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Sample records for psa scored significantly

  1. [Total PSA, PSA density and biopsy Gleason score in predicting the pathologic stage of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Lü, Jia-ju; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Gao, De-xuan; Liu, Zheng

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the roles of total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), PSA density (PSAD) and biopsy Gleason score in predicting the pathologic stage of prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 124 cases of pathologically confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma, and divided them into Groups A (n=48) and B (n=76) based on the results of bone scanning, CT, MRI, tPSA, PSAD and postoperative biopsy Gleason score, the former with extraprostatic infiltration or distant metastasis, while the latter without. We compared the above parameters between the two groups, screened the main factors that influenced the pathologic staging of prostate cancer by multivariate logistic regression analysis, and appraised the value of each of the parameters in predicting the pathologic stage of prostate cancer with a relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The tPSA level and biopsy Gleason score were significantly higher in Group A than in B (P Gleason score had a better predicting value than other parameters (Gleason score + tPSA > tPSA > PSAD + tPSA + Gleason score). Total PSA remains a valuable predictor of the pathologic stage of prostate cancer, and its combination with Gleason score can further improve the predictive accuracy and contribute much to the treatment and prognosis of the disease.

  2. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The PSA-age volume (PSA-AV) score was calculated by multiplying the age and prostate volume and then dividing the total by the prebiopsy PSA level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-AV score of International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and nocturia in ...

  3. Decreased fucosylated PSA as a urinary marker for high Gleason score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Hayashi, Takuji; Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Nakata, Wataru; Masuda, Mika; Kawashima, Atsunari; Ujike, Takeshi; Nagahara, Akira; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nojima, Satoshi; Uemura, Motohide; Morii, Eiichi; Miyoshi, Eiji; Nonomura, Norio

    2016-08-30

    Fucosylation is an important oligosaccharide modification associated with cancer and inflammation. We investigated whether urinary fucosylated PSA (Fuc-PSA) levels could be used for the detection of high Gleason score prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from men with abnormal digital rectal examination findings or elevated serum PSA levels, before prostate biopsy. Lectin-antibody ELISA was used to quantify the Lewis-type or core-type fucosylated PSA (PSA-AAL) and core-type fucosylated PSA (PSA-PhoSL) in the urine samples. Both types of urinary Fuc-PSA were significantly decreased in the men with prostate cancer compared with the men whose biopsies were negative for cancer (P = 0.026 and P Gleason scores of the biopsy specimens (P = 0.001 and P Gleason score prostate cancer. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) value for the prediction of cancers of Gleason score ≥ 7 was 0.69 for urinary PSA-AAL and 0.72 for urinary PSA-PhoSL. In contrast, the AUC value was 0.59 for serum PSA, 0.63 for PSA density, and 0.58 for urinary PSA. In conclusion, a decreased urinary Fuc-PSA level is a potential marker for the detection of high Gleason score prostate cancer.

  4. Can the Free/Total PSA Ratio Predict the Gleason Score Before Prostate Biopsy?

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    Ceylan, Cavit; Gazel, Eymen; Keleş, İbrahim; Doluoğlu, Ömer; Yığman, Metin

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between high Gleason score and free/total (f/t) prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients newly diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. The study included 272 prostate biopsy patients whose total PSA value ranged from 4-10 ng/ml. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the f/t PSA ratio: Group 1 ≤ 15% and Group 2 > 15%. Furthermore, the groups were also compared to each other in terms of mild (≤ 6), moderate (= 7), and high (≥ 8) Gleason score. Group 1 consisted of 135 (49.6%) patients and Group 2 consisted of 137 (50.4%) patients. While 27 (20%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 1, only 10 (7.3%) patients had a high Gleason score in Group 2 (p = 0.008). Using Spearman's correlation test, we found that the f/t PSA ratios were observed to decrease significantly in all patients with increased Gleason scores (p = 0.002, r = -0.185). According to our study, there is a relationship between higher Gleason score and decreased f/t PSA ratio. Therefore, f/t PSA can be an indicator for predicting the Gleason score.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic significance of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) rate of change in patients with advanced prostate cancer . Patients and Methods: A total of forty-nine male patients aged between 42 and 84 years with advanced prostate cancer receiving therapy of maximum androgen bloackade were ...

  6. The effect on the sensitivities of PSA and PSA-age volume score of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. Üçer

    2017-04-27

    Apr 27, 2017 ... Conclusions: All our data shows that if we remove most of the factors which effect PSA such as age, prostate volume, prostatitis and BPH, we may increase the sensitivity of PSA for predicting positive prostate biopsy. ... Peer review under responsibility of Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association.

  7. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  8. Extent of disease in recurrent prostate cancer determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT in relation to PSA levels, PSA doubling time and Gleason score

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    Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pfister, David; Heidenreich, Axel [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Urology, Aachen (Germany); Vogg, Andreas; Drude, Natascha I.; Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Voeoe, Stefan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To examine the relationship between the extent of disease determined by [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC-PET/CT and the important clinical measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and Gleason score. We retrospectively studied the first 155 patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCA) referred to our university hospital for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 44 %, 79 % and 89 % of patients with PSA levels of ≤1, 1 - 2 and ≥2 ng/ml, respectively. Patients with high PSA levels showed higher rates of local prostate tumours (p < 0.001), and extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.037) and bone metastases (p = 0.013). A shorter PSAdt was significantly associated with pelvic lymph node (p = 0.026), extrapelvic lymph node (p = 0.001), bone (p < 0.001) and visceral (p = 0.041) metastases. A high Gleason score was associated with more frequent pelvic lymph node metastases (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, both PSA and PSAdt were independent determinants of scan positivity and of extrapelvic lymph node metastases. PSAdt was the only independent marker of bone metastases (p = 0.001). Of 20 patients with a PSAdt <6 months and a PSA ≥2 ng/ml, 19 (95 %) had a positive scan and 12 (60 %) had M1a disease. Of 14 patients with PSA <1 ng/ml and PSAdt >6 months, only 5 (36 %) had a positive scan and 1 (7 %) had M1a disease. [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT will identify PCA lesions even in patients with very low PSA levels. Higher PSA levels and shorter PSAdt are independently associated with scan positivity and extrapelvic metastases, and can be used for patient selection for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT. (orig.)

  9. Characterizing indeterminate (Likert-score 3/5) peripheral zone prostate lesions with PSA density, PI-RADS scoring and qualitative descriptors on multiparametric MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizmohun Appayya, Mrishta; Sidhu, Harbir S; Dikaios, Nikolaos; Johnston, Edward W; Simmons, Lucy Am; Freeman, Alex; Kirkham, Alexander Ps; Ahmed, Hashim U; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether indeterminate (Likert-score 3/5) peripheral zone (PZ) multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) studies are classifiable by prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System version 2 (PI-RADS_v2) rescoring and morphological MRI features. Men with maximum Likert-score 3/5 within their PZ were retrospectively selected from 330 patients who prospectively underwent prostate mpMRI (3 T) without an endorectal coil, followed by 20-zone transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies +/- focal lesion-targeted biopsy. PSAD was calculated using pre-biopsy PSA and MRI-derived volume. Two readers A and B independently assessed included men with both Likert-assessment and PI-RADS_v2. Both readers then classified mpMRI morphological features in consensus. Men were divided into two groups: significant cancer (≥ Gleason 3 + 4) or insignificant cancer (≤ Gleason 3 + 3)/no cancer. Comparisons between groups were made separately for PSA & PSAD using Mann-Whitney test and morphological descriptors with Fisher's exact test. PI-RADS_v2 and Likert-assessment were descriptively compared and percentage inter-reader agreement calculated. 76 males were eligible for PSA & PSAD analyses, 71 for PI-RADS scoring, and 67 for morphological assessment (excluding significant image artefacts). Unlike PSA (p = 0.915), PSAD was statistically different (p = 0.004) between the significant [median: 0.19 ng ml - 2 (interquartile range: 0.13-0.29)] and non-significant/no cancer [median: 0.13 ng ml - 2 (interquartile range: 0.10-0.17)] groups. Presence of mpMRI morphological features was not significantly different between groups. Subjective Likert-assessment discriminated patients with significant cancer better than PI-RADS_v2. Inter-reader percentage agreement was 83% for subjective Likert-assessment and 56% for PI-RADS_v2. PSAD may categorize presence of significant cancer in patients with Likert-scored 3/5 PZ mpMRI findings. Advances in

  10. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  11. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gianni de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level as a predictive factor of concordance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. A p-score <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The average patient age was 63.3±7.8 years. The median PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/mL in 153 of 235 cases (65% and ≥10 ng/mL in 82 of 235 cases (35%. The Gleason scores were identical in 86 of 153 cases (56% in the <10 ng/mL group and 36 of 82 (44% cases in the ≥10 ng/mL group (p = 0.017. The biopsy underestimated the Gleason score in 45 (30% patients in the <10 ng/mL group and 38 (46% patients in the ≥10 ng/mL (p = 0.243. Specifically, the patients with Gleason 3 + 3 scores according to the biopsies demonstrated global concordance in 56 of 110 cases (51%. In this group, the patients with preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/dL had higher concordance than those with preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p = 0.023, which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. CONCLUSION: The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  12. Prostate health index significantly reduced unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA 2-10 ng/mL and PSA >10 ng/mL: Results from a Multicenter Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly A; Packiam, Vignesh; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Zheng, Siqun L; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    The performance of prostate health index (phi) in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes has been well established for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2 and 10 ng/mL. However, the performance of phi remains unknown in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, the vast majority in Chinese biopsy patients. We aimed to assess the ability of phi to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade disease (Gleason Score ≥7) on biopsy in a Chinese population. This is a prospective, observational, multi-center study of consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Shanghai, China from August 2013 to December 2014. In the cohort of 1538 patients, the detection rate of PCa was 40.2%. phi had a significantly better predictive performance for PCa than total PSA (tPSA). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.90 and 0.79 for phi and tPSA, respectively, P 10 ng/mL (N = 838, 54.5%). The detection rates of PCa were 35.9% and 57.7% in patients with tPSA 10.1-20 and 20.1-50 ng/mL, respectively. The AUCs of phi (0.79 and 0.89, for these two groups, respectively) were also significantly higher than tPSA (0.57 and 0.63, respectively), both P 10 ng/mL). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The ability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density to predict an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and prostatectomy diminishes with increasing tumour grade due to reduced PSA secretion per unit tumour volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Niall M; Casey, Rowan G; Hong, Matthew K H; Pedersen, John; Connolly, Stephen; Peters, Justin; Harewood, Laurence; Gleave, Martin E; Costello, Anthony J; Hovens, Chris M; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2012-07-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Due to sampling error, the Gleason score of clinically localized prostate cancer is frequently underestimated at the time of initial biopsy. Given that this may lead to inappropriate surveillance of patients with high-risk disease, there is considerable interest in identifying predictors of significant undergrading. Recently PSAD has been proposed to be an accurate predictor of subsequent upgrading in patients diagnosed with Gleason 6 disease on biopsy. We examined the predictive characteristics of PSAD in patients with low- and intermediate-risk disease on biopsy subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. We found that although PSAD was a significant predictor of upgrade of biopsy Gleason 6 and 3 + 4 = 7 tumours, it failed to predict upgrading in patients with Gleason 7 tumours taken as a whole. When we explored reasons for this discrepancy, we found that the amount of PSA produced per unit tumour volume decreased with increasing Gleason score, thereby diminishing the predictive value of PSAD. To analyse the performance of PSA density (PSAD) as a predictor of Gleason score upgrade in a large cohort stratified by Gleason score. We and others have shown that an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and final radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology is a significant risk factor for recurrence after local therapy. Patients undergoing RP with matching biopsy information were identified from two prospective databases. Patients were analysed according to the concordance between biopsy and final pathology Gleason score in three paired groups: 6/>6, 3 + 4/>3 + 4, 7/>7. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated stratified by Gleason score, and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify significant predictors of tumour upgrade. From 1516 patients, 435 (29%) had

  14. High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8-10 and PSA Level {<=}15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

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    Fang, L. Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Veterans Affairs Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) {>=}8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS {>=}8 and PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

  15. Relationships between serum PSA levels, Gleason scores and results of 68Ga-PSMAPET/CT in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Yasemin; Kuyumcu, Serkan; Sanli, Oner; Buyukkaya, Fikret; İribaş, Ayça; Alcin, Goksel; Darendeliler, Emin; Ozluk, Yasemin; Yildiz, Sevda Ozel; Turkmen, Cüneyt

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum PSA level, Gleason score of PCa and the outcomes of Ga(68)-PSMA PET/CT in patients with recurrent PCa. A total of 109 consecutive patients (median age 71 years; range 48-89 years) who had PSA recurrence after RP and/or hormonotherapy and/or radiotherapy were included in this study. Local recurrences, lymph node metastasis (pelvic, abdominal and/or supradiaphragmatic), bone metastases (oligometastatic/multimetastatic) and other metastatic sites (lung, liver, brain, etc) were documented. In 91(83.4%) patients at least one lesion characteristic for PCa was detected by(68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT. The median serum total PSA (tPSA) was 6.5 (0.2-640) ng/ml.There was a significant difference between (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT positive and negative patients in terms of serum total PSA value. No statistical significance was found between positive and negative (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings in terms of Gleason score. Local recurrence was detected in 56 patients. whereas lymph node metastases were demonstrated in 46 patients. Pelvic nodal disease was the most frequent presentation followed by abdominal and supradiaphragmaticnodal involvement. Bone metastases [oligometastasis, (n = 20); multimetastasis, (n = 35)⦌ were also detected in 55 patients. In the ROC analysis for the study cohort, the optimal cut-off value of total serum PSA was determined as 0.67 ng/ml for distinguishing between positive and negative (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images, with an area under curve of 0.952 (95% CI 0.911-0.993). (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT was found to be an effective tool for the detection of recurrent PCa. Even though no relationship was detected between the GS and (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT findings, serum total PSA values may be used for estimating the likelihood of positive (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT results.

  16. Serum levels of PSA, ALP, ICTP, and BSP in prostate cancer patients and the significance of ROC curve in the diagnosis of prostate cancer bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R J; Li, T Y; Yang, X C; Jia, N; Yang, X L; Song, H B

    2016-06-03

    Bone metastasis is a common complication in prostate cancer patients that can cause bone pain and pathological fracture. This study tested serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), collagen type I pyridine crosslinking peptide (ICTP) in prostate cancer patients and the significance of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve in the diagnosis of prostate cancer bone metastases. Eighty-three prostate cancer patients were enrolled including 42 in the bone metastases group and 41 in the non-bone metastases group. Serum levels of BSP, ALP, ICTP, and PSA were highest in the bone metastases group followed by the non-bone metastases group, hyperplasia group, and then the control group (P Gleason score, serum levels were highest in the poorly differentiated group followed by moderately differentiated and well-differentiated groups (P bone metastases were 80.95, 57.14, 69.05, 71.43%, respectively, and the specificity of the same markers were 72.80, 64.80, 76.80, and 88.80%, respectively. Combined detection of the four markers improved sensitivity to 97.62% and the negative-predictive value increased to 97.60%. PSA + BSP showed the best efficiency when combining two markers. In conclusion, serum levels of BSP, ALP, ICTP, and PSA increased in patients with bone metastases, and combined detection of all markers could improve the positive-predictive value.

