply. The correct lighting is the most important aspect of clinical photography in trichology practice and can be achieved by reflected light than direct light. Special care should be taken in conditions requiring serial images to document progress/response to treatment and the most important factor in this context is consistency with respect to patient positioning, lighting, camera settings and background. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy can also be incorporated in clinical practice for image documentation.

  16. Ethical Issues in Clinical Practice in Endocrinology- Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Bagher LARIJANI; Farzaneh ZAHEDI

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in different field of medicine have given rise to complex ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The more the clinicians are sensitized to ethical problems and familiar with ethical decision-making, the more they can value professionalism in their practice. The current paper is designed to emphasize physicians to think ethically in the field of internal medicine and endocrinology. Being aware of the ethical issues and being sensitive to them are the first steps for ethical conduc...

  17. Survey of clinical infant lung function testing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey L; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ascher, Simon B; Hornik, Christoph P; Arets, H G M; Davis, Stephanie D; Hall, Graham L

    2014-02-01

    Data supporting the clinical use of infant lung function (ILF) tests are limited making the interpretation of clinical ILF measures difficult. To evaluate current ILF testing practices and to survey users regarding the indications, limitations and perceived clinical benefits of ILF testing. We created a 26-item survey hosted on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) website between January and May 2010. Notifications were sent to members of the ERS, American Thoracic Society and the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Responses were sought from ILF laboratory directors and pediatric respirologists. The survey assessed the clinical indications, patient populations, equipment and reference data used, and perceived limitations of ILF testing. We received 148 responses with 98 respondents having ILF equipment and performing testing in a clinical capacity. Centers in North America were less likely to perform ≥50 studies/year than centers in Europe or other continents (13% vs. 41%). Most respondents used ILF data to either "start a new therapy" (78%) or "help decide about initiation of further diagnostic workup such as bronchoscopy, chest CT or serological testing" (69%). Factors reported as limiting clinical ILF testing were need for sedation, uncertainty regarding clinical impact of study results and time intensive nature of the study. Clinical practices associated with ILF testing vary significantly; centers that perform more studies are more likely to use the results for clinical purposes and decision making. The future of ILF testing is uncertain in the face of the limitations perceived by the survey respondents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 'Pastoral practices' for quality improvement in a Kenyan clinical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Gerry; Nzinga, Jacinta; English, Mike

    2017-12-01

    We explain social and organisational processes influencing health professionals in a Kenyan clinical network to implement a form of quality improvement (QI) into clinical practice, using the concept of 'pastoral practices'. Our qualitative empirical case study, conducted in 2015-16, shows the way practices constructing and linking local evidence-based guidelines and data collection processes provided a foundation for QI. Participation in these constructive practices gave network leaders pastoral status to then inscribe use of evidence and data into routine care, through championing, demonstrating, supporting and mentoring, with the support of a constellation of local champions. By arranging network meetings, in which the professional community discussed evidence, data, QI and professionalism, network leaders also facilitated the reconstruction of network members' collective professional identity. This consequently strengthened top-down and lateral accountability and inspection practices, disciplining evidence and audit-based QI in local hospitals. By explaining pastoral practices in this way and setting, we contribute to theory about governmentality in health care and extend Foucauldian analysis of QI, clinical networks and governance into low and middle income health care contexts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. How GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice--a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jette V; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Bro, Flemming; Søndergaard, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood. To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective implementation activities and organized their everyday practice to support these activities. In other practices GPs discussed guidelines collectively but left the application up to the individual GP whilst others again saw no need for discussion or collective activities depending entirely on the individual GP's decision on whether and how to manage implementation. Approaches to implementation of clinical guidelines vary substantially between practices. Supporting activities should take this into account. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  1. A model for ethical practices in clinical phonetics and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of clinical phonetics and linguistics as an area of scientific inquiry gives rise to the need for guidelines that define ethical and responsible conduct. The diverse membership of the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association (ICPLA) and the readership of this journal are uniquely suited to consider ethical issues from diverse perspectives. Accordingly, this paper introduces a multi-tiered six-factor model for ethical practices to stimulate discussion of ethical issues.

  2. Writing and publishing clinical articles: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2012-04-01

    The sharing of knowledge among nurses and clinicians can strengthen the healthcare professions. In this context, many clinicians underestimate the relevance and importance of what they can contribute, and find the idea of writing for publication daunting. This article presents a practical approach to writing clinical articles for publication in professional journals such as Emergency Nurse. It covers the characteristics of clinical articles, their structure, choosing a journal and how the editorial process should be understood.

  3. Good Clinical Practice Guidance and Pragmatic Clinical Trials: Balancing the Best of Both Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Berdan, Lisa G; Rorick, Tyrus; O'Brien, Emily C; Ibarra, Jenny C; Curtis, Lesley H; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-03-01

    Randomized, clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human subjects. Although the application of Good Clinical Practice principles generally led to improvements in the quality and consistency of trial operations, these principles have also contributed to increasing trial complexity and costs. Alternatively, the growing availability of electronic health record data has facilitated the possibility for streamlined pragmatic clinical trials. The central tenets of Good Clinical Practice and pragmatic clinical trials represent potential tensions in trial design (stringent quality and highly efficient operations). In the present article, we highlight potential areas of discordance between Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of pragmatic clinical trials and suggest strategies to streamline study conduct in an ethical manner to optimally perform clinical trials in the electronic age. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Nasogastric feeding practices: a survey using clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ee-Yuee; Ng, Isabel Hui-Ling; Tan, Sherrie Lee-Hong; Jabin, Kamilah; Lee, Leng-Noey; Ang, Ching-Ching

    2012-03-01

    Bolus nasogastric tube feeding is common. Unsafe practices such as failure to confirm tube placement can result in death. It is vital to ensure that nurses are adopting safe practices. To evaluate nurses' practices on bolus nasogastric feeding relating to verification of tube placement, management of gastric residual volume, and response to complications during feeding. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey using clinical scenarios. All nurses who worked in the general wards in a tertiary hospital in August 2008. We developed six clinical scenarios to describe common clinical situations in nurses' daily practices. Participants were instructed to choose the responses that best reflected their practices, and to return the completed questionnaires to the study member present. The survey participation rate was 99.5% (1203 nurses). Seventy-six percent would choose two or more methods to verify placement when they were in doubt. Percentage of hydrogen (pH) testing was the most common first method of checking tube placement. The second and third self-reported methods were auscultation and the bubble test. Few chose radiography to confirm tube placement. When the aspirate was pH 7, and in the presence of positive auscultation, most participants would take further steps to confirm placement. There were variations in the nurses' responses on managing the gastric residual volume, with 78.1% indicating that they would return the aspirate. Most nurses lacked the knowledge to effectively manage patients' distress during tube feeding. The findings showed that the majority of participants reported that they would exercise due caution by taking additional measures to check tube placement when in doubt. The practice gaps identified in the study highlighted a need to realign our care to best practices. Following the study, we revised the institution's guideline, reinforced specific safety precautions on nasogastric feeding, and incorporated clinical scenarios in our training

  5. Pediatric clinical handover: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuowen; Zhang, Yuxia; Gu, Ying; Xu, Xiaofeng; McArthur, Alexa

    2017-10-01

    Communication of information between and among healthcare providers is an essential element of patient care. Poor clinical handover has been associated with inaccurate clinical assessment and diagnosis, delays in diagnosis, medication errors and decreased patient satisfaction. Effective and efficient transition of patient care information requires an evidence-based handover approach. The aim of this evidence implementation project was to make a contribution to promote evidence-based practice in clinical handover in a pediatric setting and thereby enhance patient safety and service delivery. Seven criteria identified by the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to conduct an audit in the Gastroenterology Department, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Twelve nurses and 260 handover sessions were involved. The JBI Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit tools for promoting change in health practice were used to ascertain compliance with the criteria before and after the implementation of best practice. The program included three phases and was conducted over six months. There were improvements with compliance for each criterion. Face-to-face communication, standardized documentation, identification of patients, care plan handover and transfer of responsibility reached 100% compliance. Detailed observations of the patient improved from 93% to 98%, and there was an 18% improvement for relevant history handover. This project has demonstrated that handover sessions can be more effective by translating evidence into practice through ongoing evidence-based audit. Nursing inter-shift handover requires the use of a highly valuable and important standardized tool. Further audits will need to be carried out in order to maintain the practice change, and ensure the sustainability of the project.

  6. Advanced practice nurses' scope of practice: a qualitative study of advanced clinical competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Anna-Lena; Mannevaara, Bodil; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2011-12-01

    To describe and explore Advanced Practice Nurses' clinical competencies and how these are expressed in clinical practice. Discussion concerning advanced clinical practice has been ongoing in the USA since the 1960s and in the UK since the late 1980s. Approximately 24 countries, excluding the USA, have implemented the role of Advance Practice Nurse (APN). In the Nordic countries, especially Sweden and Finland, APNs have been introduced in some organizations but their competency domains have not yet been clearly defined. The study's theoretical framework emanates from Aristotle's three-dimensional view of knowledge that is epistêmê, technê, and phronesis. Between October 2005 and January 2006, focus group interviews of Clinical Nurse Specialists who provide expert functions in pediatric, internal medicine, and surgical units (n = 26) and APN students (n = 8) were conducted. The data material was analyzed using inductive content analysis. Grouped into five main themes, the study results indicate that APNs possess advanced level clinical competencies in: (A) assessment of patients' caring needs and nursing care activities, (B) the caring relationship, (C) multi-professional teamwork, (D) development of competence and nursing care, and (E) leadership in a learning and caring culture. Clinical competencies consist of advanced skills, which typify an expanding role that offers new possibilities for holistic patient care practice. APNs' scope of practice is characterized by responsibility and competence in making autonomous judgments based on expanded clinical competence. On an advanced level, clinical competence consists not merely of advanced skills for assessing and meeting the needs of patients but also the creation of safe and trustful relationships with patients and collaboration with colleagues. APNs can realize advanced skills in their actions through their manner of knowing, doing, and being. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011

  7. Information sources that influence physiatrists' adoption of new clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, M J; Grabois, M

    1988-03-01

    As part of a mail survey of physiatrists' views of conducting research, respondents were queried regarding information sources that influenced their introducing a clinical innovation into their practices in the past two years. Complete information was obtained from 356 individuals. The reported practice innovations were categorized as follows: (a) evoked potentials (6% of respondents); (b) electrophysiologic diagnostic procedures other than evoked potentials (19%); (c) other diagnostic/assessment procedures (11%); (d) transcutaneous nerve stimulation (6%); (e) physical treatment procedures other than transcutaneous nerve stimulation (22%); (f) medication (5%); (g) psychologic or social intervention (4%); and (h) altered methods of service delivery (27%). Considered across all practice innovation categories, the average relative importance (in descending order) of the information sources was as follows: (1) discovery in the individual's own practice; (2) a meeting, lecture, or continuing education course; (3) a clinical coworker; (4) a write-up in the clinical literature; (5) the individual's own research; (6) a patient; (7) a write-up in the research literature; (8) a textbook; and (9) the representative of a drug firm or equipment manufacturer. Additional findings concern variables which distinguished a group of 43 individuals who reported introducing no innovation into their practices for the preceding two years, compared to the 356 individuals who did so.

  8. The clinical practice of interventional radiology: a European perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical environment in which interventional radiology (IR) is practiced throughout Europe. A survey, comprising 12 questions on IR clinical practice, was sent to 1800 CIRSE members. Members were asked to return one survey per department. Two hundred seventy-four departments returned completed questionnaires, 22% from the United Kingdom (n = 60), 11% from Germany (n = 30), 8% from Austria (n = 23), and the remainder spread over Europe. Experts, with more than 10 years of IR experience, comprised 74% of the survey group. Almost one-third of the radiologists dedicated more than 80% of their clinical sessions to IR alone (27%; n = 75), with two-thirds practicing in a university teaching hospital setting (66%; n = 179). Few institutions have dedicated IR inpatient hospital beds (17%; n = 46), however, to compensate, day case beds are available (31%), IR admitting rights are in place (64% overall, 86% for in-patients, and 89% for day cases), and elective IR admissions can be made through other clinicians (87%). IR outpatient clinics are run at 26% of departments, with an average of two sessions per week. Dedicated nurses staff the majority of IR suites (82%), but clinical junior doctors are lacking (46%). Hospital management\\'s refusing access to beds was the most commonly cited reason for not developing a clinical IR service (41%). In conclusion, there is marked variation across European centers in the current practice of IR. Half do not have dedicated junior doctors and only a small minority have inpatient hospital beds. If IR is to be maintained as a dedicated clinical specialty, these issues need to be addressed urgently.

  9. Clinical Vignettes Improve Performance in Anatomy Practical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikah, December S. K.; Finn, Gabrielle M.; Swamy, Meenakshi; White, Pamela M.; McLachlan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Although medical curricula now adopt an integrated teaching approach, this is not adequately reflected in assessment of anatomy knowledge and skills. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of the addition of clinical vignette to item stems on students' performance in anatomy practical examinations. In this study, 129 undergraduate medical…

  10. A Diverse Clinical-Based Practice in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Shelby; Hake, Megan M.; Cook-Benjamin, Lorie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if offering a virtual clinical-based practice would affect teacher candidates' level of confidence in teaching diverse students. During 2012-2014, data were collected using a pre- and post-Likert scale questionnaire. A paired two sample t-test was utilized to determine if there was a significant difference…

  11. Diagnostic value of urinary dysmorphic erythrocytes in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Crop (Meindert); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); P.C.M.S. Verhagen (Paul); K. Cransberg (Karlien); R. Zietse (Bob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In clinical practice, discriminating between glomerular and nonglomerular causes of hematuria is often difficult. Dysmorphic red blood cells (dRBC) in the urinary sediment are claimed to be effective, but the cutoff points in the literature vary. This follow-up study aimed to

  12. Importance Of Logotherapy In Clinical Practice | Asagba | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of logotherapy has been neglected in the clinical practice in Nigeria. This paper raises some important aspects of logotherapy, which have not been taken in to consideration. For instance, there is the issue of using knowledge and wisdom in logotherapy. Other issues are the great emphasis of responsibility ...

  13. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  14. Good clinical practice in East Africa: a review | Kimanani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good clinical practice in East Africa: a review. E. Kimanani. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (10): 550-554). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i10.8967 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  15. Attitudes of Labour Ward Staff towards a Clinical Practice Guideline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partogram is generally regarded as a clinical practice guideline that is useful in early detection of complications duringlabour. This article described the views of midwives on the use of partogram in monitoring women during labour. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. Semi-structured interviews were ...

  16. Developing Clinically Practicable Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advances in understanding the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the field remains primarily reliant on observational and parent report measures of behavior to guide clinical practice, conduct research, and evaluate intervention outcomes. There is a critical need for objective measures to more sensitively and…

  17. Perception of Female Doctors\\' Clinical Practice and Teaching in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More women are in medicine. The study aimed at examining medical students' perception of female doctors' clinical practice and teaching as it relates to their gender. The study's design was simple randomized using well-structured questionnaires. One hundred and sixtyone medical students with a mean age of 24.4 ± 2 ...

  18. Editorial: Learning clinical practice | Bregazzi | South Sudan Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Learning clinical practice. Richard Bregazzi. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  19. The use of bone age in clinical practice - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D.D.; Caliebe, J.; Binder, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the role of skeletal maturity ('bone age', BA) assessment in clinical practice. BA is mainly used in children with the following conditions: short stature (addressed in part 1 of this review), tall stature, early or late puberty, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (all...

  20. Improving clinical practice through simulation: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquisition of knowledge and skills by nursing students before real-life practice is a familiar nursing education challenge. The use of clinical simulation in nursing education provides many opportunities for students to learn and apply theoretical principles of nursing care in a safe environment. The purpose of this study was ...

  1. Cardiac Sarcoidosis | Bajomo | Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare complication which occurs in 1-5% of sarcoidosis. We report here a case seen in Olabisi Onnabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, who presented with heart failure. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol.6(2) 2003: 122-123 ...

  2. Malingering in clinical practice with specific reference to psychiatry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malingering in clinical practice with specific reference to psychiatry and psychology. Frans J Hugo, Frances Hemp. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  3. Multifunction laser systems in clinical and resort practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zabulonov, Yuriy; Vladimirov, Alexander; Chukhraiev, Nikolay; Elmehsenawi, Yousry; Zukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    SHUPYKNATIONALMEDICALACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION UKRAINIANSOCIETY OFPHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE RADOM UNIVERSITY       Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow       MULTIFUNCTION LASER SYSTEMS IN CLINICAL AND RESORT PRACTICE   Edited by Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow  ...

  4. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - Vol 20, No 9 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. ... Cancer Patients and Oncology Nursing: Perspectives of Oncology Nurses in Turkey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Oral and Dental Health in Children with Chronic Liver Disease in the Turkey Northeast · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. From Paper Based Clinical Practice Guidelines to Declarative Workflow Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2009-01-01

    We present a field study of oncology workflow, involving doctors, nurses and pharmacists at Danish hospitals and discuss the obstacles, enablers and challenges for the use of computer based clinical practice guidelines. Related to the CIGDec approach of Pesic and van der Aalst we then describe ho...

  6. Heart Failure in Zambia: Evidence for Improving Clinical Practice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Electrocardiography in clinical practice. Arrhythmias and conduction defects are quite common in. HF, the most common being Atrial Fibrillation (AF) which has serious consequences. In the study, 8% of patients had AF and few other arrhythmias are described. The limitations outlines by the authors are appreciated. Indeed ...

  7. New developments in clinical practice guidelines | Kreymann | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last four years revised clinical practice guidelines on nutritional support have been published by the major nutritional societies worldwide. The aim of these guidelines is to promote the safe and effective care of patients who need nutritional support as part of their overall management. All guidelines are based on ...

  8. Current referral practices and adolescent transition to Adult clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-02

    Feb 2, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: The goal of adolescent transition from child to adult care services is to provide uninterrupted, coordinated and developmentally appropriate health care as transfers are made from paediatric to adult clinics. Adolescent transition practices are available but not in Nigeria. This study was ...

  9. Decision making in clinical veterinary practice | Anene | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making in clinical veterinary practice. BM Anene. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  10. Evidence-based Dental Practice: Part I. Formulating Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This first of three articles on evidence-based dental practice discusses the historical background of evidence-based medicine/evidence-based dentistry, how to formulate clear clinical questions and how to track down (search) the available evidence in the literature databases. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ...

  11. Terminal sedation and euthanasia: A comparison of clinical practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); J.J.M. van Delden (Johannes); A. van der Heide (Agnes); A.M. Vrakking (Astrid); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); P.J. van der Maas (Paul); G. van der Wal (Gerrit)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: An important issue in the debate about terminal sedation is the extent to which it differs from euthanasia. We studied clinical differences and similarities between both practices in the Netherlands. Methods: Personal interviews were held with a nationwide stratified sample

  12. Semi-Spontaneous Oral Text Production: Measurements in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-01-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…

  13. Paediatrics hiv/aids: Clinical presentation and practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatrics hiv/aids: Clinical presentation and practical management Challenges in Sokoto, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Implications of continuing HIV/AIDS pandemic in Nigeria is very grave for children. Lack of ... Thirty- six (87.8%) patients had protein – energy malnutrition (PEM), marasmus constituting 58%.

  14. [To construct the clinical guideline of integrative Chinese and Western medicine based on clinical practical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2009-06-01

    Clinical guideline is of important significance to standardize clinical practice. Clinical guideline of evidence-based medicine puts stress on the classification and evaluation of evidences, especially in randomy controlled trial and gives recommendation based on the different grades and intensities of evidences. Since Chinese medicine has its own theoretical system in diagnosis and treatment, and the integrative Western and Chinese medicine (ICWM) is characterized by complicated intervention, making up a clinical guideline for Chinese medicine or ICWM based on the evidence obtained from modern medical research is apparently not so suitable. In this paper, the authors offered to develop a practice-based ICWM clinical guideline, which could be used in complementation with the evidence-based medical clinical guideline, and have a discussion on our preliminary research, looking forward to provide a new thinking path for constructing clinical guideline for Chinese medicine, ICWM and modern medicine.

  15. Communication course for midwives teaching students in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Pernille Mølholt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The course was initiated by the midwifery department at University College North Denmark in cooperation with the leaders of the maternity units where the affiliated students have their clinical education. The purpose of the course was to enhance the quality of communication education......-clinically (Rosenbaum et al. 2013) and our own experience teaching Danish midwifery students indicates the same problem in our program. Providing an opportunity for the clinical teachers to learn, discuss and practice communication issues with each other and with theoretical teachers can represent an important...

  16. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    's eight-step framework for concept analysis. Results Five defining attributes of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice were identified: strong monodisciplinary nursing professionalism, academic thinking and socialization, research use as a part of daily nursing practice......, acceptance by colleagues and management and facilitation of resources from management and organization. Conclusion Although the method of concept analysis has been criticized and heavily debated, the development of nursing research cultures based on the defining attributes and antecedents of the concept......Aim To report an analysis of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice. Background Nursing research culture should be valued for its contribution to improving patient care and should be considered as a routine hospital activity. However, the demand...

  17. Rate of occult specimen provenance complications in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, John D; Liu, Jingxia

    2013-01-01

    Occult specimen provenance complications (SPCs), which occur when there is an absence of any direct or indirect indication that a specimen switch or contamination may have occurred, constitute a significant patient safety and medical-legal problem because they can lead to misdiagnosis. However, the rate at which occult SPCs occur is unknown because, by definition, this category of errors is not identified by standard laboratory practices. In this study, we evaluated a data set comprising almost 13,000 prostate biopsies that were prospectively tested for specimen provenance errors as part of routine clinical practice. The frequency of occult type 1 errors (a complete transposition between patients) and type 2 errors (contamination of the patient's tissue with 1 or more unrelated patients) was 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively; every urology practice setting and surgical pathology laboratory type with a representative sample size experienced at least 1 type 1 and 1 type 2 error during the study period. Overall, the mean frequency of SPCs across practice settings was 0.22% for type 1 errors and 1.69% for type 2 errors. The type 1 rate showed no correlation with a surgical pathology laboratory setting or urologic practice group setting; the type 2 rate correlated solely with a surgical pathology laboratory setting. The occult SPC rate in this limited data set provides an estimate of the scope of the problem of potential misdiagnosis as a result of occult specimen provenance errors in routine clinical practice.

  18. Learning in clinical practice: the importance of peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Deborah

    To explore whether nursing students learn from each other and, if so, how, when and where this learning takes place. An interpretive ethnographic qualitative research study of a group of pre-registration nursing students (n = 15). Participant observation was the primary tool of data collection. Students gave their consent to be observed in classroom and clinical environments throughout the three years of the pre-registration programme. Data took the form of audio-taped conversations with and between students together with field notes. A thematic analysis was undertaken to reveal the student experience of peer learning. The importance of friendships to clinical learning for students was apparent in three respects: friendships and learning in clinical practice, survival skills and developing clinical skills. The students talked about their friendships being strong and enduring and enabling learning to take place. The students used their peers as a resource to pass on survival skills and help each other to learn how to be a nurse. Students also taught each other a variety of clinical skills. Traditional notions of seniority were challenged because the students appeared more concerned with what their peers had experienced. Friendships were an important aspect of peer learning for the students in this study and, more importantly, friendship fostered learning. Peer learning in clinical practice is an informal and underestimated aspect of clinical learning and is valued by students.

  19. Advancing patient care through innovative practice: the Clinical Partners Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bella H; Rodis, Jennifer L; Nahata, Milap C; Bennett, Marialice S

    2005-12-01

    The development, implementation, and outcomes assessment of an innovative pharmacist-managed ambulatory care and community pharmacy practice clinic are described. The Clinical Partners Program at The Ohio State University (OSU) provides an active learning environment for students and residents, offers a patient-focused practice model based on pharmaceutical care principles, and serves as an arena for applied research in pharmacy practice. The program offers multiple services, including anticoagulation management, diabetes self-management, cholesterol management, hepatitis C education, herbal product and dietary supplement consultations, medication management, smoking cessation, and wellness. The practice is currently staffed by two faculty members from the college of pharmacy, with a 0.8 full-time-equivalent (FTE) pharmacist and a 0.65 FTE community pharmacy resident. It has served as a training site for 17 pharmacy residents, 28 bachelor of science (B.S.) in pharmacy students, 30 post-B.S. doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) students, and 132 entry-level Pharm.D. students at various levels of training. The most successful methods of reimbursement for programs have been contracted services with OSU Managed Health Care Systems, Inc., which serves OSU faculty and staff and fee-for-service billing, charged directly to non-OSU patients. Numerous studies have shown that Clinical Partners has consistently demonstrated improved therapeutic outcomes over those achieved in traditional practice. Faculty are exploring outreach services, including the development of advanced practice community sites for the college, establishing patient care services within physician offices, and providing disease management services for self-insured employers. The Clinical Partners Program has improved patient care and provided education and training opportunities for pharmacy students and residents.

  20. The frontline clinical manager identifying direct reports' level of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M Anne; Roussel, Linda; Pennington, Sandra L; Hoying, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Patricia Benner applied the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to describe and interpret skill acquisition and clinical judgment in nursing practice. Operational definitions for the 5 levels of her original Novice to Expert Theory were used by the study participants in a large Midwestern pediatric hospital to self-identify their level of practice. The frontline clinical managers of these direct care registered nurses (RNs) used the same tool to rate their direct reports. The aim of this portion of a larger study was to determine if the clinical manager's perception of their direct reports was the same as that of the RNs. The results of this study are being used by one study unit's clinical managers as the basis for implementing the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model. The clinical managers work with their direct reports depending on the level of practice and the details of the task to be performed. One example is creating therapeutic relationships with each other and with families to ensure a safe environment for all.

  1. 77 FR 49449 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA...

  2. 77 FR 49448 - Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Baltimore District Office, in...

  3. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  4. Clinical Practice in the Center: Enhancing Learning and Collaboration in Clinical Practice through Professional Development Learning Community Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-Ji; Daniels, Erika; Ochanji, Moses K.

    2017-01-01

    The traditional model of teacher preparation, which focuses on content and methods courses in a college or university, can create a gap between university faculty and school practitioners. This article describes a series of clinical practice workshops as a viable means to bridge the gap between a university and its partner middle schools in the…

  5. The good laboratory practice and good clinical practice requirements for the production of radiopharmaceuticals in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FJ; De Decker, M; Dierckx, RA

    Radiopharmaceuticals account for more than 95% of the group of sterile pharmaceutical products and should therefore be handled and produced with care. Since the introduction of the European directive, all pharmaceuticals used in clinical studies must be prepared under good manufacturing practice

  6. Doctors' experience with handheld computers in clinical practice: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Medow, Mitchell A

    2004-05-15

    To examine doctors' perspectives about their experiences with handheld computers in clinical practice. Qualitative study of eight focus groups consisting of doctors with diverse training and practice patterns. Six practice settings across the United States and two additional focus group sessions held at a national meeting of general internists. 54 doctors who did or did not use handheld computers. Doctors who used handheld computers in clinical practice seemed generally satisfied with them and reported diverse patterns of use. Users perceived that the devices helped them increase productivity and improve patient care. Barriers to use concerned the device itself and personal and perceptual constraints, with perceptual factors such as comfort with technology, preference for paper, and the impression that the devices are not easy to use somewhat difficult to overcome. Participants suggested that organisations can help promote handheld computers by providing advice on purchase, usage, training, and user support. Participants expressed concern about reliability and security of the device but were particularly concerned about dependency on the device and over-reliance as a substitute for clinical thinking. Doctors expect handheld computers to become more useful, and most seem interested in leveraging (getting the most value from) their use. Key opportunities with handheld computers included their use as a stepping stone to build doctors' comfort with other information technology and ehealth initiatives and providing point of care support that helps improve patient care.

  7. Theory-practice integration in selected clinical situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in health care systems challenge knowledgeable, mature and independent practitioners to integrate theoretical content with practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the problems of integrating theory with practice in selected clinical nursing situations. The study focused on rendering of family planning services to clients as a component of Community Nursing Science. Structured observation schedules were used to observe the theoretical content of the curriculum as well as the practical application of what has been taught in the clinical area. The findings of the study revealed that there was a need for an integrated holistic curriculum, which would address the needs of the community. It was concluded that a problem-based and community-based curriculum, intersectoral collaboration between college and hospital managements and student involvement in all processes of teaching and learning would improve the integration of theory and practice. There also appeared to be a need for tutors to be more involved in clinical teaching and accompaniment.

  8. A Clinical Librarian-Nursing Partnership to Bridge Clinical Practice and Research in an Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginex, Pamela K; Hernandez, Marisol; Vrabel, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nurses in clinical settings in which evidence-based, individualized care is expected are often the best resource to identify important clinical questions and gaps in practice. These nurses are frequently challenged by a lack of resources to fully develop their questions and identify the most appropriate methods to answer them. A strategic and ongoing partnership between medical library services and nursing can support nurses as they embark on the process of answering these questions and, ultimately, improving patient care and clinical outcomes

  9. Good Clinical Practice Guidance and Pragmatic Clinical Trials: Balancing the Best of Both Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Berdan, Lisa G.; Rorick, Tyrus; O?Brien, Emily C.; Ibarra, Jenny C.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human s...

  10. Leadership strategies to influence the use of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy A; Davies, Barbara; Edwards, Nancy; Graham, Ian D

    2006-12-01

    Support from nursing managers and administrators, together with the role of a dedicated project Lead, are consistently identified as important strategies for nurses to be able to use research evidence in their practice. However, little is known about the key behaviours and activities required to successfully implement and sustain research-based innovations in practice. This study describes the leadership behaviours and activities that influenced nurses' use of clinical practice guidelines. A secondary analysis of qualitative data was conducted to investigate factors that contributed to sustaining (or not) the use of clinical guidelines two and three years after implementation as part of the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario Best Practice Guidelines project. Grounded theory techniques were used to develop a theoretical model of Leadership. Findings indicated a different pattern of leadership in organizations that sustained guidelines, when compared to those that did not. Three broad leadership strategies emerged as central to successfully implementing and sustaining guidelines: (1) facilitating staff to use the guidelines, (2) creating a positive milieu of best practices and (3) influencing organizational structures and processes. Leadership for guideline implementation was found to include such behaviours as support, role-modelling commitment and reinforcing organizational policies and goals consistent with evidence-based care.

  11. From clinical practice guidelines, to clinical guidance in practice - implications for design of computerized guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    2010-01-01

    . The transformation from protocols was executed according to a standard operating procedure. Each activity type had a standardized template ensuring uniformity across second order guiding artifacts within a clinic. The guiding artifacts were multi-functional and a wide variety of standardized graphical attributes...

  12. Survey of clinical nutrition practices of Canadian gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Duerksen, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition education is a required part of gastrointestinal training programs. The involvement of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition once their training has been completed is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the practice pattern of gastroenterologists in clinical nutrition and their perceived adequacy of nutrition training during their gastroenterology (GI) fellowship. METHODS: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology mailed a survey to all of its 463 Canadian clinician members and 88 trainee members. Components of the survey included knowledge of nutritional assessment and total parenteral nutrition, involvement in a nutrition support service, physician involvement in nutritional assessment and nutrition support teams, obesity management, insertion of gastrostomy (G) tubes and management of tube-related complications, and adequacy of training in clinical nutrition. RESULTS: Sixty per cent (n=279) of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology clinicians and 38% (n=33) of the fellows responded. Of the clinicians, 80% were practicing adult gastroenterologists with the following demographics: those practicing full time in academic centres (42%), community practice (45%), completed training in the last 10 years (32%) and those that completed training in the United States (14%). Although only 6% had a primary focus of nutrition in their GI practices, 65% were involved in nutrition support (including total parenteral nutrition), 74% placed G tubes and 68% managed at least one of the major complications of G tube insertion. Respondents felt a gastroenterologist should be the physician’s consultant on nutrition support services (89%). Areas of potential inadequate training included nutritional assessment, indications for nutrition support, management of obesity and management of G tube-related complications. The majority of clinicians (67%) and trainees (73%) felt that nutrition training in their GI fellowship was

  13. Incorporating computer-aided language sample analysis into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lisa Hammett; Hendricks, Sean; Cook, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    During the evaluation of language abilities, the needs of the child are best served when multiple types and sources of data are included in the evaluation process. Current educational policies and practice guidelines further dictate the use of authentic assessment data to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Language sampling and analysis (LSA) offers an important clinical tool for gathering such authentic assessment data, and computer-aided methods of LSA make it clinically feasible. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide step-by-step procedures for computer-aided LSA (CLSA). This tutorial includes instructions for a 4-step CLSA process: (a) eliciting a representative sample of the child's language and recording it directly onto the computer; (b) transcribing the language sample; (c) analyzing the language sample and interpreting the results using a readily available software program, Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J. Miller & A. Iglesias, 2006); and (d) using the results to plan the child's treatment goals and activities. A case study is provided to illustrate this process. Digital technologies can dramatically improve the feasibility of LSA, potentially transforming clinical practice by providing a quantifiable but naturalistic measure of language. This tutorial will facilitate the integration of useful technologies into clinical practice and provide information regarding the application of CLSA data.

  14. What Do Childbearing Women in Your Clinical Practice Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark Callister, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    With cultural diversity increasing, what do the childbearing women in your practice look like? Beliefs about the central role of motherhood and the use of fertility rites in the life of a woman vary. Although individual differences exist because of the uniqueness of each woman, there are wonderfully rich cultural traditions and practices that influence what a woman believes and enacts. What constitutes a satisfying birth experience varies from woman to woman. Perinatal nurses can find many satisfying clinical experiences by being creative, flexible, and resilient in their approach to providing care. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Preparing Occupational Therapy Students for the Complexities of Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Knecht-Sabres DHS, OTR/L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of a unique amalgam of adult learning methodologies near the end of the occupational therapy (OT students’ didactic education as a means to enhance readiness for clinical practice. Results of quantitative and qualitative data analysis indicated that the use of standardized patients, in combination with a sequential, semistructured, and progressively challenging series of client cases, in an OT adult practice (intervention course, improved the students’ self-perception of their level of comfort and skill on various foundational, yet essential, OT-related competencies.

  16. Evaluating Industry Payments Among Dermatology Clinical Practice Guidelines Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checketts, Jake X; Sims, Matthew Thomas; Vassar, Matt

    2017-12-01

    It is well documented that financial conflicts of interest influence medical research and clinical practice. Prior to the Open Payments provisions of the Affordable Care Act, financial ties became apparent only through self-disclosure. The nature of financial interests has not been studied among physicians who develop dermatology clinical practice guidelines. To evaluate payments received by physicians who author dermatology clinical practice guidelines, compare disclosure statements for accuracy, determine whether pharmaceutical companies from which the authors received payments manufactured products related to the guidelines, and examine the extent to which the American Academy of Dermatology enforced their Administrative Regulations for guideline development. Three American Academy of Dermatology guidelines published from 2013 to 2016 were retrieved. Double data extraction was used to record financial payments received by 49 guideline authors using the Open Payments database. Payments received by the authors from the date of the initial literature search to the date of publication were used to evaluate disclosure statement accuracy, detail the companies providing payments, and evaluate Administrative Regulations enforcement. This study is applicable to clinical practice guideline panels drafting recommendations, physicians using clinical practice guidelines to inform patient care, and those establishing policies for guideline development. Our main outcomes are the monetary values and types of payments received by physicians who author dermatology guidelines and the accuracy of disclosure statements. Data were collected from the Open Payments database and analyzed descriptively. Of the 49 authors evaluated, 40 received at least 1 reported industry payment, 31 accepted more than $1000, 25 accepted more than $10 000, and 18 accepted more than $50 000. Financial payments amounted to a mean of $157 177 per author. The total reimbursement among the 49 authors

  17. Clinical management of atopic dermatitis: practical highlights and updates from the atopic dermatitis practice parameter 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Peter A; Lee, Margaret; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Timmons, Karol G; Schneider, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a challenging condition for clinicians and patients. Recent advances were documented in the Atopic Dermatitis Practice Parameter 2012, and we want to provide clinicians with key points from the Atopic Dermatitis Practice Parameter 2012. In this article, we highlight the evidence-based therapy of atopic dermatitis as well as provide practical tips for clinicians and families. An updated review of immunopathology provides a firm basis for patient education and therapy. We also review clinical diagnosis and ways to improve quality of life for patients with atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical practice in community medicine: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice with community health perspective makes community medicine a unique specialty. In their health centers, community physicians not only implement disease prevention programs, assess community health needs, manage healthcare teams and advocate for health promoting policies but also diagnose and treat diseases. However, participation of community medicine faculty in the delivery of clinical care varies from place to place due to administrative constraints. Health centers attached with medical college are not dependent on community medicine faculty for clinical service as these centers have their own medical and paramedical staff; whereas, other clinical departments in medical colleges depend on their faculty for delivery of clinical care in the hospital. Consequently, a perception is gaining ground that community medicine is a para-clinical specialty. Strategies for a fixed tenured rotation of faculty in the health centers should be evolved. All faculty members of community medicine must also provide clinical care in the health centers and the quantum of clinical services provided by each one of them should be reported widely to all stakeholders. Community medicine residency programs must ensure that trainee community physicians acquire competency to deliver comprehensive primary health care (promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative in a health center.

  19. Clinical Practice in Community Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Clinical practice with community health perspective makes community medicine a unique specialty. In their health centers, community physicians not only implement disease prevention programs, assess community health needs, manage healthcare teams and advocate for health promoting policies but also diagnose and treat diseases. However, participation of community medicine faculty in the delivery of clinical care varies from place to place due to administrative constraints. Health centers attached with medical college are not dependent on community medicine faculty for clinical service as these centers have their own medical and paramedical staff; whereas, other clinical departments in medical colleges depend on their faculty for delivery of clinical care in the hospital. Consequently, a perception is gaining ground that community medicine is a para-clinical specialty. Strategies for a fixed tenured rotation of faculty in the health centers should be evolved. All faculty members of community medicine must also provide clinical care in the health centers and the quantum of clinical services provided by each one of them should be reported widely to all stakeholders. Community medicine residency programs must ensure that trainee community physicians acquire competency to deliver comprehensive primary health care (promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative) in a health center.

  20. Semi-spontaneous oral text production: measurements in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-12-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.

  1. The financial impact of a clinical academic practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Mary Ann; Turner, James

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to provide clinical experiences for nursing students have caused nursing schools and hospitals to evaluate program costs. A Microsoft Excel model, which captures costs and associated benefits, was developed and is described here. The financial analysis shows that the Clinical Academic Practice Program framework for nursing clinical education, often preferred by students, can offer financial advantages to participating hospitals and schools of nursing. The model is potentially a tool for schools of nursing to enlist hospitals and to help manage expenses of clinical education. Hospitals may also use the Hospital Nursing Unit Staffing and Expense Worksheet in planning staffing when students are assigned to units and the cost/benefit findings to enlist management support.

  2. Promoting a Strategic Approach to Clinical Nurse Leader Practice Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marjory; Avolio, Alice E; Ott, Karen M; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Nursing Services of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) piloted implementation of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) into the care delivery model and established a strategic goal in 2011 to implement the CNL role across the VA health care system. The VA Office of Nursing Services CNL Implementation and Evaluation (CNL I&E) Service was created as one mechanism to facilitate that goal in response to a need identified by facility nurse executives for consultative support for CNL practice integration. This article discusses strategies employed by the CNL I&E consultative team to help facility-level nursing leadership integrate CNLs into practice. Measures of success include steady growth in CNL practice capacity as well as positive feedback from nurse executives about the value of consultative engagement. Future steps to better integrate CNL practice into the VA include consolidation of lessons learned, collaboration to strengthen the evidence base for CNL practice, and further exploration of the transformational potential of CNL practice across the care continuum.

  3. Digital pathology in nephrology clinical trials, research, and pathology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.

  4. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Practice Guidelines: Customized for Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Azarmina, Mohsen; Moradian, Siamak; Entezari, Morteza; Nourinia, Ramin; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Shirvani, Armin; Shahraz, Saeid; Ramezani, Alireza; Dehghan, Mohammad Hossein; Shahsavari, Mohsen; Soheilian, Masoud; Nikkhah, Homayoun; Ziaei, Hossein; Behboudi, Hasan; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi; Fesharaki, Hamid; Abrishami, Majid; Shoeibi, Nasser; Rahimi, Mansour; Javadzadeh, Alireza; Karkhaneh, Reza; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Manaviat, Masoud Reza; Maleki, Alireza; Kheiri, Bahareh; Golbafian, Faegheh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To customize clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population. Methods: Three DR CPGs (The Royal College of Ophthalmologists 2013, American Academy of Ophthalmology [Preferred Practice Pattern 2012], and Australian Diabetes Society 2008) were selected from the literature using the AGREE tool. Clinical questions were designed and summarized into four tables by the customization team. The components of the clinical questions along with pertinent recommendations extracted from the above-mentioned CPGs; details of the supporting articles and their levels of evidence; clinical recommendations considering clinical benefits, cost and side effects; and revised recommendations based on customization capability (applicability, acceptability, external validity) were recorded in 4 tables, respectively. Customized recommendations were sent to the faculty members of all universities across the country to score the recommendations from 1 to 9. Results: Agreed recommendations were accepted as the final recommendations while the non-agreed ones were approved after revision. Eventually, 29 customized recommendations under three major categories consisting of screening, diagnosis and treatment of DR were developed along with their sources and levels of evidence. Conclusion: This customized CPGs for management of DR can be used to standardize the referral pathway, diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27994809

  5. Nursing best practice statements: an exploration of their implementation in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Malcolm, Cari; Coull, Alison; Murphy-Black, Tricia; Watterson, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    To explore implementation of the first five Best Practice Statements from the perspective of nurses involved in their development. Best Practice Statements were introduced in Scotland to encourage consistent evidence-based nursing practice. As a new initiative, research was required to investigate their clinical implementation. In this descriptive study, semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of nurses (n = 15) were undertaken. Content analysis was used to identify themes emerging from the interview data. Four main themes emerged from analysis of transcripts: variations in use of the Best Practice Statements; benefits to patients; benefits to practitioners; and, barriers and drivers to use. Amongst participants, personal users adopted the statements in their own practice but enablers also actively encouraged others to use the statements. Whether participants acted as enablers depended on individual, team and organizational factors. The ability of participants to act as leaders was influential in determining their ability both to facilitate local implementation and to encourage others to regard the Best Practice Statements as a priority for implementation. This exploratory study highlighted examples of patients and practitioners benefiting from the Best Practice Statements. Such findings suggest these statements could become a useful tool in promoting evidence-based nursing practice. However, implementation of the Best Practice Statements varied between participants and their organizations. Nurses who were most effective in promoting local implementation of the Best Practice Statements adopted facilitator and leadership roles within their organizations. By relating research findings to the literature on guideline and research utilization, this study gives further insight into the implementation of evidence-based practice by nurses. In particular, it supports the conclusion that to be truly effective, initiatives to promote evidence-based practice require

  6. AIDS--safety practices for clinical and research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, J V; Gershon, R R

    1984-04-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is currently a significant health problem receiving widespread interest as both cause and treatment are sought. Indications are that a transmissible agent is involved. Both clinical and research laboratories are receiving greater numbers of specimens from AIDS patients as both prevalence of the condition increases and research efforts intensify. Until such time as the causative agent is identified, prudent practice warrants that a high level of precaution be observed. The Division of Occupational and Environmental Health Services of the Yale University Health Services presents a set of safety procedures and guidelines for use by personnel of both clinical and research laboratory facilities. These exceed previously suggested containment recommendations.

  7. [Microscopic colitis--new insights relevant to clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehlke, S; Aust, D; Madisch, A

    2013-12-01

    Microscopic colitis is an increasingly recognised chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with watery, non-bloody diarrhoea. In addition, many patients suffer from abdominal pain, nocturnal diarrhoea, urgency and incontinence. The two traditional histological subtypes are collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. A novel third subgroup is the so-called incomplete microscopic colitis which is clinically indistinguishable. At present, budesonide is the only evidenced-based effective therapy, however many problems in the long-term treatment strategy are still unsolved. The present paper reviews new developments in microscopic colitis which are relevant for clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Liquid Biopsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Mónica; Alegre, Estibaliz; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Patiño, Ana; Pérez-Gracia, Jose L; Sanmamed, Miguel; López-López, Rafael; Varo, Nerea; González, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Liquid biopsy refers to the molecular analysis in biological fluids of nucleic acids, subcellular structures, especially exosomes, and, in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells. In the last 10 years, there has been an intensive research in liquid biopsy to achieve a less invasive and more precise personalized medicine. Molecular assessment of these circulating biomarkers can complement or even surrogate tissue biopsy. Because of this research, liquid biopsy has been introduced in clinical practice, especially in oncology, prenatal screening, and transplantation. Here we review the biology, methodological approaches, and clinical applications of the main biomarkers involved in liquid biopsy. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Identification of Practical Pharmacology Skills Useful for Good Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shilpa, R. Divya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness about animal ethics is increasing everywhere. This increased awareness coupled with strict regulations discouraging the use of animals for routine experiments have tied the hands of many pharmacologists. They are now forced to develop alternative experiments without using animals. At present, there is acute need to come out with more innovative and useful practical exercises for pharmacology practical sessions. In this background, the present study was undertaken to develop the much-needed alternative experiments. Aims and Objective: To identify new pharmacological practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Material and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 110 doctors of different categories like house surgeons, postgraduate students, assistant professors and professors who are working in a tertiary care hospital. They were asked to give their suggestions regarding new pharmacology practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Statistical analysis: Responses of the participants to the questions asked were tabulated and analyzed. Suggestions given by them were listed out and studied. Results: Use of emergency drugs, dosage calculation, drugs used in pregnancy, case discussions and prescription writing exercises received a lot of support from the participants. Research methodology, cost calculation, animal experiments and interpretation of data of animal experiments did not receive support from the participants. Suggestions given by the participants regarding useful pharmacological skills belonged to the areas like therapeutics, safe use of drugs, recent advances, analysis of information given by the medical representatives and analyzing articles in journals for knowing the efficacy of drugs. Conclusion: Exercises relevant to the clinical practice, as identified in this study, can be introduced as practical pharmacology exercises. Steps are to be taken to highlight the importance of research

  10. Clinical coaching--an innovative role to improve marginal nursing students' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Moira F

    2014-11-01

    In order for undergraduate nursing students to demonstrate their ability to achieve the required level of competency with practice they must be able to integrate both the clinical skills and knowledge that are pivotal to safe and competent nursing practice. In response to ongoing concerns about students' level of competency expressed by the supervising clinical staff, one School of Nursing and Midwifery created a Clinical Coach (CC) role. The purpose of this paper is to present the data collected including outcomes achieved and the coaching strategies used when a CC role was implemented to support and develop nursing practice for the marginal performer or 'at risk' student. A literature review of the application of coaching to nursing, a detailed analysis and discussion of the outcomes identified from auditing of collected data and the specific coaching strategies that resulted in successful outcomes for students is presented. This model of Clinical Coaching for nursing students could readily be adopted by other Schools of Nursing and Midwifery. This account of the regime of coaching practices may also offer a transferable, adaptable and flexible approach for other health professions who require their undergraduate students to complete clinical placements in preparation for professional practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Linear and Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability Indexes in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buccelletti Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms have intrinsic control systems that act in response to internal and external stimuli maintaining homeostasis. Human heart rate is not regular and varies in time and such variability, also known as heart rate variability (HRV, is not random. HRV depends upon organism's physiologic and/or pathologic state. Physicians are always interested in predicting patient's risk of developing major and life-threatening complications. Understanding biological signals behavior helps to characterize patient's state and might represent a step toward a better care. The main advantage of signals such as HRV indexes is that it can be calculated in real time in noninvasive manner, while all current biomarkers used in clinical practice are discrete and imply blood sample analysis. In this paper HRV linear and nonlinear indexes are reviewed and data from real patients are provided to show how these indexes might be used in clinical practice.

  12. Experimental Psychopathology: From laboratory studies to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philippot

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, David Barlow (2004, a pioneer in the field of anxiety disorders, has proposed that psychologists should abandon the concept of psychotherapy and rather use the one of “psychological treatment”. The provoking idea behind this proposal is that the concept of psychotherapy, relying on the notion of “therapeutic school” should be discarded by professional psychologists because it relies too much on conceptions based on pre-scientific models. Barlow (2004 insists that, today, psychology as an empirical science has gathered sufficient knowledge and know-how to found clinical practice. It is no longer necessary to rely on pre-scientific theories. Further, Barlow’s perspective opens clinical practice to the entire field of psychology, i.e. to the advances accomplished by research on emotion, cognition, learning, development, etc.

  13. A practical approach to clinical and research biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, William H; Dry, Sarah M; Shabihkhani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Powerful technologies critical to personalized medicine and targeted therapeutics require the analysis of carefully validated, procured, stored, and managed biospecimens. Reflecting advancements in biospecimen science, the National Cancer Institute and the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories are periodically publishing best practices that can guide the biobanker. The modern biobank will operate more like a clinical laboratory with formal accreditation, standard operating procedures, and quality assurance protocols. This chapter highlights practical issues of consent, procurement, storage, quality assurance, disbursement, funding, and space. Common topics of concern are discussed including the differences between clinical and research biospecimens, stabilization of biospecimens during procurement, optimal storage temperatures, and technical validation of biospecimen content and quality. With quickly expanding biospecimen needs and limited healthcare budgets, biobanks may need to be selective as to what is stored. Furthermore, a shift to room-temperature storage modalities where possible can reduce long-term space and fiscal requirements.

  14. Risk management in clinical practice. Part 4. Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, J

    2010-08-28

    Endodontic procedures are challenging and technically demanding. In the UK standards of treatment have been shown to have fallen short of acceptable guidelines, laying many dentists open to litigation on questions of clinical negligence by patients who understand and know what should be considered as current best practice in this area. Failure to communicate with patients about the procedure and not obtaining consent for treatment is a key area of complaint, as is inadequate record keeping. When treatment is undertaken within the framework of accepted guidelines it would be very difficult for a patient to open a claim for clinical negligence should a failure occur. This article looks at potential dento-legal problems in endodontics and how, through compliance with best practice, they may be avoided.

  15. The 2013 Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counselman, Francis L; Borenstein, Marc A; Chisholm, Carey D; Epter, Michael L; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Kraus, Chadd K; Luber, Samuel D; Marco, Catherine A; Promes, Susan B; Schmitz, Gillian; Keehbauch, Julia N

    2014-05-01

    In 2001, "The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine" was first published. This document, the first of its kind, was the result of an extensive practice analysis of emergency department (ED) visits and several expert panels, overseen by representatives from six collaborating professional organizations (the American Board of Emergency Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association). Every 2 years, the document is reviewed by these organizations to identify practice changes, incorporate new evidence, and identify perceived deficiencies. For this revision, a seventh organization was included, the American Academy of Emergency Medicine. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. General practitioners and clinical practice guidelines: a reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Isabelle; Ventelou, Bruno; Guerville, Marc-André; Paraponaris, Alain; Verger, Pierre

    2011-08-01

    General practitioners' (GPs') use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may be influenced by various contextual and attitudinal factors. This study examines general attitudes toward CPGs to establish profiles according to these attitudes and to determine if these profiles are associated with awareness and with use of CPGs in daily practice. The authors conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of 1,759 French GPs and measured (a) their general attitudes toward CPGs and (b) their awareness and use in daily practice of CPGs for six specific health problems. A bivariate probit model was used with sample selection to analyze the links between GPs' general attitudes and CPG awareness/use. The authors found three GP profiles according to their opinions toward CPGs and a positive association between these profiles and CPG awareness but not use. It is important to build awareness of CPGs before GPs develop negative attitudes toward them.

  17. REMAXOL: MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND APPLICATION IN REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Ilchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main pathogenic effects of the original nativedrug — remaxol combining properties of balanced polyionic solution (methionine, inosine, nicotinamide and succinic acid were introduced additionally, antioxidant, antihypoxant and hepatotropic agent are considered in review. The results of its application in clinical practice among patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic disorders, viral hepatitis, drug hepatotoxicity and in the perioperative period are presented.

  18. Relevance of guideline-based ICD indications to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Al-Jefairi

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines on ICD indications have been proposed by American and European scientific societies since a number of years, based upon trials and expert opinion. In the context of variable economic and political constraints, it is questionable whether these guidelines may be applied to all settings. This review discusses the guideline-based indications, critically examines their applicability to clinical practice, and discusses alternatives to ICD therapy.

  19. The development of evidence based guidelines for clinical practice portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowter, Julie; Cortis, Joseph; Clarke, David J

    2011-11-01

    Although the use of portfolios is widespread within healthcare education, agreement on their purpose, content, assessment and value is still debated. The objective of this study was to achieve consensus on quality criteria for clinical practice portfolios that would act as guidance for students and lecturers. A Delphi survey was undertaken to seek consensus on the opinions of 23 'expert participants' through a series of rounds of structured questionnaires. The Delphi tool was produced as an on-line survey questionnaire and panel experts were invited to score statements using a discrete 7 point visual analogue scale. The statements were written as quality criteria relating to portfolio development which had been identified from the literature and by the research team. The survey employed three rounds of feedback and consensus was measured as 80% agreement for each quality criteria scoring 5 and above. Consensus was reached on 31 quality criteria which were categorised into 4 areas: structured collection of labelled evidence; nature of evidence; critical reflection; and assessment and judgement. Mean scores for the final wording of the quality criteria ranged from 5.3 to 6.8 with the standard deviation for all of the mean scores being below 1.5. There was consensus that these quality criteria were relevant to health and social care professionals involved in developing clinical practice portfolios. The Delphi process facilitated exchange of ideas amongst panel 'experts' about the content and evaluation of clinical practice portfolios, with most debate relating to judgement of competence and rewarding originality and creativity. These issues illustrate the tensions between educational values and professional constraints. The Delphi process proved to be an effective method for achieving consensus on quality criteria for clinical practice portfolios and enabled the development of validated guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical practice models in nursing education: implication for students' mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, B; McGonagle, I; Jackson, C; Kane, R; Cabrera, E; Cooney-Miner, D; Di Cara, V; Pajnkihar, M; Prlić, N; Sigurdardottir, A K; Kekuš, D; Wells, J; Palese, A

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the process of nursing globalization, issues related to the increasing national and international mobility of student and qualified nurses are currently being debated. Identifying international differences and comparing similarities for mutual understanding, development and better harmonization of clinical training of undergraduate nursing students is recommended. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the nature of the nursing clinical practice education models adopted in different countries. A qualitative approach involving an expert panel of nurses was adopted. The Nominal Group Technique was employed to develop the initial research instrument for data collection. Eleven members of the UDINE-C network, representing institutions engaged in the process of professional nursing education and research (universities, high schools and clinical institutes), participated. Three data collection rounds were implemented. An analysis of the findings was performed, assuring rigour. Differences and homogeneity are reported and discussed regarding: (a) the clinical learning requirements across countries; (b) the prerequisites and clinical learning process patterns; and (c) the progress and final evaluation of the competencies achieved. A wider discussion is needed regarding nursing student exchange and internalization of clinical education in placements across European and non-European countries. A clear strategy for nursing education accreditation and harmonization of patterns of organization of clinical training at placements, as well as strategies of student assessment during this training, are recommended. There is also a need to develop international ethical guidelines for undergraduate nursing students gaining international experience. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Clinical leadership in contemporary clinical practice: implications for nursing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P M; Elliott, D; Daly, J

    2006-04-01

    Leadership in the clinical practice environment is important to ensure both optimal patient outcomes and successive generations of motivated and enthusiastic clinicians. The present paper seeks to define and describe clinical leadership and identify the facilitators and barriers to clinical leadership. We also describe strategies to develop clinical leaders in Australia. Key drivers to the development of nursing leaders are strategies that recognize and value clinical expertise. These include models of care that highlight the importance of the nursing role; evidence-based practice and measurement of clinical outcomes; strategies to empower clinicians and mechanisms to ensure participation in clinical decision-making. Significant barriers to clinical leadership are organizational structures that preclude nurses from clinical decision making; the national shortage of nurses; fiscal constraints; absence of well evaluated models of care and trends towards less skilled clinicians. Systematic, strategic initiatives are required to nurture and develop clinical leaders. These strategies need to be collegial collaborations between the academic and health care sectors in order to provide a united voice for advancing the nursing profession.

  2. The clinical nurse specialist's role as coach in a clinical practice development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C K

    1996-06-01

    Over the past 5 years, nursing leadership at St. Luke's Medical Center in Milwaukee has been considering various mechanisms in response to recurrent comments from nursing staff regarding our career ladder. A lack of satisfaction with our career ladder led to the adoption of a new model for nursing. This shift from a career ladder to a clinical ladder has taken place over many years. In April 1994 all staff nurses were staged and transitioned to a clinical practice development model (CPDM). The CPDM is based solely on nursing practice. Our new model was developed from more than 100 narratives of clinical practice submitted by nurses at St. Luke's. Narratives are first-person accounts of an actual clinical experience. The model is based on research conducted by Patricia Benner, PhD, RN, which focused on how nurses acquired their clinical skills and what characteristics are embedded in nurses' practice. This article describes the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role as a "coach" in facilitating nursing staff transition from a career ladder to a CPDM. The CNS is in a unique position to contribute directly to quality patient care, and also indirectly by fostering professional growth and development of staff nurses. CPDM supports staff development along a continuum. The challenge for the CNS role is to further develop the coaching role to move staff along the continuum.

  3. Ethical and Practical Similarities Between Pedagogical and Clinical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Robson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research and educational research face similar practical and ethical constraints that impact the rigor of both kinds of studies. Practical constraints facing undergraduate science education research include small sample sizes (largely a result of disproportionate incentives to conduct educational research at small colleges versus large universities, and the impossibility of randomizing individual students to separate arms of a study. Ethical constraints include gaining the informed consent and assuring the confidentiality of study participants, and the requirement of equipoise (i.e., that it is unethical to subject some study participants to an experimental treatment that researchers have good reason to believe to be inferior to another treatment. While these constraints have long been recognized for clinical research, their implications for educational research have not been fully recognized. Criticism that educational research lacks rigor should be tempered by the recognition that educational research is not parallel to laboratory research, but is parallel to clinical research. These parallels suggest solutions to some of the practical and ethical difficulties faced by educational researchers, as well.