  17. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joseph M; Falchook, Aaron D; Hendrix, Laura H; Chen, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score upgrading based on clinically available information in modern patients. These data inform the selection of radiation therapy strategies and an understanding of whether prostatectomy alone is likely to be curative for patients with early prostate cancers

  18. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  19. Combination of prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density predicts biopsy outcome in prostate biopsy naïve patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Okochi, Tomohisa; Saito, Kimitoshi; Konishi, Tsuzumi; Hirai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Miyagawa, Tomoaki

    2017-02-01

    To assess the value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system, for prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect prostate cancer, and classical parameters, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, prostate volume and PSA density, for predicting biopsy outcome in biopsy naïve patients who have suspected prostate cancer. Patients who underwent mpMRI at our hospital, and who had their first prostate biopsy between July 2010 and April 2014, were analysed retrospectively. The prostate biopsies were taken transperineally under transrectal ultrasonography guidance. In all, 14 cores were biopsied as a systematic biopsy in all patients. Two cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy cores were added for each lesion in patients who had suspicious or equivocal lesions on mpMRI. The PI-RADS scoring system version 2.0 (PI-RADS v2) was used to describe the MRI findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. In all, 288 patients were analysed. The median patient age, PSA level, prostate volume and PSA density were 69 years, 7.5 ng/mL, 28.7 mL, and 0.26 ng/mL/mL, respectively. The biopsy results were benign, clinically insignificant, and clinically significant prostate cancer in 129 (45%), 18 (6%) and 141 (49%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were independent predictors for prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer. When PI-RADS v2 score and PSA density were combined, a PI-RADS v2 score of ≥4 and PSA density ≥0.15 ng/mL/mL, or PI-RADS v2 score of 3 and PSA density of ≥0.30 ng/mL/mL, was associated with the highest clinically significant prostate cancer detection rates (76-97%) on the first biopsy. Of the patients in this group with negative biopsy results, 22% were subsequently diagnosed as prostate cancer. In contrast, a PI

  20. [Usefulness of screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the medical checkup ("human dock") at Onomichi Municipal Hospital: clinical significance of the cases diagnosed as prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeda, Tadashi; Kusumi, Norihiro; Takamoto, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The usefulness of the screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the medical checkup ("Human Dock") at Onomichi Municipal Hospital was evaluated. From April 1997 to December 2007, serum PSA of 1,234 male (median age: 59) was measured in the medical checkup and each parameter of screening was evaluated. In addition, for the cases with prostate cancer, results of treatment and clinical significance were assessed. PSA was elevated in 82 cases (6.6%), aged 42-87 (median 64), in which PSA varied 3.1-66.5 ng/ml (median 5.4). Trans-rectal biopsy was performed in 35 cases and prostate cancer was detected in 15 (42.9% of biopsied cases and 1.2% of whole group), aged 58-81 (median 70), with PSA value 4.2-66.5 ng/ml (median 10.3). Clinical stage of these cases was cT1cN0M0 in 12 and cT2aN0M0 or more in 3, Gleason score was 3 + 3 in 4 and 3 + 4 or more in 11. Initial treatment was radical prostatectomy in 12, androgen-deprivation therapy in 2 and external beam irradiation in 1. During the follow-up for 8-107 months (median 60), 14 were alive with good control and 1 was alive with relapse. Only one case was "clinically insignificant" cancer (impalpable and localized and tumor volume less than 0.5 ml and Gleason score 3 + 3 or less). Most of the prostate cancers detected in the medical checkup were clinically significant, therefore, PSA screening doesn't result in overtreatment and it is meaningful to perform PSA screening in the medical checkup.

  1. [A comparaison between the total PSA, the Gleason score and the bone scintiscan results for different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Daniela; Rusu, Valeriu; Stefănescu, Cipriana; Rusu, Maria; Răileanu, Irena; Stătescu, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare de results of the bone scintigraphy of prostate cancer patients in different age groups with their total PSA (PSAt) and with their histopathological test results. MATERIALS AND METODS: Of the 180 patients with prostate cancer who were analyzed by Scintiscan in the last five years in our laboratory, 86 have a known PSAt value, and of these, 55 have a known Gleason Score. The 180 patients were divided into three age groups: (1) 70 years. The 86 patients with a known PSAt were also divided into five groups according to their PSAt value and the 55 patients with a known Gleason Score were divided in three groups. The scintigraphy results included all the patients in 3 groups, according to the presence, the absence or the likelihood of having bone metastasis. The 33 patients with proven bone metastasis were divided, according to their numbers, into the four Soloway groups. Among the patients with PSAt >20 ng/mL, considered high risk for bone metastases, according to the Recomandations of CCAF, 21 (32.81%) of the 64 patients do not show the presence of bone metastases. For PSAt >50 ng/mL, all 5 patients sau egal 100 ng/mL do not have metastases. 10 (43.4 %) of the 23 patients with a Gleason Score bone metastasis for a high PSAt value is reversely proportional to age. In our study there is no direct correlation between Gleason Score and the bone scan results.

  2. Prostate cancer in patients from rural and suburban areas – PSA value, Gleason score and presence of metastases in bone scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Prostate cancer is the second most common neoplasm among men both worldwide and in Poland. In prostate cancer, bone metastasis is related to a poorer prognosis. A diagnosis of metastatic bone disease is important in prostate cancer patients prior to therapy. Prostate specific antigen (PSA serum value is used both as a screening tool and for staging of prostate cancer. aim. To evaluate whether there is a link between symptoms presented by patients, pain in particular, and the presence, number and location of bone metastases as assessed by bone scan scintigraphy in concordance with PSA values and Gleason scores. [b]material[/b]. A group of 186 patients (aged: 68.38±6.16 diagnosed with prostate cancer, from rural and suburban areas of Małopolska province, that was directed for bone scan scintigraphy to the Nuclear Medicine Dept, John Paul II Hospital in Kraków. [b]methods[/b]. Analysis of all laboratory findings (including PSA value and a biopsy were performed. Then, bone scan scintigraphy was done with the use of methylene disphosphonate (MDP labeled with Tc-99m. [b]results[/b]. In patients with a Gleason value ≤7 and a PSA value ≤20 ng/ml, the cutoff value for a negative bone scan with a confidence interval of 0.95 was established at a PSA value below 10 ng/ml (p<0.01. Correlations were established between PSA value and presence of metastases in bone scan (r=0.45, p=0.05, the number of metastases (r=0.66, p<0.01, and their presence in particular body regions. [b]conclusions[/b]. The correlation between PSA value and both presence and number of metastases confirms the usefulness of bone scan scintigraphy in prostate cancer staging. The cutoff value for negative bone scan with a 95% confidence interval was established at PSA = 10 ng/ml.

  3. Prostate cancer in patients from rural and suburban areas--PSA value, Gleason score and presence of metastases in bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, Wojciech; Kostkiewicz, Magdalena; Zając, Joanna; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common neoplasm among men both worldwide and in Poland. In prostate cancer, bone metastasis is related to a poorer prognosis. A diagnosis of metastatic bone disease is important in prostate cancer patients prior to therapy. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum value is used both as a screening tool and for staging of prostate cancer. To evaluate whether there is a link between symptoms presented by patients, pain in particular, and the presence, number and location of bone metastases as assessed by bone scan scintigraphy in concordance with PSA values and Gleason scores. A group of 186 patients (aged: 68.38±6.16) diagnosed with prostate cancer, from rural and suburban areas of Małopolska province, that was directed for bone scan scintigraphy to the Nuclear Medicine Dept, John Paul II Hospital in Kraków. Analysis of all laboratory findings (including PSA value) and a biopsy were performed. Then, bone scan scintigraphy was done with the use of methylene disphosphonate (MDP) labeled with Tc-99m. In patients with a Gleason value≤7 and a PSA value≤20 ng/ml, the cutoff value for a negative bone scan with a confidence interval of 0.95 was established at a PSA value below 10 ng/ml (pbone scan (r=0.45, p=0.05), the number of metastases (r=0.66, pbone scan scintigraphy in prostate cancer staging. The cutoff value for negative bone scan with a 95% confidence interval was established at PSA=10 ng/ml.

  4. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  5. Conversion to monotherapy with luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy after reaching PSA nadir following maximal androgen blockade is able to prolong progression-free survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Gyeong Eun; Ahn, Hanjong

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated androgen deprivation methods to determine the approach that most improves the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Patients had received continuous maximal androgen blockade (MAB) or monotherapy [luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist or orchiectomy] following the reaching of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) nadir. The medical records of 293 patients who received MAB following a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Following attainment of the PSA nadir and treatment with MAB, patients were maintained on continuous MAB (group CMAB) or converted to monotherapy (group MONO). Disease progression, defined as progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, was evaluated and compared between the treatment modalities. PFS was compared between patients who received CMAB vs. MONO using 2:1 (102:53) propensity score matching; the basic clinicopathological characteristics (age, Gleason score, PSA and extent of bone metastasis) were similar between the groups. Disease progression was observed in 70.9% of all patients, with a median treatment period of 22.7 months. The median PFS time was 19.5 months in the CMAB group and 28.8 months in the MONO group (P=0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that PFS was significantly associated with the type of maintenance androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; log rank bone metastasis were independent predictors of prolonged PFS. In this propensity score matched-analysis, conversion to monotherapy with a LHRH agonist or orchiectomy following attainment of the PSA nadir with initial MAB, prolonged the PFS, suggesting that monotherapy maintenance following initial MAB may benefit patients by reducing side effects without decreasing treatment efficacy.

  6. Myelodysplastic syndromes: a scoring system with prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, G J; Stevens, J R; Oscier, D G; Hamblin, T J; Machin, D

    1985-03-01

    141 patients with MDS were classified according to the FAB criteria and followed up for a period of 4-192 months. It was recognized that patients with RAEBT had a uniformly poor prognosis. However, there was a wide variation in survival among the other subgroups. A score of 1 was assigned to each of the following presenting haematological features: bone marrow blasts greater than or equal to 5%, platelets less than or equal to 100 X 10(9)/l, neutrophils less than or equal to 2.5 X 10(9)/l and Hb less than or equal to 10.0 g/dl. Therefore the score for each patient ranged between 0 and 4. There were no statistically significant differences between those patients who scored 0 or 1, or between those who scored 2 and 3. Therefore patients were put into three groups: Group A (score 0 or 1), Group B (score 2 or 3), Group C (score 4). The differences in survival between each of the three groups are highly significant (P less than 0.00001). This system further separates patients with RA, RAS, RAEB into good and bad prognostic groups. This study also confirms that deaths due to cytopenias are more common than those due to transformation to AML. The use of this scoring system in conjunction with the FAB criteria for MDS should serve as a prognostic tool on which to base treatment.

  7. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in primary staging of prostate cancer: PSA and Gleason score predict the intensity of tracer accumulation in the primary tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Kendler, Dorota; Scarpa, Lorenza; Di Santo, Gianpaolo; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Maffey-Steffan, Johanna; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    Prostate cancer (PC) cells typically show increased expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which can be visualized by {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in the primary tumour and metastases in patients with biopsy-proven PC prior to therapy, and to determine whether a correlation exists between the primary tumour-related {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 accumulation and the Gleason score (GS) or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Ninety patients with transrectal ultrasound biopsy-proven PC (GS 6-10; median PSA: 9.7 ng/ml) referred for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT were retrospectively analysed. PET images were analysed visually and semiquantitatively by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). The SUV{sub max} of the primary tumour and pathologic lesions suspicious for lymphatic or distant metastases were then compared to the physiologic background activity of normal prostate tissue and gluteal muscle. The SUV{sub max} of the primary tumour was assessed in relation to both PSA level and GS. Eighty-two patients (91.1%) demonstrated pathologic tracer accumulation in the primary tumour that exceeded physiologic tracer uptake in normal prostate tissue (median SUV{sub max}: 12.5 vs. 3.9). Tumours with GS of 6, 7a (3+4) and 7b (4+3) showed significantly lower {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake, with median SUV{sub max} of 5.9, 8.3 and 8.2, respectively, compared to patients with GS >7 (median SUV{sub max}: 21.2; p < 0.001). PC patients with PSA ≥10.0 ng/ml exhibited significantly higher uptake than those with PSA levels <10.0 ng/ml (median SUV{sub max}: 17.6 versus 7.7; p < 0.001). In 24 patients (26.7%), 82 lymph nodes with pathologic tracer accumulation consistent with metastases were detected (median SUV{sub max}: 10.6). Eleven patients (12.2%) revealed 55 pathologic osseous lesions suspicious for bone metastases (median SUV{sub max}: 11.6). The GS and PSA level correlated with

  8. Splitting the BLOSUM Score into Numbers of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical tools developed in the context of Shannon information theory were used to analyze the meaning of the BLOSUM score, which was split into three components termed as the BLOSUM spectrum (or BLOSpectrum. These relate respectively to the sequence convergence (the stochastic similarity of the two protein sequences, to the background frequency divergence (typicality of the amino acid probability distribution in each sequence, and to the target frequency divergence (compliance of the amino acid variations between the two sequences to the protein model implicit in the BLOCKS database. This treatment sharpens the protein sequence comparison, providing a rationale for the biological significance of the obtained score, and helps to identify weakly related sequences. Moreover, the BLOSpectrum can guide the choice of the most appropriate scoring matrix, tailoring it to the evolutionary divergence associated with the two sequences, or indicate if a compositionally adjusted matrix could perform better.

  9. Prognostic significance of primary Gleason pattern in Japanese men with Gleason score 7 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Muramaki, Mototsugu; Furukawa, Junya; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Inoue, Taka-aki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the significance of the primary Gleason pattern in patients with Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. This study included 959 consecutive Japanese men who underwent radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant therapies and were subsequently diagnosed as having GS 7 prostate cancer based on the modified International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 Gleason grading system. Of these 959 patients, 666 (69.4%) and 293 (30.6%) had GS 3+4 and GS 4+3 tumors, respectively. There were significant differences in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy GS, pathologic T stage, lymphatic invasion, microvenous invasion, and perineural invasion between these 2 groups. During the mean observation of 48.9 months, biochemical recurrence occurred in 211 patients (22.0%), and there was a significant difference in the biochemical recurrence-free survival between patients with GS 3+4 tumors and those with GS 4+3 tumors. Of several factors examined, biochemical recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with the PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, surgical margin status, lymphatic invasion, microvenous invasion, perineural invasion, and primary Gleason pattern, among which the PSA level, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin status, but not primary Gleason pattern, appeared to be independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. Despite the lack of an independent significance, primary Gleason pattern based on the modified ISUP 2005 Gleason grading system is shown to be significantly associated with the biochemical outcome of Japanese men with GS 7 prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  11. Apgar Scores: Examining the Long-term Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    The Apgar scoring system was intended as an evaluative measure of a newborn's condition at birth and of the need for immediate attention. In the most recent past, individuals have unsuccessfully attempted to link Apgar scores with long-term developmental outcomes. This practice is not appropriate, as the Apgar score is currently defined. Expectant parents need to be aware of the limitations of the Apgar score and its appropriate uses.