  4. Application of self-efficacy theory in dental clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudate, N; Morita, M; Fukuhara, S; Sugai, M; Nagayama, M; Kawanami, M; Chiba, I

    2010-11-01

    In clinical practice, self-efficacy refers to how certain a patient feels about his or her ability to take the necessary action to improve the indicators and maintenance of health. It is assumed that the prognosis for patient behaviour can be improved by assessing the proficiency of their self-efficacy through providing psychoeducational instructions adapted for individual patients, and promoting behavioural change for self-care. Therefore, accurate assessment of self-efficacy is an important key in daily clinical preventive care. The previous research showed that the self-efficacy scale scores predicted patient behaviour in periodontal patients and mother's behaviour in paediatric dental practice. Self-efficacy belief is constructed from four principal sources of information: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological and affective states. Thus, self-efficacy can be enhanced by the intervention exploiting these sources. The previous studies revealed that behavioural interventions to enhance self-efficacy improved oral-care behaviour of patients. Therefore, assessment and enhancement of oral-care specific self-efficacy is important to promote behaviour modification in clinical dental practice. However, more researches are needed to evaluate the suitability of the intervention method. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Evidence-Based Practice for Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Part 2 Application to Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides both a tutorial and a clinical example of how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can conduct evidence-based practice (EBP) when working with children with speech sound disorders (SSDs). It is a companion paper to the narrative review of 134 intervention studies for children who have an SSD (Baker & McLeod, 2011).…

  6. [Facing, accepting, growing and expecting: the practical experience of nursing students during their first clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Jing; Sun, Hui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    Clinical practice experiences, while important, can be highly stressful for nursing students and have a deep effect on their subsequent professional development. This study explored nursing student experiences during their first clinical practice. The study used exploratory and descriptive research methodologies, and researchers selected a phenomenological approach to analysis. Nine nursing students described experiences centered on their first clinical practices using daily dairies and assignments. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four major themes emerged from the data, including: (1) Joining an exciting and intimidating journey in which participants anticipated a precious learning opportunity while fearing failure; (2) Identifying professional role models in which participants learned about nursing content from nursing staff and through step by step instruction from teachers; (3) Growing into caring relationships in which participants increasingly realized the importance of communication, gave empathy and caring to patients, and discovered that patients are the best teachers; and (4) Insight into self-professional capacity and the expectation of their future learning in which participants learned from actual experience, evaluated self-performance and encouraged themselves. Such facilitated self-improvement and instilled the learning necessary to advance to the next stage. Nursing student clinical practice experiences may be used to both advance academic studies and enhance understanding of student feelings, difficulties and experiences. Such can assist nursing students to gain greater positive experiences in their profession.

  7. Phronesis: practical wisdom the role of professional practice knowledge in the clinical reasoning of Bobath instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Cott, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Clinical reasoning is an essential aspect of clinical practice, however is largely ignored in the current rehabilitation sciences evidence base. Literature related to clinical reasoning and clinical expertise has evolved concurrently although rehabilitation reasoning frameworks remain relatively generic. The purpose of this study was to explicate the clinical reasoning process of Bobath instructors of a widely used neuro-rehabilitation approach, the Bobath concept. A qualitative interpretive description approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling was used to recruit members of the International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA). Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim providing the raw data. Data analysis was progressive, iterative, and inductive. Twenty-two IBITA instructors from 7 different countries participated. Ranging in clinical experience from 12 to 40 years, and instructor experience from 1 to 35 years. Three themes were developed, (a) a Bobath clinical framework, (b) person-centered, and (c) a Bobath reasoning approach, highlighting the role of practical wisdom, phronesis in the clinical reasoning process. In particular the role of visuospatial-kinesthetic perception, an element of technical expertise, was illuminated as an integral aspect of clinical reasoning in this expert group. This study provides an interpretive understanding of the clinical reasoning process used by IBITA instructors illustrating an inactive embodied view of clinical reasoning, specifically the role of phronesis, requiring further investigation in nonexpert Bobath therapists, as well as in novice and experienced therapists in other specialty areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Clinical Nurse Leader Integration Into Practice: Developing Theory To Guide Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Numerous policy bodies have identified the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards. Although there is growing evidence of improved care environment and patient safety and quality outcomes after redesigning care delivery microsystems to integrate CNL practice, significant variation in CNL implementation has been noted across reports, making it difficult to causally link CNL practice to reported outcomes. This variability reflects the overall absence in the literature of a well-defined CNL theoretical framework to help guide standardized application in practice. To address this knowledge gap, an interpretive synthesis with a grounded theory analysis of CNL narratives was conducted to develop a theoretical model for CNL practice. The model clarifies CNL practice domains and proposes mechanisms by which CNL-integrated care delivery microsystems improve health care quality. The model highlights the need for a systematic approach to CNL implementation including a well-thought out strategy for care delivery redesign; a consistent, competency-based CNL workflow; and sustained macro-to-micro system leadership support. CNL practice can be considered an effective approach to organizing nursing care that maximizes the scope of nursing to influence the ways care is delivered by all professions within a clinical microsystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [How to measure insulin sensitivity in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa-Lhoret, R; Laville, M

    2001-04-01

    Insulin resistance is common and cluster with glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure,. in type 2 diabetes mellitus it play a key role in the occurence of hyperglycemia. The importance of the insulin-resistant phenotype for the assessment of cardiovascular risk and response to intervention is increasingly being recognized. Therefore there is a need for accurate, reproducible and simple methods for measuring insulin resistance in vivo. The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp is currently the best available standard technique but is not suitable for clinical practice. Thus, numerous index for insulin resistance estimation from fasting or post-load OGTT glycemia and insulinemia have been proposed. Although their simplicity is an obvious advantage, their application is subject to numerous limitations. The choice of the method to evaluate insulin sensitivity thus depend on objectives and available means. For clinical research, euglycemic clamp is the gold standard. In the case of epidemiologic studies, validated models like HOMA model are suitable. Finally in clinical practice, for type 2 diabetic patients, evaluation of insulin resistance should be made from clinical and biological context eventually associated with an estimation of respectives roles of insulinopenia and insulin resistance with a validated index like the HOMA model.

  10. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  11. SELF WOUND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES BEFORE ATTENDING ANTIRABIES VACCINE CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Mishra, Smita Panda, Prakash Chandra Panda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In INDIA almost 20000 people die (40% of world death each year from rabies. Most of these deaths could be prevented by post exposure prophylaxis with wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin & vaccination. Local wound management alone can reduce viral load by up to 80%. Objective: To study self-wound management practices in animal exposure patients before attending a tertiary level ARV clinic. Methodology: Data regarding wound management was collected by individual interview of patients attending the ARV clinic during OCT 2011 to MAR 2012. The data collected in the form of a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done in the Department Of Community Medicine, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla. Results: Total 493 cases of animal exposure were attended during the study period. Most common biting animal was dog (94.5%. 31% of cases were under the age of 10 years & 23% belongs to the age of 10-19 years. Male to female ratio was 3:1. Most of the cases (91% were of category III exposure. Immediate management of wound was practiced by 63-77% of cases before visiting ARV clinic; only 2% wash the wound with running water & soap for 15 minutes. 39% of cases applied Dettol/savlon at the wound side & other 38% applied turmeric, red chilli, kerosene, Band-Aid & ghee locally. Most cases (61% reported to ARV clinic within 24hours.

  12. Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential.

  13. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narrigan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  14. Is there a utility for QRS dispersion in clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Donoiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic markers derived from standard ECG have always been seductive. Increased dispersion of durations of the P wave, of the QRS complex, or of the QT interval has been associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, as well as with a general negative prognosis in various settings. However, these markers have intrinsic and methodological issues that question their utility. This paper presents data supporting the utility of QRS dispersion in clinical practice. Our investigation shows that QRS dispersion is a simple electrocardiographic marker with potential value in the assessment of patients in a variety of clinical settings: ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and cardiomyopathies. More studies are needed to validate QRS clinical utility for predicting the risk for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, and for the evaluation of the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  15. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  16. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY IN THE CLINICAL PRACTICE: THE PROBLEM OF MODERN CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problem of modern clinical electroencephalography (EEG – the almost complete absence of classification, understandable and useful for doctors, based on the basic principles of medical semiotics with determination of individual symptoms and syndromes, which allows the clinicians to use the classification as a diagnostic tool for diagnostics of various pathological conditions. Currently, the clinical neurologist can use two classifications of EEG that are not quite accurately reflecting the clinical picture of the existing pathology. The author proposed a review of neurophysiological EEG classification of H. Luders to create a unified classification of EEG, which could be equally used for practical doctors, neurophysiologists and other specialists.

  17. Student perceptions of effective nurse educators in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew-Maich, Nancy; Martin, Lynn; Ackerman-Rainville, Rosemary; Hammond, Cynthia; Palma, Amy; Sheremet, Darlene; Stone, Rose

    2015-04-22

    To explore baccalaureate nursing student perceptions of what makes an effective nurse educator in the clinical practice setting and the influence of effective teaching on student experiences. Online surveys (n=511) and focus groups (n=7) were completed by nursing students enrolled in all four years of the baccalaureate programme. Data were analysed using content analysis. Participants indicated that effective teachers foster positive experiences, motivation, meaningful learning and success. They were perceived to be prepared, person-centred, professional, passionate and positive, and to prepare students for success using active strategies. They adjusted to meet individual students' needs at each level of the programme. Important characteristics and factors in effective clinical teaching were identified. These may be used to develop effective clinical teaching initiatives.

  18. Using Exenatide Twice Daily or Insulin in Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, Chantal; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Matthaei, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    only after their treating physician had made the clinical decision to initiate first injectable therapy with either exenatide BID or insulin. Clinical data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy and after approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: A total of 2,515 patients...... BID cohort and 36.8% of the insulin cohort; 25.9% of the exenatide BID cohort and 10.0% of the insulin cohort had met the secondary endpoint of glycated hemoglobin data on exenatide BID and insulin usage patterns and 24-month...... their first injectable, glucose-lowering therapy [exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin] in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. METHODS: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Patients were invited to participate in CHOICE...

  19. Engaging medical staff in clinical governance: introducing new technologies and clinical practice into public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Alison J; Becker, Gavin; Hawkins, Cindy; McKenzie, Lisa; Wells, Malcolm

    2012-02-01

    To enhance patient care, medical staff at major tertiary teaching hospitals are encouraged to innovate through introducing new technologies and clinical practices. However, such introduction must be safe, efficient, effective and appropriate for patients and the organisation, and actively lead by engage medical staff. This study outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of a framework for introducing new technologies and clinical practice to a major tertiary health service. Evaluation includes survey of medical Heads of Units (HOUs) for framework's effectiveness, and comparison of level of medical staff engagement against a best-practice model. Over 2-year period: 19 applications, 7 approved. Successful external funding of $1.993 million achieved. Survey of HOUs in June 2009: response rate 59% (25 of 42 HOUs), with 11 of 25 respondents utilised the committee. Of those 14 of 25 who had not utilised the committee, low awareness of the committee's existence (2 respondents). Most elements of the best-practice model for engaging medical staff were achieved. Recommendations include improvements to committee process and raising profile with medical staff. This study demonstrates an effective and successful clinical governance process for introducing new technologies and clinical practice into a major tertiary teaching hospital, supported by moderate levels of medical staff engagement.

  20. Best Practices in Clinical Supervision: another step in delineating effective supervision practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Across the helping professions, we have arrived at a point where it is possible to create statements of best practices in supervision that are based on available empirical research; credentialing, ethical, and legal guidelines; and consensus opinion. Best practices are different from, but certainly complementary to, statements of supervision competencies. In this paper, I highlight the differences between competencies and best practices, and then describe the development and content of one comprehensive statement, the Best Practices in Clinical Supervision created for the field of counseling and counselor education. I then illustrate the applicability of the Best Practices across disciplines and countries through a comparison and contrast with several other existing documents. I conclude with a brief look at the development of supervisor expertise, which requires not only declarative knowledge (competencies) and procedural knowledge (statements of best practices), but also reflective knowledge. The latter is composed of insights built over years of supervision education, experience, and self-reflection regarding necessary adaptions and improvisations that inform an individualized approach to supervision practice.

  1. Effects of clinical practice environments on clinical teacher and nursing student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Iwasiw, Carroll L; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Laschinger, Heather K S; Weston, Wayne

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a cross-sectional survey design, with an integrated theoretical perspective, to examine clinical teachers' (n = 64) and nursing students' (n = 352) empowerment, teachers' and students' perceptions of teachers' use of empowering teaching behaviors, students' perceptions of nurses' practice behaviors, and students' confidence for practice in acute care settings. In this study, teachers and students were moderately empowered. Teachers reported using a high level of empowering teaching behaviors, which corresponded with students' perceptions of teachers' use of such behaviors. Teachers' empowerment predicted 21% of their use of empowering teaching behaviors. Students reported nurses as using a high level of professional practice behaviors. Students felt confident for professional nursing practice. The findings have implications for practice contexts related to empowering teaching-learning environments and self-efficacy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Translation of oral care practice guidelines into clinical practice by intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda DeKeyser; Ofra, Raanan; Khalaila, Rabia; Levy, Hadassa; Arad, Dana; Kolpak, Orly; Ben Nun, Maureen; Drori, Yardena; Benbenishty, Julie

    2013-12-01

    found to be significant with the time of participation (2004-2005 vs. 2012) and priority level of oral care significantly contributing to the regression model. The national effort was partially successful in improving evidence-based oral care practices; however, increased awareness to EBP also might have come from other sources. Other strategies related to knowledge translation need to be attempted and researched in this clinical setting such as the use of opinion leaders, audits and feedback, small group consensus, provider reminder systems, incentives, clinical information systems, and computer decision support systems. This national effort to improve EBP did reap some rewards; however, other knowledge translation strategies should be used to further improve clinical practice. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Variation in internal medicine residency clinic practices: assessing practice environments and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Jeanette; Shea, Judy A; Duffy, F Daniel; Lynn, Lorna A; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-07-01

    Few studies have systematically and rigorously examined the quality of care provided in educational practice sites. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the patient population cared for by trainees in internal medicine residency clinics; (2) assess the quality of preventive cardiology care provided to these patients; (3) characterize the practice-based systems that currently exist in internal medicine residency clinics; and (4) examine the relationships between quality, practice-based systems, and features of the program: size, type of program, and presence of an electronic medical record. This is a cross-sectional observational study. This study was conducted in 15 Internal Medicine residency programs (23 sites) throughout the USA. The participants included site champions at residency programs and 709 residents. Abstracted charts provided data about patient demographics, coronary heart disease risk factors, processes of care, and clinical outcomes. Patients completed surveys regarding satisfaction. Site teams completed a practice systems survey. Chart abstraction of 4,783 patients showed substantial variability across sites. On average, patients had between 3 and 4 of the 9 potential risk factors for coronary heart disease, and approximately 21% had at least 1 important barrier of care. Patients received an average of 57% (range, 30-77%) of the appropriate interventions. Reported satisfaction with care was high. Sites with an electronic medical record showed better overall information management (81% vs 27%) and better modes of communication (79% vs 43%). This study has provided insight into the current state of practice in residency sites including aspects of the practice environment and quality of preventive cardiology care delivered. Substantial heterogeneity among the training sites exists. Continuous measurement of the quality of care provided and a better understanding of the training environment in which this care is delivered are important

  4. The preparticipation physical evaluation: an analysis of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Nicolas L; Drezner, Jonathan A; Salerno, Jack C

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate current preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) clinical practice behaviors. Telephone and Web-based survey study with attention to utilization of the Fourth Edition PPE Monograph. We contacted the Washington State American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) chapters, all Washington State high school athletic directors (ADs), and every state high school athletic association. Data collection and analysis regarding clinical practice. Awareness and utilization of the Fourth Edition PPE Monograph. The response rate was 72% (559/776) from the AAP, 56% (554/990) from the AAFP, 75% (317/424) from the ADs, and 100% (50/50) from the state athletic associations. Few physicians (37%) and ADs (6%) reported an awareness of the PPE Monograph. Knowledge of the Monograph did not vary by physician type, practice/school location, or experience (P > 0.05). Reported obstacles to the delivery of the PPE included time with patient (56%) and the lack of a standard form (52%). Physician awareness of the Monograph reduced the perception of obstacles (P family as the primary obstacle (62%). Adoption of a single statewide PPE form was well supported (96% of physicians and 67% of ADs). Nationally, only 46% of state athletic associations mandate a single form, and only 16% use a form consistent with the Fourth Edition PPE Monograph. The medical community is largely unaware of national screening guidelines. New directions for education and policy are necessary to improve this implementation gap.

  5. Friendship fosters learning: The importance of friendships in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports on one of the key findings from a recent ethnographic study (Roberts, D., 2007. Friendships and the community of students: peer learning amongst a group of pre-registration student nurses. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Salford, UK) and aims to highlight the importance of friendships for student nurses in clinical practice. An interpretive ethnographic approach was taken in order to reveal the student experience during their pre registration programme. Data was collected using ethnographic interviewing (Sorrell, J.M., Redmond, G.M., 1995. Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies. Journal of Advanced Nursing 21, 1117-1122.) and participant observation. Within this paper I argue that student nurses exist on the edge of the community of practice (of the qualified staff) and therefore form their own parallel community where students are all seen as being in the same boat. In particular students use the friendships they develop in clinical practice to enable them to learn; developing an 'ask anything' culture where all students are perceived as valuable sources of knowledge. Furthermore, it appears that knowledge is contextually bound and not therefore linked to seniority, or length of time served on the course.

  6. Figures in clinical trial reports: current practice & scope for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travison Thomas G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.

  7. Use of clinical guidelines in cardiology practice in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsadig, Hwaida; Weiss, Marjorie; Scott, Jenny; Laaksonen, Raisa

    2017-06-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of prescribers in cardiology in Sudan about the use of guidelines in clinical practice and the extent to which guidelines whether national or international can be adopted in clinical practice in Sudan. Interviews were conducted with the consultants in 2 of the main cardiac hospitals in Sudan. This was followed by a survey amongst the doctors in the hospitals to examine the views of a larger population of prescribers about the matter investigated. Twelve consultants were interviewed, and 47 prescribers (60%) replied to the questionnaire that followed. Most doctors relied on foreign guidelines to prescribe for their patients. The doctors acknowledged the limitation of using foreign guidelines in Sudan. A number of doctors were not in favour of following any guidelines, as they perceived that the practice in Sudan does not allow implementation of guidelines. The prescribers in Sudan had to rely on guidelines made in foreign countries if they want to get the benefit of evidence-based medicine to their patients, but they had to find a way to adapt these guidelines to their patients and to the health care system they are working within. However, it is not known if this adaptation of foreign guidelines is providing the benefits intended or is risking evidence-based medicine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Bridging between basic medical science and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the extraordinary scientific and technological advances from the biomedical research laboratory into actual patient care practices and other processes aimed at promoting health has been a major challenge, particularly for patients in community settings. Because of that the increased participation of clinicians from primary health care in clinical research would have a number of benefits. As experts in the delivery of clinical care in one society, they have much to contribute providing health care for patients in the whole spectrum of illnesses1. They are among the first to recognize changes in patients’ which come us as result of disease and conditions associated with demographic shiftings. Very often these are unexpected events such as trauma, natural disasters, pandemic infections, etc. They are also directly in contact with the policy-related matters (e.g., health consequences associated with increase in price of medications or the clinical consequences of war, such as the rapid increase in the number of individuals with prosthetic limbs and post traumatic stress syndrome2. Finally, participation in clinical research would benefit clinicians from primary health care in more ways, such as: contributing the mission of medicine and improving the scientific basis for medical practice; allowing clinicians to stay with new innovations ie. the development up to-date of information systems to improve data-gathering associated with the research3.A major goal is the development of teams of investigators from various research disciplines, is to turm the scientific discoveries from the laboratories into treatments and strategies for patients in communities. However, even with that introduction only a small part of the community will provide participation in clinical research. The barriers for this in USA recognised from clinicians community and showed in down table4.

  9. [Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice.

  10. Exome sequencing explained: a practical guide to its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, Eleanor G; Pengelly, Reuben J; Ennis, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing has catapulted healthcare into a revolutionary genomics era. One such technology, whole-exome sequencing, which targets the protein-coding regions of the genome, has proven success in identifying new causal mutations for diseases of previously unknown etiology. With a successful diagnostic rate approaching 25% for rare disease in recent studies, its clinical utility is becoming increasingly popular. However, the interpretation of whole-exome sequencing data requires expertise in genomic informatics and clinical medicine to ensure the accurate and safe reporting of findings back to the bedside. This is challenged by vast amounts of sequencing data harbouring approximately 25 000 variants per sequenced individual. Computational strategies and fastidious filtering frameworks are thus required to extricate candidate variants in a sea of common polymorphisms. Once prioritized, identified variants require intensive scrutiny at a biological level, and require judicious assessment alongside the clinical phenotype. In the final step, all evidence is collated and documented alongside pathogenicity guidelines to produce an exome report that returns to the clinic. This review provides a practical guide for clinicians and genomic informaticians on the clinical application of whole-exome sequencing. We address sequencing capture and methodology, quality control parameters at different stages of sequencing analysis and propose an exome data filtering strategy that includes primary filtering (for the removal of probable benign variants) and secondary filtering for the prioritization of remaining candidates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 2011 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Rea; Kim, Dong-Joon; Oh, Seung-Joon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Shim, Kang-Hee; Woo, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Nan-Hee; Kim, Jae-Taik; Kim, Chong Hwa; Kim, Hae Jin; Jeong, In-Kyung; Hong, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Mok, Ji-Oh

    2011-01-01

    As in other countries, type 2 diabetes is major health concern in Korea. A dramatic increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications has led to an increase in health costs and economic burdens. Early detection of high risk individuals, hidden diabetic patients, and improvement in the quality of care for the disease are the first steps to mitigate the increase in prevalence. The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the '3rd Clinical Practice Guidelines' at the end of 2010. In the guidelines, the committee recommended active screening of high risk individuals for early detection and added the hemoglobin A1c level to the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes based on clinical studies performed in Korea. Furthermore, the committee members emphasized that integrating patient education and self-management is an essential part of care. The drug treatment algorithm based on the degree of hyperglycemia and patient characteristics were also updated. PMID:22111032

  12. Isotonic saline nasal irrigation in clinical practice: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Costa Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Nasal instillation of saline solution has been used as part of the treatment of patients with upper respiratory tract diseases. Despite its use for a number of years, factors such as the amount of saline solution to be used, degree of salinity, method and frequency of application have yet to be fully explained. Objective: Review the reported outcomes of saline nasal irrigation in adults with allergic rhinitis, acute or chronic sinusitis and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS, and provide evidence to assist physiotherapists in decision making in clinical practice. Methods: A search was conducted of the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2014. A combination of the following descriptors was used as a search strategy: nasal irrigation, nasal lavage, rhinitis, sinusitis, saline, saline solution. Results: Eight clinical trials were included, analyzed according to participant diagnosis. Conclusion: The evidence found was heterogeneous, but contributed to elucidating uncertainties regarding the use of nasal lavage in the clinical practice of physical therapy, such as the protocols used.

  13. How to Implement a Geriatric Assessment in Your Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Schroder; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Wildiers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Other health conditions, changes in functional status, and use of multiple medications change the risks and benefits of cancer treatment for older adults. Several international organizations, such as the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, recommend the conduct of a geriatric assessment (GA) for older adults with cancer to help select the most appropriate treatment and identify any underlying undetected medical, functional, and psychosocial issues that can interfere with treatment. The aim of this review is to describe what a GA is and how to implement it in daily clinical practice for older adults with cancer in the oncology setting. We provide an overview of commonly used tools. Key considerations in performing the GA include the resources available (staff, space, and time), patient population (who will be assessed), what GA tools to use, and clinical follow-up (who will be responsible for using the GA results for developing care plans and who will provide follow-up care). Important challenges in implementing GA in clinical practice include not having easy and timely access to geriatric expertise, patient burden of the additional hospital visits, and establishing collaboration between the GA team and oncologists regarding expectations of the population referred for GA and expected outcomes of the GA. Finally, we provide some possible interventions for problems identified during the GA. PMID:25187477

  14. Clozapine: a review of clinical practice guidelines and prescribing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clozapine effectiveness in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia has been sustained by published evidence in the last two decades, despite the introduction of safer options. Discussion Current clinical practice guidelines have strongly recommended the use of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but prescribing trends do not appear to have followed such recommendations. Clozapine is still underutilized especially in patients at risk of suicide. It seems that physicians are hesitant in prescribing clozapine due to concerns about serious adverse effects. Recent reports have highlighted the need to inform health professionals about the benefits of treating patients with clozapine and have voiced concerns about the underutilization of clozapine especially in patients at risk of suicide. Summary Guidelines and prescribing patterns reported in various countries worldwide are discussed. Suggestions on how to optimize clozapine utilization have been published but more efforts are needed to properly inform and support prescribers’ practices. PMID:24708834

  15. Short-wave diathermy: current clinical and safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Gormley, John; O'Hare, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is widely available, yet a comprehensive examination of current clinical practice remains absent from the literature. The present paper aims to assess clinical and safety issues in continuous (CSWD) and pulsed (PSWD) short-wave diathermy application and subsequently indicate areas for future research. A postal survey was carried out among 116 senior physiotherapists in 41 Irish hospital-based physiotherapy departments. The response rate to the study was 75%. Analysis found that PSWD was the preferred mode of treatment with 27% of respondents using it more than once daily. Respondents considered both modes of treatment indicated for a variety of conditions. CSWD was rated as an effective treatment for chronic osteoarthritis, polyarthritis, non-specific arthrosis and haematomas. PSWD was reported an effective modality for acute soft tissue injury, haematomas, acute osteoarthritis, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose selection varied greatly but tended to be based on the type, nature and duration of the condition. Analysis of safety practices uncovered concerning findings. Although a high level of agreement was found on measures for patient safety, 30% of respondents reported that no measures for operator safety were taken and only five respondents stated they remained a specified distance from SWD equipment. Measures to ensure the safety of other personnel in the physiotherapy department were also lacking. Given the availability of SWD equipment and its apparent efficacy in certain conditions, future research should aim to establish this by means of controlled clinical trials. The findings on safety practices underline the urgent need for comprehensive guidelines to ensure the safety of operators, patients and the general public during SWD application.

  16. Usefulness of Cochrane Skin Group reviews for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Seijo, P; Batalla, A; Garcia-Doval, I

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews are one of the most important sources of information for evidence-based medicine. However, there is a general impression that these reviews rarely report results that provide sufficient evidence to change clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of Cochrane Skin Group reviews reporting results with the potential to guide clinical decision-making. We performed a bibliometric analysis of all the systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Skin Group up to 16 August, 2012. We retrieved 55 reviews, which were analyzed and graded independently by 2 investigators into 3 categories: 0 (insufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention), 1 (insufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention but sufficient evidence to support recommendations or suggestions), and 2 (sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of an intervention). Our analysis showed that 25.5% (14/55) of the studies did not provide sufficient evidence to support or reject the use of the interventions studied, 45.5% (25/25) provided sufficient but not strong evidence to support recommendations or suggestions, and 29.1% (16/55) provided strong evidence to support or reject the use of 1 or more of the interventions studied. Most of the systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Skin Group provide useful information to improve clinical practice. Clinicians should read these reviews and reconsider their current practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. From Paper Based Clinical Practice Guidelines to Declarative Workflow Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2009-01-01

    a sub workflow can be described in a declarative workflow management system: the Resultmaker Online Consultant (ROC). The example demonstrates that declarative primitives allow to naturally extend the paper based flowchart to an executable model without introducing a complex cyclic control flow graph.......We present a field study of oncology workflow, involving doctors, nurses and pharmacists at Danish hospitals and discuss the obstacles, enablers and challenges for the use of computer based clinical practice guidelines. Related to the CIGDec approach of Pesic and van der Aalst we then describe how...

  18. Direct Oral Anticoagulant Drugs in Dental Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasko J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC are generally safe and effective in several clinical settings including acute venous thromboembolic disease, prophylaxis in the postoperative setting, prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and in the management of acute coronary syndrome. The relatively short half-life, rapid onset of action, and predictable pharmacokinetics should simplify periprocedural use of the DOAC. The aim of this work is to propose and summarize periprocedural management of patients treated with the DOAC in dental practice and to inform about the principal specifications of this treatment.

  19. Frailty Screening and Interventions: Considerations for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jeremy; Buta, Brian; Xue, Qian-Li

    2018-02-01

    Frailty is recognized as a cornerstone of geriatric medicine. It increases the risk of geriatric syndromes and adverse health outcomes in older and vulnerable populations. Although multiple screening instruments have been developed and validated to improve feasibility in clinical practice, frequent lack of agreement between frailty instruments has slowed broad implementation of these tools. Despite this, interventions to improve frailty-related health outcomes developed to date include exercise, nutrition, multicomponent interventions, and individually tailored geriatric care models. Possible strategies to prevent frailty include lifestyle or behavioral interventions, proper nutrition, and increased activity levels and social engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lameness in cattle: recent research to inform clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, O.J.R.; Miguel-Pacheco, G.G.; Newsome, R.; Randall, L. V.; Remnant, J.G.; Thomas, H J; Huxley, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in cattle has significant consequences for welfare, health and productivity. More research is now being done on lameness and this article, the first in a two-part series, provides an update on research-based advances in the field published from around the world over the past five years. These developments have improved our understanding of lameness in cattle and can inform clinical practice and the control of lameness on-farm. The second article, to be published in a subsequent issue...

  1. Do evidence-based guidelines change clinical practice patterns?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the Danish Health and Medicines Authorities published a National Clinical Guideline on the treatment of age-related cataracts. The guideline provided evidence-based recommendations on the indication for cataract surgery, cataract surgery in patients with age-related macular degeneration...... medicine. Thus, evidence-based guidelines do change practice patterns unless they are counteracted by the reimbursement system....... likely to prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops and to not prescribe topical antibiotic eye drops after the guideline was published. Other parameters, most notably the use of toric IOLs and use of postoperative examinations were more guided by reimbursement standards than by evidence-based...

  2. Ethical Issues of Air Force Nurse Practitioners in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    the support of my thesis committee members Patricia McMullen, MSN, JD, and Diane Seibert, MSN. Thank you Jim, you’re ability to make me laugh kept me...Springfield,MO: G&C Merriam Company. Ethical Issues 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY Benner , P.A., Tanner, C.A., Chelsa, C.A. (1996). Expertise in nursing practice: Caring...clinical judgment, and ethics. New York, NY: Springer. Benner , P.A. & Wrubel, J. (1989). The primacy of caring. London: Addison- Wesley. Burns, N

  3. Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines on general anaesthesia for emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard Jensen, Anders; Callesen, T; Hagemo, J S

    2010-01-01

    Emergency patients need special considerations and the number and severity of complications from general anaesthesia can be higher than during scheduled procedures. Guidelines are therefore needed. The Clinical Practice Committee of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care...... influence on intubation conditions, and should be chosen on other grounds. Ketamine should be considered in haemodynamically compromised patients. Opioids may be used to reduce the stress response following intubation. For optimal intubation conditions, succinylcholine 1-1.5 mg/kg is preferred. Outside...

  4. Outline of restorative neurology: definition, clinical practice, assessment, intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Milan R

    2012-06-01

    Rather than focusing on the deficits and lost function caused by upper motor neuron lesions or disorders, it is more advantageous to elucidate, in each individual, the specific neural functions that remain available, and then, to build upon them by designing a treatment protocol to optimize their effectiveness and thus improve recovery. The practice of Restorative Neurology is based on detailed assessment of the individual patient, the use of neurophysiological methods to elucidate and characterize subclinical function and the application of interventions that modify neural activity to improve clinical function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unhealthy Weight Control Practices: Culprits and Clinical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Michael Ferraro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoccupation with weight status and a desire to lose weight appears common. Many individuals seek “magic bullet” approaches to weight loss and waive the risks of using these products. In this paper, we review the challenges of weight maintenance, highlight some unhealthy weight control practices, and discuss the futility and potential danger of unregulated weight control agents. Novel clinical strategies are discussed that health care providers may use to triage patients with obesity in an attempt to make ethical and personalized treatment decisions.

  6. The Psychiatric Cultural Formulation: Applying Medical Anthropology in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation from the perspective of clinical practice. First, the paper explores the theoretical development of the Cultural Formulation. Next, a case presentation demonstrates challenges in its actual implementation. Finally, the paper recommends a set of questions for the clinician on barriers to care and countertransference. The development of a standardized, user-friendly format can increase the Cultural Formulation’s utilization among all psychiatrists beyond those specializing in cultural psychiatry. PMID:22418398

  7. Utilization of the American Telemedicine Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniotti, Nina; Bernard, Jordana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) Standards and Guidelines Committee develops practice standards and guidelines. Key to the Committee's mission is dissemination so the standards can be used in the practice of telemedicine. Over a 2-year period, when a standards document was accessed from the ATA Web site, a short survey was completed, but it did not assess how the documents were used once downloaded. A more formal survey was conducted to determine the impact ATA standards and guidelines are having on healthcare delivery via telemedicine. Materials and Methods: A survey was developed and distributed via SurveyMonkey to 13,177 ATA members and nonmembers in November 2011. Results were compiled and analyzed after a 90-day open period for responses to be submitted. Results: The majority of respondents (96%) believe the practice of telemedicine/telehealth should have standards and guidelines and that the ATA and other professional societies/associations should be responsible for developing them. The top uses of guidelines include guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research. Respondents indicating a need for standards and guidelines said the ATA (78.7%) and other professional societies/associations (74.5%) should be responsible for development. When asked to list specific practice guidelines or standards they are using for telehealth, the majority (21.5%) are using in-house (e.g., hospital, company)-developed guidelines, followed by those from professional associations/societies (20.4%) and those developed by the ATA (18.2%). Conclusions: Overall, the survey results indicate guidelines documents developed by the ATA and other professional societies and those developed in-house are being regularly accessed and used in both public and private sectors. Practitioners of telemedicine believe that standards and guidelines are needed for guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research

  8. A practical method for clinical diagnosis of oral mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Azañero, Wilson A; Mosqueda Taylor, Adalberto

    2003-01-01

    To present a practical and technically simple method for clinical diagnosis of oral melanomas that allows to differentiate this neoplasm from other pigmented lesions. Thirteen oral pigmented lesions with suspected diagnosis of mucosal melanomas were submitted to a test named "rubbing with a gauze" the surface of the lesion. The test was considered positive when the gauze stained dark brown or black due to the presence of melanin-laden cells on the epithelial surface. In all cases definite diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Positive results were obtained in 11 out of 13 cases (84.6%). Our results establish that the test "rubbing with gauze" the surface of oral pigmented lesions demonstrates a high sensitivity to anticipate clinically the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas. However, a negative result does not exclude this neoplasm, since there are some cases in which malignant cells have not invaded the superficial epithelial layers. In every case the final diagnosis must be established by histopathologic or immunohistochemical analysis.

  9. Clinical practice guideline (update): Adult Sinusitis Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Piccirillo, Jay F; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Brook, Itzhak; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Kramper, Maggie; Orlandi, Richard R; Palmer, James N; Patel, Zara M; Peters, Anju; Walsh, Sandra A; Corrigan, Maureen D

    2015-04-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated "Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis" as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 developed recommendations address diagnostic accuracy for adult rhinosinusitis, the appropriate use of ancillary tests to confirm diagnosis and guide management (including radiography, nasal endoscopy, computed tomography, and testing for allergy and immune function), and the judicious use of systemic and topical therapy. Emphasis was also placed on identifying multiple chronic conditions that would modify management of rhinosinusitis, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, immunocompromised state, and ciliary dyskinesia. An updated guideline is needed as a result of new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Middle East respiratory syndrome clinical practice guideline for hemodialysis facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hayne Cho; Lee, Young-Ki; Lee, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kyung Don; Jeon, Hee Jung; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kim, Seong Nam; Sohn, Seung Hwan; Chun, Rho Won; Choi, Kyu Bok

    2017-01-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology participated in the task force team consisting of government authorities and civilian experts to prevent and control the spread of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2015. The Korean Society of Nephrology MERS Task Force Team took an immediate action and drafted ‘the clinical recommendation for hemodialysis facilities’ to follow when the first and the only confirmed case was reported in the hemodialysis unit. Owing to the dedicated support from medical doctors, dialysis nurses, and related medical companies, we could prevent further transmission of MERS infection successfully in hemodialysis units. This special report describes the experience of infection control during MERS outbreak in 2015 and summarizes the contents of ‘the clinical practice guideline for hemodialysis facilities dealing with MERS patients’ built upon our previous experience. PMID:28680819

  11. Analysing clinical practice guidelines. A method of documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J V; Cowley, S

    1997-05-01

    This paper will describe a method of documentary analysis used in a study examining the validity of clinical guidelines issued to health visitors to assist them in identifying families requiring increased health visitor support. This forms the preliminary work for a wider study examining how health visitors decide to increase support to vulnerable families. Although a number of published research texts discuss the value of records and documents as important data sources for health service researchers, there is relatively little information available about the processes of documentary analysis. This paper offers one method for analysing clinical practice guidelines, it describes the development of a critique and analysis tool and explores the strengths and weaknesses of this particular analysis instrument.

  12. [Colorectal liver metastases: history, sciences and clinical practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Serge

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal liver metastasis is one of the best-known clinical models of multidisciplinary approach. Chemotherapy, targeted therapies, surgery and interventional radiology permitted to obtain up to 40 months of survival in palliative intent for liver metastases only and between 40 to 50% of overall survival in curative intent. Genetic, epigenetic, cellular and tissular processes are more and more well described but attempts to link biological knowledge to clinical practice are still faint. The cut-off between curative and palliative intents is progressively pushed away but consequently, its signification is less clear. Maybe an additional intermediary new concept should be added, the metastatic disease chronicisation? Evaluating the patient benefice is difficult and should stand on progression free survival as surrogate marker.

  13. From asthma severity to control: a shift in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    -treatment. Several validated asthma control assessment tools have been developed to facilitate correct assessment of the level of control in clinical practice. It is hoped that focusing on control will reduce the frequency of sub-optimal treatment in the primary care setting. Further validation of the best way......Variability is a characteristic feature of asthma, and the aim of asthma management is to eliminate or minimise disease variability. Controlled asthma shows little or no variability, and is achievable and sustainable in the majority of patients. New international guidelines recommend control...... involves the control of several outcomes. Its assessment should include components relevant to achievement of best possible clinical control and reduction of future risk of adverse outcomes. Focusing on a single or a few outcomes can lead to incorrect control assessment and increased risk of under...

  14. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C

    2005-01-01

    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  15. Clinical practice guidelines: potential misconceptions of the GRADE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watine, Joseph; Wils, Julien; Augereau, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To challenge the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) group to address the potential misconceptions about their approach to grading the strength of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines. Based on our own expertise of health care professionals trying to think in depth about, and using, guidelines, we have identified four such misconceptions. These potential misconceptions are: (1) evidence in medicine means factual or scientific evidence; (2) opinions are a subcategory of evidence; (3) the most important evidence is related to clinical benefits and harms; (4) being virtuous, and principled, does not particularly help in developing the best possible guidelines. We call on the GRADE leadership to address all the above-mentioned misconceptions. These need explicit answers in their manuscript series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of The APA Practice Guidelines on Suicide to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Douglas G; Brewer, Margaret L

    2006-06-01

    This article presents charts from The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors, part of the Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Compendium, and a summary of the assessment information in a format that can be used in routine clinical practice. Four steps in the assessment process are presented: the use of a thorough psychiatric examination to obtain information about the patient's current presentation, history, diagnosis, and to recognize suicide risk factors therein; the necessity of asking very specific questions about suicidal ideation, intent, plans, and attempts; the process of making an estimation of the patient's level of suicide risk is explained; and the use of modifiable risk and protective factors as the basis for treatment planning is demonstrated. Case reports are used to clarify use of each step in this process.

  17. Unannounced in situ simulations: integrating training and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susanna T; Sevdalis, Nick; McKay, Anthony; Lambden, Simon; Gautama, Sanjay; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vincent, Charles

    2013-06-01

    Simulation-based training for healthcare providers is well established as a viable, efficacious training tool, particularly for the training of non-technical team-working skills. These skills are known to be critical to effective teamwork, and important in the prevention of error and adverse events in hospitals. However, simulation suites are costly to develop and releasing staff to attend training is often difficult. These factors may restrict access to simulation training. We discuss our experiences of 'in situ' simulation for unannounced cardiac arrest training when the training is taken to the clinical environment. This has the benefit of decreasing required resources, increasing realism and affordability, and widening multidisciplinary team participation, thus enabling assessment and training of non-technical team-working skills in real clinical teams. While there are practical considerations of delivering training in the clinical environment, we feel there are many potential benefits compared with other forms of simulation training. We are able to tailor the training to the needs of the location, enabling staff to see a scenario that is relevant to their practice. This is particularly useful for staff who have less exposure to cardiac arrest events, such as radiology staff. We also describe the important benefit of risk assessment for a clinical environment. During our simulations we have identified a number of issues that, had they occurred during a real resuscitation attempt, may have led to patient harm or patient death. For these reasons we feel in situ simulation should be considered by every hospital as part of a patient safety initiative.

  18. Study of Clinical Practical Model of Urinary System Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to improve the clinical treatment level of urinary system injury, it is necessary to build up an animal model of urinary system wound, which is not only analogous to real clinical practice, but also simple and practical. Methods: We have developed the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator based on the first and the second producer. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge was selected by gradient powder loading experiments. The firearm fragment injuries were made to the bulbous urethra of 10 New Zealand male rabbits. One week preoperatively and 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, all the animals underwent urethroscopy and urethrography. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, two animals were randomly selected and killed, and the urethra was cut off for pathological examination. Results: The shooting distance of the third generation of firearm fragment wound generator is 2 cm. The best explosive charge of the blank cartridge is 1 g of nitrocotton. All rabbits survived the procedures and stayed alive until they were killed. Injuries were limited to bulbous urethra and distal urethra. Round damaged areas, 1-1.5 cm in length, on the ventral wall were observed. Ureteroscopy results showed that canal diameter gradually shrank by over 50% in 9 rabbits. The rate of success was 90%. Urethrography result noted that a 1-1.3 cm stricture was formed at the bulbous urethra. Histology results of injured stricture urethra showed that fibrous connective tissue hyperplasia and hyaline degeneration caused further stricture in the canal. Conclusions: The third generation of firearm fragment wound generator imitates the bullet firing process and is more accurate and repeatable. The corresponding rabbit model of traumatic complex urethral stricture simulates the real complex clinical conditions. This animal model provides a standardized platform for clinical researches on treating traumatic injuries to the urinary system.

  19. Defining ‘elderly’ in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify how ‘elderly’ patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council. Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of ‘elderly’ persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined ‘elderly’ by chronological age (i.e., years since birth while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define ‘elderly’ in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term ‘elderly’, whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of ‘elderly’, for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how ‘elderly’ was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing ‘elderly’ persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define ‘elderly’ persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of ‘elderly’ in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient’s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are

  20. Hermeneutics of clinical practice: the question of textuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenaeus, F

    2000-01-01

    In this article I scrutinize the question whether clinical medicine, in order to be considered a hermeneutical enterprise, must be thought of as a reading of different "texts." Three different proposals for a definition of the concept of text in medicine, suggested by other hermeneuticians, are discussed. All three proposals are shown to be unsatisfying in various ways. Instead of attempting to find a fourth definition of the concept of text suitable to a hermeneutics of medicine, I then try to show that the assumption that one needs to operate with the concept of text in order to develop a hermeneutics of medicine is false. Clinical interpretation can be shown to essentially consist in a dialogical hermeneutics, the pattern of which can be found in the philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer. This kind of hermeneutics is not a methodology of text reading, but an ontological, phenomenological hermeneutics in which understanding is a necessary feature of the being-together of human beings in the world. This being-together in and through language takes on a peculiar form in the clinical encounter, since the medical meeting is typically characterized by an asymmetrical enstrangement and has a specific goal--health for the patient--absent in other forms of hermeneutics. Central issues of Gadamer's philosophy, e.g. "fusion of horizons," are shown to fit the structure of clinical practice.

  1. Neuroimaging in Parkinson disease: from research setting to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Over the past three decades, neuroimaging studies-including structural, functional and molecular modalities-have provided invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease (PD). Observations from multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical changes that affect receptor sites and neurotransmitter systems. Characterization of the neurobiological alterations that lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with PD has considerably aided the in vivo investigation of aetiology and pathophysiology, and the identification of novel targets for pharmacological or surgical treatments, including cell therapy. Although PD is now considered to be very complex, no neuroimaging modalities are specifically recommended for routine use in clinical practice. However, conventional MRI and dopamine transporter imaging are commonly used as adjuvant tools in the differential diagnosis between PD and nondegenerative causes of parkinsonism. First-line neuroimaging tools that could have an impact on patient prognosis and treatment strategies remain elusive. This Review discusses the lessons learnt from decades of neuroimaging research in PD, and the promising new approaches with potential applicability to clinical practice.

  2. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  3. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in routine clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-03-10

    The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.

  4. The Impact of Fellowship in Dietetics on Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Terezie Tolar

    2018-02-07

    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in pediatric cancer treatment is essential. The Nutrition Department and the International Outreach Program at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, TN have worked together from 2005 to 2013 to develop and implement a training program for international dietitians working with pediatric oncology patients. During that time, St. Jude hosted 15 dietitians from various countries for this 3-week-long program. The curriculum provided experience in nutrition risk screening, nutrition care process, nutrition for cancer prevention, palliative care, and exposure to nutrition support. Monthly online meetings were established through the Cure4Kids website to continue collaboration and training. Learning outcomes were developed, and the impact of the program was evaluated based on changes made by former fellows in clinical practice, research, management, and food service upon return to their country. In addition, the program was evaluated based on recognition by the medical team, professional growth/networking, and personal growth. The survey return rate was 100%: responses revealed that 80% of participants continued working in pediatric oncology, 67% participated in monthly meetings, 47% collaborated on research, 100% advanced their competency in clinical practice, 93% broadened their competency in research, 67% became increasingly competent in management, 60% implemented changes in food service, 100% were recognized for participating in the program, and 100 and 93% noted that participation in the fellowship program helped their professional and personal growth, respectively. The psychological impact of the training on healthcare providers was as important as the impact of the program on patient care.

  5. [Anticoagulant therapy clinic: moving towards Advanced Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Parrado Borrego, Gema; Rodríguez González, José; Caparrós Miranda, Isabel S; Vargas Lirio, M Isabel; Ortiz Fernández, Primitiva

    2014-01-01

    There is currently around one million people receiving oral anticoagulants in Spain. The drug most used is acenocoumarol, which requires coagulation monitoring to ensure that the patient is within its normal therapeutic range. Patients usually start this treatment in a hospital clinic and, when they are stabilised, they are referred to primary care, where they are followed-up by their community nurses. The usual practice is that nurses are responsible for changes in the dose when the patients are outside the range. This practice is not performed by hospital nurses, despite having sufficient experience and knowledge to adequately manage these types of patients. An Advanced Nursing Practice model has been introduced into the Haematology management unit of the Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga. This involves various aspects of attention and care of patients on anticoagulant therapy, and includes adjusting the doses of their treatment following a catalogue of therapeutic and diagnostic ranges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.

  7. Quality improvement through clinical communities: eight lessons for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Martin, Graham; Armstrong, Natalie; Banerjee, Jay; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to quality improvement in healthcare based on clinical communities are founded in practitioner networks, peer influence and professional values. However, evidence for the value of this approach, and how to make it effective, is spread across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesise relevant literature to provide practical lessons on how to use community-based approaches to improve quality. Diverse literatures were identified, analysed and synthesised in a manner that accounted for the heterogeneity of methods, models and contexts they covered. A number of overlapping but distinct community-based approaches can be identified in the literature, each suitable for different problems. The evidence for the effectiveness of these is mixed, but there is some agreement on the challenges that those adopting such approaches need to address, and how these can be surmounted. Key lessons include: the need for co-ordination and leadership alongside the lateral influence of peers; advantages of starting with a clear programme theory of change; the need for training and resources; dealing with conflict and marginalisation; fostering a sense of community; appropriate use of data in prompting behavioural change; the need for balance between "hard" and "soft" strategies; and the role of context. The paper brings together diverse literatures with important implications for community-based approaches to quality improvement, drawing on these to offer practical lessons for those engaged in improving healthcare quality in practice.

  8. Clinical psychology in general practice: a controlled trial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earll, Louise; Kincey, John

    1982-01-01

    A controlled trial study is described in which 50 consecutive potential referrals for psychological treatment from one general practice were randomly allocated either to behavioural treatment or no-treatment conditions. Treatment-group patients received treatment from a clinical psychologist working within the practice; the control-group patients continued to be managed by their general practitioner. The patients' use of NHS resources was assessed during the treatment period (or its equivalent for the control group) and at a follow-up comparison point, when the patients' subjective ratings of their progress were also obtained. Between referral and the end of treatment the treated group received significantly less psychotropic medication than the control group. This difference was not, however, maintained at the longer-term follow-up. No differences in general practice consultation rates, in the subjective ratings of psychological distress, in control orientation or life satisfaction were found between the two groups, but the level of patient satisfaction was high. Implications for the design of future studies and for psychological health care delivery systems are discussed. PMID:7086742

  9. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review of international clinical practice guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillon, Tessa E. R.; Pels, Anouk; von Dadelszen, Peter; MacDonell, Karen; Magee, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are developed to assist health care providers in decision-making. We systematically reviewed existing CPGs on the HDPs (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy) to inform clinical practice. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane

  10. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents: Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby-Mogensen, J.; Østergaard, D.; Donati, F.

    2000-01-01

    Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design......Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design...

  11. A knowledge synthesis of patient and public involvement in clinical practice guidelines : study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Packenham, C.; Tapp, S.; Burgers, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Failure to reconcile patient preferences and values as well as social norms with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommendations may hamper their implementation in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients and public involvement programs (PPIP) in CPGs

  12. Management of eosinophilic esophagitis in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B D; Bogte, A; Verhagen, M A; Pullens, H J M; Siersema, P D

    2017-10-30

    In recent years, new guidelines and recommendations have been published regarding the diagnostic criteria and therapeutic management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients diagnosed with EoE in daily clinical practice and whether this was performed according to current guidelines and recommendations. A population-based, multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the national pathology registry (PALGA), medical records, and telephone interviews of patients diagnosed with EoE in two academic and two nonacademic hospitals in the period 2004 to 2014. The study was approved by all involved ethical committees. Data regarding demographics, clinical manifestations, endoscopic results, histologic samples, and therapeutic strategies were collected. Standard statistical analyses were performed to summarize patient characteristics. We included 119 patients diagnosed with EoE in this study. The median age at onset of symptoms was 29 years (IQR: 15-42) and the median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR: 23-51 years), leading to a median diagnostic patients' delay of 6.5 years (IQR: 2-14 years). The median physicians' delay in diagnosis between first contact in the hospital and diagnosis was 1.0 year (IQR: 1-7 years). The incidence of newly diagnosed patients with EoE increased steadily over a period of 11 years. Criteria for the microscopic diagnosis of EoE varied between pathologists in each hospital. Initial treatment included topical corticosteroids (TCS) (30.3%), proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (29.4%), or a combination (10.1%). A follow-up endoscopy was performed in 40.3% of patients. During follow-up, treatment included PPIs (76.0%), TCS (59.6%), a combination of PPIs and TCS (45.4%), and endoscopic dilations (6.7%). Diagnostic and therapeutic discrepancies between daily clinical practice and recommendations from current and past guidelines were observed. Apart from

  13. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  14. Economic impact of prescreening on gastroenterology outpatient clinic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Fergal; Harewood, Gavin C; Cagney, Daniel; Basri, Fadzwani; Patchett, Stephen E; Murray, Frank E

    2010-04-01

    Outpatient clinic activity represents a major workload for clinicians. Unnecessary outpatient visits place a strain on service provision, resulting in unnecessary delays for more urgent cases. We sought to determine both the impact and economic benefit of employing phone follow-up and physician assistant (PA) triage systems on attendances at a gastroenterology outpatient department. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic over a 2-week period. Patients were categorized into new or follow-up attendees and the follow-up patients were further subcategorized into 1 of 4 groups: (1) those attending to receive results of investigations requiring no further treatment (group A); (2) those attending to receive results of investigations requiring further treatment (group B); (3) those attending with a chronic gastrointestinal disease requiring no active change in management (group C); (4) those attending with a chronic gastrointestinal disease requiring active change in management (group D). It was assumed that patients in group A could be managed by phone follow-up in place of clinic attendance and patients in group C could be triaged to see a PA. Out of a total of 329 outpatient attendees, 40 (12%) required no active intervention (group A) and would have been suitable for phone follow-up. A further 58 (18%) had stable disease, requiring no change in management and hence, could have been triaged to see a PA. Implementation of phone follow-up and patient review by PA could reduce salary expenses of outpatient practice by 17%. Our findings support routine prescreening of outpatient attendees to enhance the efficiency of gastroenterology outpatient practice.

  15. Switching among antipsychotics in everyday clinical practice: focus on ziprasidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Cañas, Fernando; Fagiolini, Andrea; Larmo, Ilkka; Levy, Pedro; Montes, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Sturlason, Runa; Zink, Mathias; Correll, Christoph U

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses points to consider when switching patients to the second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), ziprasidone, in everyday clinical practice: 1) the pharmacologic properties of the pre-switch antipsychotic and of ziprasidone; 2) switch and dosing strategies to ensure maintenance or attainment of efficacy; 3) recognition and management of possible rebound effects of the pre-switch medication discontinuation; 4) recognition and management of potential side effects of ziprasidone; and 5) education and support for patients/caregivers concerning correct ziprasidone administration. A Medline search (up to July 7, 2010) identified studies in which adult patients with schizophrenia were switched to ziprasidone from another antipsychotic. In addition, based on their extensive clinical experience, an expert faculty of European psychiatrists provided advice on identifying patients who may be appropriate candidates for switching to ziprasidone, and on establishing optimal strategies for switching to ziprasidone in everyday clinical practice. Data from 10 studies, in which 1395 patients were switched to ziprasidone, showed that switching from first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) or SGAs generally resulted in maintenance or improvement of efficacy across all studied symptom domains, improvements in tolerability, and acute and long-term benefits regarding cardiometabolic parameters, including body weight. Maintenance of efficacy is most likely to be achieved using a plateau cross-titration strategy, with a rapid uptitration of ziprasidone to a dose range of 60 to 80 mg administered twice daily with food. Temporary coadministration of benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, or beta-blockers should be considered for the management of potential rebound effects. Optimal switching of patients with schizophrenia from FGAs or SGAs to ziprasidone requires careful attention to differences in the pharmacological profiles of the pre-switch medication and of ziprasidone, which may

  16. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further guideline development and multicentre research. A structured

  17. European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Tilg, Herbert; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Sokol, Harry; Arkkila, Perttu; Pintus, Cristina; Hart, Ailsa; Segal, Jonathan; Aloi, Marina; Masucci, Luca; Molinaro, Antonio; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Link, Alexander; de Groot, Pieter; de Vos, Willem M; Högenauer, Christoph; Malfertheiner, Peter; Mattila, Eero; Milosavljević, Tomica; Nieuwdorp, Max; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Simren, Magnus; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of C. difficile infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Experiencing authenticity - the core of student learning in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Katri

    2016-10-01

    Learning in clinical practice is challenging regarding organizational and pedagogical issues. Clinical education wards are one way to meet these challenges by focusing on both patient care and student learning. However, more knowledge is needed about how students' learning can be enhanced and about patients' and supervisors' roles in these settings. The aim was to explore nursing students' learning on a clinical education ward with an explicit pedagogical framework. Semi-structured interviews of students were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and an ethnographic study including observations and follow-up interviews of students, patients and supervisors was conducted. The core of student meaningful learning experiences both external and internal authenticity. Students in early stages immediately created mutual relationships, experienced both external and internal authenticity, and patients became active participants in student learning. Without a mutual relationship, patients passively let students practice on their bodies. Students nearing graduation experienced only external authenticity, creating uncertainty as a threshold for learning. Caring for patients with complex needs helped students overcome the threshold and experience internal authenticity. Supervisors' challenges were to balance patient care and student learning by working as a team. They supported students coping with the complex challenges on the ward. Students need to experience external and internal authenticity to make learning meaningful. Experiencing authenticity, involving meaning-making processes and knowledge construction, is linked to transformative learning and overcoming thresholds. Therefore, an explicit pedagogical framework, based on patient-centredness, peer learning and the supervisory team, creates the prerequisites for experiencing external and internal authenticity.

  19. Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kelly E.; Klein, Teri E.; Hoffman, James M.; Müller, Daniel J.; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M.; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F.; Schwab, Matthias; Agúndez, José A.G.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Crews, Kristine R.; Scott, Stuart A.; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Stein, C. Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V.; Williams, Marc S.; Johnson, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine’s Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines. PMID:24479687

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnostic Testing for Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Vishesh K.; Auckley, Dennis H.; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Kuhlmann, David C.; Mehra, Reena; Ramar, Kannan; Harrod, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This guideline establishes clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults and is intended for use in conjunction with other American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in adults. Methods: The AASM commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use. In addition, the task force adopted foundational recommendations from prior guidelines as “good practice statements”, that establish the basis for appropriate and effective diagnosis of OSA. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final recommendations. Recommendations: The following recommendations are intended as a guide for clinicians diagnosing OSA in adults. Under GRADE, a STRONG recommendation is one that clinicians should follow under most circumstances. A WEAK recommendation reflects a lower degree of certainty regarding the outcome and appropriateness of the patient-care strategy for all patients. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. Good Practice Statements: Diagnostic testing for OSA should be performed in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation and adequate follow-up. Polysomnography is the standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients in whom there is a concern for OSA based on a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Recommendations: We recommend that clinical tools, questionnaires and prediction

  1. Imaging of neurodegenerative cognitive and behavioral disorders: practical considerations for dementia clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI). Best clinical practices dictate that structural imaging, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when possible and computed tomography when not, be obtained as a first-tier approach during the course of a thorough clinical evaluation to improve diagnostic confidence and assess for nonneurodegenerative treatable conditions that may cause or substantially contribute to cognitive/behavioral symptoms or which may dictate a substantial change in management. These conditions include less common structural (e.g., mass lesions such as tumors and hematomas; normal-pressure hydrocephalus), inflammatory, autoimmune and infectious conditions, and more common comorbid contributing conditions (e.g., vascular cerebral injury causing leukoaraiosis, infarcts, or microhemorrhages) that can produce a mixed dementia syndrome. When, after appropriate clinical, cognitive/neuropsychologic, and structural neuroimaging assessment, a dementia specialist remains in doubt regarding etiology and appropriate management, second-tier imaging with molecular methods, preferably with fluorodexoyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) (or single-photon emission computed tomography if PET is unavailable) can provide more diagnostic specificity (e.g., help differentiate between atypical AD and FTD as

  2. Evaluation of gastric emptying function in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, P; Picard, M; Déry, R; Giguère, A; Picard, D; Morais, J; Plourde, V; Boivin, M

    1997-11-01

    In this retrospective analysis, we compared different methods to evaluate gastric emptying function, aiming to improve the sensitivity and the clinical availability of our diagnostic testing. In the first study, we compared, in 72 patients clinically suspected of gastroparesis, the emptying of a meal containing two solid nutrients with different disintegration rates: 111In-labeled scrambled eggs and 99Tc-labeled liver cubes. Gastric emptying of 111In-labeled egg was delayed in 12 of our patients and the evacuation of the 99Tc-labeled liver was prolonged in 19 patients. The choice of the nutrient was not important for the identification of diabetic gastroparesis (43% vs 57%; NS), but it was determinant in the case of patients suspected of idiopathic gastroparesis (12% were positive with the egg and 25% with the liver; P egg as a radiolabeled tracer in order to improve the sensitivity of the test for detection of gastroparesis; and (2) the radiological detection of radiopaque markers is a reliable and convenient method for the detection of gastroparesis in clinical practice. It is possibly more sensitive than scintigraphy.