  12. PSA kinetics after prostate brachytherapy: PSA bounce phenomenon and its implications for PSA doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezki, Jay P; Reddy, Chandana A; Garcia, Jorge; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Mahadevan, Arul; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Klein, Eric A

    2006-02-01

    the bFn+2 definition. However, a significant difference was found in the time to the first rise in PSA after PI for patients with a PSA bounce vs. patients with bF. The median time to the first rise in PSA after nadir for those with a PSA bounce was 15.1 months vs. 30.0 months using the bF3 definition (p=0.001) and 22.3 months using the bFn+2 definition (p=0.013). Patients experiencing a PSA bounce are more likely to be younger and will have a better bRFS. The PSADT cannot differentiate a PSA bounce from bF. The time to the initial PSA rise after nadir is an excellent discriminator of bF from PSA bounce. The time of the PSA rise after nadir occurs far sooner for a PSA bounce than for bF. This factor should be considered when assessing a patient with a rising PSA level after PI before a patient is administered salvage therapy.

  13. Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging has limited added value over T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging when using PI-RADSv2 for diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in patients with elevated PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visschere, P; Lumen, N; Ost, P; Decaestecker, K; Pattyn, E; Villeirs, G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the added value of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) over T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC) in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Two hundred and forty-five patients with elevated PSA underwent multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate before biopsy. mpMRI was performed using a 3 T MRI system without an endorectal coil. Patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic 12 core biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy (n=68), radiation therapy (n=91), or clinical follow-up for at least 2 years (n=86). csPC was defined as Gleason score ≥3+4 and/or tumour volume of ≥0.5 ml, and/or tumour stage ≥T3a. The MRI findings were scored according to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) and an alternative overall assessment category (PI-RADSv2Alt) based on only T2-WI and DWI. In 144 patients (58.8%), csPC was found within 2 years after MRI. With scoring according to the PI-RADSv2 guidelines, DCE was not needed for determination of the overall assessment category in 80.8% (198/245) of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.85) for PI-RADSv2 and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85) for PI-RADSv2Alt. The added value of DCE over T2-WI and DWI is limited when using PI-RADSv2 for diagnosis of csPC in patients with elevated PSA before biopsy. An alternative overall assessment score using only T2-WI and DWI yielded similar performance to PI-RADSv2. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  15. Time to Nadir PSA: Of Popes and PSA--The Immortality Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Skyler B; Jackson, William C; Murgic, Jure; Feng, Felix Y; Hamstra, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) and time to nPSA (TnPSA) as prognostic variables for outcomes after definitive high-dose (>75 Gy) external beam radiation therapy (RT) without androgen deprivation therapy while correcting for immortal-time bias. nPSA and TnPSA were available for 410 patients. nPSA and TnPSA's impact on freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific survival was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression. Outcomes were also evaluated relative to the time since achieving nPSA and not relative to the time of RT, given the intrinsic time bias in TnPSA. Median nPSA was 0.7 ng/mL (interquartile range: 0.4 to 1.1), with a median TnPSA of 25.0 months (IQR: 15.0 to 40.0). On univariate analysis both nPSA and TnPSA were predictive of all endpoints: freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific survival, as categorical (all Pimmortal-time bias the benefit of long TnPSA was mostly lost. On Cox proportional hazards, a TnPSA12 months from the time of RT the TnPSA was no longer prognostic. For dose-escalated RT a lower nPSA is prognostic, but the benefit of a long TnPSA is largely an immortal-time bias and that a longer TnPSA is not in and of itself a significant favorable factor except as compared with those with the shortest TnPSA of <12 months.

  16. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  17. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  18. Histopathological findings in extended prostate biopsy with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia R. Leite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cancer detection has been reported in up to 27% of patients when lowering the PSA cutoff to 2.5 ng/mL. Although this practice could increase the number of biopsies performed, it also could lead to more frequent detection of significant prostate cancers at an organ-confined stage and/or a less aggressive state. This study describes the incidence of malignancy and tumor characteristics in extended prostate biopsies with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 1081 patients where examined, 275 (25.4% patients had PSA level ≤ 4 ng/mL. RESULTS: Cancer was diagnosed in 32.0% and 35.7% of patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL and > 4 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.906. The median Gleason score was 7 independent of PSA > or ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.078. The median number of cores positive for tumor was 4 and 3, respectively, for PSA > 4 ng/mL and PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.627. There was a difference in the total percent of tumors involving all cores, 11% and 7% for PSA > or ≤ 4 ng/mL (p = 0.042. Fifty-six patients underwent radical prostatectomy, 12 had PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL. In both groups, a diagnosis of cancer was accurate with no differences in Gleason score, tumor volume or staging for both groups. CONCLUSION: When PSA is below 4 ng/mL, cancer is detected in a proportion equal to the proportion diagnosed with a PSA > 4 ng/mL, and tumor characteristics are similar between the two groups. Only clinically significant tumors were diagnosed following radical prostatectomy.

  19. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-12-05

    The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Coronary lesions with FFR Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = -0.48, P arteries and a single artery. Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  20. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang; Qin-Hua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, us...

  1. Comparison of the Formula of PSA, Age, Prostate Volume and Race Versus PSA Density and the Detection of Primary Malignant Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting a Positive Initial Prostate Biopsy in Chilean Men with Suspicion of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Orellana, Nelson; Morales, Francisca; Jacob, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Combining risk factors for prostate cancer into a predictive tool may improve the detection of prostate cancer while decreasing the number of benign biopsies. We compare one such tool, age multiplied by prostate volume divided by total serum PSA (PSA-AV) with PSA density and detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in a Chilean prostate cancer screening program. The objectives were not only to determine the predictive values of each, but to determine the number of clinically significant cancers that would have been detected or missed. A prospective study was conducted of all men undergoing 12 core ultrasound guided prostate biopsy for suspicion of cancer attending the Hospital DIPRECA and Hospital de Carabineros de Chile. Total serum PSA was registered, prostate volumecalculated at the moment of biopsy, and an 8 ml blood simple taken immediately before the biopsy procedure. Mononuclear cells were obtained from the blood simple using differential gel centrifugation and CPCs identified using immunocytchemistry with anti- PSA and anti-P504S. Biopsy results were classed as positive or negative for cancer and if positive the Gleason score, number of positive cores and percent infiltration recorded. A total of 664 men participated, of whom 234 (35.2%) had cancer detected. They were older, had higher mean PSA, PSA density and lower PSA-AV. Detection of CPCs had high predictive score, sensitivity, sensibility and positive and negative predictive values, PSA-AV was not significantly different from PSA density in this population. The use of CPC detection avoided more biopsies and missed fewer significant cancers. In this screening population the use of CPC detection predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer better than the other parameters. The high negative predictive value would allow men CPC negative to avoid biopsy but remain in follow up. The formula PSA-AV did not add to the predictive performance using PSA density.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of PSA as a Selection Criteria for Nerve Sparing Radical Prostatectomy in a Screened Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K. Tanguturi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated whether NS-RP increased risk of PSA failure and whether PSA should be included as a selection criterion for NS. Methods. We evaluated 357 consecutive men with screen-detected PC who underwent open RP without adjuvant radiotherapy between 9/11/2001 and 12/30/2008. Criteria for NS included Gleason score ≤3 + 4, percentage of positive biopsies (PPB ≤50%, percentage of core involvement ≤50%, nonapical location, no perineural invasion, and no palpable disease on pre- or intraoperative exam but did not include a PSA threshold. Cox multivariable regression assessed whether increasing PSA or unilateral- or bilateral-NS versus non-NS-RP was associated with PSA failure adjusting for prognostic factors. Results. After a median follow-up of 3.96 years, 34 men sustained PSA failure (9.5%. Increasing PSA was significantly associated with increased risk of PSA failure in the interaction model (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.03–1.16]; P=0.005, whereas unilateral (AHR: 1.24 [95% CI: 0.36–4.34]; P=0.73 or bilateral NS (AHR: 0.41 [95% CI: 0.06–2.59]; P=0.34 versus non-NS RP was not. Conclusion. NS-RP in a screened cohort did not increase risk of PSA failure using NS criteria not including PSA.

  3. Serum total PSA and free PSA in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prakruti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Sahu, Pratima Kumari; Mohapatra, Prakash Chandra

    2011-04-01

    Now a days measurement of molecular forms of PSA has gained importance in clinical practice. Several studies have demonstrated the production of PSA in female tissues, such as breast. The present piece of work has been undertaken with an objective to estimate the relative proportion of the molecular forms of PSA in serum along with serum testosterone in benign and malignant breast tumor cases and to analyze their association with the severity of the disease process 34 malignant and 26 benign breast disease cases along with 33 healthy controls of same age group were enrolled in this study for evaluation. Serum testosterone was measured by ELISA, whereas serum total PSA (TPSA) and free PSA (FPSA) were estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A significant rise of fasting plasma glucose along with prominent dyslipidemia was observed in breast tumor cases. Marked rise in serum testosterone as well as TPSA and FPSA was documented in both benign and malignant breast tumor cases. Serum testosterone revealed a significant positive association with both TPSA and FPSA pointing towards an etiological association between them. However, surgical removal of tumor mass resulted in a marked decline of presurgical value of both TPSA and FPSA with a non-significant fall in serum testosterone revealing tumor tissue as the source of FPSA and TPSA. Thus, estimation of PSA provides prognostic information that may assist in future treatment.

  4. TS-Chemscore, a Target-Specific Scoring Function, Significantly Improves the Performance of Scoring in Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Qi; Zou, Jun; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Most of the scoring functions currently used in structure-based drug design belong to 'universal' scoring functions, which often give a poor correlation between the calculated scores and experimental binding affinities. In this investigation, we proposed a simple strategy to construct target-specific scoring functions based on known 'universal' scoring functions. This strategy was applied to Chemscore, a widely used empirical scoring function, which led to a new scoring function, termed TS-Chemscore. TS-Chemscore was validated on 14 protein targets, which cover a wide range of biological target categories. The results showed that TS-Chemscore significantly improved the correlation between the calculated scores and experimental binding affinities compared with the original Chemscore. TS-Chemscore was then applied in virtual screening to retrieve novel JAK3 and YopH inhibitors. Top 30 compounds for each target were selected for experimental validation. Six active compounds for JAK3 and four for YopH were obtained. These compounds were out of the lists of top 30 compounds sorted by Chemscore. Collectively, TS-Chemscore established in this study showed a better performance in virtual screening than its counterpart Chemscore. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Bone scan can be spared in asymptomatic prostate cancer patients with PSA of Gleason score of <=6 at the initial stage of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Shinkai, Takayuki; Nakai, Yasushi; Kuwada, Masaomi; Anai, Satoshi; Miyake, Makito; Hirayama, Akihide; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2011-10-01

    According to several guidelines, it is acceptable to spare a bone scan in the patients who are newly diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer. Our aim is to clarify a suitable group whereby a bone scan could be spared at the initial staging of prostate cancer. Consecutive 857 patients who were newly diagnosed from 2004 through 2009 and received bone scans using technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate at the initial staging were enrolled. The proportion of positive bone metastases by age distribution, prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis, Gleason score and clinical T stage were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of positive bone metastases. Of all 857 patients, 40 patients (4.7%) showed bone metastases. Patients with higher age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage and Gleason score showed significantly higher rate of bone metastases (P Gleason score were independent predictors of bone metastasis. The multivariate analysis showed that both the prostate-specific antigen level >50 ng/ml and the Gleason score ≥4 + 3 were independent predictors of bone metastases. The incidences of bone metastases in patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of ≤20 ng/ml and Gleason score of ≤6 were reasonably low. Collectively, a bone scan is not necessary as a routine examination for these patients at their initial staging of prostate cancer.

  6. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was 7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. A Multi-Center Study of [−2]Pro-Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Combination with PSA and Free PSA for Prostate Cancer Detection in the 2.0 to 10.0 ng/mL PSA Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J.; Partin, Alan W.; Sanda, Martin G.; Wei, John T.; Klee, George G.; Bangma, Chris H.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; Loeb, Stacy; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Roberts, William L.; van Schaik, Ron H.N.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose PSA and free PSA (fPSA) have limited specificity for detecting clinically significant, curable prostate cancer (PCa), leading to unnecessary biopsies and detection and treatment of some indolent tumors. [−2]proPSA (p2PSA) may improve specificity for detecting clinically significant PCa. Our objective was to evaluate p2PSA, fPSA, and PSA in a mathematical formula (prostate health index [phi] = [−2]proPSA / fPSA) × PSA1/2) to enhance specificity for detecting overall and high-grade PCa. Materials and Methods We enrolled 892 men in a prospective multi-institutional trial with no history of PCa, normal rectal examination, a PSA of 2–10 ng/mL, and ≥6- core prostate biopsy. We examined the relationship of serum PSA, %fPSA and phi with biopsy results. The primary endpoints were the specificity and AUC using phi to detect overall and Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer on biopsy compared with %fPSA. Results For the 2–10 ng/mL PSA range, at 80–95% sensitivity, the specificity and AUC (0.703) of phi exceeded those of PSA and %fPSA. Increasing phi was associated with a 4.7-fold increased risk of PCa and 1.61-fold increased risk of Gleason ≥7 disease on biopsy. The AUC for phi (0.724) exceeded that of %fPSA (0.670) in discriminating between PCa with Gleason ≥ 4+3 vs. lower grade disease or negative biopsies. Phi results were not associated with age and prostate volume. Conclusions Phi may be useful in PCa screening to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men age ≥50 years with PSA 2–10 ng/mL and negative DRE, with minimal loss in sensitivity. PMID:21419439

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke; Balslev, Ingegerd; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to prostatectomy and mean ADC values from both cancerous (ADCtumor ) and benign (ADCbenign ) tissue were measured to calculate the ADCratio (ADCtumor divided by ADCbenign ). The ADC measurements were correlated with the Gleason score from the prostatectomy specimens. The association between ADC measurements and Gleason score showed a significant negative correlation (P Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor ) and 0.90 (ADCratio ) when discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3). ADC measurements showed a significant correlation with tumor Gleason score at final pathology. The ADCratio demonstrated the best correlation compared to the ADCtumor value and radically improved accuracy in discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3) tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS, invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b, proportion of positive cores (P+ and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11 and P+ (OR = 8.84. In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31 and P+ (26.43. Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which

  10. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Caruso, Beatrice; Terrin, Alessandro; De Luyk, Nicolò; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Corsi, Paolo; Inverardi, Davide; De Marchi, Davide; Baldassarre, Roberto; Cerruto, Mariangela; Ghimenton, Claudio; Brunelli, Matteo; Zecchini Antoniolli, Stefano; Petrozziello, Aldo; Artibani, Walter

    2016-03-31

    To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA

  11. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  12. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...... showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. CONCLUSION: We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ, or PDA administration compared with PC....

  13. Multiparametric MRI in the PSA Screening Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin K. George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer remains significant public health concern amid growing controversies regarding prostate specific antigen (PSA based screening. The utility of PSA has been brought into question, and alternative measures are investigated to remedy the overdetection of indolent disease and safeguard patients from the potential harms resulting from an elevated PSA. Multiparametric MRI of the prostate has shown promise in identifying patients at risk for clinically significant disease but its role within the current diagnostic and treatment paradigm remains in question. The current review focuses on recent applications of MRI in this pathway.