  3. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  4. Pressure Ulcers in Adults: Prediction and Prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This package includes a clinical practice guideline, quick reference guide for clinicians, and patient's guide to predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults. The clinical practice guideline includes the following: overview of the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers; clinical practice guideline (introduction, risk assessment tools…

  5. Toward clinical scholarship: promoting evidence-based practice in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohide, E Ann; Coker, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Organizational interventions are being suggested to increase the rate of quality research dissemination and uptake. This article describes how one tertiary institution is using an evidence-based nursing (EBN) committee as an organizational strategy to shift its nursing culture toward clinical scholarship. A number of approaches and activities that have stimulated the movement toward evidence-based practice (EBP) are examined: organizational commitment to EBP, strategic positioning of the EBN committee within nursing's administrative structure, articulation of a mission, conceptualization of a model for EBN practice, learning on the job, selection and adoption of an evidence-based model for implementing change, marketing for a change in culture toward clinical scholarship, and other selected examples of projects undertaken by the committee. Action-oriented principles associated with committee experiences are related to the approaches and activities.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnostic approaches in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Burbige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eugene J BurbigeDivision of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Research, John Muir Medical Center, Concord, CA, USABackground: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional gastrointestinal disorder long considered a diagnosis of exclusion, has chronic symptoms that vary over time and overlap with those of non-IBS disorders. Traditional symptom-based criteria effectively identify IBS patients but are not easily applied in clinical practice, leaving >40% of patients to experience symptoms up to 5 years before diagnosis.Objective: To review the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected IBS, strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and newer diagnostic tools that can augment current symptom-based criteria.Methods: The peer-reviewed literature (PubMed was searched for primary reports and reviews using the limiters of date (1999–2009 and English language and the search terms irritable bowel syndrome, diagnosis, gastrointestinal disease, symptom-based criteria, outcome, serology, and fecal markers. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week 2008–2009 and reference lists of identified articles were reviewed.Results: A disconnect is apparent between practice guidelines and clinical practice. The American Gastroenterological Association and American College of Gastroenterology recommend diagnosing IBS in patients without alarm features of organic disease using symptom-based criteria (eg, Rome. However, physicians report confidence in a symptom-based diagnosis without further testing only up to 42% of the time; many order laboratory tests and perform sigmoidoscopies or colonoscopies despite good evidence showing no utility for this work-up in uncomplicated cases. In the absence of diagnostic criteria easily usable in a busy practice, newer diagnostic methods, such as stool-form examination, fecal inflammatory markers, and serum biomarkers, have been proposed as adjunctive tools to aid in an IBS diagnosis by increasing physicians

  7. Confidentiality breaches in clinical practice: what happens in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Aroca, Cristina M; Girela-Lopez, Eloy; Collazo-Chao, Eliseo; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, Manuel; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria C

    2016-09-02

    Respect for confidentiality is important to safeguard the well-being of patients and ensure the confidence of society in the doctor-patient relationship. The aim of our study is to examine real situations in which there has been a breach of confidentiality, by means of direct observation in clinical practice. By means of direct observation, our study examines real situations in which there has been a breach of confidentiality in a tertiary hospital. To observe and collect data on these situations, we recruited students enrolled in the Medical Degree Program at the University of Cordoba. The observers recorded their entries on standardized templates during clinical internships in different departments: Internal Medicine; Gynecology and Obstetrics; Pediatrics; Emergency Medicine; General and Digestive Surgery; Maxillofacial Surgery; Plastic Surgery; Orthopedics and Traumatology; Digestive; Dermatology; Rheumatology; Mental Health; Nephrology; Pneumology; Neurology; and Ophthalmology. Following 7138 days and 33157 h of observation, we found an estimated Frequency Index of one breach per 62.5 h. As regards the typology of the observed breaches, the most frequent (54,6 %) were related to the consultation and/or disclosure of clinical and/or personal data to medical personnel not involved in the patient's clinical care, as well as people external to the hospital. As regards their severity, severe breaches were the most frequent, accounting for 46.7 % of all incidents. Most of the reported incidents were observed in public areas (37.9 %), such as corridors, elevators, the cafeteria, stairs, and locker rooms. In addition to aspects related to hospital organization or infrastructure, we have shown that all healthcare personnel are involved in confidentiality breaches, especially physicians. While most are committed unintentionally, a non-negligible number are severe, repeated breaches (9.5 %), thus suggesting a certain carelessness, perhaps through ignorance about

  8. [Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollenschläger, Günter

    2013-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers.

  9. A memory of an aesthetic experience transferred to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2003-03-01

    To examine the usefulness of writing about a memory of an aesthetic experience, and then transfer the aesthetic experience to a health care situation. The study was accomplished at two university colleges of health sciences in Sweden. It started with student nurses (N=291) writing about a memory of an aesthetic experience. Then they transferred the aesthetic experience to a purposeful clinical practice. The results showed that each student could report on a positive memory of an aesthetic experience. Embedded in each story was an aesthetic experience that was meaningful to the student. Domains of memory most frequently reported were music, work of art and nature. Themes derived from the aesthetic memory were happiness and awareness. The awareness theme comprized the value of aesthetic experiences for the patients, and for student nurses. The process of writing about a memory of an aesthetic experience provided an alternative model for nursing education that could improve patient care.

  10. PIMECROLIMUS CREAM IN CLINICAL PRACTICE OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGOLOGIST IMMUNOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ogorodova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the investigation was to estimate the basic therapy of atopic dermatitis (ad in children and to analyze pimecrolimus application in clinical practice of children's allergologists immunologist. A multi centered retrospective study analysis involving 360 children aged 0–17 with atopic dermatitis of different severity was carried out. Insufficient effectiveness of implementation of main points of national program «atopic dermatitis and skin infections in children: diagnostics, treatment and prophylaxis» is determined. 37,4% cases of discrepancies in diagnoses by severity of atopic dermatitis in case of physician evaluation and on the scale of SCORAD, low level of control over blood pressure and high usage of systemic corticosteroids are registered. The application of pimecrolimus is revealed in 11,3% patients. It is essential to use more extensively the strategy of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy of ad, including pimecrolimus use.Key words: atopic dermatitis, pharmacotherapy, pimecrolimus, children, treatment.

  11. Systemic relational therapy and the case from the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rožič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article are represented the principal guidelines of the systemic relational model of psychotherapy and an example of clinical practice where the pacient was incluced in this kind of therapy. In the essence of systemic relational model there is a person which is captured in the repetition of old patterns in spite of its painfulness and hardness. Captured and helpless in old patterns, the person not only repeats but also recreates them, because they promise safety, belonging and connectedness. From the review of the therapy it is evident that behind the pacient's concrete problems stands her family system to which she is loyal in the way that only deepens her distress. By the increasing the responsability for herself, for her feelings and her acts, it increases the pacient's funcionality, too.

  12. [Should we continue to use benzodiazepines in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; De Rosa, Corrado; Albert, Umberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of benzodiazepines has represented a milestone in the history of pharmacological treatments and in relation to the management of anxiety, sleep and other psychiatric disorders. After several decades, these agents still represent one of the largest and most widely prescribed groups of medications, not only in the psychiatric clinical practice, but also in the whole medical field. Over the last decade, however, multiple concerns have been raised on the risks related to the prescription of benzodiazepines, for their addictive potential and for cognitive side-effects. Therefore, benzodiazepines are today considered as a double-edge sword, which should be carefully handled and preferentially prescribed by specialists (or at least under their supervision), after an adequate training. Unfortunately, this is not the case in many situations, and the need to improve training on benzodiazepines management has been recently emphasized.

  13. [Agreements and disagreements among the main clinical practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Montero, A

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus has an enormous health and social impact and its incidence is rising exponentially in the industrialized world as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. In the last few years, research in this field has increased, leading to the development of new drugs and new indications. Consequently, numerous updates of clinical practice guidelines for diabetes have been published in the last 12 months, which provide health professionals with an up-to-date view of therapeutic possibilities. The present article reviews the guidelines with the greatest scientific impact and discusses areas of agreement and disagreement among these documents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose Biosensors: An Overview of Use in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hyung Yoo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has been established as a valuable tool in the management of diabetes. Since maintaining normal blood glucose levels is recommended, a series of suitable glucose biosensors have been developed. During the last 50 years, glucose biosensor technology including point-of-care devices, continuous glucose monitoring systems and noninvasive glucose monitoring systems has been significantly improved. However, there continues to be several challenges related to the achievement of accurate and reliable glucose monitoring. Further technical improvements in glucose biosensors, standardization of the analytical goals for their performance, and continuously assessing and training lay users are required. This article reviews the brief history, basic principles, analytical performance, and the present status of glucose biosensors in the clinical practice.

  15. Mechanical Lumbar Traction: What Is Its Place in Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Summary evidence concludes that mechanical lumbar traction is not effective for treating acute or chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). However, many physical therapists continue to use it, primarily as an additional modality. Indeed, expert clinical opinion, theoretical models, and some research evidence suggest that certain patients with LBP respond positively to traction. A study published in the March 2016 issue of JOSPT investigates the effectiveness of traction in prone as an adjunct to an extension-oriented exercise program in patients with LBP and leg pain and explores whether a previously identified set of patient characteristics is associated with better outcomes from traction. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating these patients.

  16. Management of sepsis: from evidence to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gerloni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in hospitalized patients and its management involves a lot of specialist. Internist is required to demonstrate his competence since the beginning when the diagnosis is not so easy to be clarified. A rapid clinical suspicion permits a prompt management of the patient that means important mortality reduction. However, it is essential to understand the source of infection and echography represents a rapid, economic, useful and widespread tool with whom Internist should become more and more confident. The following review is a practical guide to manage septic patients according to the most recent literature, underlining aspects of antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic stabilization and supportive therapy. To limit sepsis mortality, a valid Internist should be culturally prepared and especially able to cooperate with other specialists, because a strong enemy requires a strong team.

  17. Neuroplasticity and Clinical Practice: Building Brain Power for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Shaffer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review is on driving neuroplasticity in a positive direction using evidence-based interventions that also have the potential to improve general health. One goal is to provide an overview of the many ways new neuroscience can inform treatment protocols to empower and motivate clients to make the lifestyle choices that could help build brain power and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyle changes that have also been associated with simultaneously enhancing vigorous longevity, health, happiness and wellness. Another goal is to explore the use of a focus in clinical practice on helping clients appreciate this new evidence and use evolving neuroscience in establishing individualized goals, designing strategies for achieving them and increasing treatment compliance. The timing is urgent for such interventions with goals of enhancing brain health across the lifespan and improving statistics on dementia worldwide.

  18. Syncope Best Practices: A Syncope Clinical Practice Guideline to Improve Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Heather M; Sachdeva, Ritu; Mahle, William T; McCracken, Courtney E; Kelleman, Michael; McConnell, Michael; Fischbach, Peter S; Cardis, Brian M; Campbell, Robert M; Oster, Matthew E

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether implementation of a standardized clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the evaluation of syncope would decrease practice variability and resource utilization. A retrospective review of medical records of patients presenting to our practice for outpatient evaluation of syncope before and after implementation of the CPG. The guideline included elements of history, physical exam, electrocardiogram, and "red flags" for further testing. Outpatient pediatric cardiology offices of a large pediatric cardiology practice. All new patients between 3 and 21 years old, who presented to cardiology clinic with a chief complaint of syncope. The CPG for the evaluation of pediatric syncope was presented to the providers. Resource utilization was determined by the tests ordered by individual physicians before and after initiation of the CPG. Patient final diagnoses were recorded and the medical records were subsequently reviewed to determine if any patients, who presented again to the system, were ultimately diagnosed with cardiac disease. Of the 1496 patients with an initial visit for syncope, there was no significant difference in the diagnosis of cardiac disease before or after initiation of the CPG: (0.6% vs. 0.4%, P = .55). Electrocardiography provides the highest yield in the evaluation of pediatric syncope. Despite high compliance (86.9%), there were no overall changes in costs ($346.31 vs. $348.53, P = .85) or in resource utilization. There was, however, a decrease in the variability of ordering of echocardiograms among physicians, particularly among those at the extremes of utilization. Although the CPG did not decrease already low costs, it did decrease the wide variability in echo utilization. Evaluation beyond detailed history, physical exam, and electrocardiography provides no additional benefit in the evaluations of pediatric patients presenting with syncope. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Strengthening organizations to implement evidence-based clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen Lukas, Carol; Engle, Ryann L; Holmes, Sally K; Parker, Victoria A; Petzel, Robert A; Nealon Seibert, Marjorie; Shwartz, Michael; Sullivan, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    Despite recognition that implementation of evidence-based clinical practices (EBPs) usually depends on the structure and processes of the larger health care organizational context, the dynamics of implementation are not well understood. This project's aim was to deepen that understanding by implementing and evaluating an organizational model hypothesized to strengthen the ability of health care organizations to facilitate EBPs. CONCEPTUAL MODEL: The model posits that implementation of EBPs will be enhanced through the presence of three interacting components: active leadership commitment to quality, robust clinical process redesign incorporating EBPs into routine operations, and use of management structures and processes to support and align redesign. In a mixed-methods longitudinal comparative case study design, seven medical centers in one network in the Department of Veterans Affairs participated in an intervention to implement the organizational model over 3 years. The network was selected randomly from three interested in using the model. The target EBP was hand-hygiene compliance. Measures included ratings of implementation fidelity, observed hand-hygiene compliance, and factors affecting model implementation drawn from interviews. Analyses support the hypothesis that greater fidelity to the organizational model was associated with higher compliance with hand-hygiene guidelines. High-fidelity sites showed larger effect sizes for improvement in hand-hygiene compliance than lower-fidelity sites. Adherence to the organizational model was in turn affected by factors in three categories: urgency to improve, organizational environment, and improvement climate. Implementation of EBPs, particularly those that cut across multiple processes of care, is a complex process with many possibilities for failure. The results provide the basis for a refined understanding of relationships among components of the organizational model and factors in the organizational context

  20. Impact of national low back pain guidelines on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey L; Browning, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the 1994 Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) clinical practice guidelines on the management of acute low back pain. From the National Ambulatory Medical Care Service database, the authors abstracted data on patients being seen in primary care settings, presenting with low back pain as their primary reason for visit, and aged between 20 and 55 years. Patients with an inflammatory or secondary diagnosis to explain their back pain were excluded. Using the sampling weights assigned by the National Ambulatory Medical Care Service, we assessed the medications prescribed, referrals for physiotherapy, and radiography usage for 3 years before (1991 to 1993) and after (1995 to 1997) release of the back pain guidelines. During these 6 years, more than 10 million ambulatory office visits were available for analysis, 5.2 million visits between 1991 to 1993 and 5.0 million visits between 1995 to 1997. The most common diagnosis was lumbago, present in 21% of these visits. Acetaminophen use increased 20-fold from 0.1 to 2%, nonsteroidal use increased from 40 to 43%, muscle relaxant use decreased from 29 to 20%, radiography ordering increased slightly from 15.4 to 19.4%, and physical therapy referrals declined from 27 to 22%. There was no evidence of a trend toward increased compliance with the AHRQ guidelines over time. The AHRQ clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute low back pain had a modest impact on physician behavior, increasing the use of acetaminophen and nonsteroidals and decreasing the use of muscle relaxants and physical therapy referrals.

  1. Technical basis of radiation therapy. Practical clinical applications. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Seymour H. [Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncol-Pathol; Perez, Carlos A. [Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Purdy, James A. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-07-01

    This well-received book, now in its fifth edition, is unique in providing a detailed description of the technological basis of radiation therapy. Another novel feature is the collaborative writing of the chapters by North American and European authors. This considerably broadens the book's perspective and increases its applicability in daily practice throughout the world. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers basic concepts in treatment planning, including essential physics and biological principles related to time-dose-fractionation, and explains the various technological approaches to radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and high and low dose rate brachytherapy. Issues relating to quality assurance, technology assessment, and cost-benefit analysis are also reviewed. The second part of the book discusses in depth the practical clinical applications of the different radiation therapy techniques in a wide range of cancer sites. All of the chapters have been written by leaders in the field. This book will serve to instruct and acquaint teachers, students, and practitioners in the various fields of oncology with the basic technological factors and approaches in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  2. Development of a Nasya fitness form for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasya karma is prime treatment modality for ūrdhvajatrugata vikāra. Though classics clearly mention yogya (arha, ayogya (anarha criteria for Nasya karma some complications were noticed while practicing. In KLEUS Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital Belgaum, out of 2867 patients 58 (0.58% cases reported various complications during and after Nasya karma in the year of 2011 even after taking utmost care in selection of patients as well as drugs. This gave rise to need to develop quick screening criteria to minimize errors. Objective: To develop Nasya fitness form for clinical practice to further minimize unusual complications and thus obtain the maximum result. Materials and Methods: Literature pertaining to Nasya karma, Nāsa śarīra with anatomy of nose, vasculature, innervation, examination of the nose and various anatomical pathologies were considered to develop the fitness form. Results: On the basis of examination of external nose, nasal cavity, concha, nasopharynx and paranasal sinus by anterior and posterior rhinoscopic examination fitness form was developed. Conclusion: Present fitness format will not only help to assess the nasal pathologies, which are obstacles for drug delivery, but also will help to attain optimum results and avoid unusual complications.

  3. Clinical usefulness of teleradiology in general dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical usefulness of teleradiology in general dental practice. Two hundred and seventy five cases were submitted for inquiry to the case presentation board of the website of The Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology for a 5 year periods. The diagnosis results of those cases were analyzed according to the disease classification, the correlation with the patient's chief complaint, the necessity of additional examinations or treatments, the image modalities, and the number of dentists inquiring. Differential diagnoses of normal anatomic structures were the most frequently submitted cases, covering 15.6% of all cases. Among 275 cases, 164 cases required no additional treatments or examinations. Panoramic radiographs were the most frequently submitted images, accounting for 248 inquiries. The 275 cases were submitted by 96 dentists. Fifty-two dentists wrote one inquiry, and 44 inquired 2 or more times. The average inquiry number of the latter group was 5.0 cases. A teleradiology system in general dental practice could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of common lesions and reduce unnecessary costs.

  4. Data Resource Profile: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrett, Emily; Gallagher, Arlene M; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet; Mathur, Rohini; van Staa, Tjeerd; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is an ongoing primary care database of anonymised medical records from general practitioners, with coverage of over 11.3 million patients from 674 practices in the UK. With 4.4 million active (alive, currently registered) patients meeting quality criteria, approximately 6.9% of the UK population are included and patients are broadly representative of the UK general population in terms of age, sex and ethnicity. General practitioners are the gatekeepers of primary care and specialist referrals in the UK. The CPRD primary care database is therefore a rich source of health data for research, including data on demographics, symptoms, tests, diagnoses, therapies, health-related behaviours and referrals to secondary care. For over half of patients, linkage with datasets from secondary care, disease-specific cohorts and mortality records enhance the range of data available for research. The CPRD is very widely used internationally for epidemiological research and has been used to produce over 1000 research studies, published in peer-reviewed journals across a broad range of health outcomes. However, researchers must be aware of the complexity of routinely collected electronic health records, including ways to manage variable completeness, misclassification and development of disease definitions for research. PMID:26050254

  5. Terminal sedation and euthanasia: a comparison of clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Judith A C; van Delden, Johannes J M; van der Heide, Agnes; Vrakking, Astrid M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2006-04-10

    An important issue in the debate about terminal sedation is the extent to which it differs from euthanasia. We studied clinical differences and similarities between both practices in the Netherlands. Personal interviews were held with a nationwide stratified sample of 410 physicians (response rate, 85%) about the most recent cases in which they used terminal sedation, defined as administering drugs to keep the patient continuously in deep sedation or coma until death without giving artificial nutrition or hydration (n = 211), or performed euthanasia, defined as administering a lethal drug at the request of a patient with the explicit intention to hasten death (n = 123). We compared characteristics of the patients, the decision-making process, and medical care of both practices. Terminal sedation and euthanasia both mostly concerned patients with cancer. Patients receiving terminal sedation were more often anxious (37%) and confused (24%) than patients receiving euthanasia (15% and 2%, respectively). Euthanasia requests were typically related to loss of dignity and a sense of suffering without improving, whereas requesting terminal sedation was more often related to severe pain. Physicians applying terminal sedation estimated that the patient's life had been shortened by more than 1 week in 27% of cases, compared with 73% in euthanasia cases. Terminal sedation and euthanasia both are often applied to address severe suffering in terminally ill patients. However, terminal sedation is typically used to address severe physical and psychological suffering in dying patients, whereas perceived loss of dignity during the last phase of life is a major problem for patients requesting euthanasia.

  6. Swiss clinical practice guidelines on field cancerization of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Günther; Anliker, Mark; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Brand, Christoph; Braun, Ralph; Gaide, Olivier; Hafner, Jürg; Hunger, Robert; Itin, Peter; Kaeuper, Gina; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Mainetti, Carlo; Streit, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence continues to increase. AK lesions are caused by chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure, and the presence of two or more AK lesions along with photodamage should raise the consideration of a diagnosis of field cancerization. Effective treatment of individual lesions as well as field cancerization is essential for good long-term outcomes. The Swiss Registry of Actinic Keratosis Treatment (REAKT) Working Group has developed clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of field cancerization in patients who present with AK. These guidelines are intended to serve as a resource for physicians as to the most appropriate treatment and management of AK and field cancerization based on current evidence and the combined practical experience of the authors. Treatment of AK and field cancerization should be driven by consideration of relevant patient, disease, and treatment factors, and appropriate treatment decisions will differ from patient to patient. Prevention measures and screening recommendations are discussed, and special considerations related to management of immunocompromised patients are provided.

  7. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines--2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Camacho, Pauline M; Cobin, Rhoda H; Garber, Alan J; Garber, Jeffrey R; Gharib, Hossein; Petak, Steven M; Rodbard, Helena W; Trence, Dace L

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) published the "Protocol for Standardized Production of Clinical Practice Guidelines," which was to be implemented in forthcoming clinical practice guidelines (CPG). This protocol formally incorporated subjective factors and evidence-based medicine (EBM) methods that tightly mapped evidence levels to recommendation grades. A uniform publication template and multilevel review process were also outlined. Seven CPG have been subsequently published with use of this 2004 AACE protocol. Recently, growing concerns about the usefulness of CPG have been raised. The purposes of this report are to address shortcomings of the 2004 AACE protocol and to present an updated 2010 AACE protocol for CPG development. AACE CPG are developed without any industry involvement. Multiplicities of interests among writers and reviewers that might compromise the usefulness of CPG are avoided. Three major goals are to (1) balance transparently the effect of rigid quantitative EBM methods with subjective factors, (2) create a less onerous, less time-consuming, and less costly CPG production process, and (3) introduce an electronic implementation component. The updated 2010 AACE protocol emphasizes "informed judgment" and hybridizes EBM descriptors (study design type), qualifiers (study flaws), and subjective factors (such as risk, cost, and relevance). In addition, by focusing on more specific topics and clinical questions, the expert evaluation and multilevel review process is more transparent and expeditious. Lastly, the final recommendations are linked to a new electronic implementation feature.

  8. Nursing clinical handover improvement practices among acute inpatients in a tertiary hospital in Sydney: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Craig; Wright, Kylie M

    2016-10-01

    The nursing handover normally occurs at the beginning of a nurse's shift and is considered essential for continuity of care. Nursing handovers have the potential to communicate accurate information about a patient's condition, treatment and anticipated needs but also to be ineffective or even harmful if information is incomplete or omitted. The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care has recognized clinical handover as a National Standard, thus reinforcing its importance. This project aimed to conduct an audit of nursing clinical handover practices to implement evidence-based best practice recommendations to assess the effectiveness of these strategies to maximize the effectiveness of clinical handover across 11 units in a large tertiary hospital. The project used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit tool for promoting change in healthcare practice. A baseline audit of 330 observations of nursing clinical handover was conducted and measured against seven best practice recommendations, followed by the implementation of targeted strategies and a follow-up audit. The baseline audit revealed significant deficits between current practice and best practice in all but one criterion. Barriers for implementation of nursing clinical handover best practice criteria were identified by the project team, and a bundled education strategy was implemented. There were significantly improved outcomes across all best practice criteria in the follow-up audit. The findings showed how audits may be used to promote best practice in healthcare and that focused education and provision of relevant resources can have an immediate and positive impact on clinical practice. Some of the measured criteria improved to a moderate degree, leaving room for improvement; however, by the end of the project attitudes toward nursing clinical handover had been "transformed" from a passive routine "must do

  9. [ECRIN standard requirements for good clinical practices-compliant data management in multinational clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; Donche, Anne; Coffre, Carine; Le Gouge, Amélie; Rym, Boulkedid; Vaugier, Isabelle; Barbot, Frédéric; Leizorovicz, Alain; Juge, Nadine; Giraud, Céline; Gueyffier, François; Félin, Alexandra; Mura, Thibault; Chevassus, Hugues; Binquet, Christine

    2016-10-13

    Clinical studies involve an increasing amount of data collection and management. However, there is no specific quality standard sufficiently practical, in free access, and open for data management and the underlying IT-infrastructure in academic units. European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) published standard requirements for certified data management units. We present a French version of these standards. A group of experts produced the standards, by consensus. The first version was revised after two pilot audits for data centre certification were performed. The revised version includes 21 lists of five to ten standards, in three groups: information technologies, data management (DM) and "general". These standards offer a clear description of DM and IT requirements for clinical studies. Initially created for ECRIN certification purposes, they offer a very useful reference for academic DM structures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Olla; Power, Mary; Slavcev, Roderick A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians. In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs. A PILOT STUDY WAS CARRIED OUT DISTRIBUTING A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY TO A LOCAL GROUP OF PHARMACISTS PRACTICING IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS INCLUDING: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

  11. Direct observation of clinical practice in emergency medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current literature on the effects of direct, clinical observation of residents in emergency departments (EDs) on learners, patients, and departmental functioning. A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline and ERIC, covering the years 1980-2009. Keywords were used to identify postgraduate medical staff working in the ED; direct observation of these trainees by supervising staff; and reports of outcomes relating to Kirkpatrick's levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and institutional change. From an initial 11,433 abstracts and titles, 193 full-text articles were retrieved for further study. Application of inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded seven that were relevant to the topic. These studies comprised a range of methods--descriptive, qualitative evaluation, cohort studies, and a cross-sectional survey. Learner reaction was very enthusiastic. Positive changes in behavior due to feedback provided during direct observation were suggested by two studies. A single study evaluated trainee's perceptions on patient outcomes and noted that thorough assessments and improved management decisions may be at the expense of slower throughput of patients and diversion of senior staff from direct patient care. Three studies noted the resource-intensive nature of direct observation. Direct observation of clinical practice may be useful in ED education; however, further research is required to evaluate its effects. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. AARC clinical practice guideline: blood gas analysis and hemoximetry: 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael D; Walsh, Brian K; Sittig, Steve E; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2013-10-01

    We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library database for articles published between January 1990 and December 2012. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 237 clinical trials, 54 reviews, and 23 meta-analyses on blood gas analysis (BGA) and hemoximetry. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scoring system. BGA and hemoximetry are recommended for evaluating a patient's ventilatory, acid-base, and/or oxygenation status. BGA and hemoximetry are suggested for evaluating a patient's response to therapeutic interventions. BGA and hemoximetry are recommended for monitoring severity and progression of documented cardiopulmonary disease processes. Hemoximetry is recommended to determine the impact of dyshemoglobins on oxygenation. Capillary BGA is not recommended to determine oxygenation status. Central venous BGA and hemoximetry are suggested to determine oxygen consumption in the setting of early goal-directed therapies. For the assessment of oxygenation, a peripheral venous P(O2) is not recommended as a substitute for an arterial blood measurement (P(aO2)). It is not recommended to use venous P(CO2) and pH as a substitute for arterial blood measurement of P(aCO2) and pH. It is suggested that hemoximetry is used in the detection and evaluation of shunts during diagnostic cardiac catheterization.

  13. Initial experience with golimumab in clinical practice for ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castro-Laria

    Full Text Available Background: Golimumab is a TNF-blocking agent indicated as a second-line therapy in ulcerative colitis. Purpose: To research the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical practice. Methods: Retrospective study of the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis. All patients received golimumab 200 mg subcutaneously at week 0, and golimumab 100 mg subcutaneously at week 2. After the induction treatment, each patient received 50 mg sc. every 4 weeks in patients with body weight less than 80 kg, and 100 mg every 4 weeks in patients with body weight greater than or equal to 80 kg. Results: Study of a group of 23 ulcerative colitis patients, 7 of whom were naive to any anti-TNF therapy, and 16 patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF agent other than golimumab (non-naive patients. The average treatment time with golimumab was 14.3 weeks. Globally, withdrawal of corticosteroids was observed in 74% of cases. Clinical response was observed in 85.5% of patients who had not received biological treatment previously, and in patients who had previously received biological treatment the response rate was 75%. Conclusions: In this short study, golimumab seems to be an alternative treatment in naive and non-naive anti-TNF ulcerative colitis patients. It is also a safe therapy, given that there were no adverse effects in the patients studied.