  14. Significance of Gleason Score 7 With Tertiary Pattern 5 at Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Walaa; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-02-01

    To study the prognostic influence of tertiary pattern 5 (TP5) in radical prostatectomy specimens with a Gleason score of 7. A total of 4060 specimens with a Gleason score of 7 with and without TP5 seen between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were subdivided into 3 + 4 = 7, 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5, 4 + 3 = 7, and 4 + 3 = 7 with TP5. We compared prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, pathologic stage, and surgical margin status between the groups. The impact of TP5 on biochemical recurrence was also assessed. The median age was 68 years old with a median prostate-specific antigen level of 9.3 ng/mL. TP5 was present in 259 patients (6.4%) with a Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 and in 361 patients (8.9%) with a Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7. The mean follow-up without progression was 3 years. The presence of a tertiary pattern correlated with pathologic stage; the only exception was that there was no statistically significant difference between Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5 and 4 + 3 = 7. Multivariate analysis showed that TP5 was independently associated with biochemical recurrence among patients with a Gleason score of 7 (P Gleason score 7 in radical prostatectomy specimens is still significant using contemporary grading. Moreover, TP5 was independently associated with biochemical recurrence. However, 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5 behaves like 4 + 3 = 7 in terms of biochemical recurrence-free survival rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  16. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  17. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  18. Intermethod differences in results for total PSA, free PSA, and percentage of free PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slev, Patricia R; La'ulu, Sonia L; Roberts, William L

    2008-06-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays differ in calibration and response to different PSA forms. We examined intermethod differences in total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) measurements. We tested 157 samples with tPSA concentrations of 2 to 10 ng/mL (2-10 microg/L) using 6 PSA/fPSA method pairs and 1 tPSA method: ADVIA Centaur (complexed and total; Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY), ARCHITECT i 2000(SR) (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL), AxSYM (Abbott Diagnostics), IMMULITE 2000 (Siemens Diagnostics), Modular E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), UniCel DxI 800 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA), and VITROS ECi (tPSA only; Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ). Regression analysis was performed for PSA, fPSA, and percentage of fPSA with the ARCHITECT i 2000(SR) comparison method. Differences between test and comparison methods were estimated at 2.5, 4.0, and 10.0 ng/mL (2.5, 4.0, and 10.0 microg/L) for tPSA and 15%, 20%, and 25% for percentage of fPSA. Relative differences were more than 10% at 4.0 ng/mL (4.0 microg/L) tPSA for the Centaur, IMMULITE, ECi, and DxI methods. At 20% fPSA, the relative difference was more than 10% for all methods except the AxSYM. Additional harmonization is needed for tPSA and fPSA methods.

  19. [Value of PI-RADS v2 scores combined with prostate specific antigen in diagnosis of peripheral zone prostate cancer: a logistic regression analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li-Zhi; Xu, Yi-Kai; Hou, Mei-Rong; He, Meng-Qi

    2017-08-20

    To assess the value of Prostate Imaging and Reporting and Data System: Version 2 (PI-RADS v2) combined with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis of peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer (PCa). The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and PSA data were ananlyzed for 69 patients with pathologically confirmed PCa and 109 non-PCa patients. PI-RADS v2 scores (1-5) was used to evaluate the risk of PZ PCa. The total PSA (tPSA) level, free to total PSA ratio (f/t PSA), PSA density (PSAD), PZ-PSAD and PI-RADS v2 scores were compared between the PCa and non-PCa patients. Logistic regression models were established with parameters that differed significantly the two groups. The receiver opearting characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed based on the P values derived from the logical regression models and PI-RADS scores to assess the diagnostic efficiency. PI-RADS v2 score, tPSA, f/t PSA, PSAD and PZ-PSAD differed significantly between the two groups (PPI-RADS v2+ 0.223tPSA (A), Logit P=-4.354+1.586PI-RADS v2-12.7841f/tPSA (B), Logit P=-8.993+1.630PI-RADS v2+17.091PSAD (C), and Logit P=-9.434+1.596PI-RADS v2+10.494PZ-PSAD (D), whose area under the ROC curves was 0.908, 0.891, 0.944, and 0.961, respectively, all significantly greater than that of PI-RADS v2 score (PPI-RADS v2 score alone, the combination of PI-RADS v2 score and PSA in the logistic regression model can improve the diagnostic efficiency of PZ PCa and offers better confidence in the decision of biopsy in suspected cases.

  20. Health-related Quality of Life Scores Changes Significantly within the First Three Months After Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    or change of scores on PROMs as a function of time after hernia repair, we compared the CCS scores with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores reflecting the subdomains of the CCS. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients completed the study. CCS scores for QoL, pain, sensation of mesh, and activity limitations...... changed significantly with time during the 90-day study period. Furthermore, CCS and VAS showed significant agreement and correlation (ρ = 0.52-0.82, P

  1. Babesiosis PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This 60 second PSA describes babesiosis, a preventable and treatable tickborne disease, including the signs and symptoms of infection and ways to prevent it.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/26/2012.

  2. Positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy: Population-based averages within PSA and Gleason strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Jason P; Salazar, Marco A; Chatterjee, Suman; Lin, Daniel W; Wright, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) are an important determinant of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP). We use a population-based cancer registry to evaluate PSM by stage, Gleason and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). We identified men undergoing RP from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2004 and 2007. Differences between those with and without PSM were compared with chi-squared tests. The proportion of cases with PSM were stratified by PSA and Gleason sum for both pT2 and pT3a tumours. Factors associated with PSM were analyzed using chi square and multivariate logistic regression analysis. A composite variable was used in a second multivariate analysis to display the odds ratio (OR) for a PSM for each discrete combination of PSA, Gleason score and pT stage. In total, 28 461 RP patients were identified and a PSM was present in 19.5%. PSM were 42% in pT3a and 16% in pT2 cases. Higher PSAs (10) were associated with higher proportions of PSM (12%, 20% and 28%, p strata compared to those with pT2 tumours, reaching 63% for those with pT3a, Gleason 8-10, PSA >10 disease. On multivariate analysis, stage was the largest predictor for PSM (OR 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.81-3.30), although Gleason score and PSA remained statistically significant. In this population-based study of PSM after RP, the proportion of PSM vary significantly within different PSA and Gleason strata for organ-confined and extracapsular disease. These data can be used as a reference for urologist self-assessment.

  3. Association of Polymorphisms in the Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Gene Promoter with Serum PSA Level and PSA Changes after Dutasteride Treatment in Korean Men with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Woon; Kim, Chul Sung; Lee, Gilho

    2010-12-01

    Studies of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene have improved the diagnostic accuracy of PSA for diagnosing prostate diseases in Caucasians. However, the reference ranges and pharmacokinetics of PSA differ significantly according to race. Therefore, we evaluated the association between genetic variations in the PSA promoter area and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) phenotypes in Korean BPH patients. One hundred twenty-one men were enrolled. The initial serum PSA level, prostate size, and PSA changes at 3 months after treatment with dutasteride were determined. We amplified the promoter region of the PSA gene (nucleotide positions -158 to -356 and -5217 to -5429) and sequenced the products. Three relatively well characterized single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs3760722, rs266867, and rs266868), six uncharacterized SNPs (rs17554958, rs266882, rs4802754, rs2739448, rs2569733, and rs17526278), and one novel SNP (nucleotide position -5402) were found. There were no statistically significant correlations between any of the SNPs of the PSA promoter area and age-adjusted prostate sizes, initial PSA levels, or PSA variations after 3 months of dutasteride treatment. SNPs in the PSA promoter area were not associated with BPH phenotypes. We could not predict serum PSA changes after dutasteride treatment on the basis of PSA promoter genotype in Korean patients with BPH.

  4. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  5. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy...... between ADC measurements and the Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor...

  6. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  7. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  8. Comparison between Use of PSA Kinetics and Bone Marrow Micrometastasis to Define Local or Systemic Relapse in Men with Biochemical Failure after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nigel P; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Orellana, Nelson; Jacob, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is largely empirically based. The use of PSA kinetics has been used as a guide to determine local or systemic treatment of biochemical failure. We here compared PSA kinetics with detection of bone marrow micrometastasis as methods to determine local or systemic relapse. A transversal study was conducted of men with biochemical failure, defined as a serum PSA >0.2ng/ml after radical prostatectomy. Consecutive patients having undergone radical prostatectomy and with biochemical failure were enrolled and clinical and pathological details were recorded. Bone marrow biopsies were obtained from the iliac crest and touch prints made, micrometastasis (mM) being detected using anti-PSA. The clinical parameters of total serum PSA, PSA velocity, PSA doubling time and time to biochemical failure, age, Gleason score and pathological stage were registered. A total of 147 men, mean age 71.6 ± 8.2 years, with a median time to biochemical failure of 5.5 years (IQR 1.0-6.3 years) participated in the study. Bone marrow samples were positive for micrometastasis in 98/147 (67%) of patients at the time of biochemical failure. The results of bone marrow micrometastasis detected by immunocytochemistry were not concordant with local relapse as defined by PSA velocity, time to biochemical failure or Gleason score. In men with a PSA doubling time of 2,5ng/ml at the time of biochemical failure the detection of bone marrow micrometastasis was significantly higher. The detection of bone marrow micrometastasis could be useful in defining systemic relapse, this minimally invasive procedure warranting further studies with a larger group of patients.

  9. Serum total PSA and free PSA in breast tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Prakruti; Pati, Sanghamitra; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Sahu, Pratima Kumari; Mohapatra, Prakash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Now a days measurement of molecular forms of PSA has gained importance in clinical practice. Several studies have demonstrated the production of PSA in female tissues, such as breast. The present piece of work has been undertaken with an objective to estimate the relative proportion of the molecular forms of PSA in serum along with serum testosterone in benign and malignant breast tumor cases and to analyze their association with the severity of the disease process 34 malignant and 26 benign ...

  10. Prognostic implications of immediate PSA response to early salvage radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner I I, Robert M; Yabes, Jonathan G; Woldemichael, Elen; Deutsch, Melvin M; Smith, Ryan P; Werner, Robert S; Jacobs, Bruce L; Nelson, Joel B

    2016-12-01

    Up to 25% of men with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy will recur. In this setting, salvage radiotherapy may cure patients with local recurrence, but is unable to cure those with occult metastatic disease. The objective of this study is to examine how prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to radiotherapy predicts subsequent disease progression and survival. Using a prospectively populated database of 3089 men who underwent open radical prostatectomy, 212 patients (7%) were identified who received early salvage radiotherapy for biochemical recurrence. The main outcome was time to disease progression after salvage radiotherapy. Patients were stratified by PSA response after radiotherapy: 1) PSA radiotherapy at a median PSA of 0.20 ng/mL (IQR 0.10-0.30 ng/mL). At a median follow up of 47.3 months, a total of 52 (25%) patients experienced disease progression. On multivariable analysis, both persistent PSA (HR 5.12; 95% CI 1.98-13.23) and rising PSA (HR 16.55; 95% CI 6.61-41.48) were associated with increased risk of disease progression compared to those with PSA radiotherapy PSA, Gleason score, margin status, stage, and time to radiotherapy. Only rising PSA was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. PSA response is associated with the risk of disease progression following salvage radiotherapy. This information can be used to counsel patients on the potential need for additional therapy and identify those at greatest risk for progression and cancer-related mortality.

  11. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Christopher JF

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  12. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Total PSA, Percentage Free PSA, PSA Velocity, and PSA Density versus the Detection of Primary Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting Initial Prostate Biopsy Findings in Chilean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. PSA parameters have been used in an attempt to improve the diagnostic yield of prostate screening tests; the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs may improve the diagnostic yield of screening and therefore avoid unnecessary biopsies. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of all men undergoing initial prostate biopsy due to an elevated total serum PSA. Free percent PSA, PSA velocity, and PSA density were determined. Primary CPCs were detected using standard immunocytochemistry. A positive test for CPCs was defined as one cell PSA (+ P504S (+ in an 8 ml blood sample. Positive predictive and negative predictive values, specificity, and sensitivity were calculated for each test as well as the number of biopsies avoided and cancers missed. Results. 303 men participated in the study of whom 113/303 (37.3% men had prostate cancer. Of the three PSA based parameters, free percent PSA was superior, sensitivity 70.8%, and specificity 67.4%. Primary CPCs detection had a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 88.4% avoiding 181 (59.7% biopsies, detecting 93/95 (98% of clinically significant cancers, and missing 13 (11.5% low grade, small volume tumors. Conclusions. The use of primary CPCs as a sequential test could decrease the number of initial prostate biopsies missing those cancers which are treated by active observation.

  13. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In this retrospective study we assessed the predictive value of the coronary calcium score for significant (>50%) stenosis relative to conventional risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  14. Co-introduction of a steroid with docetaxel chemotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer affects PSA flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Yokomizo, Akira; Takeuchi, Ario; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Shiga, Ken-Ichiro; Koga, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Akito; Naito, Seiji; Eto, Masatoshi

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the potential relationship of steroid usage with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) flare as well as the prognostic impact of PSA flare, which is known to occur in 10-20% of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer during docetaxel chemotherapy. This study included 71 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated by docetaxel chemotherapy with co-introduction of a steroid. PSA flare was defined as a transient PSA increase followed by a PSA decrease. PSA flare was recognized in 7.0-23.9% of patients according to the definition used. Intriguingly, men with steroid intake before the initiation of docetaxel chemotherapy experienced significantly fewer PSA flares. The progression-free survival rate in men with PSA flare was equivalent to that of PSA responders, but significantly better than men with PSA failure. Our results suggest that de novo steroid co-introduction with docetaxel chemotherapy induces the PSA flare phenomenon. This novel finding may account for the mechanism of PSA flare as well as being valuable for distinguishing PSA elevation attributable to PSA flare from that attributable to PSA failure. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identification of significant obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese patient: development of the novel DX-OSA score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoroja, Daniela D; Cioc, Dan Adrian

    2016-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese surgical patients. We investigated the extent to which anthropometric measurements can be used to identify the presence of significant OSA (Apnoea/Hypopnoea Index (AHI) ≥ 20) in adult patients. We prospectively studied 1357 adult patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Prior to surgery, body mass index (BMI), gender, neck circumference, STOP-Bang score, SpO2, neck and trunk fat (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) were recorded. All patients with a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 underwent polysomnography. Auto-titrated Positive Airway Pressure (APAP) therapy was instituted when AHI ≥ 20/h. Predictors of OSA were identified and their cut-off values determined. In total, 1357 patients were screened; 345 patients underwent preoperative polysomnography; 190 had AHI ≥ 20/h and received APAP treatment. The novel Dual X-Ray-Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (DX-OSA) score was derived from the data. The score included 6 items: the STOP-Bang score, BMI, neck fat, trunk fat, baseline SpO2, and Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), and its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive values, negative-predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities determined. At a cut-off of 3, the DX-OSA score had the same sensitivity as the STOP-bang score, but better specificity. The lowest likelihood ratio was found for STOP-Bang and the highest for the DX-OSA score (OSA probability > 83%). The DX-OSA score may be useful for identifying obese patients with significant OSA who require CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment, and CPAP could be commenced without the need for polysomnography, therefore, without delaying surgery.

  16. Significance of periacinar cleftings as supporting criteria in diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason score-a 7 (3+4 and Gleason score-a 7 (4+3 and their relationship with parameters of predictive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of different pathohystological diseases of prostate in the most cases is based on common benignant and malignant characteristics. The presence of periacinar cleftings (PC is an additional criterion favouring prostatic adenocarcinoma. According to the presence and extent of PC, analysed on high power field (400x, glands were classified into 3 groups: group 1-glands without PC or with PC affecting ≤50% of gland circumference; group 2-glands with PC affecting >50% gland circumference in 50% gland circumference in ≥50% examined glands. The aim of our study was to determine the importance of presence of PC in prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADCP of Gleason score 7(3+4 and 7(4+3 and establish the existence of differences in their appearance at ADCP with first and second dominant histological grade 3 and 4 in each different relationship based on correlation analysis of PC and parameters of the predictive value (preoperative value of serum prostate specific antigen, tumor volume, clinical stage and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7, 26 (78.79% ADCP 7(3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7(4+3. In ADCP Gleason 7(3+4 periacinar cleftings are more common in tumors that are smaller, better differentiated (produce more PSA, which is diagnosed in less advanced clinical stages and showing a less degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. In ADCP Gleason 7(4+3 periacinar cleftings are more common in tumors which produce less value of serum PSA (poorly differentiated and in tumors that are diagnosed in advanced clinical stages. Periacinar cleftings are common findings in prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason score 7(4+3 which are considerd as tumors with worse prognosis. Because of all we can rank PC among the important additional criteria for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  17. Diagnostic Role of Serum Free-to-Total Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Ratio in Prostate Cancer with Serum Total Concentration of PSA below 4 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Lee, Yi-Chen; Tsai, Huang-Wen; Yii, Shyi-Chun; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of serum free-to-total prostate specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with different serum total PSA (tPSA) categories. From January 2010 to December 2013, a total of 225 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) underwent tPSA and %fPSA measurements. Histological examination with calculation of Gleason score and whole body bone scans were performed in identified cases of PCa. PCa was diagnosed in 44 (19.6%) patients and the remaining 181 patients had benign prostate disease. PCa was detected in 5 (23.8%), 13 (8.7%) and 26 (47.3%) cases with tPSA level ranges≤4 ng/ml, 4 to 10 ng/ml and >10 ng/ml, respectively. The average Gleason score was 7.2±0.2. Some 6 (13.6%) out of 44 PCa patients had bone metastases. The sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 81.3% at the cut-off %fPSA of 15% in PCa patients with a tPSA level below 4 ng/ mL. A lower %fPSA was associated with PCa patients with Gleason score≥7 than those with Gleason score≤6 (11.7±0.98 vs. 16.5±2.25%, P=0.029). No obvious relation of %fPSA to the incidence of bone metastasis was apparent in this study. The clinical application of %fPSA could help to discriminate PCa from benign prostate disease in men with a tPSA concentration below 4 ng/mL.

  18. Upgrade in Gleason score between prostate biopsies and pathology following radical prostatectomy significantly impacts upon the risk of biochemical recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Niall M; Hong, Matthew K H; Casey, Rowan G; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Peters, Justin; Harewood, Laurence; Goldenberg, S Larry; Hovens, Chris M; Costello, Anthony J; Gleave, Martin E

    2011-10-01

    •To determine the effect of an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and final prostatectomy specimen on the risk of postoperative biochemical recurrence. •A total of 1629 patients with paired biopsy and radical prostatectomy histology were identified from two prospectively recorded prostate cancer databases. •Information on key clinical and pathological characteristics as well as prostate-specific antigen follow-up was recorded. •Patients who experienced an upgrade in their Gleason score were compared with corresponding patients with concordant tumours of the lower and higher grade. •Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate models were generated to examine the impact of Gleason score upgrade on the risk of postoperative biochemical recurrence. •Overall, 466 patients (28.6%) experienced an upgrade in their Gleason score post radical prostatectomy, in 88.4% of cases involving a change in a single Gleason score point. •Patients upgraded from Gleason 6 (3 + 3) to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) had pathological characteristics that were very similar to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) concordant tumours, with an identical risk of biochemical recurrence. In contrast, patients upgraded from Gleason score 6 (3 + 3) to Gleason 7 (4 + 3) had tumours with pathological characteristics intermediate between the two concordant groups, which was mirrored by their risk of biochemical recurrence. •Patients with Gleason 7 tumours who experienced a change in the predominant pattern from 3 + 4 to 4 + 3 had tumours that resembled Gleason 7 (4 + 3) concordant tumours, with a similar risk of biochemical recurrence. In contrast, patients upgraded from Gleason 7 to Gleason >7 had tumours with intermediate pathological characteristics, and a risk of biochemical recurrence that was significantly different to concordant tumours of the lower and higher grade. •In multivariate models, a change in Gleason score was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in the preoperative

  19. Prostate specific antigen level and Gleason score in predicting the stage of newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J A; Chng, W J; Hudson, E; Boon, A P; Whelan, P

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score in the prediction of disease stage in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. 102 consecutive men, newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and candidates for radical therapy, underwent contrast enhanced pelvic CT and skeletal scintigraphy. Staging examinations used the TNM classification and were reported prospectively with the radiologist blinded to the patient's Gleason score and level of PSA. Lymph node metastasis was confirmed by CT guided biopsy, lymphadenectomy or response to therapy in some cases of massive disease. There were significant differences between the mean PSA values of 18 men with and 84 men without skeletal metastases (p = 0.01) and between men with locally confined and non-confined disease (p = 0.02). There was no difference between PSA values of 13 men with and 89 men without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.9). Only one man with CT evidence of nodal metastasis (N + ve) had a PSA value below 20 ng ml-1. Two men with Gleason scores below 6 were N + ve and both had PSA values over 20 ng ml-1. One man with skeletal metastasis had a PSA value below 20 ng ml-1 but had bone pain. For this study group if only those men with PSA values over 20 ng ml-1 had been examined, sensitivity for lymphatic and skeletal metastasis would have been 92%. Using this threshold about one-third would have been spared imaging investigation. In conclusion, pelvic CT and skeletal scintigraphy are unlikely to show metastatic disease in a man newly diagnosed with prostate cancer who has no suggestive clinical features, a PSA level below 20 ng ml-1 and a Gleason score below 6.

  20. PI-RADS Version 2: Detection of Clinically Significant Cancer in Patients With Biopsy Gleason Score 6 Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Won; Shin, Su-Jin; Taik Oh, Young; Jung, Dae Chul; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Park, Sung Yoon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) in the detection of a clinically significant cancers in patients with prostate cancers with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. A group of 182 consecutively registered patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 underwent MRI and radical prostatectomy. Clinically significant cancer was surgically defined as Gleason score of 7 or greater, tumor volume of 0.5 cm 3 or greater, or tumor category T3 or greater. Clinical parameters (prostate-specific antigen level, greatest percentage of biopsy core, and percentage of positive cores) and the PI-RADSv2 ratings by three independent readers (experienced readers 1 and 2, inexperienced reader 3) were investigated. Cutoffs and the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 for clinically significant cancer were analyzed. Clinically significant cancer was found in 87.4% (159/182) of patients. The cutoff PI-RADSv2 score for clinically significant cancer was 4 for readers 1 and 2 and 5 for reader 3. The AUCs were 0.829 and 0.853 for readers 1 and 2 (p value, 95.3% (143/150); negative predictive value, 50.0% (16/32); and accuracy, 87.4% (159/182). The corresponding values for reader 2 were 81.1% (129/159), 82.6% (19/23), 97.0% (129/133), 38.8% (19/49), and 81.3% (148/182). For the experienced readers, 66.7-81.3% of patients with false-negative results had clinically significant cancers with tumor volume less than 1 cm 3 . PI-RADSv2 may help experienced readers identify clinically significant prostate cancers in patients with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. However, some small (PI-RADSv2 is used.

  1. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population......CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population....... sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk...

  2. [Fast test serum PSA determination (Sd Bioline PSA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, Francisco Serrano de la Cruz; Alcina, Emilio López; Escudero, Joaquín Ulises Juan; Deltoro, Milagros Fabuel; García, Ana Montoliu; Romaguera, Arcadio Real; de Campos, Macarena Ramos; Vidal, Emilio Marqués

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years numerous semiquantitative PSA tests have appeared, based on serum or plasma immunochromatography. We present our experience using the SD BIOLINE PSA test, which is performed with plasma or serum for fast qualitative determination of PSA; the cutpoint is 3 ng/ml. We analized 54 patients who were admitted in our hospital ward. Two blood samples were obtained from every patient, one for cuantitative PSA determination at the hospital laboratory and the other one for qualitative determination with the SD BIOLINE PSA test, and the results were compared.. Two urologists independently interpreted the test without knowing the PSA values from the lab. To calculate the effect of test reading time, readings were performed at 15, 20 and 25 minutes. Results were classified in a classic contingency table, which enabled us to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the test, as well as positive and negative predictive values. Mean age was 71. 1 years (range 43-96 yr). From 54 patients in the study 26 (48. 14%) had a PSA > 3 ng/ml (Mean 18.5 ng/ml, range 3.9-66.9 ng/ml) and 28 (51.86%) PSA < 3 ng/ml (mean 0.8 ng/mL, range 0-2.9 ng/mL), in the conventional test. Results for each interval and observer were: 15 min: Observer 1: Sensitivity (S) 76,92%, specificity (E) 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) 82.35%; Observer 2: S 76.92%, E 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 82.35%. 20 minutes: Observer 1: S 100%, E 93.33%, PPV 92.30%, NPV 100%; Observer 2: S 100%, E 93.33%, PPV 92.30%, NPV 100%. 25 minutes: Observer 1: S 100%, E 85.71%, PPV 86.66%, NPV 100%; Observer 2: S 92.30%, E 92.85%, PPV 92.30%, NPV 92.85%. The SD Bioline PSA test complies with the characteristics required to be used as a test for prostate cancer detection, it is simple, fast, cheap, not much invasive, and has a good efficacy.

  3. Prognostic significance of global grading system of Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, Tsunehito; Oyama, Tetsunari; Segawa, Atsuki; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the influence of the revised Gleason grading system (GGS, revised at a consensus conference organized by the International Society of Urological Pathology in 2005) on prediction of prognosis for patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Prostatic needle biopsy specimens from 113 patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis were scored using the conventional GGS (CGGS), modified global GGS (MGGGS), and modified highest GGS (MHGGS). The patients were divided into two groups (Gleason score or = 8) using each grading system. Prostate-specific antigen failure-free survival after hormone therapy (HT) was estimated retrospectively. The Cox proportional hazard method was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Patients with a Gleason score of score of > or = 8 according to each GGS. However, the better prognosis patients were detected more precisely by the CGGS and MGGGS than the MHGGS. Multivariate analysis showed that the CGGS and MGGGS were significant prognostic indicators for the outcome of HT after adjustment for other prognostic factors. These results suggest that the CGGS and MGGGS are more useful than the MHGGS as prognostic indicators for HT. Further evaluation in larger series is needed to define its clinical usefulness.

  4. Incidence of histological prostatitis and its correlation with PSA density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Piovesan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of asymptomatic, histologically proven prostatitis in men with symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia and to observe the correlation between asymptomatic prostatitis and prostate specific antigen (PSA density. INTRODUCTION: The incidence of type IV prostatitis is unknown. There is a tendency to correlate the presence of inflammatory prostatitis with an elevation of PSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From August 2000 to January 2006, 183 patients who underwent surgical treatment for benign prostate hyperplasia as a result of obstructive or irritative symptoms were prospectively studied. In accordance with the histology findings, these patients were divided into two groups: group I included patients with the presence of histological prostatitis and group II included patients with the absence of histological prostatitis. The mean PSA densities were compared. RESULTS: Histological evidence of prostatitis was observed in 145 patients. In this group, the mean PSA density was 0.136 ± 0.095. In 38 cases, there was no evidence of inflammation upon histological examination of the surgical samples. In these 38 cases, the mean PSA density was 0.126 ± 0.129. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups; the p-value is 0.124. CONCLUSION: Abnormal PSA density should not be attributed to the inflammatory prostatitis process.

  5. Altered glycosylation pattern allows the distinction between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from normal and tumor origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Rosa; Tabarés, Glòria; Royle, Louise; Harvey, David J; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; de Llorens, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein secreted by prostate epithelial cells. PSA is currently used as a marker of prostate carcinoma because high levels of PSA are indicative of a tumor situation. However, PSA tests still suffer from a lack of specificity to distinguish between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. To determine whether PSA glycosylation could provide a means of differentiating between PSA from normal and tumor origins, N-glycan characterization of PSA from seminal fluid and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP cell line) by sequencing analysis and mass spectrometry was carried out. Glycans from normal PSA (that correspond to low and high pI PSA fractions) were sialylated biantennary complex structures, half of them being disialylated in the low pI PSA fraction and mostly monosialylated in the high pI PSA. PSA from LNCaP cells was purified to homogeneity, and its glycan analysis showed a significantly different pattern, especially in the outer ends of the biantennary complex structures. In contrast to normal PSA glycans, which were sialylated, LNCaP PSA oligosaccharides were all neutral and contained a higher fucose content. In 10-15% of the structures fucose was linked alpha1-2 to galactose, forming the H2 epitope absent in normal PSA. GalNAc was increased in LNCaP glycans to 65%, whereas in normal PSA it was only present in 25% of the structures. These carbohydrate differences allow a distinction to be made between PSA from normal and tumor origins and suggest a valuable biochemical tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes.

  6. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What ... the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of ...

  7. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  8. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  9. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  10. Image Guided Hypofractionated Radiotherapy by Helical Tomotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Toxicity and Impact on Nadir PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvina Barra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the toxicity of a hypofractionated schedule for primary radiotherapy (RT of prostate cancer as well as the value of the nadir PSA (nPSA and time to nadir PSA (tnPSA as surrogate efficacy of treatment. Material and Methods. Eighty patients underwent hypofractionated schedule by Helical Tomotherapy (HT. A dose of 70.2 Gy was administered in 27 daily fractions of 2.6 Gy. Acute and late toxicities were graded on the RTOG/EORTC scales. The nPSA and the tnPSA for patients treated with exclusive RT were compared to an equal cohort of 20 patients treated with conventional fractionation and standard conformal radiotherapy. Results. Most of patients (83% did not develop acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicity and 50% did not present genitourinary (GU toxicity. After a median follow-up of 36 months only grade 1 of GU and GI was reported in 6 and 3 patients as late toxicity. Average tnPSA was 30 months. The median value of nPSA after exclusive RT with HT was 0.28 ng/mL and was significantly lower than the median nPSA (0.67 ng/mL of the conventionally treated cohort (P=0.02. Conclusions. Hypofractionated RT schedule with HT for prostate cancer treatment reports very low toxicity and reaches a low level of nPSA that might correlate with good outcomes.

  11. [Prostate specific antigen--PSA and histopathological findings of endometrium in women with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowicki, Stanisław; Kunicki, Michał

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum free and total PSA and histopathological findings in women with fibrocystic mastopathy. 176 women with fibrocystic breast disease, aged 18 to 45 years.--Group I: comprised 114 patients with cysts 10 mm in diameter. The control group consisted of 46 healthy women aged 18 - 45 years who had no breast pathology Total PSA (PSA-T) and free PSA (PSA-Free) were measured by an ultra-sensitive fluoroimmunometric DELFIA assay (Prostatus PSA Free/Total Wallac, Turku, Finland). The detection limit for PSA was 0.01 ng/ml. Endometrial samples have been obtained with Pipelle probe between 22 and 24 days of the menstrual cycle. In the control group secretory endometrium was more frequently detected than in the mastopathy group (chi2 = 11,15, p = 0.01). Proliferatory (chi2 = 8.27, p = 0.004) and presecretory endometrium (chi2 = 4.61, p = 0.03) were more frequently detected in the mastopathy group than in controls. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the mean PSA concentrations between the groups in relation to histopathological findings. No relationships between free and total PSA measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and endometrial findings were detected in our study. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between PSA and endometrial findings.