  14. Management of obesity in adults: European clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigos, Constantine; Hainer, Vojtech; Basdevant, Arnaud; Finer, Nick; Fried, Martin; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Micic, Dragan; Maislos, Maximo; Roman, Gabriela; Schutz, Yves; Toplak, Hermann; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The development of consensus guidelines for obesity is complex. It involves recommending both treatment interventions and interventions related to screening and prevention. With so many publications and claims, and with the awareness that success for the individual is short-lived, many find it difficult to know what action is appropriate in the management of obesity. Furthermore, the significant variation in existing service provision both within countries as well as across the regions of Europe makes a standardised approach, even if evidence-based, difficult to implement. In formulating these guidelines, we have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that in treatment there is recognition of clinical judgment and of regional diversity as well as the necessity of an agreed approach by the individual and family. We conclude that i) physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment, ii) treatment should be based on good clinical care and evidence-based interventions and iii) obesity treatment should focus on realistic goals and lifelong management. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Neuroinflammation - using big data to inform clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendrou, Calliope A; McVean, Gil; Fugger, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is emerging as a central process in many neurological conditions, either as a causative factor or as a secondary response to nervous system insult. Understanding the causes and consequences of neuroinflammation could, therefore, provide insight that is needed to improve therapeutic interventions across many diseases. However, the complexity of the pathways involved necessitates the use of high-throughput approaches to extensively interrogate the process, and appropriate strategies to translate the data generated into clinical benefit. Use of 'big data' aims to generate, integrate and analyse large, heterogeneous datasets to provide in-depth insights into complex processes, and has the potential to unravel the complexities of neuroinflammation. Limitations in data analysis approaches currently prevent the full potential of big data being reached, but some aspects of big data are already yielding results. The implementation of 'omics' analyses in particular is becoming routine practice in biomedical research, and neuroimaging is producing large sets of complex data. In this Review, we evaluate the impact of the drive to collect and analyse big data on our understanding of neuroinflammation in disease. We describe the breadth of big data that are leading to an evolution in our understanding of this field, exemplify how these data are beginning to be of use in a clinical setting, and consider possible future directions.

  16. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.

  17. WhatsApp in Clinical Practice: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction. Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct and IEE Expert databases were searched using the search term WhatsApp and Google Scholar using the terms WhatsApp Telemedicine and WhatsApp mHealth. Thirty-two papers covering 17 disciplines were relevant with the most papers, 12, from India. Seventeen papers reported the use of WhatsApp Groups within departments, 14 of which were surgery related disciplines. Groups improved communication and advice given on patient management. Confidentiality was mentioned in 19 papers and consent in five. Data security was partially addressed in 11 papers with little understanding of how data are transmitted and stored. Telemedicine services outside of departmental groups were reported in seven papers and covered emergency triage in maxillofacial, plastic, neuro and general surgery, and cardiology and telestroke. WhatsApp is seen to be a simple, cheap and effective means of communication within the clinical health sector and its use will grow. Users have paid little attention to confidentiality, consent and data security. Guidelines for using WhatsApp for telemedicine are required including downloading. WhatsApp messages to computer for integration with electronic medical records.

  18. Practices, patients and (im)perfect data--feasibility of a randomised controlled clinical drug trial in German general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gágyor, Ildikó; Bleidorn, Jutta; Wegscheider, Karl; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M

    2011-04-01

    Randomised controlled clinical (drug) trials supply high quality evidence for therapeutic strategies in primary care. Until now, experience with drug trials in German general practice has been sparse. In 2007/2008, the authors conducted an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial (HWI-01) to assess the clinical equivalence of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, we report the feasibility of this trial in German general practices and the implementation of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) in mainly inexperienced general practices. This report is based on the experience of the HWI-01 study conducted in 29 German general practices. Feasibility was defined by 1) successful practice recruitment, 2) sufficient patient recruitment, 3) complete and accurate data collection and 4) appropriate protection of patient safety. The final practice recruitment rate was 18%. In these practices, 79 of 195 screened UTI patients were enrolled. Recruitment differed strongly between practices (range 0-12, mean 2.8 patients per practice) and was below the recruitment goal of approximately 100 patients. As anticipated, practice nurses became the key figures in the screening und recruitment of patients. Clinical trial demands, in particular for completing symptom questionnaires, documentation of source data and reporting of adverse events, did not agree well with GPs' documentation habits and required support from study nurses. In many cases, GPs and practice staff seemed to be overwhelmed by the amount of information and regulations. No sudden unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) were observed during the trial. To enable drug trials in general practice, it is necessary to adapt the setup of clinical research infrastructure to the needs of GPs and their practice staff. Risk adaption of clinical trial

  19. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy in clinical practice: ESLADOBA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, J; Breia, P; Pimentel, J; Pelejão, R; Carvalho, M; Mateus, P; Grebe, H; Mestre, A; Fernandes, H; Sousa, R; Gala, A

    2017-11-01

    To assess seizure control and tolerability of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy to one baseline antiepileptic drug (AED), in adults with partial-onset seizures (POS) with or without secondary generalization. Multicenter, non-interventional, prospective cohort study conducted between March 2012 and September 2014 at 12 neurology departments in Portugal. Adults with POS not controlled with one AED who had initiated ESL as adjunctive treatment were enrolled. Retention rate was defined at the final visit (Vfinal) 6-9 months of follow-up. Proportion of responders, seizure-free, changes in seizure frequency were evaluated using patients' diaries. Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C) and Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) were assessed by the neurologist. Fifty-two patients (48.1% male) were included with mean age 41.5±13.3 years. Mean epilepsy duration was 18.5±14.8 years; mean seizure frequency in the four previous weeks to baseline was 7.5±12.7. At Vfinal, retention rate was 73.0%; responder rate and seizure-free rates were 71.1% and 39.5%, respectively. The median relative reduction in seizure frequency between baseline and Vfinal was 82.2%. A reduction in epilepsy severity (CGI-S) was observed in 42.1%. According to CGI-C, 73.6% patients had their epilepsy "much improved" or "very much improved". Twelve patients (23.1%) had at least one adverse event (AE), two (3.9%) had one serious AE, and five (9.6%) discontinued due to AE. Eslicarbazepine acetate showed good retention rates, elicited a significant reduction in seizure frequency, and was well tolerated when used in the clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Tuberculosis in Spain: epidemiological pattern and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M; Huerta, C; Moreno, T; Caloto, T; Guerra, D; Pozo, F; Alcaide, J; Castells, C; Cardenal, J I; Domínguez, A; Gayoso, P; Gutiérrez, G; López, M J; Muñoz, F; Navarro, C; Picó, M; Quirós, J R; Robles, F; Sánchez, J M; Vanaclocha, H; Vega, T

    2002-04-01

    Thirteen Autonomous Regions in Spain. To study the incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB) and investigate clinical practice in TB. Cases of all forms of tuberculosis diagnosed in the study setting from May 1986 to April 1997 were identified though active search of different databases. Clinical and epidemiological information on cases was collected from clinical records or by interview with physicians. The overall incidence of all forms of tuberculosis was 38.5/100,000 and the incidence of smear-positive disease was 13.83/100,000. Most cases (97.1%) were Spanish nationals, with rates higher in men than in women (52.7/100,000 vs. 24.87/100,000) and in groups aged 25-34 and 75 years and over (61.35/100,000 and 59.35/100,000, respectively). Disseminated forms were frequent (6.6%), and the most common risk factor was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (17.7% of cases). Hospitalisation was common (71.6%). Microbiological confirmation of diagnosis was sought for 87.7% of the cases (91.8% of pulmonary vs. 75.5% of extra-pulmonary cases), and 65.2% were culture-positive (73.8% of pulmonary vs. 39.7% of extra-pulmonary cases). HIV-infected patients were treated in almost equal proportions with three or four drugs (49.7% and 48.2%, respectively), while HIV-negative cases or those whose HIV status was unknown were usually treated with three drugs. The epidemiological pattern of TB in Spain is different to other industrialised countries in the age distribution of cases and the proportions of foreigners and cases with HIV infection. Microbiological confirmation of diagnosis is more common in pulmonary than in extra-pulmonary disease, and treatment with four drugs more frequent in HIV-positive cases.

  1. CyBorD induction therapy in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areethamsirikul, N; Masih-Khan, E; Chu, C-M; Jimenez-Zepeda, V; Reece, D E; Trudel, S; Kukreti, V; Tiedemann, R; Chen, C

    2015-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CyBorD) is a highly active three-drug induction regimen for untreated transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients. Although CyBorD has been evaluated only in the phase 2 setting in a limited number of patients, its high efficacy and ease of administration have led to its widespread use. Given that clinical trial efficacy can overestimate real-life effectiveness, we reviewed our institutional experience with 109 newly diagnosed patients who were treated with CyBorD in a non-clinical trial setting. After a median of four cycles, overall response rate (ORR) and very good partial response rate or better (⩾VGPR) were 95 and 66%, respectively, comparable to phase 2 studies of CyBorD and other three/four-drug induction regimens. All patients subsequently underwent successful stem cell collection and upgraded responses to ORR 98% and ⩾VGPR 79% post transplant. At a median follow-up of 19.8 months after diagnosis, the 2-year OS probability was 95.3% (95%CI: 89-98). The presence of concurrent plasmacytoma at diagnosis was the only prognostic factor predicting poorer survival (HR=5.56; 95%CI: 0.92-33.74; P=0.03). CyBorD was well-tolerated, with no severe peripheral neuropathy and minimal hematologic toxicity. Therefore, CyBorD is a convenient, well-tolerated, highly effective induction regimen in preparation for autologous SCT in real-life clinical practice.

  2. Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement of the familial risk-colorectal cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Mangu, Pamela B; Gruber, Stephen B; Hamilton, Stanley R; Kalady, Matthew F; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J

    2015-01-10

    To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The Familial Risk-Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Patient views about polypharmacy medication review clinics run by clinical pharmacists in GP practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Rosie; Langran, Tim; Donyai, Parastou

    2017-12-01

    Background Polypharmacy can decrease medication adherence and increase the incidence of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions, resulting in falls, hospitalisations and other complications especially in the elderly. Medication-related problems of polypharmacy can be prevented through patient-centred medication reviews but research in this area has been completed largely without examining patients' viewpoints. Objective The aim was to investigate patient views about a clinical pharmacist-led patient-centred polypharmacy medication review service completed within 17 English GP practices with those ≥ 75 years of age and prescribed ≥ 15 medications, during 415 consultations. Method A patient feedback questionnaire was constructed and face validated with two pharmacists then posted by a Clinical Commissioning Group pharmacist to all patients who had taken part in the service. Data from returned questionnaires were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative patient comments were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Of the 166 patients (40% response rate) who returned a feedback questionnaire 83% found the service helpful. Medication-related concerns of 94% who had a concern beforehand were addressed, and 80% understood their medicines better after the review. Patients appreciated pharmacists' personal approach, advice and explanation. Conclusion Patients expressed broadly positive views about polypharmacy reviews by clinical pharmacists within GP practices.

  4. Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

    2006-01-01

    From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing.

  5. Evaluate the ability of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) to improve clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Amini, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of new diseases, medical science promotion and increase of referring to health care centers, provide a good situation for medical errors growth. Errors can involve medicines, surgery, diagnosis, equipment, or lab reports. Medical errors can occur anywhere in the health care system: In hospitals, clinics, surgery centers, doctors' offices, nursing homes, pharmacies, and patients' homes. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), 98,000 people die every year from preventable medical errors. In 2010 from all referred medical error records to Iran Legal Medicine Organization, 46/5% physician and medical team members were known as delinquent. One of new technologies that can reduce medical errors is clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). This study was unsystematic-review study. The literature was searched on evaluate the "ability of clinical decision support systems to improve clinical practice" with the help of library, books, conference proceedings, data bank, and also searches engines available at Google, Google scholar. For our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: medical error, clinical decision support systems, Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support Systems, information technology, information system, health care quality, computer systems in the searching areas of title, keywords, abstract, and full text. In this study, more than 100 articles and reports were collected and 38 of them were selected based on their relevancy. The CDSSs are computer programs, designed for help to health care careers. These systems as a knowledge-based tool could help health care manager in analyze evaluation, improvement and selection of effective solutions in clinical decisions. Therefore, it has a main role in medical errors reduction. The aim of this study was to express ability of the CDSSs to improve

  6. Quality of clinical practice guidelines in delirium: a systematic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shirley H; Marchington, Katie L; Agar, Meera; Davis, Daniel H J; Sikora, Lindsey; Tsang, Tammy W Y

    2017-03-10

    To determine the accessibility and currency of delirium guidelines, guideline summary papers and evaluation studies, and critically appraise guideline quality. Systematic literature search for formal guidelines (in English or French) with focus on delirium assessment and/or management in adults (≥18 years), guideline summary papers and evaluation studies.Full appraisal of delirium guidelines published between 2008 and 2013 and obtaining a 'Rigour of Development' domain screening score cut-off of >40% using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument. Multiple bibliographic databases, guideline organisation databases, complemented by a grey literature search. 3327 database citations and 83 grey literature links were identified. A total of 118 retrieved delirium guidelines and related documents underwent full-text screening. A final 21 delirium guidelines (with 10 being >5 years old), 12 guideline summary papers and 3 evaluation studies were included. For 11 delirium guidelines published between 2008 and 2013, the screening AGREE II 'Rigour' scores ranged from 3% to 91%, with seven meeting the cut-off score of >40%. Overall, the highest rating AGREE II domains were 'Scope and Purpose' (mean 80.1%, range 64-100%) and 'Clarity and Presentation' (mean 76.7%, range 38-97%). The lowest rating domains were 'Applicability' (mean 48.7%, range 8-81%) and 'Editorial Independence' (mean 53%, range 2-90%). The three highest rating guidelines in the 'Applicability' domain incorporated monitoring criteria or audit and costing templates, and/or implementation strategies. Delirium guidelines are best sourced by a systematic grey literature search. Delirium guideline quality varied across all six AGREE II domains, demonstrating the importance of using a formal appraisal tool prior to guideline adaptation and implementation into clinical settings. Adding more knowledge translation resources to guidelines may improve their practical application

  7. Building the Clinical Bridge to Advance Education, Research, and Practice Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Svejda, Marilyn; Goldberg, Janet; Belden, Maureen; Potempa, Kathleen; Calarco, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The University of Michigan School of Nursing and the Health System partnered to develop an undergraduate clinical education model as part of a larger project to advance clinical education, practice, and scholarship with education serving as the clinical bridge that anchors all three areas. The clinical model includes clusters of clinical units as the clinical home for four years of a student's education, clinical instruction through team mentorship, clinical immersion, special skills preparat...

  8. Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnostic Testing for Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Vishesh K; Auckley, Dennis H; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Kuhlmann, David C; Mehra, Reena; Ramar, Kannan; Harrod, Christopher G

    2017-03-15

    This guideline establishes clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults and is intended for use in conjunction with other American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in adults. The AASM commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use. In addition, the task force adopted foundational recommendations from prior guidelines as "good practice statements", that establish the basis for appropriate and effective diagnosis of OSA. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final recommendations. The following recommendations are intended as a guide for clinicians diagnosing OSA in adults. Under GRADE, a STRONG recommendation is one that clinicians should follow under most circumstances. A WEAK recommendation reflects a lower degree of certainty regarding the outcome and appropriateness of the patient-care strategy for all patients. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. Good Practice Statements: Diagnostic testing for OSA should be performed in conjunction with a comprehensive sleep evaluation and adequate follow-up. Polysomnography is the standard diagnostic test for the diagnosis of OSA in adult patients in whom there is a concern for OSA based on a comprehensive sleep evaluation.Recommendations: We recommend that clinical tools, questionnaires and prediction algorithms not be used to diagnose OSA in

  9. Nickel-titanium rotary instrument fracture: a clinical practice assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, P M; Genov, K A; Komaroff, E; Li, Y; Lin, L

    2006-09-01

    To prospectively determine the incidence of nickel-titanium rotary instrument fracture in an endodontic clinical practice setting. Eleven second year endodontic residents, using four nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems (ProFile, ProTaper, GTRotary and K3Endo) according to the recommendations of the manufacturers, instrumented 3181 canals in 1403 teeth of 1235 patients, in a dental school post-graduate endodontic clinic, in 1 year. The incidence of instrument fracture was determined based on the number of instruments used. When fracture occurred, data were collected concerning the type, size, taper and prior use of the fractured instruments, the length and location of the fragment within the root canal and the curvature of the canal. The overall incidence of instrument fracture was 0.39%. The incidence of fracture for ProFile, ProTaper, GTRotary and K3Endo files was 0.28%, 0.41%, 0.39% and 0.52%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between instrument systems. The percentage of teeth in which instruments fractured was 1.9% (0.28% for anterior teeth, 1.56% for pre-molars and 2.74% for molars). A total of 26 instruments fractured, of which 23 had tapers of 0.06 or greater. Most of the fragments were located in the apical third of the root canal, and both the median and mode amongst the fragment lengths were 2 mm. The low incidence of nickel-titanium rotary instrument fracture supports the continued use of these instruments in root canal treatment.

  10. Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olla Wasfi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs.A pilot study was carried out distributing a comprehensive survey to a local group of pharmacists practicing in a variety of settings including: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

  11. Prioritization strategies in clinical practice guidelines development: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marcela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few methodological studies address the prioritization of clinical topics for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for Priority Determination of Topics (PDT of CPGs. Methods and results Firstly, we developed an instrument for PDT with 41 criteria that were grouped under 10 domains, based on a comprehensive systematic search. Secondly, we performed a survey of stakeholders involved in CPGs development, and end users of guidelines, using the instrument. Thirdly, a pilot testing of the PDT procedure was performed in order to choose 10 guideline topics among 34 proposed projects; using a multi-criteria analysis approach, we validated a mechanism that followed five stages: determination of the composition of groups, item/domain scoring, weights determination, quality of the information used to support judgments, and finally, topic selection. Participants first scored the importance of each domain, after which four different weighting procedures were calculated (including the survey results. The process of weighting was determined by correlating the data between them. We also reported the quality of evidence used for PDT. Finally, we provided a qualitative analysis of the process. The main domains used to support judgement, having higher quality scores and weightings, were feasibility, disease burden, implementation and information needs. Other important domains such as user preferences, adverse events, potential for health promotion, social effects, and economic impact had lower relevance for clinicians. Criteria for prioritization were mainly judged through professional experience, while good quality information was only used in 15% of cases. Conclusion The main advantages of the proposed methodology are supported by the use of a systematic approach to identify, score and weight guideline topics selection, limiting or exposing the influence of personal biases

  12. Clinical practice guideline adherence during Operation Inherent Resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Timothy P; Cherry, Darren C; Delk, Gerald; Satterly, Steven; Theler, Jared; McVay, Derek; Moore, Jacqueline; Shackelford, Stacy A

    2017-07-01

    The Joint Trauma System (JTS) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contributed to the decrease in battlefield mortality over the past 15 years. However, it is unknown to what degree the guidelines are being followed in current military operations. A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated at three separate US Army Role II facilities during the first 10 months of Operation Inherent Resolve in Iraq. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, clinical care, and outcomes. Charts were also reviewed for compliance with JTS CPGs and Tactical Combat Casualty Care recommendations. A total of 114 trauma patients were treated during the time period. The mean age was 26.9 ± 10.1 years, 90% were males, and 96% were host nation patients. The most common mechanisms of injury were blast (49%) and gunshot (42%). Records were compliant with documenting a complete set of vitals in 58% and a pain score in 50% of patients. Recommendations for treatment of hypothermia were followed for 97% of patients. Tranexamic acid was given outside guidelines for 6% of patients, and for 40%, it was not determined if the guidelines were followed. Recommendations for initial resuscitative fluid were followed for 41% of patients. Recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis were followed for 40% of intra-abdominal and 73% of soft tissue injuries. Recommendations for tetanus prophylaxis were followed for 90% of patients. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis was given to 32% of patients and contraindicated in 27%. The recommended transfusion ratio was followed for 56% of massive transfusion patients. Recommendations for calcium administration were followed for 40% of patients. When composite scores were created for individual surgeons, there was significant variability between surgeons with regard to adherence to guidelines. There is significant deviation in the adherence to the CPGs. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  13. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  14. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Stephanie J B; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Verhey, Frans; Aalten, Pauline; Knol, Dirk; Ramakers, Inez; Scheltens, Philip; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Verbeek, Marcel M; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in a memory clinic population (n = 126). Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal) of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  15. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement of the Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H.; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. Results The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Recommendations Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. PMID:25452455

  16. European Good Laboratory and Clinical Practices: their relevance to clinical pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, N J

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Good Laboratory (GLP) and Good Clinical Practices (CGP) were established as a matter of urgency by the United States in the early 1970s. These were in response to gross misconduct and, in many instances, fraud. Over the next 15 years, a plethora of regulatory principles, guidelines, and regulations was produced by many countries of the world, culminating in single standards for European, Japanese, and United States authorities. Although with regard to GLP this has basically become a worldwide recognized standard within the preclinical (toxicology) studies, in the veterinary, chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the GCPs are now seeing a rebirth. Within a clinical trials environment, there is most certainly a requirement for compliance with GCP, especially with regard to the harmonization of data within the European Community. The goal of this article is to cover the following aspects: Why should we have good practices? Why should laboratory data be audited? Why is there a need for a QA unit or function? What is the QA operational approach? How does a laboratory audit take place within laboratories? In discussing the laboratories and their subsequent data audits, the pitfalls and benefits are addressed and an examination of the data from the sponsor's viewpoint is compared with that produced by the laboratory. The types of laboratories present in a clinical environment are examined. They obviously comprise clinical pathology, microbiology, and analytical as well as ancillary hospital areas such as X-ray and cardiology. These laboratories may also be in the private sector, the National Health Service, contract laboratories, universities, or the general practitioner population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring: gaps between clinical guidelines and clinical practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Subramaniam, Kannan; Teo, Boon Wee; Tay, Jam Chin

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurements (home blood pressure monitoring [HBPM] and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [ABPM]) provide important additional information for effective hypertension detection and management decisions. Therefore, out-of-office BP measurement is now recommended by several international guidelines. This study evaluated the practice and uptake of HBPM and ABPM among physicians from Singapore. A sample of physicians from Singapore was surveyed between 8 September and 5 October 2016. Those included were in public or private practice had been practicing for ≥3 years, directly cared for patients ≥70% of the time, and treated ≥30 patients for hypertension per month. The questionnaire covered six main categories: general BP management, BP variability (BPV) awareness/diagnosis, HBPM, ABPM, BPV management, and associated training needs. Sixty physicians (30 general practitioners, 20 cardiologists, and 10 nephrologists) were included (77% male, 85% aged 31-60 years, and mean 22-year practice). Physicians recommended HBPM and ABPM to 81% and 27% of hypertensive patients, respectively. HBPM was most often used to monitor antihypertensive therapy (88% of physicians) and 97% thought that ABPM was useful for providing information on BPV. HBPM instructions often differed from current guideline recommendations in terms of frequency, number of measurements, and timing. The proportion of consultation time devoted to discussing HBPM and BPV was one-quarter or less for 73% of physicians, and only 55% said that they had the ability to provide education on HBPM and BPV. Patient inertia, poor patient compliance, lack of medical consultation time, and poor patient access to a BP machine were the most common challenges for implementing out-of-office BP monitoring. Although physicians from Singapore do recommend out-of-office BP measurement to patients with hypertension, this survey identified several important gaps in knowledge and clinical practice.

  18. Automating clinical practice guidelines: a corporate-academic partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R C; Moser, S A; Jamieson, P W; Margulies, D M; Smith, J A; McDonald, J M

    1996-01-01

    Implementation of guidelines offers one of the largest opportunities for quality improvement, utilization review, and cost control for the health-care enterprise. If guidelines could be implemented on a large scale, their adoption could result in $100 billion in annual savings as well as improve the quality of patient care. However, infrastructural barriers impede progress. Collaboration between the Laboratory Medicine Health Services Program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and the Cerner Corporation, funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Advanced Technology Program involving ¿Information Infrastructure for Healthcare,¿ is focused on developing and delivering: 1) methods for creating operational forms of guidelines; 2) an effective computer-based architecture for implementing guidelines in clinical practice; 3) methods for packaging guidelines for wide distribution; 4) methods for testing the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of guidelines; and 5) a model for collecting, aggregating, and normalizing data from disparate systems. This hypothesis-driven research program is focused on laboratory medicine-based guidelines as a tool for developing, testing, and evaluating methods that can be implemented widely.

  19. Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines: Otitis Media in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Su-Kyoung; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Su Eun; Chun, Young Myung; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Park, Shi-Nae; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) are common infections in children, and their diagnosis and treatment have significant impacts on the health of children and the costs of providing national medical care. In 2009, the Korean Otologic Society organized a committee composed of experts in the field of otolaryngology, pediatrics, and family medicine to develop Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for otitis media in children with the goal of meeting regional medical and social needs in Korea. For this purpose, the committee adapted existing guidelines. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2004 to 2009 using medical search engines including data from Korea. A draft was written after a national questionnaire survey and several public audits, and it was editorially supervised by senior advisors before publication of the final report. These evidence-based guidelines for the management of otitis media in children provide recommendations to primary practitioners for the diagnosis and treatment of children younger than 15 yr old with uncomplicated AOM and OME. The guidelines include recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment options, prevention and parent education, medical records, referral, and complementary/alternative medicine for treating pediatric otitis media. PMID:22876048

  20. Application of digital radiography for measuring in clinical dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dragan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The recent literature data points out a rising application of digital radiography - radiovisiography (RVG - in dental clinical practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to apply and compare RVG with the conventional radiographic technique (CRDG in terms of accuracy in linear measurement in dentistry. Methods. Measurements were done on the mandibular dogs teeth considering incisors crown width and height of the surrounding alveolar bone using RVG and CRDG. The control technique (CONT involved values obtained by direct gauging in dogs mouth. Each measuring was done by two examiners. Results. Considering the incisors’ crown width, there were no significant statistical difference in measurement using CRDG, RVG and CONT technique (p>0.01. Concerning the alveolar height gauging there were no significant difference in recorded values between the two radiographic techniques (p>0.01. The high level of inter-examiner agreement was observed for scoring in all techniques (CRDG, RVG and CONT. Conclusion. Although RVG did not expose more accuracy comparing to CRDG, having opulent tool service the first technique contributed more comfortable work during measuring procedures in this study.

  1. Clinical applications of laser therapy on the dental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2004-09-01

    Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.

  2. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  3. Enteral nutrition and cardiovascular failure: from myths to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Chiolero, René L

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular failure and low flow states may arise in very different conditions from both cardiac and noncardiac causes. Systemic hemodynamic failure inevitably alters splanchnic blood flow but in an unpredictable way. Prolonged low splanchnic blood flow causes intestinal ischemia, increased mucosal permeability, endotoxemia, and distant organ failure. Mortality associated with intestinal ischemia is high. Why would enteral nutrition (EN) be desirable in these complex patients when parenteral nutrition could easily cover energy and substrate requirements? Metabolic, immune, and practical reasons justify the use of EN. In addition, continuous enteral feeding minimizes systemic and myocardial oxygen consumption in patients with congestive heart failure. Further, early feeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients has been shown to reduce mortality, particularly in the sickest patients. In a series of cardiac surgery patients with compromised hemodynamics, absorption has been maintained, and 1000-1200 kcal/d could be delivered by enteral feeding. Therefore, early EN in stabilized patients should be attempted, and can be carried out safely under close clinical monitoring, looking for signs of incipient intestinal ischemia. Energy delivery and balance should be monitored, and combined feeding considered when enteral feeds cannot be advanced to target within 4-6 days.

  4. Bruxism and TMD disorders of everyday dental clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Popovska, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Bruxism, as an etiological factor for the development of TMD, includes different disorders of the TMJ and the masticatory muscles, exhibiting pain and disruption of the stomatognathic functions. Our goal was to study patients with bruxism and TMD from everyday dental clinical practice, in terms of diagnosis, identification of etiological factors, classification and treatment of these disorders. We treated 120 patients, divided into 2 groups of 60 patients. The first group had disorders of the TMJ, and the second of the masticatory muscles. The groups were divided into subgroups of 20 patients with dislocation of the articular disk with or without reduction and inflammation of TMJ. The second group was organized from patients with myofascial pain, myositis and muscular trismus. Our conservative treatment consisted of patient education, NSAID, myorelaxants, fabrication of prosthetics, repositioning and stabilization splints. The progress of the patients was followed immediately after the delivery of the prosthetics and the splint, after 1, 6 and 12 months. The results showed that in patients with disorders of the TMJ there were visible signs of recovery after 6 months in 68.3% patients, and in 85% after 12 months. In the second group we achieved faster results with the elimination of symptoms. Patients with afflictions of the muscles in 88.3% of cases noticed relief of symptoms even after 6 months and in 98.3% after 12 months. As therapists we concluded that timely treated complications of bruxism and TMD prevent the destruction of the TMJ, masticatory muscles and the entire stomatognatic system.

  5. Validity of ABCD Rule of Dermoscopy in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnlide, Ingela; Bjellerup, Mats; Nilsson, Fredrik; Nielsen, Kari

    2016-03-01

    The ABCD rule of dermoscopy was developed to facilitate the dermoscopic differentiation between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. However, there is a lack of studies on its validity in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the algorithm used bedside, compared with the accuracy of the preliminary preoperative diagnosis, and to rate physicians' level of confidence in the diagnosis. Melanocytic tumours were preoperatively scored bedside, according to the ABCD algorithm; 309 cases (46 melanomas and 263 naevi) were included. A sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 45% were found for the ABCD algorithm. A comparable sensitivity (74%), but a significantly higher specificity (91%), was found for the preliminary diagnosis. Interestingly, there was a considerable percentage (19.6%) of early melanomas for which a malignant diagnosis was not preoperatively expected, indicating that it is important to maintain generous indications for excision or to practise short-term follow-up of ambiguous lesions in order to detect early melanomas.

  6. [Use of antihistamines in a physician's clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luss, L V

    2014-01-01

    Histamine that belongs to one of the most important mediators involved in the regulation of the body's vital functions plays a great role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Histamine is released during inflammatory and allergic reactions, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid shock, pseudoallergic reactions, and others. Acting through histamine receptors, it leads to increased intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, enhanced chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils, production of prostaglandins and thromboxane B, suppressed synthesis of lymphokines, etc. and causes contraction of smooth muscles of particularly the bronchi and intestine, dilation of vessels and their increased permeability, mucus hypersecretion in the upper airways, lower blood pressure, angioedema and itch, etc. In this connection, antihistamines that block histamine-induced reactions in various ways: by inhibiting its biosynthesis, enhancing its neutralization, blocking the access to receptors, and suppressing the release from mast cells, occupy a prominent place in clinical practice. The review covers the classification, main mechanisms of pharmacological action, and indications for the use of antihistamines that not only have the well-known antihistamine properties, but have also a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity. There are data on the benefits of a group of antihistamines, the quinuclidine derivatives (quifenadine, sequifenadine) that were designed by Academician M.D. Mashkovsky and are one of the first examples of designing new classes of multifunctional non-sedating antihistamines, which combines a high selective activity to block histamine type 1 receptors and an ability to block serotonin and to break down histamine directly in tissues.

  7. How to calibrate Grenz-beams in clinical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeken, B. [Algemeen Ziekenhius Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium); Bressers, E. [Virga jesse Ziekenhius, Hasselt (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, considerable efforts have been spent improving the precision and consistency in the whole process of calibration of high energy photon and electron beams (national protocols, primary calibration facilities ....). The reading in air of 5 different ionisation chambers (NE2532, NE2536, NE2571, PTWM23342, Markus) in an X-ray beam (RT50, HVL=0.35 mm Al) has been compared. Ali NE chambers were provided with a calibration factor Nk, the PTW chamber was directly calibrated in dose water ND,W. The polarisation and recombination effects were measured. In our reference field (ssd=4cm, field diameter 40 mm), the readings in air for the dedicated plan parallel chambers deviated by not more than 8%. The measurements with the NE2571 chamber did not correspond very well with the other measurements. For the equipment in our hospital, the dose rate in air for the reference field was measured from 1971 on and found to be very stable: 17.36 Gy/min (0.48) (1sd). An attempt was made to measure the BSF for the field defining cones used in clinical practice using a Markus plane parallel chamber, but the resulting BSF did not correspond to those reported in BJR/suppl. 17. Special attention has been be paid to the calibration of beams with field size comparable to the dimension of the chamber window- chamber body.

  8. Clinical roles in clinical biochemistry: a national survey of practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sirazum M; Williams, Emma L; Barnes, Sophie C; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Tan, Tricia M; Cegla, Jaimini

    2017-05-01

    Background Using an online survey, we collected data to present a picture of how clinical authorization is performed in the UK. Methods A 21-question survey was uploaded to www.surveymonkey.com , and responses were invited via the mail base of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The questionnaire examined the intensity and function of the duty biochemist role and how different types of authorization are used to handle and release results. Results Of 70 responses received, 60 were suitable for analysis. Responses were received from every region of the UK. A typical duty biochemist shift started on average at 8:50, and finished at 17:25. The mean duration was 8 h 58 min. Clinical scientists are the most abundantly represented group on duty biochemist rotas. Higher banded clinical scientists and chemical pathologists covered out-of-hours shifts. Results were handled differently depending on the level of abnormality and the requesting area. Normal results tended to be released either directly from the analyser or after technical then autoauthorization (90%). A greater preference for clinical authorization was seen for abnormal and critical results originating from outpatients (49% and 69%, respectively) or general practice (51% and 71%) than for inpatients (33% and 53%) or A&E (25% and 37%). Conclusions The handling and authorization of biochemistry results varies greatly between laboratories. The role is clearly heterogeneous in the UK. Guidance from the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Royal College of Pathologists may help to clarify the essential roles of the duty biochemist.

  9. Clinical registered dietitians, employers, and educators are interested in advanced practice education and professional doctorate degrees in clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Annalynn; Lewis, Nancy M

    2006-12-01

    A subset of registered dietitians (RDs) is known to practice at an advanced level, but a clear educational pathway supporting advanced medical nutrition therapy practice has not been identified. Thus, an electronic survey was designed to investigate interest of clinical RDs, employers, and educators in advanced practice competencies and professional doctorate degree programs in clinical nutrition. Usable responses were obtained from 440 of 978 (45%) RDs, 61 of 107 (57%) employers, and 76 of 114 (67%) educators. Mean interest (5 = very interested, 1 = very uninterested) in obtaining advanced practice education was highest among RDs (3.93+/-1.01) and was significantly different (P clinical nutrition was significantly (P clinical nutrition was 4.02+/-0.93. A subset of clinical RDs appears to be interested in obtaining advanced practice competency and enrolling in professional doctorate degrees in clinical nutrition. Clinical nutrition managers in academic medical centers may be interested in hiring advanced practice clinical RDs with professional doctorate degrees. Opportunities exist for educators to develop advanced practice educational experiences and professional doctorate degree programs.

  10. Psychologists' Clinical Practices in Assessing Dementia in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Ellen; Scior, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    There are now ample guidelines for the assessment and diagnosis of possible dementia in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and Down syndrome. However, little is known about their implementation in clinical practice. This study set out to examine the clinical practice of one key professional group, namely clinical psychologists. A…

  11. Designing an automated clinical decision support system to match clinical practice guidelines for opioid therapy for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Michael E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid prescribing for chronic pain is common and controversial, but recommended clinical practices are followed inconsistently in many clinical settings. Strategies for increasing adherence to clinical practice guideline recommendations are needed to increase effectiveness and reduce negative consequences of opioid prescribing in chronic pain patients. Methods Here we describe the process and outcomes of a project to operationalize the 2003 VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Opioid Therapy for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain into a computerized decision support system (DSS to encourage good opioid prescribing practices during primary care visits. We based the DSS on the existing ATHENA-DSS. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision of the DSS by a diverse team including guideline authors, medical informatics experts, clinical content experts, and end-users to convert the written clinical practice guideline into a computable algorithm to generate patient-specific recommendations for care based upon existing information in the electronic medical record (EMR, and a set of clinical tools. Results The iterative revision process identified numerous and varied problems with the initially designed system despite diverse expert participation in the design process. The process of operationalizing the guideline identified areas in which the guideline was vague, left decisions to clinical judgment, or required clarification of detail to insure safe clinical implementation. The revisions led to workable solutions to problems, defined the limits of the DSS and its utility in clinical practice, improved integration into clinical workflow, and improved the clarity and accuracy of system recommendations and tools. Conclusions Use of this iterative process led to development of a multifunctional DSS that met the approval of the clinical practice guideline authors, content experts, and clinicians involved in testing. The

  12. Designing an automated clinical decision support system to match clinical practice guidelines for opioid therapy for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Martins, Susana B; Michel, Martha C; Wang, Dan; Tu, Samson W; Clark, David J; Elliott, Jan; Vucic, Brigit; Balt, Steve; Clark, Michael E; Sintek, Charles D; Rosenberg, Jack; Daniels, Denise; Goldstein, Mary K

    2010-04-12

    Opioid prescribing for chronic pain is common and controversial, but recommended clinical practices are followed inconsistently in many clinical settings. Strategies for increasing adherence to clinical practice guideline recommendations are needed to increase effectiveness and reduce negative consequences of opioid prescribing in chronic pain patients. Here we describe the process and outcomes of a project to operationalize the 2003 VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Opioid Therapy for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain into a computerized decision support system (DSS) to encourage good opioid prescribing practices during primary care visits. We based the DSS on the existing ATHENA-DSS. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision of the DSS by a diverse team including guideline authors, medical informatics experts, clinical content experts, and end-users to convert the written clinical practice guideline into a computable algorithm to generate patient-specific recommendations for care based upon existing information in the electronic medical record (EMR), and a set of clinical tools. The iterative revision process identified numerous and varied problems with the initially designed system despite diverse expert participation in the design process. The process of operationalizing the guideline identified areas in which the guideline was vague, left decisions to clinical judgment, or required clarification of detail to insure safe clinical implementation. The revisions led to workable solutions to problems, defined the limits of the DSS and its utility in clinical practice, improved integration into clinical workflow, and improved the clarity and accuracy of system recommendations and tools. Use of this iterative process led to development of a multifunctional DSS that met the approval of the clinical practice guideline authors, content experts, and clinicians involved in testing. The process and experiences described provide a model for development of

  13. Clinical Experience in Advanced Practice Nursing: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    The role of advanced practice (AP) nurses must be clearly articulated and defined and not overshadowed by medical functions. Consensus on their educational preparation and explication of the nature of expertise in advanced practice are needed if AP nurses are to realize the full scope of their practice. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  14. LEARNING MODEL OF HOSPITAL CLINICAL PRACTICE FROM STUDENT AND CLINICAL EDUCATOR POINT OF VIEW: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Kamaryanti

    2017-08-01

    Results: Findings indicated that there were five themes related to student and clinical instructor’s experience and expectation about practices learning model. The themes were supporting from institution and clinic, bed side teaching (BST, conference, lack of time of clinical instructor in supervising, and case study. BST, conference, and case study were some of learning models implemented in clinical practices. These methods will run properly if there are good supporting and optimal supervising.  Conclusion and Recommendation: BST, conference, and case study are appropriate methods for clinical teaching. Lack of time in supervising is one of barriers found. It is essential for clinical instructors to spend sufficient time to supervise students in clinical practice.

  15. Measurement of adherence to clinical practice guidelines for opioid therapy for chronic pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Midboe, Amanda M; Lewis, Eleanor T; Paik, Meenah C; Gallagher, Rollin M; Rosenberg, Jack M; Goodman, Francine; Kerns, Robert D; Becker, William C; Trafton, Jodie A

    .... Here, we outline administrative data-based metrics that are intended to assess adherence to key practices outlined in the 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense Clinical Practice...

  16. A parallel guideline development and formalization strategy to improve the quality of clinical practice guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, Rick; Hasman, Arie; Strijbis, Anne-Margreet; Peek, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical practice guidelines often contain ambiguities, inconsistencies, and logical errors that hamper implementation of these guidelines in practice. As guideline formalization is useful to verify the logical structure, consistency, and completeness of guidelines, several authors have

  17. Supporting clinical practice at the bedside using wireless technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Michael J; Meurer, David P; Colman, Ian; Holroyd, Brian R; Rowe, Brian H

    2004-11-01

    Despite studies that show improvements in both standards of care and outcomes with the judicious application of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), their clinical utilization remains low. This randomized controlled trial examined the use of a wirelessly networked mobile computer (MC) by physicians at the bedside with access to an emergency department information system, decision support tools (DSTs), and other software options. Each of ten volunteer emergency physicians was randomized using a matched-pair design to work five shifts in standard fashion (desktop computer [DC] access) and five shifts with a wirelessly networked MC. Work pattern issues and electronic CPG/DST use were compared using end-of-shift satisfaction questionnaires and review of a CPG/DST database. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine between-shift differences. A total of 100 eight-hour shifts were evaluated; 99% compliance with postshift questionnaires was achieved. Using a seven-point Likert scale (MC values first), MCs were rated as being as fast (5.04 vs. 4.54; p=0.13) and convenient (5.08 vs. 4.14; p=0.07) as DCs. Overall, physicians rated MCs to be less efficient (3.18 vs. 4.30; p=0.02) but encouraged more frequent use of DSTs (4.10 vs. 3.47; p=0.03) without impacting doctor-patient communication (2.78 vs. 2.96; p=0.51). During the study period, physician use of an intranet Web application (eCPG) was more frequent during shifts assigned to the MC when compared with the DC (eCPG uses/shift, 3.6 vs. 2.0; p=0.033). The MC technology permitted physicians to access information at the bedside and increased the use of CPG/DST tools. According to physicians, patients appeared to accept their use of information technology to assist in decision making. Development of improved computer technology may address the major limitation of MC portability.

  18. Development of a theoretical-practical script for clinical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Renata Paula; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Fonseca, Ariadne da Silva; Pedersoli, César Eduardo; Miranda, Fernanda Berchelli Girão; Fumincelli, Laís; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão

    2017-04-10

    To develop a theoretical-practical script based on the opinion of experts to be used in simulated clinical activities. Qualitative study through analysis of content of interviews with experts on the theme in order to develop the proposed script. Of the 24 invited experts, 12 specialists from educational institutions in Brazil and abroad participated in the study in compliance with the ethical precepts. The experts responded to questions on the characterization of their study attributes and described the items required for the development of a simulated scenario. In view of the responses obtained, data content was analyzed and classified into units and subunits of significance. The items mentioned for the development of the script generated seven units of significance. The units and subunits of significance were gathered in three stages of the main components of the simulated scenario: prior, preparation, and finals. This study enables an innovative, stimulating teaching experience, making it easier for professors to use the simulation resource as a learning process in an effective and objective manner, as a guide to professors and researchers in the area of clinical simulation. Construir, com base na opinião de peritos, roteiro teórico-prático para uso em atividade clínica simulada. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo por meio de análise de conteúdo de entrevistas de peritos no assunto para construção do roteiro proposto. Seguido os preceitos éticos, entre os 24 peritos convidados pertencentes a instituições de ensino do Brasil e do exterior. Os peritos responderam a questões sobre a caracterização dos seus atributos de estudo e descreveram os itens imprescindíveis à construção de um cenário simulado. Diante das respostas obtidas, os dados foram analisados em relação ao seu conteúdo e organizados em unidades e subunidades de significância. Participaram 12 especialistas. Os itens mencionados para construção do roteiro originaram sete unidades

  19. Clinical Skills for Nursing Practice Moore Tina and Cunningham Sheila (Eds) Clinical Skills for Nursing Practice 596pp £39.99 Routledge 9780273767947 0273767941 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Drawing on the evidence base on the core clinical skills and competencies required by newly qualified nurses, this comprehensive text provides useful learning outcomes, activities to encourage reflection, and top tips to expand readers' knowledge and practice.

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa E; Tollefson, Travis T; Basura, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Abramson, Peter J; Chaiet, Scott R; Davis, Kara S; Doghramji, Karl; Farrior, Edward H; Finestone, Sandra A; Ishman, Stacey L; Murphy, Robert X; Park, John G; Setzen, Michael; Strike, Deborah J; Walsh, Sandra A; Warner, Jeremy P; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2017-02-01

    Objective Rhinoplasty, a surgical procedure that alters the shape or appearance of the nose while preserving or enhancing the nasal airway, ranks among the most commonly performed cosmetic procedures in the United States, with >200,000 procedures reported in 2014. While it is difficult to calculate the exact economic burden incurred by rhinoplasty patients following surgery with or without complications, the average rhinoplasty procedure typically exceeds $4000. The costs incurred due to complications, infections, or revision surgery may include the cost of long-term antibiotics, hospitalization, or lost revenue from hours/days of missed work. The resultant psychological impact of rhinoplasty can also be significant. Furthermore, the health care burden from psychological pressures of nasal deformities/aesthetic shortcomings, surgical infections, surgical pain, side effects from antibiotics, and nasal packing materials must also be considered for these patients. Prior to this guideline, limited literature existed on standard care considerations for pre- and postsurgical management and for standard surgical practice to ensure optimal outcomes for patients undergoing rhinoplasty. The impetus for this guideline is to utilize current evidence-based medicine practices and data to build unanimity regarding the peri- and postoperative strategies to maximize patient safety and to optimize surgical results for patients. Purpose The primary purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians who either perform rhinoplasty or are involved in the care of a rhinoplasty candidate, as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The target audience is any clinician or individual, in any setting, involved in the management of these patients. The target patient population is all patients aged ≥15 years. The guideline is intended to focus on knowledge gaps, practice

  1. Appraisal tools for clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Siering

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools. METHODS: Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items. RESULTS: We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions "evaluation of evidence" (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%, "presentation of guideline content" (34 tools; 85%, "transferability" (33 tools; 83%, "independence" (32 tools; 80%, "scope" (30 tools; 75%, and "information retrieval" (29 tools; 73%. The quality dimensions "consideration of different perspectives" and "dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline" were covered by only twenty (50% and eighteen tools (45% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are currently

  2. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroto; Kusano, Motoyasu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Joh, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Nakada, Koji; Nagahara, Akihito; Futagami, Seiji; Manabe, Noriaki; Inui, Akio; Haruma, Ken; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Yakabi, Koji; Hongo, Michio; Uemura, Naomi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-02-01

    General interest in functional gastrointestinal disorders is increasing among Japanese doctors as well as patients. This increase can be attributed to a number of factors, including recent increased interest in quality of life and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disease. Japan recently became the world's first country to list "functional dyspepsia" as a disease name for national insurance billing purposes. However, recognition and understanding of functional dyspepsia (FD) remain poor, and no standard treatment strategy has yet been established. Accordingly, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) developed an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for FD, consisting of five sections: concept, definition, and epidemiology; pathophysiology; diagnosis; treatment; and prognosis and complications. This article summarizes the Japanese guideline, with particular focus on the treatment section. Once a patient is diagnosed with FD, the doctor should carefully explain the pathophysiology and benign nature of this condition, establish a good doctor-patient relationship, and then provide advice for daily living (diet and lifestyle modifications, explanations, and reassurance). The proposed pharmacological treatment is divided into two steps: initial treatment including an acid inhibitory drug (H2RA or PPI) or prokinetics, (strong recommendation); second-line treatment including anxiolytics, antidepressants, and Japanese traditional medicine (weak recommendation). H. pylori eradication, strongly recommended with a high evidence level, is positioned separately from other treatment flows. Conditions that do not respond to these treatment regimens are regarded as refractory FD. Patients will be further examined for other organic disorders or will be referred to specialists using other approaches such as psychosomatic treatment.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, Robert [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France)], E-mail: cab.lav@wanadoo.fr; Cabee, Anne-Elizabeth [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); Centre RMX, 80, avenue Felix Faure, 75105 Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); American Hospital of Paris, Nuclear Medicine, 63, boulevard Victor Hugo - BP 109, 92202 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005].

  4. TREATMENT ADHERENCE IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOPOROSIS IN DAILY CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Toroptsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the frequency of use of antiosteoporotic drugs in daily clinical practice and treatment adherence in patients. Subjects and methods. Questionnaires were used to interview two patient groups: 1 198 women with osteoporosis (OP with duration ≥3 years; 2 186 women over 50 years of age who had sustained low-trauma fractures (LTF at different sites and undergone assessments of therapy prescription and adherence 12 and 18 months after fracture. Results. In Group 1 patients with OP, 16, 24, and 38% of the women took antiosteoporotic treatment for >3, 2-3, and 6 months to 1 year, respectively; and 22% did not start pathogenetic therapy. Treatment adherence was significantly higher among those who were followed at the specialized OP Center. In Group 2, 56% of the patients had received therapy following LTF and 44% had not, which was due to the absence of primary care physicians' recommendations in half of the cases. 24% were treated after LTF within the first year and only 19% of the women were at 18 months. Treatment was recommended by the specialists of the OP Center in 89% of the cases and by primary care physicians in 11%. Within a year, repeated fracture occurred in 9% of the patients; among them none received pathogenetic treat- ment. A questionnaire survey of the patients indicated that they preferred to use drugs more rarely rather than every day. At the same time no advantages of any one route of drug administration were found. Conclusion. There is a low frequency of using pathogenetic treatment in patients with OP, particularly in those who are followed up in the district outpatient departments, which is due to both the absence of physicians' prescription of antiosteoporotic drugs and inadequate treatment adherence in patients. Both patient motivation to long-term treat- ment and OP education programs among primary care physicians are needed to improve the quality of medical care to osteoporotic patients. 

  5. Transferability of clinical skills acquired on simulator to real life clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigbede, A O; Denloye, Obafunke O; Dosumu, Oyekunle O

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between performances of students in clinical skills laboratory and real life clinical practice and to determine the experiences and views of instructors as it relates to teaching in skills laboratory. The performances of two randomly selected sets of graduates in the operative examinations conducted in skills laboratory were compared with the performances of the same sets of graduates in the operative examinations conducted on life patients two years later using Spearman's rank test. Experiences and views of two teachers from each of the six dental schools in southern Nigeria as it relates to teaching in clinical skills laboratory were obtained using a structured questionnaire. There was an insignificant correlation between the outcomes at both examinations (p value was 0.18). Most of the respondents (62.5%) agreed that teaching in skills laboratory was tiresome and most (75.0%) strongly agreed that the number of students constitutes a serious challenge to learning. Most of the respondents regarded their role in skills laboratory as that of an expert as against that of a facilitator. There was a weak correlation between performances in skills laboratory and real life environment. Students' number appears to make teaching in skills laboratory unpleasant and teachers had a wrong perception of their role.

  6. Evidence based practice in clinical physiotherapy education: a qualitative interpretive description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Nina R; Bradley, Peter; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nortvedt, Monica W

    2013-01-01

    .... Few studies have explored reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore beliefs, experiences and attitudes related to third year students' use of evidence-based practice in clinical physiotherapy education among students, clinical...

  7. Clinical practice guideline implementation strategy patterns in Veterans Affairs primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2007-02-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mandated the system-wide implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the mid-1990s, arming all facilities with basic resources to facilitate implementation; despite this resource allocation, significant variability still exists across VA facilities in implementation success. This study compares CPG implementation strategy patterns used by high and low performing primary care clinics in the VA. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low performance on six CPGs. One hundred and two employees (management, quality improvement, clinic personnel) involved with guideline implementation at each VAMC primary care clinic. MEASURES; Participants reported specific strategies used by their facility to implement guidelines in 1-hour semi-structured interviews. Facilities were classified as high or low performers based on their guideline adherence scores calculated through independently conducted chart reviews. High performing facilities (HPFs) (a) invested significantly in the implementation of the electronic medical record and locally adapting it to provider needs, (b) invested dedicated resources to guideline-related initiatives, and (c) exhibited a clear direction in their strategy choices. Low performing facilities exhibited (a) earlier stages of development for their electronic medical record, (b) reliance on preexisting resources for guideline implementation, with little local adaptation, and (c) no clear direction in their strategy choices. A multifaceted, yet targeted, strategic approach to guideline implementation emphasizing dedicated resources and local adaptation may result in more successful implementation and higher guideline adherence than relying on standardized resources and taxing preexisting channels.

  8. Role modeling in clinical practice: A whirlpool around master and apprentice in lifestyle interventions for obesity in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeuw, H.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to gain insight into the influence of the clinical trainer as a role model for the trainee, and to find a way to improve the role model behavior of the clinical trainer in general practice. Incorporating attributes of positive role

  9. Ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring: gaps between clinical guidelines and clinical practice in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia S

    2017-07-01

    only 55% said that they had the ability to provide education on HBPM and BPV. Patient inertia, poor patient compliance, lack of medical consultation time, and poor patient access to a BP machine were the most common challenges for implementing out-of-office BP monitoring. Conclusion: Although physicians from Singapore do recommend out-of-office BP measurement to patients with hypertension, this survey identified several important gaps in knowledge and clinical practice. Keywords: hypertension, blood pressure monitoring, blood pressure variability, guidelines

  10. Clinical practices and outcomes in elderly hemodialysis patients: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Tong, Lin; Tentori, Francesca; Akiba, Takashi; Karaboyas, Angelo; Gillespie, Brenda; Akizawa, Tadao; Pisoni, Ronald L; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich K

    2011-07-01

    Demand for hemodialysis among elderly patients is increasing worldwide. Although clinical care of this high-risk group is complex and challenging, no guidelines exist to inform hemodialysis practices. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) provides a unique opportunity to assess dialysis practices and associated outcomes among elderly versus younger patients on chronic in-center hemodialysis in 12 countries. Clinical characteristics, dialysis practices, and outcomes of elderly versus younger patients were compared among participants in four DOPPS regions in 2005 through 2007. Although participant mean age increased over time in all DOPPS countries, the percentage of elderly varied widely. Overall, comorbidities and malnutrition were more common in the elderly. Fistulae were used less frequently among elderly versus younger patients in Europe and North America but not in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. No difference in treatment time was observed between elderly and younger patients after normalizing for body weight. In all regions, ultrafiltration rates were lower among elderly patients. Elderly patients reported poorer quality of life with respect to the physical but not mental component scores. Mortality risk was three- to sixfold higher in the elderly group, whereas causes of death overall were similar for elderly and younger patients. Elderly patients represent a different proportion of DOPPS participants across countries, possibly reflecting differences in policies and clinical practices. In general, hemodialysis practices in the elderly reflected each region's clinical patterns, with some variation by age group depending upon the practice.

  11. Clinical Practices and Outcomes in Elderly Hemodialysis Patients: Results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lin; Tentori, Francesca; Akiba, Takashi; Karaboyas, Angelo; Gillespie, Brenda; Akizawa, Tadao; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Demand for hemodialysis among elderly patients is increasing worldwide. Although clinical care of this high-risk group is complex and challenging, no guidelines exist to inform hemodialysis practices. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) provides a unique opportunity to assess dialysis practices and associated outcomes among elderly versus younger patients on chronic in-center hemodialysis in 12 countries. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Clinical characteristics, dialysis practices, and outcomes of elderly versus younger patients were compared among participants in four DOPPS regions in 2005 through 2007. Results Although participant mean age increased over time in all DOPPS countries, the percentage of elderly varied widely. Overall, comorbidities and malnutrition were more common in the elderly. Fistulae were used less frequently among elderly versus younger patients in Europe and North America but not in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. No difference in treatment time was observed between elderly and younger patients after normalizing for body weight. In all regions, ultrafiltration rates were lower among elderly patients. Elderly patients reported poorer quality of life with respect to the physical but not mental component scores. Mortality risk was three- to sixfold higher in the elderly group, whereas causes of death overall were similar for elderly and younger patients. Conclusions Elderly patients represent a different proportion of DOPPS participants across countries, possibly reflecting differences in policies and clinical practices. In general, hemodialysis practices in the elderly reflected each region's clinical patterns, with some variation by age group depending upon the practice. PMID:21734085

  12. Validation of evidence-based clinical practice guideline: Nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall assessment of the guideline revealed that two-thirds of academic appraisers strongly recommended the guideline to be used in practice and most of practitioner nurses and practitioner physicians recommended the guideline to be in practice. Conclusion: The development of this guideline was based on the ...

  13. Audit of clinical-laboratory practices in haematology and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, there is paucity of data for monitoring laboratory medicine including haematology. This therefore calls for audits of practices in haematology and blood transfusion in order to provide appraise practice and devise strategies that would result in improved quality of health care services. This descriptive ...

  14. Identifying an appropriate Content Management System to develop Clinical Practice Guidelines: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sandeep; Herring, Sally; Gray, Allison

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines are widely used to inform and improve the quality and consistency of clinical practice. Developing and publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines is a complex task involving multiple components. Electronic Content Management Systems are increasingly employed to make this task more manageable. The Content Management System market offers a variety of options for publishing content on the Internet. However, there are limited products that comprehensively address the requirements of publishing Clinical Practice Guidelines. The authors are involved in publishing guidelines for remote clinical practitioners in Australia and present their perspective about identifying an appropriate Content Management System. Several elements essential to addressing their unique editing needs are defined in this article. Unfortunately, customisation is very expensive and laborious: few Content Management System providers can comprehensively meet the needs of Clinical Practice Guidelines publishing. Being pragmatic about the level of functionality a product can offer to support publication is essential.

  15. Careful science? Bodywork and care practices in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Bønnelycke, Julie; Eriksen, Hanne Hellerup

    2013-01-01

    the focus to reflect everyday practices would foster better targeted public health campaigns. This article is based on our participation in FINE, a multidisciplinary Danish research project. The core methodology of FINE was a randomised controlled trial in which 61 moderately overweight men were put...... into different exercise groups. In this article we analyse the scientific work of the trial as representing entangled processes of bodywork, where data are extracted and objectified bodies are manipulated and care practices address the emotional, social and mundane aspects of the participants' everyday lives....... Care practices are an inherent part of producing scientific facts but they are removed from the recognised results of scientific practice and thus from common public health recommendations. However, knowledge about the strategic use of care practices in lifestyle interventions is important for public...

  16. Toward generally accepted forensic assessment practices among clinical neuropsychologists: a survey of professional practice and common test use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment.  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use.  The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.

  17. Russian experience with perampanel in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to generalize the Russian experience with perampanel (PER in routine clinical practice; to do this, the results of its use as an adjuvant partial epilepsy medication were retrospectively assessed. The study is still in progress now; therefore, the paper gives its preliminary results. Patients and methods. The investigation included 52 patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Their mean age was 28.92±14.02 years (asmall number of the patients had not attained the age of 12 years; the proportion of men was 56%; the disease duration was over 10 years (69.2%; symptomatic epilepsy was in 76.9% with an epileptic focus being in the frontal (46.2% and temporal (44.2% regions. PER was prescribed to the majority (71.2% of patients after three previous therapy lines. The baseline monthly rates of all types of seizures were 127.29±82.29; those of generalized seizures were 6.72±1.90.Results and discussion. After addition of PER to therapy just within the first month, there was a significant reduction in the frequency of all types of seizures to 52.06±29.26 per month (Sign test; p = 0.00001 and in that of secondary generalized seizures to 3.71±1.71 (Sign test; p=0.00001. The duration of PER administration was more than 6 months in the overwhelming majority of cases. In 58% of the patients, the frequency of seizures decreased by more than 50% (respondents. The lack of all types of seizures was noted in 8%; that of only secondary generalized seizures was in 31%. Adverse  events were observed in 30.1% of the patients (aggression in 11.5% and somnolence in 9.6%; others were seen more rarely. The dose of PER was decreased because of side effects in 7 (13.5% patients; the drug was discontinued in 4 (7.7%. The mean dose of PER for adults was as high as 6 mg.