  12. Development of a PSA information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Seok; Dong Kyu, Kim; Sun Koo, Kang [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In general, Probabilistic Safety Agreement (PSA) is a very complicated work that uses and generates a lot of resources such as reports, procedures, drawings, assumptions, calculation sheets, PSA model, and so on. In many PSAs, however, the data, materials and knowledge considered and generated during performing PSA are scattered in many documents so that overall structure of PSA and information relationship between documents and models cannot easily be understood. To organize and manage all documents related to PSA, to capture knowledge of analysts, and finally to improve the quality of PSA, a PSA information management system (PIMS) was developed. The PIMS can manage all the documents of a PSA in a database and connect the causal relation between one information to another in the scattered documents via link. The PIMS can manage all the assumptions and technical basis used in PSA, and it can keep the record of the design changes the revision of PSA model. It can also control the review results of PSA models. The link of the PIMS can explicitly describe and reveal the expertise of the PSA analysts, and it enables the users to capture the knowledge and to understand the structure and contents of a PSA with ease. We are planning to apply the PIMS to the PSA of Shin Kori Units 1 and 2 as feasibility study and then to all the PSAs of the nuclear power plants in Korea. The PIMS is expected to contribute to enhancing the quality and confidence of PSA and reducing the efforts and costs of maintenance and update of PSA. (authors)

  13. Using Propensity Score Analysis for Making Causal Claims in Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    The central role of the propensity score analysis (PSA) in observational studies is for causal inference; as such, PSA is often used for making causal claims in research articles. However, there are still some issues for researchers to consider when making claims of causality using PSA results. This summary first briefly reviews PSA, followed by…

  14. Prognostic significance of APACHE II score and plasma suPAR in Chinese patients with sepsis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Shen, Yong; Li, Zhihua; Fei, Aihua; Wang, Hairong; Ge, Qinmin; Pan, Shuming

    2016-07-29

    Timely risk stratification is the key strategy to improve prognosis of patients with sepsis. Previous study has proposed to develop a powerful risk assessment rule by the combination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). That reaffirmation of suPAR as a prognostic marker in Chinese patients with severe sepsis is the aim of the study. A total of 137 consecutive Chinese patients with sepsis were enrolled in a prospective study cohort. Demographic and clinical characteristics, conventional risk factors and important laboratory data were prospectively recorded. Sequential plasma suPAR concentrations were measured by an enzymeimmunoabsorbent assay on days 1, 3, and 7 after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis were used to examine the performance of suPAR in developing a rule for risk stratification. The results showed that plasma suPAR concentrations remained relatively stable within survivors and non-survivors during the first week of disease course. Regression analysis indicated that APACHE II ≥15 and suPAR ≥10.82 ng/mL were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. With the above cutoffs of APACHE II and suPAR, strata of disease severity were determined. The mortality of each stratum differed significantly from the others. Combination of APACHE II score and suPAR may supply the powerful prognostic utility for the mortality of sepsis.

  15. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  16. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  17. Simple Risk Stratification to Detect Prostate Cancer with High Gleason Score in Repeat Biopsies in a Population Screening Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Urata, Satoko; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Kazuyoshi; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Miyazaki, Kimiomi; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the clinical usefulness of percentage free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) and PSA velocity (PSAV) for detecting prostate cancer in repeat biopsies in a population-based screening cohort. In total, 178 men with serum PSA levels within 2.1-10 ng/ml who underwent repeat biopsies after initial negative biopsy results, were enrolled. Prostate cancer detection rates with a Gleason score of 7 or more according to age, serum PSA, %fPSA, and PSAV were investigated. The cumulative probability of detecting cancer according to risk factors was also investigated. Out of 178 men who underwent repeat biopsy, 48 (27.0%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the observation period, and pathological examination revealed prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 7 or more in 17 patients (35.4%). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, %fPSA ≤ 12 at repeat biopsy and PSAV >0.40 ng/ml/year were determined to be independent risk factors for prostate cancer, and %fPSA ≤ 12 at initial biopsy and PSAV >0.40 for cancer of Gleason score 7 or greater. The cumulative probabilities of developing high-grade cancer after 5 years were 55.8% and 4.0% in men with %fPSA ≤ 12 at initial biopsy and PSAV >0.40, and in men without both, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in probabilities between groups by the log-rank test. The present results demonstrated that %fPSA and PSAV were predictors of prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 7 or more in repeat biopsy after a negative initial biopsy on a population follow-up basis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells by anti-PsaA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Pilishvili, Tamar; Sampson, Jacquelyn S; Johnson, Scott E; Stinson, Annie; Carlone, George M; Ades, Edwin W

    2003-03-01

    The role of pneumococcal (Pnc) surface adhesin A (PsaA) in the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) to host cells is not well defined. We examined the effect of anti-PsaA antibodies in an inhibition of adherence assay using Detroit 562 nasopharyngeal human epithelial cells. Rabbit polyclonal (Pab) anti-recombinant PsaA (rPsaA) sera, a purified mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) (MAb 6F62G8E12), and 22 healthy adult sera with known anti-PsaA IgG levels (obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit Pnc adherence to confluent monolayers (measured as percent reduction in CFU counts compared to those of uninhibited controls). Pnc adherence was dependent on capsular phenotype (no or low adherence for opaque strains). With an inoculum of 10(4) to 10(5) bacteria/well, the mean +/- standard deviation count in controls was 163 +/- 32 CFU/well for transparent strains. Low adherence was observed for a PsaA-minus mutant even at higher inoculum doses. Mean percent inhibitions of adherence with Pab and MAb were 54 and 50%, respectively. Adult sera showed inhibition in a dose-response fashion with a range of 98 to 8%, depending on the serum anti-PsaA antibody concentration. Absorption of Pab with rPsaA restored Pnc adherence to control levels. Absorption of sera with a PsaA-minus mutant did not result in a significant decrease (P >0.05) of inhibition of adherence activity. Additionally, nearly 100% of Pnc adherence was inhibited by lipidated rPsaA at 2.5 micro g/ml. Our data support the argument that PsaA is an adhesin that mediates Pnc adherence to human nasopharyngeal cells. This functional assay may be useful in evaluating antibodies elicited in response to PsaA vaccination.

  19. External validation of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score : Ruling out significant abdominal injury in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Stoepker, Leon; Nellensteijn, David R.; Groen, Henk; El Moumni, Mostafa; Hulscher, Jan B.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the use of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score. The BATiC score uses only readily available laboratory parameters, ultrasound results, and results from physical examination and does therefore not carry any risk of additional

  20. Accuracy of PSA Self-Reports among Low-Income Men with Prostate Cancer after a Public Health Nursing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Mary Wassel; Yule, Arthur; Kwan, Lorna; Lambrechts, Sylvia; Maliski, Sally L; Litwin, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    To examine accuracy of patient-reported prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among indigent, uninsured men in a state-funded prostate cancer treatment program that provides case management, care coordination, and health education. Program evaluation. About 114 men with matched self- and lab-reported PSA levels at program enrollment and another time point within 18 months. Abstraction of self- and lab-reported PSA levels to determine self-report as "accurate" or "inaccurate," and evaluate accuracy change over time, before and after nursing interventions. Chi-square tests compared patients with accurate versus inaccurate PSA values. Nonlinear multivariate analyses explored trends in self-reported accuracy over time. Program enrollees receive prostate cancer education from a Nurse Case Manager (NCM), including significance of PSA levels. Men self-report PSA results to their NCM following lab draws and appointments. The NCM provides ongoing education about PSA levels. Of the sample, 46% (n = 53) accurately reported PSA levels. Accuracy of PSA self-reports improved with increasing time since program enrollment. Compared with men at public facilities, those treated at private facilities showed increasing accuracy in self-reported PSA (p = .038). A targeted nursing intervention may increase specific knowledge of PSA levels. Additionally, the provider/treatment setting significantly impacts a patient's disease education and knowledge. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prognostic significance of global grading system of Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kambara, Tsunehito; Oyama, Tetsunari; Segawa, Atsuki; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    ...) on prediction of prognosis for patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prostatic needle biopsy specimens from 113 patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis were scored using the conventional GGS (CGGS...

  2. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  3. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P < 0·001), PDAI (P < 0·001), PGA (P < 0·001) and DLQI (P = 0·03) scores. This study suggests cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Serum PSA and cure perspective for prostate cancer in males with nonpalpable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many studies have shown the association between PSA levels and the subsequent detection of prostate cancer. In the present trial, we have studied the relationship between preoperative PSA levels and clinical outcome following radical prostatectomy in men with clinical stage T1c. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 257 individuals with clinical stage T1c undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy were selected in the period from 1991 to 2000. Following surgery, biochemical recurrence-free survival curves were constructed according to PSA levels between 0-4; 4.1-10; 10.1-20 and > 20 ng/mL. RESULTS: Of the total of 257 selected patients, 206 (80% had Gleason scores from 2 to 6 and 51 (20%, presented Gleason scores 7 and 8, as defined by the pathological report from prostate biopsy. There was no biochemical recurrence of disease when the PSA was lower than 4, regardless of Gleason score. Biochemical recurrence-free survival according to PSA between 0-4; 4.1-10; 10.1-20 and > 20 was 100%, 87.6%, 79% and 68.8% for Gleason scores 2-6 and 100%; 79.4%; 40% and 100% for Gleason scores 7-8 respectively. When all individuals were grouped, regardless of their Gleason scores, the probability of biochemical recurrence-free survival was 100%, 65.1%, 53.4% and 72.2% according to PSA between 0-4; 4.1-10; 10.1-20 and > 20 ng/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-palpable prostate cancer presents higher chances of cure when the PSA is inferior to 4 ng/mL.

  5. Factors predicting Gleason score 6 upgrading after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milonas, Daimantas; Grybas, Aivaras; Auskalnis, Stasys; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Baltrimavicius, Ruslanas; Kincius, Marius; Jievaltas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer Gleason score 6 is the most common score detected on prostatic biopsy. We analyzed the clinical parameters that predict the likelihood of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy. The study population consisted of 241 patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between Feb 2002 and Dec 2007 for Gleason score 6 adenocarcinoma. The influence of preoperative parameters on the probability of a Gleason score upgrading after surgery was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression and ROC curves. Gleason score upgrade was found in 92 of 241 patients (38.2%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only percentage of cancer in dominant lobe and prostate weight were significant predictors for Gleason score upgrading (p = 0.043 and p = 0.006, respectively). ROC curves showed that prostate weight and PSA density were only two independent significant parameters for prediction of upgrade (AUC - 0.634, p Gleason score upgrading was observed to be accompanied by significantly higher rates of extra prostatic extension (p Gleason 6 at biopsy are Gleason 7 at surgery. Upgraded tumors significantly associated with adverse pathological features. The probability of Gleason score upgrade can be predicted using prostate weight and PSA density as independent parameters.

  6. Influence of trigger PSA and PSA kinetics on 11C-Choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Fuccio, Chiara; Nanni, Cristina; Santi, Ivan; Rizzello, Anna; Lodi, Filippo; Franceschelli, Alessandro; Martorana, Giuseppe; Manferrari, Fabio; Fanti, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    scan detection rates according to the Gleason score, pT and N status, patient age, or duration between surgery and biochemical relapse. Trigger PSA and PSAvel were found to be independent predictive factors for a PET-positive result (P = 0.002; P = 0.04) and PSAdt was found to be an independent factor only in patients with trigger PSA less than 2 ng/mL (P = 0.05) using multivariate analysis. The (11)C-choline PET/CT detection rate is influenced by trigger PSA, PSAdt, and PSAvel. This finding could be used to improve the selection of patients for scanning by reducing the number of false-negative scans and increasing the detection rate of disease in patients with early relapse and potentially curative disease.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at your PSA result and consider your age, ethnicity, medicines you are taking, and other things to ... things when deciding on the next step: Your age If you had a PSA test ... such as ethnicity and family history Men at high risk may ...

  8. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  9. Impact of total PSA, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity on detection rates of 11C-Choline positron emission tomography in recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybalov, Maxim; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Leliveld, Anna M.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; de Jong, Igle J.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of total PSA (tPSA) and PSA kinetics on the detection rates of (11)C-Choline PET in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). METHODS: We included 185 patients with BCR after RP (PSA >0.2 ng/ml)

  10. Clinicopathologic features and determinants of Gleason score of prostate cancer in Ghanaian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarney, Joel; Vanderpuye, Verna; Mensah, James

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer is reported to be more aggressive in Blacks. We studied the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Ghana, in order to determine the factors responsible for them and to find out if there is any relationship between them. Patients referred with a biopsy proven diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate to the Cancer Center of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from 2003 to 2007 were studied. Information with respect to age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms, initial PSA (iPSA), Gleason score, and disease extent were studied. Age was partitioned into 50-65 and >65 years, Gleason score into 2-6, 7, and 8-10, iPSA into 4-20 ng/ml and >20, and disease extent into T1, T2, vs. T3, T4, M1, and the relationship between them was determined. Various presenting symptoms were described. Known risk factors and screening in a context of high grade disease is discussed. A total of 170 patients were studied. Mean age was 65.4 years. Majority of patients (73.7%) presented with an iPSA > 20 ng/ml, whilst 22 (14.1%) had PSA Gleason score ≥ 7 was found in 95 (56%) of patients. Asymptomatic patients constituted 24.0%, the rest had bone pain (22.6%), urinary (50.4%), and neurologic symptoms (3.0%).There was a statistically significant relationship between age and Gleason score (P = 0.049), PSA and Gleason score (P = 0.0001), and between extent of disease and Gleason score (P = 0.0002). High fat diet and low intake of fruits and vegetables are probable risk factors in Ghana. Majority of patients present with symptomatic disease at a relatively older age. These patients tend to have high Gleason score partly attributable to advanced disease, age, PSA at the time of diagnosis, and race. Screening with PSA should be recommended and individualized in this group of patients in order to allow diagnosis of less aggressive disease until better screening tools are identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-assembled particulate PsaA as vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majela González-Miro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens. The PsaA was translationally fused to a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB synthase which mediated production of PsaA displayed on PHB inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. This suggested that the PsaA fusion to the PHB synthase did not interfere with PHB synthase activity and its ability to mediate formation of nano-sized inclusions composed of a PHB core surrounded by the PHB synthase fused to PsaA. Isolated PHB beads showed a negative surface charge. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that the PsaA fusion to the PHB synthase reduced the size of PHB beads from about 500 nm to 100 nm. The integrity and antigenicity of the fusion protein attached to isolated PHB beads was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, tryptic peptide fingerprinting analysis using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and immunoblotting using a monoclonal anti-PsaA antibody. Mice immunized with PsaA displaying PHB beads produced high and specific IgG levels dominated by IgG1 isotype. While IgG1 titer were similar between soluble and insoluble PsaA, the IgG2 titers were strongly increased upon vaccination with insoluble PsaA i.e. PsaA displayed on PHB beads. Particulate PsaA-PHB beads elicited IgG antibodies recognizing PsaA in whole cell lysates of seven different serotypes of S. pneumoniae. This study suggested that PHB beads are suitable carriers for PsaA in order to induce a significant

  12. Significant relationships between a simple marker of redox balance and lifestyle behaviours; Relevance to the Framingham risk score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Seyedsadjadi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been closely linked to the progressive cell damage associated with emerging non-communicable disease (NCDs. Early detection of these biochemical abnormalities before irreversible cell damage occurs may therefore be useful in identifying disease risk at an individual level. In order to test this hypothesis, this study assessed the relationship between a simple measure of redox status and lifestyle risk factors for NCDs, and the population-based risk score of Framingham. In a cross-sectional study design, 100 apparently healthy middle-aged males (n = 48 and females (n = 52 were asked to complete a comprehensive lifestyle assessment questionnaire, followed by body fat percentage and blood pressure measurements, and blood collection. The ratio of plasma total antioxidant capacity to hydroperoxide (TAC/HPX was used as an index of redox balance. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyse the association between TAC/HPX, lifestyle components and other plasma biomarkers. The TAC/HPX ratio was higher in males compared to females (t96 = 2.34, P = 0.021. TAC/HPX was also lower in participants with poor sleep quality (t93 = 2.39, P = 0.019, with high sleep apnoea risk (t62.2 = 3.32, P = 0.002, with high caffeine (F(2, 93 = 3.97, P = 0.022 and red meat intake (F(2, 93 = 5.55, P = 0.005. These associations were independent of gender. Furthermore, the TAC/HPX ratio decreased with increasing body fat percentage (F(2, 95 = 4.74, P = 0.011 and depression score (t94 = 2.38, P = 0.019, though these associations were dependent on gender. Importantly, a negative association was observed between TAC/HPX levels and the Framingham risk score in both males (r(45 = -0.39, P = 0.008 and females (r(50 = -0.33, P = 0.019 that was independent of other Framingham risk score components. Findings from this study suggests that a relatively simple measure of redox balance such as the TAC/HPX ratio may be a sensitive

  13. Predictive value of PSA velocity over early clinical and pathological parameters in patients with localized prostate cancer who undergo radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Carlos A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the behavior of the prostate specific antigen velocity (PSAV in localized prostate adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 500 men who had localized prostate adenocarcinoma, who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between January 1986 and December 1999. The PSAV was calculated for each patient and subsequently, the values were correlated with 5 groups: age, initial PSA value, clinical stage, tumor volume and Gleason score. RESULTS: The behavior of PSAV presented statistic significance with an increment between 1.3 ng/mL and 9.6 ng/mL, ranging from 38.6% and 59.8% when compared with the initial PSA value (p < 0.0001, clinical stage (p = 0.0002, tumor volume (p < 0.0001 and Gleason score (p = 0.0009. CONCLUSION: PSAV up to 2.5 ng/mL/year is associated with factors of good prognosis, such as initial PSA below 10 mg/mL, clinical stage T1, tumor volume below 20% and Gleason score lower than 7.

  14. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  15. Testing the variability of PSA expression by different human prostate cancer cell lines by means of a new potentiometric device employing molecularly antibody assembled on graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Tânia S.C.R. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Noronha, João P.; Galésio, Marco; Santos, Hugo; Diniz, Mário [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti F. [BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Maria H. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Costa-Rodrigues, João, E-mail: jrodrigues@fmd.up.pt [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); ESTSP — Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is widely used as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Recently, an electrochemical biosensor for PSA detection by means of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed. This work evaluated the performance and the effectiveness of that PSA biosensor in screening the biomarker PSA in biological media with complex composition, collected from different human prostate cell line cultures. For that, the prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells, and the non-cancerous prostate cell line PNT2 were cultured for 2, 7 and 14 days in either α-MEM or RPMI in the presence of 10% or 30% fetal bovine serum. Human gingival fibroblasts were used as a non-cancerous non-prostatic control. The different culture conditions modulated cellular proliferation and the expression of several prostate markers, including PSA. The electrochemical biosensor was able to specifically detect PSA in the culture media and values obtained were similar to those achieved by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, the most commonly used method for PSA quantification in prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the tested biosensor may represent a useful alternative as a diagnostic tool for PSA determination in biological samples. - Highlights: • PSA quantification was performed in prostate cancer cell culture media. • Culture media composition and culture period significantly affect PSA production. • The PSA biosensor detected a wide range of PSA levels in complex media. • A high data correlation was observed between the biosensor and the ELISA analysis.

  16. Percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful method in deciding to perform prostate biopsy with higher core numbers in patients with low PSA cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yavuz, Ufuk; Ustuner, Murat; Saribacak, Ali; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) cut-points in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with total PSA (tPSA) levels between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL. In total, 1321 consecutive initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12-core biopsies performed between 2005 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Benign pathologies, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical small acinary proliferations were categorized as noncancerous (benign), and prostate adenocarcinomas were categorized as cancerous (malignant). The patients were categorized according to: Catalona's published %fPSA categories ( 25%); digital rectal examination (DRE) results [benign (negative) or suspicious of malignancy (positive)]. There was a significant relationship between the %fPSA cut-points and detection of PCa in DRE-negative patients. The presence of a 10% cut-point increased the probability of PCa threefold. The %fPSA was significantly more related to PCa than the tPSA value in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, a lower %fPSA, especially <10%, is an important parameter when deciding whether to perform a biopsy on patients with a tPSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Collagen I and III and metalloproteinase gene and protein expression in prostate cancer in relation to Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Antonio H; Colli, Sicilia; Alves-Pereira, Jorge L; Martins, Max P; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Ramos, Cristiane F

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate if the expression of metalloproteinase, collagen I and III are related to Gleason score, preoperative PSA and pathological stage in prostate cancer. Our study group included radical prostatectomy specimens of 33 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2009. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Gleason score=6 (13 patients), Gleason score=7 (10 patients), Gleason score ≥ 8 (10 patients). The control group included prostates of patients submitted to cystoprostatectomy and benign prostatic tissues adjacent to the cancer area. Specific areas of tissues were selected under microscope and further processed for collagen I and III analysis by real time PCR. In addition, 10 deparaffined sections of each group were used to evaluate collagen I, III and metalloproteinase immune expression. The results were correlated with Gleason score, preoperative PSA and pathological stage. We found significant difference in both collagen I and III gene expression between benign and tumoral areas in the prostate samples from Gleason score=6 (collagen I=0.4 ± 0.2 vs 5 ± 2.4, p Gleason score ≥ 8 (collagen I=8 ± 3.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.8, p Gleason score, preoperative PSA or pathological stage. There was a positive correlation between metalloproteinase expression and Gleason score (r(2)=0.47). The positive correlation between metalloproteinase expression and Gleason score suggests that metalloproteinase could be a promising factor to improve Gleason score evaluation. Its expression and regulation do not seem to be related with collagen degradation.

  18. [Structure and function of the cardiotocographic score (CTG-score) calculated by the "quantitative cardiotocography" computer method. Determining the significance of its components for the accuracy of the estimates for the ph of the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, P; Atanasov, B

    2011-01-01

    In the last three years "quantitative cardiotocography" has become the main method for fetal monitoring during late pregnancy and birth in Sheynovo hospital - Sofia, Bulgaria. Our previous studies presented opportunities for increasing the diagnostic potential of the methodology. In this paper we offer a new approach to further improve the accuracy of prognostic values for fetal pH during labor. This is achieved by analyzing the individual components of the CTG-score (microfluctuation - OSZ, basic fetal heart rate - FRQ and decelerations - DEC). Several groups of CTG-scores have been formed, according to the composition of the score and the correlation between forecast and actual results for the pH of the fetus. For each of the stored 171 recordings we compared the CTG-score, produced prior to the delivery, with the pH measured in the umbilical artery (UA) before cutting the umbilical cord. As fetal pH forecast is based strictly on the CTG-score value, the difference between actual and prognostic results for the pH actually shows how accurate is the CTG score itself. We used standard deviation (Std. deviation) to assess this variability. We defined several groups of CTG-score based on its composition and the respective standard deviations. Each group includes CTG-scores with no significant statistical difference between the calculated standard deviations: CTG-score with low (composed of OSZ; Std. Dev. 0.065), satisfactory (composed of OSZ + FRQ and FRQ; Std. dev 0048 and 0044), high (composed of OSZ + DEC and DEC; Std. dev 0032 and 0027) and very high (composed of FRQ + DEC and OSZ + FRQ + DEC; Std. dev. 0019 and 0012) predictive value. We observed a substantial variety in the prognostic results, depending on which components of the CTG-score are involved in the evaluation of pH. The composition of the CTG-score seems to be crucial for the accuracy of the prognostic fetal pH values. In order to organize the gathered information it is necessary to develop clinical

  19. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  20. Prognostic significance of multiple-detector computed tomography in conjunction with TIMI risk score for patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mayumi; Takagi, Atsushi; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Risk stratification among patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has been made by clinical scoring. Recently, multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT) appeared to provide noninvasive coronary angiography (CAG). To clarify the prognostic significance of MDCT, we aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of MDCT in the early management and in predicting the long-term prognosis of NSTE-ACS with low to intermediate risk. Among 84 consecutive patients with NSTEACS, risk stratification using a TIMI risk score was done. A total of 48 patients were categorized as low to intermediate risk. Multiple-detector CT was performed in 30 patients using 16-slice MDCT. MDCT detected coronary stenoses in 18 patients. Compared to invasive CAG, MDCT successfully depicted the coronary stenosis (P TIMI risk score appeared to demonstrate prognostic significance in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  1. Proposal and validation of prognostic scoring systems for IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Guffanti, Andrea; Marcheselli, Luigi; Rossi, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Vincenzo, Federico; De Muro, Marianna; Baraldi, Alessandra; Villani, Oreste; Musto, Pellegrino; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gaidano, Gianluca; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Goldaniga, Maria; Depaoli, Lorenzo; Baldini, Luca

    2009-07-01

    The presenting clinico-hematologic features of 1,283 patients with IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) were correlated with the frequency of evolution into multiple myeloma (MM). Two IgG MGUS populations were evaluated: a training sample (553 patients) and a test sample (378 patients); the IgA MGUS population consisted of 352 patients. Forty-seven of the 553 training group patients and 22 of 378 test group IgG patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 6.7 and 3.6 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that serum monoclonal component (MC) levels of sample. Thirty of the 352 IgA patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 4.8 years, and multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels of <12.5 g/dL and reduced serum polyclonal immunoglobulin correlated with progression. A pooled statistical analysis of all of the patients confirmed the validity of Mayo Clinic risk model showing that IgA class, serum MC levels, and light-chain proteinuria are the most important variables correlated with disease progression. Using simple variables, we validated a prognostic model for IgG MGUS. Among the IgA cases, the possible prognostic role of hemoglobin emerged in addition to a decrease in normal immunoglobulin levels.

  2. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can pre...

  3. Long-term clinical impact of PSA surge in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Caffo, Orazio; Lolli, Cristian; Aieta, Michele; Scarpi, Emanuela; Bianchi, Emanuela; Maines, Francesca; Schepisi, Giuseppe; Salvi, Samanta; Massari, Francesco; Carrozza, Francesco; Veccia, Antonello; Chiuri, Vincenzo E; Campadelli, Enrico; Facchini, Gaetano; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2017-06-01

    Early changes in PSA have been evaluated in association to treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to assess PSA surge phenomenon in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone and to correlate those variations with long-term treatment outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 330 CRPC patients in 11 Italian hospitals, monitoring PSA levels at baseline and every 4 weeks. Other clinical, biochemical and molecular parameters were determined at baseline. We considered PSA surge as PSA increase within the first 8 weeks from starting abiraterone more than 1% from baseline followed by a PSA decline. The log-rank test was applied to compare survival between groups of patients according to PSA surge. The impact of PSA surge on survival was evaluated by Cox regression analyses. A total of 330 patients with CRPC, median age 74 years (range, 45-90), received abiraterone (281 chemotherapy-treated and 49 chemotherapy-naïve). PSA surge was observed in 20 (7%) post-chemotherapy and 2 (4%) chemotherapy-naïve patients. For overall patients presenting PSA surge, timing of PSA peak from baseline was 5 ± 1.8 weeks and PSA rise from baseline was 21 ± 18.4%. The overall median follow-up was 23 months (range 1-62). No significant differences in progression-free survival and overall survival were observed between patients with and without PSA surge (P = 0.16 and =0.86, respectively). In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses showed no baseline factors related to PSA surge. PSA surge occurs in both chemotherapy-treated and chemotherapy-naïve patients treated with abiraterone resulting, however, in no long-term impact on outcome. Physicians and patients should be aware of PSA surge challenge to prevent a premature discontinuation of potentially effective therapy with abiraterone. Further larger and prospective studies are warranted to investigate this not infrequent phenomenon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Role of 18F-Choline PET/CT in guiding biopsy in patients with risen PSA levels and previous negative biopsy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Londoño, G A; García Vicente, A M; Amo-Salas, M; Fúnez Mayorga, F; López Guerrero, M A; Talavera Rubio, M P; Gutierrez Martin, P; González García, B; de la Torre Pérez, J A; Soriano Castrejón, Á M

    To study 18F-Choline PET/CT in the diagnosis and biopsy guide of prostate cancer (pCa) in patients with persistently high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and previous negative prostate biopsy. To compare the clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Patients with persistently elevated PSA in serum (total PSA >4ng/mL) and at least a previous negative or inconclusive biopsy were consecutively referred for a whole body 18F-Choline PET/CT. Patient age, PSA level, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel) were obtained. PET images were visually (positive or negative) and semiquantitatively (SUVmax) reviewed. 18F-Choline uptake prostate patterns were defined as focal, multifocal, homogeneous or heterogeneous. Histology on biopsy using transrectal ultrasound-guided approach was the gold standard. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and accuracy (Ac) of PET/CT for diagnosis of pCa were evaluated using per-patient and per-prostate lobe analysis. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the value of SUVmax to diagnose pCa. Correlation between PET/CT and biopsy results per-prostate lobe was assessed using the Chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to compare clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Thirty-six out of 43 patients with histologic confirmation were included. In 11 (30.5%) patients, pCa was diagnosed (Gleason score from 4 to 9). The mean values of patient age, PSA level, PSAdt and PSAvel were: 65.5 years, 15.6ng/ml, 28.1 months and 8.5ng/mL per year, respectively. Thirty-three patients had a positive PET/CT; 18 had a focal pattern, 7 multifocal, 4 homogeneous and 4 heterogeneous. Se, Sp and Ac of PET/CT were of 100%, 12% and 38% in the patient based analysis, and 87%, 29% and 14% in the prostate lobe based analysis, respectively. The ROC curve analysis of SUVmax showed an AUC of 0.568 (p=0.52). On a lobe

  5. A prediction score for significant coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ≥50 years old referred for rheumatic valvular heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenjun; Pan, Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Hailong; Fan, Fudong; Luo, Xuan; Ge, Min; Wang, Dongjin

    2017-12-18

    Our goal was to establish a prediction score and protocol for the preoperative prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we validated the model based on 490 patients without a history of myocardial infarction and who underwent preoperative screening coronary angiography. Significant CAD was defined as ≥50% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left main coronary artery or ≥70% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex artery or right coronary artery. Significant CAD was present in 9.8% of patients. Age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischaemia evident on an electrocardiogram were independently associated with significant CAD and were entered into the multivariate model. According to the logistic regression predictive risk score, preoperative coronary angiography is recommended in (i) postmenopausal women between 50 and 59 years of age with ≥9.1% logistic regression predictive risk score; (ii) postmenopausal women who are ≥60 years old with a logistic regression predictive risk score ≥6.6% and (iii) men ≥50 years old whose logistic regression predictive risk score was ≥2.8%. Based on this predictive model, 246 (50.2%) preoperative coronary angiograms could be safely avoided. The negative predictive value of the model was 98.8% (246 of 249). This model was accurate for the preoperative prediction of significant CAD in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. This model must be validated in larger cohorts and various populations.