  18. NHMRC guidelines for clinical practice for ASD and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Gary

    2008-03-01

    Dear Editor, Recently I described the case of a scuba instructor suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD), a type of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following the death of one of her students. The treatment described was a combination of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) exposure based exercises. As it happens, in August the Australian Centre for Post Traumatic Mental Health published Australian clinical practice guidelines for ASD and PTSD. These have been endorsed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The treatment described in the diver injury case is consistent with these guidelines. The NHMRC guidelines suggest that immediately following a traumatic episode (e.g., diver death or serious injury) the most helpful response is to offer psychological first aid. This includes providing information on traumatic stress reactions, encouraging self care and using available social support. It is recommended that the medical practitioner monitor the patient, watching for improvement, plateau or deterioration, and be ready to offer assistance or appropriate referral if needed. The guidelines recommend the use of trauma-focused psychological therapy as the first-line intervention for ASD and PTSD. EMDR, with in vivo exposure included, and CBT are considered the most effective treatments. If medication is required, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants are considered the best choice. For the benefit and convenience of patients and practitioners, the NHMRC guidelines and a comprehensive set of information guides on ASD and PTSD are available online as pdf file downloads at http://www.acpmh.unimelb.edu.au. An update in Medical Journal of Australia provides traumatic stress information for medical practitioners including screening questions that can be used to identify patients suffering with ASD and PTSD. This article is available online at: http

  19. Tensions in learning professional identities - nursing students' narratives and participation in practical skills during their clinical practice: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta; Allvin, Renée; Blomberg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical practice is a pivotal part of nursing education. It provides students with the opportunity to put the knowledge and skills they have acquired from lectures into practice with real patients, under the guidance of registered nurses. Clinical experience is also essential for shaping the nursing students' identity as future professional nurses. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the ways in which students learn practical skills and apply knowledge within and across different contexts, i.e. how they apply clinical skills, learnt in the laboratory in university settings, in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how nursing students describe, and use, their prior experiences related to practical skills during their clinical practice. An ethnographic case study design was used. Fieldwork included participant observations (82 h), informal conversations, and interviews (n = 7) that were conducted during nursing students' (n = 17) clinical practice at an emergency department at a university hospital in Sweden. The overarching theme identified was "Learning about professional identities with respect to situated power". This encompasses tensions in students' learning when they are socialized into practical skills in the nursing profession. This overarching theme consists of three sub-themes: "Embodied knowledge", "Divergent ways of assessing and evaluating knowledge" and "Balancing approaches". Nursing students do not automatically possess the ability to transfer knowledge from one setting to another; rather, their development is shaped by their experiences and interactions with others when they meet real patients. The study revealed different ways in which students navigated tensions related to power differentials. Reflecting on actions is a prerequisite for developing and learning practical skills and professional identities. This highlights the importance of both educators' and the preceptors' roles for socializing

  20. Australian Nurse Practitioner Practice: Value Adding through Clinical Reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Michelle; Murfet, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Australian Nurse Practitioner (NP) is in its infancy and at a crossroads where extensive research demonstrates effective quality care and yet the role remains underrecognised and underutilised. The translation of practice into “value” is critical for the sustainability of NP roles and requires the practitioner to adopt a systematic method of inquiry. Kim's (1999) “Critical Reflective Inquiry” (CRI) method was adapted by two Australian NPs who specialise in diabetes and chronic disease management. Kim highlights the intent of CRI as understanding the meaning of practice, delivering improvements to practice through self-reflection, and the critique of practice that can lead to practice changes and development of new models of care translated to “products” of value. Based on the thematically analysis of 3 years of CRI application, the authors formed 5 headings that represented the NP's practice as Specialised Care Access, Complications and Diagnostics Interventions, Pharmaceutical Treatment, Vulnerable Populations, and Leadership. The utility of CRI demonstrates how NP practice is integral to a continuous cycle of addressing health care services gaps, and the conversion of “products” into “value” and positions the NP to assimilate the role of the practitioner-researcher. PMID:25705517

  1. Australian Nurse Practitioner Practice: Value Adding through Clinical Reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Woods

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the Australian Nurse Practitioner (NP is in its infancy and at a crossroads where extensive research demonstrates effective quality care and yet the role remains underrecognised and underutilised. The translation of practice into “value” is critical for the sustainability of NP roles and requires the practitioner to adopt a systematic method of inquiry. Kim’s (1999 “Critical Reflective Inquiry” (CRI method was adapted by two Australian NPs who specialise in diabetes and chronic disease management. Kim highlights the intent of CRI as understanding the meaning of practice, delivering improvements to practice through self-reflection, and the critique of practice that can lead to practice changes and development of new models of care translated to “products” of value. Based on the thematically analysis of 3 years of CRI application, the authors formed 5 headings that represented the NP’s practice as Specialised Care Access, Complications and Diagnostics Interventions, Pharmaceutical Treatment, Vulnerable Populations, and Leadership. The utility of CRI demonstrates how NP practice is integral to a continuous cycle of addressing health care services gaps, and the conversion of “products” into “value” and positions the NP to assimilate the role of the practitioner-researcher.

  2. Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: A Roadmap about Good Clinical Practice and Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Frati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of “Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation” by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR. Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient’s welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered.

  3. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthathi, Immaculate S; Thurling, Catherine H; Armstrong, Susan J

    2017-08-28

    Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning. To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors) in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged. There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the clinical learning environment so as to support students' adaptation to clinical

  4. Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculate S. Muthathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning.Objective: To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning.Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability.Main findings: The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged.Conclusion: There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the

  5. Building the Clinical Bridge to Advance Education, Research, and Practice Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Svejda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The University of Michigan School of Nursing and the Health System partnered to develop an undergraduate clinical education model as part of a larger project to advance clinical education, practice, and scholarship with education serving as the clinical bridge that anchors all three areas. The clinical model includes clusters of clinical units as the clinical home for four years of a student's education, clinical instruction through team mentorship, clinical immersion, special skills preparation, and student portfolio. The model was examined during a one-year pilot with junior students. Stakeholders were largely positive. Findings showed that Clinical Faculty engaged in more role modeling of teaching strategies as Mentors assumed more direct teaching used more clinical reasoning strategies. Students reported increased confidence and competence in clinical care by being integrated into the team and the Mentor's assignment. Two new full time faculty roles in the Health System support education, practice, and research.

  6. Building the clinical bridge to advance education, research, and practice excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejda, Marilyn; Goldberg, Janet; Belden, Maureen; Potempa, Kathleen; Calarco, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The University of Michigan School of Nursing and the Health System partnered to develop an undergraduate clinical education model as part of a larger project to advance clinical education, practice, and scholarship with education serving as the clinical bridge that anchors all three areas. The clinical model includes clusters of clinical units as the clinical home for four years of a student's education, clinical instruction through team mentorship, clinical immersion, special skills preparation, and student portfolio. The model was examined during a one-year pilot with junior students. Stakeholders were largely positive. Findings showed that Clinical Faculty engaged in more role modeling of teaching strategies as Mentors assumed more direct teaching used more clinical reasoning strategies. Students reported increased confidence and competence in clinical care by being integrated into the team and the Mentor's assignment. Two new full time faculty roles in the Health System support education, practice, and research.

  7. A Clinic-based Survey of Clinical Characteristics and Practice Pattern of Dry Eye in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Yamada, Masakazu; Suwaki, Kazuhisa; Shigeyasu, Chika; Uchino, Miki; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Yokoi, Norihiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and practice pattern of patients with dry eye disease (DED) in eye clinics across Japan. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with DED who visited eye clinics in Japan. Subjective symptoms, patient's background, ocular surface features, and tear function were evaluated. Main outcome measures were tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I value, kerato-conjunctival staining score, and dry eye symptom questionnaire score. Initially, 463 subjects were enrolled, and 449 cases (63 male and 386 female; mean age, 62.6 ± 15.7 years) were included in the final analysis. Overall, 94.9% of patients had a shortened TBUT (≤5 s), and 54.6% had an aqueous tear deficiency (Schirmer I value ≤5 mm). The most prevalent subtype of dry eye was aqueous-deficient dry eye, which was present in 35.0% of all patients, followed by short-BUT-type dry eye, which was seen in 26.7%. The two most common DED subtypes were aqueous-deficient and short-BUT-type dry eye. Shortened TBUT is the most common feature of dry eye, regardless of subtype. The current treatment choice mainly consisted of hyaluronic acid, two novel mucin secretagogues, diquafosol and rebamipide, and steroidal eye drops. University Hospital Medical Information Network: UMIN (registries no. UMIN 000015890). Japan Dry Eye Society, Tokyo, Japan, and Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

  8. The EDUCATE Study: a continuing education exemplar for Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lyssa; Engelking, Constance; Wickham, Rita; Harvey, Catherine; Read, Martha; Whitlock, Kimberly Bardel

    2009-04-01

    Cancer care is evolving from a solo practitioner care delivery system based on tradition and anecdotal experience to a multidisciplinary, collaborative, science-driven paradigm. Evidence-based practice facilitates optimal care quality for patients with cancer and is effected for medical and nursing practitioners through clinical practice guideline implementation. Clinician education based on principles of adult learning is one method of implementing clinical practice guidelines in clinical practice. However, research demonstrates that conventional static methods of education do little to change behavior; instead, effective education incorporates interactive formats, provides feedback, and includes reminder and reinforcement strategies. The EDUCATE (Educating Clinicians to Achieve Treatment Guideline Effectiveness) Study offers one model for clinical practice guideline implementation using educational methods. A faculty of nurse educators, together with practice champions, carried out an intensive educational intervention comprised of multiple teaching/learning activities during a 12-month period in community oncology practices throughout the United States. In addition to an overview of clinical practice guidelines and educational methods that can be used for implementation of clinical practice guidelines, the obstacles faced and lessons learned through the EDUCATE Study are presented, along with recommendations for implementation in the practice setting.

  9. Practical Considerations for Clinical PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Samuel; Viets, Zachary; Fowler, Kathryn; Gore, Lael; Thomas, John V; McNamara, Michelle; McConathy, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Clinical PET/MR imaging is currently performed at a number of centers around the world as part of routine standard of care. This article focuses on issues and considerations for a clinical PET/MR imaging program, focusing on routine standard-of-care studies. Although local factors influence how clinical PET/MR imaging is implemented, the approaches and considerations described here intend to apply to most clinical programs. PET/MR imaging provides many more options than PET/computed tomography with diagnostic advantages for certain clinical applications but with added complexity. A recurring theme is matching the PET/MR imaging protocol to the clinical application to balance diagnostic accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Common clinical practice versus new PRIM score in predicting coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To compare the new Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) Score and common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score for classification of individuals with respect to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.......To compare the new Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) Score and common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score for classification of individuals with respect to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk....

  11. Treatment with antipsychotics and the risk of diabetes in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Thomsen, Anders Frøkjær; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with antipsychotics seems to increase the risk of developing diabetes but the association is poorly characterised in clinical practice.......Treatment with antipsychotics seems to increase the risk of developing diabetes but the association is poorly characterised in clinical practice....

  12. Implementing a Gerontological Clinical Nursing Practice with an Interdisciplinary Focus: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Sherry; Fehr, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    A gerontological clinical nursing practice with an interdisciplinary focus was developed to provide opportunities for student nurses to expand their knowledge about aging, hone assessment skills, and critically examine beliefs about older adults. The practice included theory about older adults and a rotation through a variety of clinical settings…

  13. Knowledge Systems, Health Care Teams, and Clinical Practice: A Study of Successful Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…

  14. How to integrate individual patient values and preferences in clinical practice guidelines? A research protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Veenendaal, H. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are largely conceived as tools that will inform health professionals' decisions rather than foster patient involvement in decision making. The time now seems right to adapt clinical practice guidelines in such a way that both the professional's perspective as

  15. Experience and Perception of Sexual Harassment During the Clinical Practice of Korean Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyoung Lee, PhD, RN

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice.

  16. Attitudes of general practice dentists in private dental clinics in Almadinah Almunawarah toward novel endodontic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothanna AlRahabi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study provides data regarding the current trends and attitudes of general practitioners in private dental clinics in Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah regarding novel technologies in endodontic treatment and reveals the gap between the new advances in endodontics and clinical practice, as well as the need to improve root canal treatment in private dental practices.

  17. Exploring the Link between Self-Efficacy, Workplace Learning and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer; Simpson, Maree Donna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-registration nurse education includes both conceptual and practical elements to prepare graduates for the transition to clinical practice. Workplace learning plays an important role in developing students' confidence, clinical skills and competency. This paper explores the, perhaps overlooked, centrality of self-efficacy to all areas of…

  18. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - Vol 9, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis (IP) in children: Knowledge, practices and perceptions of mothers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AI Omoigberale, LU Airauhi, 109-113 ...

  19. Injection safety knowledge and practices among clinical health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recapping of needles, hand washing and proper waste management. Drug administration practice ... There was insufficient provision of injection safety equipment, Poor waste handling and inadequate personal protective gear. Over prescription of ...

  20. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Policy on the Application for, and Implementation of, Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the professional development of clinical members through education and dissemination of synthesized clinical research;Improving patient care provided by members by providing focus on quality and evidence;Creating legislative environments that favour effective clinical practice;Enhancing the clinical care provided to patients with digestive disease by nongastroenterologists; andIdentifying areas that require further information or research to improve clinical care.The present document provides the foundation required to ensure that clinical practice guidelines produced by the CAG are necessary, appropriate, credible and applicable. These recommendations should be adhered to as closely as possible to obtain CAG endorsement.

  1. Developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch physical therapy COPD clinical practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Zagers, C.A.; Die, S.E. de; Hendriks, E.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Bie, R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation

  2. Consulted ethical problems of clinical nursing practice: perspective of faculty members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruwaka, Mari

    2017-01-01

    There are several studies that have targeted student nurses, but few have clarified the details pertaining to the specific ethical problems in clinical practice with the viewpoint of the nursing faculty. This study was to investigate the ethical problems in clinical practice reported by student nurses to Japanese nursing faculty members for the purpose of improving ethics education in clinical practice. The subjects comprised 705 nursing faculty members (we sent three questionnaires to one university) who managed clinical practice education at 235 Japanese nursing universities. We performed a simple tabulation of the four items shown in the study design. 1) the details of student nurse consultations regarding ethics in clinical practice (involving the students themselves, nurses, care workers, clinical instructors, and nursing faculty members); 2) the methods of ethics education in clinical practice; 3) the difficulties experienced by the nursing faculty members who received the consultations; and 4) the relationship between clinical practice and lectures on ethics. Furthermore, the analysis was based on the idea of ethical principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. The response rate was 28% (198 questionnaires). The nursing faculty members were consulted for various problems by student nurses. The details of these consultations were characterized by the principles of respect for patient by nurses, the principles of benevolence by faculty and clinical instructors, and the principle of justice pertaining to evaluations. The results indicate that there is an awareness among the nursing faculty regarding the necessity of some sort of ethics education at clinical settings. Moreover, based on the nature of the contents of the consultations regarding the hospital and staff, it was evident that the nursing faculty struggled in providing responses. More than half of subjects exhibited an awareness of the relationship between the classroom lectures on ethics

  3. Relationship between practice counselling and referral to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J; Parham, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although reduction in the use of secondary care mental health services is a suggested benefit of counselling in general practice, there has been little empirical investigation of this relationship. AIM: To investigate the relationship between the provision of counselling in general practice and the use of outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology services across a geographical area. METHOD: Information on referrals to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology from all general practices in the London Borough of Islington over one year (October 1993 to September 1994) was collected from the routine information systems of the main hospital departments serving this area. Referral rates per 1000 practice population were compared for practices with and without a practice-based counsellor. RESULTS: Fifteen (35%) of the 43 practices had a counsellor based in the practice. The median referral rate to clinical psychology was higher in practices with a counsellor (4.1 per 1000) than in practices without a counsellor (0.8 per 1000). There was no relationship between the provision of practice counselling and median referral rates to outpatient psychiatry (1.8 per 1000 with a counsellor, 1.7 per 1000 without a counsellor). CONCLUSION: Provision of practice counselling in the study was associated with higher referral rates to clinical psychology and no difference in referral rates to outpatient psychiatry. This is in contrast to the hypothesis that counselling reduces the use of secondary care mental health services. PMID:10024705

  4. Assessment and revision of clinical pharmacy practice internet web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Krystal L; Salvo, Marissa C; Ward, Kristina E; Attridge, Russell T; Kiser, Katie; Pinner, Nathan A; Gallegos, Patrick J; Kesteloot, Lori Lynn; Hylton, Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-02-01

    Health care professionals, trainees, and patients use the Internet extensively. Editable Web sites may contain inaccurate, incomplete, and/or outdated information that may mislead the public's perception of the topic. To evaluate the editable, online descriptions of clinical pharmacy and pharmacist and attempt to improve their accuracy. The authors identified key areas within clinical pharmacy to evaluate for accuracy and appropriateness on the Internet. Current descriptions that were reviewed on public domain Web sites included: (1) clinical pharmacy and the clinical pharmacist, (2) pharmacy education, (3) clinical pharmacy and development and provision for reimbursement, (4) clinical pharmacists and advanced specialty certifications/training opportunities, (5) pharmacists and advocacy, and (6) clinical pharmacists and interdisciplinary/interprofessional content. The authors assessed each content area to determine accuracy and prioritized the need for updating, when applicable, to achieve consistency in descriptions and relevancy. The authors found that Wikipedia, a public domain that allows users to update, was consistently the most common Web site produced in search results. The authors' evaluation resulted in the creation or revision of 14 Wikipedia Web pages. However, rejection of 3 proposed newly created Web pages affected the authors' ability to address identified content areas with deficiencies and/or inaccuracies. Through assessing and updating editable Web sites, the authors strengthened the online representation of clinical pharmacy in a clear, cohesive, and accurate manner. However, ongoing assessments of the Internet are continually needed to ensure accuracy and appropriateness.

  5. Connecting classroom to clinical practice: a comparison of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortsch, Peggy; Henning, John E; Nielsen, Lynn E

    2009-01-01

    To compare student perceptions of their clinical field experiences in 3 distinct settings: the external model, in which course work and clinical experience are taught in separate institutions; the internal model, in which course work and clinical experience are taught within the same institution; and the bridging model, in which course work and clinical experience are taught in associated institutions. Qualitative data were collected for 9 participants at 3 clinical sites through individual interviews, observations and focus group interviews. Findings indicated that the participants appreciated the value of integrating their course work with their clinical experience, supervision that allowed freedom while providing support, frequent and honest feedback, recognition for their efforts (especially from patients) and the importance of interpersonal relationships for establishing trust. Students from the external model noted initial problems stemming from a lack of communication between the community college instructors and the clinical faculty. Students from the internal model noted a lack of conceptual preparation for the clinical experience. Results from the internal and external models stressed interpersonal relationships and cited a perceived lessening of the learning experience. A perceived lessening of the learning experience was not observed in the bridging model.

  6. Variation in clinical coding lists in UK general practice: a barrier to consistent data entry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Waize; Sobanna Anandarajah; Neil Dhoul; Simon de Lusignan

    2007-01-01

    Background Routinely collected general practice computer data are used for quality improvement; poor data quality including inconsistent coding can reduce their usefulness. Objective To document the diversity of data entry systems currently in use in UK general practice and highlight possible implications for data quality. Method General practice volunteers provided screen shots of the clinical coding screen they would use to code a diagnosis or problem title in the clinical consultatio...

  7. Nephrology Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice: Integration into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Norma J; Castner, Debra; Hain, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The eighth edition of the Nephrology Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice, published by the American Nephrology Nurses Association (Gomez, 2017), defines the scope of nephrology nursing practice, and provides standards of practice and professional performance in an approach similar to the American Nurses Association (ANA) 2016 standards. ANNA's eighth edition of the Nephrology Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice incorporates competencies for graduate level-prepared nurses in addition to the registered nurse (RN) and advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). The section on how to use the standards in practice has been updated with user-friendly forms. This article provides an overview of the scope of practice, standards, competencies, and situations that require intervention by the nephrology nurse. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  8. Peer influence in clinical workplace learning : A study of medical students’ use of social comparison in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate students in clinical workplace frequently compare their own experiences with those of peers. The research reported in this thesis shows that these so called social comparisons are vital to the process of learning in clinical practice. The first study confirms students’ tendency to

  9. Careful science? Bodywork and care practices in randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Astrid P; Bønnelycke, Julie; Eriksen, Hanne H

    2014-06-01

    Concern about obesity has prompted numerous public health campaigns that urge people to be more physically active. The campaigns often include normative statements and attempt to impose restrictions on individuals' lives without considering the complexities of daily life. We suggest that broadening the focus to reflect everyday practices would foster better targeted public health campaigns. This article is based on our participation in FINE, a multidisciplinary Danish research project. The core methodology of FINE was a randomised controlled trial in which 61 moderately overweight men were put into different exercise groups. In this article we analyse the scientific work of the trial as representing entangled processes of bodywork, where data are extracted and objectified bodies are manipulated and care practices address the emotional, social and mundane aspects of the participants' everyday lives. Care practices are an inherent part of producing scientific facts but they are removed from the recognised results of scientific practice and thus from common public health recommendations. However, knowledge about the strategic use of care practices in lifestyle interventions is important for public health initiatives and future efforts should incorporate this aspect.

  10. Social Work Practice with LGBT Elders at End of Life: Developing Practice Evaluation and Clinical Skills Through a Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Darren P

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on culturally sensitive clinical issues related to best practices with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) elder patients at end-of-life (EOL) at key points in the therapeutic relationship. Vital concepts, including practice evaluation and clinical skills, are presented through a cultural and oncology lens. There is a paucity of LGBT research and literature as well as a shortfall of MSW graduate school education specific to social work palliative and end-of-life care (PELC) practice with LGBT elders. The content of this article is designed to be adapted and used as an educational tool for institutions, agencies, graduate programs, medical professions, social work, and students. Learning the unique elements of LGBT cultural history and their implications on EOL care can improve social work practice. This article provides an examination from assessment and engagement basics to advance care planning incorporating specific LGBT EOL issues.

  11. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation.

  12. Use of handheld computers in clinical practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon; Atherton, Helen; Roberts, Nia Wyn; Heneghan, Carl; Tilson, Julie K

    2014-07-06

    Many healthcare professionals use smartphones and tablets to inform patient care. Contemporary research suggests that handheld computers may support aspects of clinical diagnosis and management. This systematic review was designed to synthesise high quality evidence to answer the question; Does healthcare professionals' use of handheld computers improve their access to information and support clinical decision making at the point of care? A detailed search was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science and Social Science Citation Indices since 2001. Interventions promoting healthcare professionals seeking information or making clinical decisions using handheld computers were included. Classroom learning and the use of laptop computers were excluded. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and extracted data. High levels of data heterogeneity negated statistical synthesis. Instead, evidence for effectiveness was summarised narratively, according to each study's aim for assessing the impact of handheld computer use. We included seven randomised trials investigating medical or nursing staffs' use of Personal Digital Assistants. Effectiveness was demonstrated across three distinct functions that emerged from the data: accessing information for clinical knowledge, adherence to guidelines and diagnostic decision making. When healthcare professionals used handheld computers to access clinical information, their knowledge improved significantly more than peers who used paper resources. When clinical guideline recommendations were presented on handheld computers, clinicians made significantly safer prescribing decisions and adhered more closely to recommendations than peers using paper resources. Finally, healthcare professionals made significantly more appropriate diagnostic decisions using clinical decision making tools on handheld computers compared to colleagues who did not have access to these

  13. The basics of coding a rehabilitation diagnosis in clinical practice for the physical therapist.

    OpenAIRE

    Romanyshyn M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of the use international classification of functioning are considered, limitations of vital functions and health in clinical activity of physical physical therapist. Bases for the construction of rehabilitation diagnosis in clinical practice are shown. The analysis of publications of Worldwide organization of health protection and World confederation of physical therapy is presented. The necessity of the use of foregoing classification for clinical practice of physical therapist is...

  14. [Medical practice and clinical research: keys to generate knowledge and improve care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Castuera-Gómez, Carla; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    The increased quality in medical care may be immediately accomplished if clinical research is integrated into daily clinical practice. In the generation of medical knowledge are four steps: an unanswered question awakened from clinical practice, the critical analysis of specialized literature, the development of a research protocol, and, finally, the publication of outcomes. Decision making and continuous training are becoming part of an effective strategy of medical attention improvement.

  15. Clinical data extraction and feedback in general practice: a case study from Australian primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schattner

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion While data extraction programs provide GPs with useful tools for examining their clinical databases and identifying clinical practice issues which could be improved, external support, such as that provided by divisions, is helpful. Technical barriers, such as the failure of extraction tools to recognise some data and the failure to comprehensively enter data, are impediments, but in spite of these considerable interest exists in the use of clinical data to improve practice.

  16. Evidenced-based clinical practice guideline for management of newborn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kaye; Henderson-Smart, David; New, Karen; Evans, Cheryl; Whitelaw, Jan; Woolnough, Rowena

    2010-04-01

    To facilitate the uptake of evidence and to reduce the evidence practice gap for management of newborn pain through the development of a clinical practice guideline. An audit of practice and an appraisal of clinical practice guidelines were undertaken to establish current practices and guideline availability for the management of newborn pain in 23 hospitals in Australia. Guidelines were appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument. A literature search was undertaken to acquire the evidence for best practice for management of newborn pain. Neonatal units in 17 hospitals had clinical practice guidelines. Each was peer reviewed and assessed according to the domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument. There was lack of consistency across the guidelines. As a result, a best practice guideline was developed based on current best evidence and the Royal Australian College of Physicians recommendations. To facilitate an ongoing compliance with the guideline, an audit tool was included together with algorithms for procedural pain and pain assessment. The clinical practice guideline can be used by clinicians in varying settings such as the neonatal intensive care and special care unit. The document can be used to support existing practices or challenge clinicians to close the evidence practice gap for the management of newborn pain.

  17. Fertility Preservation for Patients With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren, Alison W.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Beck, Lindsay Nohr; Brennan, Lawrence; Magdalinski, Anthony J.; Partridge, Ann H.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; Wallace, W. Hamish; Oktay, Kutluk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To update guidance for health care providers about fertility preservation for adults and children with cancer. Methods A systematic review of the literature published from March 2006 through January 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. An Update Panel reviewed the evidence and updated the recommendation language. Results There were 222 new publications that met inclusion criteria. A majority were observational studies, cohort studies, and case series or reports, with few randomized clinical trials. After review of the new evidence, the Update Panel concluded that no major, substantive revisions to the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations were warranted, but clarifications were added. Recommendations As part of education and informed consent before cancer therapy, health care providers (including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, urologists, hematologists, pediatric oncologists, and surgeons) should address the possibility of infertility with patients treated during their reproductive years (or with parents or guardians of children) and be prepared to discuss fertility preservation options and/or to refer all potential patients to appropriate reproductive specialists. Although patients may be focused initially on their cancer diagnosis, the Update Panel encourages providers to advise patients regarding potential threats to fertility as early as possible in the treatment process so as to allow for the widest array of options for fertility preservation. The discussion should be documented. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation as well as oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard practice and are widely available. Other fertility preservation methods should be considered investigational and should be performed by providers with the necessary expertise. PMID:23715580

  18. Allergen immunotherapy: clinical and practical education of Italian trainees in allergy and clinical immunology schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, E; Incorvaia, C; Senna, G E; Montagni, M; Olivieri, E; Canonica, G W

    2013-10-01

    We performed a survey, based on a questionnaire including 20 items, submitted anonymously to Italian trainees in Allergology and Clinical Immunology, in order to obtain information about their specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) practices. The questionnaire was sent to 40 trainees, who had attended the last two years of the training course. Thirty-four subjects (mean age: 27 years, 65% females) adequately completed the survey. The answers to the questionnaire showed that only 60% of the training programs included lectures on AIT. Among the trainees using AIT, only 40% declared being able to prescribe it independently, while 60% were guided by a tutor. Of the trainees who were able to prescribe AIT autonomously, 60% were familiar with both routes of administration, i.e. subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), while 25% of these used only SLIT. In 80% of the training institutions involved, the trainees could attend a dedicated AIT outpatient ward for SCIT administration; only 40% administered AIT personally, and in half of these cases, they were guided by a tutor. Only 70% of trainees had experience in the follow-up of patients still under treatment and of patients who had completed treatment. Analysis of the answers obtained for questions on venom immunotherapy (VIT) showed that, in 90% of cases, the trainees attended a dedicated outpatients ward where VIT is administered, but with a role limited to observation/cooperation. Only 30% were involved in the follow-up of patients who were under treatment or who had completed VIT. Only 20% of the trainees felt confident enough about VIT to prescribe this treatment independently, 80% knew there were several administration protocols, and the majority prescribed products from three different manufacturers. These findings suggest that there is significant room for improving the instructions provided regarding allergology and clinical immunology to trainees in Italy with respect to AIT.

  19. Psychological care demand in clinical practice: treatment and results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labrador, Francisco Javier; Estupiñá, Francisco José; García Vera, María Paz

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of describing the usual clinical context as opposed to the academic or research context, the characteristics of patients and psychological treatments applied in a sample of 856 patients...

  20. [Medical students gain from a practical course in clinical ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessmann, Ebbe Lahn; Bitsch, Mikael

    2012-11-26

    Ultrasound scanning (US) is a new universal medical tool that may be compared to the stethoscope. Both are highly operator-dependent examinations used for screening, and both should be followed by more conclusive examinations. Clinical ultrasound can be seen as an extension of the clinical examination. Since 2009, 1,141 medical students have participated in a training course in basic US at the University of Copenhagen. The evaluation of the course has been good with the average score of 5.21 on a 7-point Likert scale. Students' feedback on the questionnaire reveal that the clinical departments are not capable of supervising the further training. A description of the training in US, an evaluation of the course and a discussion on how to implement the outcome of the course in clinical pratice is summarised.