  6. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  7. the discriminative ability of percent free psa in patients with psa > 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathology revealed by sextant biopsy under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance using a 7.5 MHz probe (Panther®, B & K, Denmark). Indications for biopsy were: a PSA > 4 ng/ ml, a suspicious prostatic nodule on digital rectal examination (DRE) and a hypoechoic area on. TRUS. Total and free PSA were assessed us-.

  8. The age-specific reference intervals for tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA in healthy Han ethnic male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjing; Tang, Aiguo; Zhang, Shijie; Sun, Xiaoxu; Ming, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies in male, and has become the fastest growing malignancy in recent years. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a tumor marker to screen for PC. Many studies have been performed to define the reference intervals (RIs) for total circulating PSA (tPSA). The results were different among different nations and races, even in the same race. Few researches have been performed on the RIs of free PSA (fPSA) and the ratio of free to total PSA (%fPSA). In this study, we aimed to simultaneously determine the age-specific RIs for tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA in the healthy Han ethnic male. A total of 1862 apparently healthy male aged from 21 to 94 years were included in our study. Nonparametric 95th percentile intervals were used to define the RIs. The reference limits in different age groups (21-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, and ≥81 years) were 2.07, 3.59, 4.93, 6.83, and 7.73 ng/mL for tPSA, and 0.60, 0.76, 0.83, 1.30, and 2.41 ng/mL for fPSA. The RIs of %fPSA were ≥0.16 for 21-50 years and ≥0.13 for male over 50 years old. We established age-specific RIs for tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA. The newly established RIs should be more suitable for Chinese Han ethnic male. It will be valuable for physicians to make exact medical decision and appropriate medical intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Park, Thomas I.H. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dieriks, Birger V.; Faull, Richard L.M. [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dragunow, Mike [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Curtis, Maurice A., E-mail: m.curtis@auckland.ac.nz [Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.

  10. Prostate volumes derived from MRI and volume-adjusted serum prostate-specific antigen: correlation with Gleason score of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ibrahim; Shen, Dinggang; Peng, Yahui; Liao, Shu; Jiang, Yulei; Yousuf, Ambereen; Karczmar, Gregory; Sammet, Steffen; Wang, Shiyang; Medved, Milica; Antic, Tatjana; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to study relationships between MRI-based prostate volume and volume-adjusted serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration estimates and prostate cancer Gleason score. The study included 61 patients with prostate cancer (average age, 63.3 years; range 52-75 years) who underwent MRI before prostatectomy. A semiautomated and MRI-based technique was used to estimate total and central gland prostate volumes, central gland volume fraction (central gland volume divided by total prostate volume), PSA density (PSAD; PSA divided by total prostate volume), and PSAD for the central gland (PSA divided by central gland volume). These MRI-based volume and volume-adjusted PSA estimates were compared with prostatectomy specimen weight and Gleason score by using Pearson (r) or Spearman (ρ) correlation coefficients. The estimated total prostate volume showed a high correlation with reference standard volume (r = 0.94). Of the 61 patients, eight (13.1%) had a Gleason score of 6, 40 (65.6%) had a Gleason score of 7, seven (11.5%) had a Gleason score of 8, and six (9.8%) had a Gleason score of 9 for prostate cancer. The Gleason score was significantly correlated with central gland volume fraction (ρ = -0.42; p = 0.0007), PSAD (ρ = 0.46; p = 0.0002), and PSAD for the central gland (ρ = 0.55; p = 0.00001). Central gland volume fraction, PSAD, and PSAD for the central gland estimated from MRI examinations show a modest but significant correlation with Gleason score and have the potential to contribute to personalized risk assessment for significant prostate cancer.

  11. Accuracy of the prostate health index versus the urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 score to predict overall and significant prostate cancer at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, Thomas; Rouprêt, Morgan; Brault, Didier; Léon, Priscilla; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine; Compérat, Eva; Renard-Penna, Raphaële; Mozer, Pierre; Guechot, Jérome; Cussenot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the Prostate Health Index (PHI) or the urinary Prostate-Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA-3) score is more accurate at screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the accuracy of PHI and PCA-3 scores to predict overall and significant PCa in men undergoing an initial prostate biopsy. Double-blind assessments of PHI and PCA-3 were conducted by referent physicians in 138 patients who subsequently underwent trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy according to a 12-core scheme. Predictive accuracies of PHI and PCA-3 were assessed using AUC and compared according to the DeLong method. Diagnostic performances with usual cut-off values for positivity (i.e., PHI >40 and PCA-3 >35) were calculated, and odds ratios associated with predicting PCa overall and significant PCa as defined by pathological updated Epstein criteria (i.e., Gleason score ≥7, more than three positive cores, or >50% cancer involvement in any core) were estimated using logistic regression. Prevalences of overall and significant PCa were 44.9% and 28.3%, respectively. PCA-3 (AUC = 0.71) was the most accurate predictor of PCa overall, and significantly outperformed PHI (AUC = 0.65; P = 0.03). However, PHI (AUC = 0.80) remained the most accurate predictor when screening exclusively for significant PCa and significantly outperformed PCA-3 (AUC = 0.55; P = 0.03). Furthermore, PCA-3 >35 had the best accuracy, and positive or negative predictive values when screening for PCa overall whereas these diagnostic performances were greater for PHI >40 when exclusively screening for significant PCa. PHI > 40 combined with PCA-3 > 35 was more specific in both cases. In multivariate analyses, PCA-3 >35 (OR = 5.68; 95%CI = [2.21-14.59]; P 40 (OR = 9.60; 95%CI = [1.72-91.32]; P = 0.001) was the only independent predictor for detecting significant PCa. Although PCA-3 score is the best predictor for PCa

  12. Abstract: An International Comparison of Private and Public Schools Using Multilevel Propensity Score Methods and Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Jason M; Pruzek, Robert M

    2011-11-30

    As can be seen from the recent Special Issue of MBR on propensity score analysis (PSA) methods, the use of PSA has gained increasing popularity for estimating causal effects in observational studies. However, PSA use with multilevel or clustered data has been limited, and to date there seems to have been no development of specialized graphics for such data. This paper introduces the multilevelPSA ( http://multilevelPSA.r-forge.r-project.org ) package for R that provides cluster-based functions for estimating propensity scores as well as graphics to exhibit results for multilevel data. This work extends to the multilevel case the framework for visualizing propensity score analysis introduced by Helmreich and Pruzek (2009). International data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2009) are comprehensively examined to compare private with public schools on reading, mathematics, and science outcomes after adjusting for covariate differences in the multilevel context. Particularly for analyses of large data sets, focusing on statistical significance is limiting. As can readily be seen, overall results favor "private" over "public" schools, at least for end of secondary school math achievement. But the graphics provide a more nuanced understanding of the nature and magnitude of adjusted differences for countries. Furthermore, the graphics are readily interpreted by a nontechnical audience. Broadly speaking, it is seen that modern graphics can enhance and extend conventional numerical summaries by focusing on details of what data have to say for multilevel comparisons of many countries based on propensity score methods.

  13. Serum monocyte fraction of white blood cells is increased in patients with high Gleason score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Tanigawa, Go; Kawashima, Atsunari; Nagahara, Akira; Ujike, Takeshi; Uemura, Motohide; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-05-23

    Systemic inflammation and immune responses are reported to be associated with progressive prostate cancer. In this study, we explored which among the fractions of white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were associated with high Gleason score prostate cancer. Prostate needle biopsy was performed in 966 men with suspicion of prostate cancer. We assessed age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, WBC count, fractions of WBCs (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils), and CRP level before biopsy for associations with biopsy findings. Among all men, 553 (57.2%) were positive for prostate cancer including 421 with high Gleason score cancer (Gleason score ≥7). Age, PSA, PSA density (PSAD), serum monocyte fraction of WBC, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and CRP were significantly associated with high Gleason score cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (p Gleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer, suggesting an interaction of monocytes with the progression of prostate cancer.

  14. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  15. STD Awareness PSA - College 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  16. STD Awareness PSA - College 1 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA, targeted to college-aged youth and young adults, encourages listeners to get tested for STDs.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  17. STD Awareness PSA - Male Announcer 2 (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-22

    This PSA encourages listeners to get tested for STDs. Target - Men who have sex with other men.  Created: 4/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/22/2010.

  18. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 30 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  19. Screen for Life: Meryl Streep PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-16

    In this 60 second PSA, Academy Award®-winning actress Meryl Streep urges viewers to get screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 5/16/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/16/2013.

  20. Secundaire analyses organisatiebeleid psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.O.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Hoe het organisatiebeleid rond psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA) eruit ziet anno 2014 en welke samenhang er is met ander beleid en uitkomstmaten, zijn de centrale vragen in dit onderzoek. De resultaten van deze verdiepende analyses kunnen ten goede komen aan de lopende campagne ‘Check je

  1. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  2. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT for High Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten H. Ecke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa. Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79 with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index, Gleason score, D’Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE, PSA value after one/three/five year(s follow-up (FU, time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis (p = 0.009, PSA on date of first HDR-BT (p = 0.033, and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year (p = 0.025 have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  3. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Huang-Tiel, Hui-Juan; Golka, Klaus; Selinski, Silvia; Geis, Berit Christine; Koswig, Stephan; Bathe, Katrin; Hallmann, Steffen; Gerullis, Holger

    2016-11-10

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D'Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis (p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT (p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year (p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  4. PSA testing anxiety, psychological morbidity, and PSA utility in the management of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunescu, Anamaria Elia

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports from urologists and medical oncologists have suggested that patients with prostate cancer (PCa) often present with anxiety related to ongoing monitoring of their PSA levels as part of their disease management. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the prevalence and severity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing anxiety in a population of patients with either localised or metastatic PCa living in Australia. Other aspects of psychological morbidit...

  5. Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis in 1028 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Pietro; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Gleason score stratification according to age at diagnosis has been retrospectively evaluated in 1028 men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (PCa). From January 2006 to December 2014, 2435 Caucasian men aged between 37 and 92 years underwent transperineal prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. The indications were as follows: abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA values > 10 ng/ml or between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/ml, with free/total PSA Gleason score was 7 (range: 6-10). The Gleason score progressively increased with the age of the patients at diagnosis, and a significantly correlation between Gleason score ≥ 8 and men older than 80 years was demonstrated (p = 0.0001). The detection rate of aggressiveness of PCa progressively increased with the age at diagnosis; Gleason score ≥ 8 was more frequently diagnosed in men older than 80 years with PSA values > 10 ng/ml (about 80% of the cases) and abnormal DRE (about 60% of the cases).

  6. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  7. Correlation of Preoperative and Radical Prostatectomy Gleason Score: Examining the Predictors of Upgrade and Downgrade Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Gooran, Shahram; Hossieni, Seyed Reza; Guitynavard, Fateme; Safavi, Majid; Sharifi, Amirsina; Mokhtari, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Preoperative Gleason score (GS) obtained from Trans Rectal Ultra Sonography (TRUS) is the most common grading system to evaluate the appropriate treatment for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. But this method showed upgraded and downgraded results in comparison to Gleason score obtained from radical prostatectomy. The current study aimed to determine clinical or pathological variables to reduce the differences between biopsy and radical prostatectomy Gleason scores.Through retrospective review of 52 patients with radical prostatectomy, this study examined the correlations of preoperative Gleason score with age, prostate volume, PSA level, PSA density, digital rectal exam findings and percentage of positive core needle biopsies across two groups, including patients with preoperative GS≤6 (i.e. group one) and patients with preoperative GS≥7 (group two). The discordance between biopsy GS and radical prostatectomy GS was observed to be 52% in the current study. Among patients with preoperative GS≤6, prostate volume (P=0.026), PSA density (P=0.032) and percentage of positive core needle biopsies (P=0.042) were found to be significant predictors for upgrade. There was no significant predictor for downgrade in patients with preoperative GS≥7. Findings of this study revealed that in patients with preoperative GS≤6, smaller prostate volume, higher prostate density and higher positive results of core needle biopsies were associated with theupgrade of GS. Therefore, it should be considered when selecting treatment modalities among these patients.

  8. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the Gleason score of prostate biopsies in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Chen, Xi; Pu, Jinxian; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Gang; Ping, Jigen; Lu, Yong; Hou, Jianquan; Han, Yong

    2016-09-27

    We assessed the correlation between BMI and Gleason score in prostate biopsies in Chinese Population. In this retrospective study, we collected the Gleason score, PSA, BMI, age, race, and other related clinical data on 290 patients who had undergone prostatic biopsy. We then compared the prostate cancer detection rates and Gleason scores between the high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25; 143 cases) and low BMI group (Gleason scores (Gleason score Gleason scores (≥ 7). Within the high BMI group, 44.76% had high Gleason scores, which was significantly greater than the 38.10% in the low BMI group (P = 0.027). These results indicate that while there was no effect of BMI on the rate of positive prostate cancer biopsies, the rate of high Gleason scores was greater in the high BMI group than the normal BMI group.

  9. Correlation Between MRS and Serum PSA in the Diagnosis of Local Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafuri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multifocality, multicentricity and extension beyond the prostate capsule are all characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma that may escape diagnosis by conventional CT scanning or MRI. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in prostatic carcinoma and its compatibility with prostatic specific antigen (PSA as the conventional method.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 139 patients with previous radical prostatectomy referring to Radiology department of Hazrate-e-Rasul Hospital during the first half of 2011 for the evaluation of local recurrence. Traditionally, local recurrence is defined as serum PSA concentration >0.2 ng/dl. We used 1.5-tesla Siemens Avanto MRI unit with endorectal coil and measured creatine, choline and citrate levels before calculating choline-creatine/citrate ratio. Correlation between MRS findings with PSA concentration was evaluated in regards to the multiple levels of the previously mentioned ratio.Results: Local recurrence was found in 107 (77% patients based on PSA levels. The mean values for serum PSA levels and creatine-choline/citrate ratio were significantly different in patients with and without local recurrence. Creatine-choline/citrate ratios greater than 50, 100 and 150 (as different cut-off points of recurrence were respectively seen in 104, 102 and 97 patients and agreement ratio between MRS and PSA in these levels were 94.1%, 94.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.481.Conclusion: MRS is a valuable tool for evaluating recurrence inpatients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy and it is in good agreement with serum PSA levels.

  10. Associations between Carotid Artery Plaque Score, Carotid Hemodynamics and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carotid artery plaque score (PS is an independent predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. This study aims to evaluate the combination of PS and carotid hemodynamics to predict CHD. Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography were divided into two groups depending on the presence of CHD. PS, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid blood flow were measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish the best prediction model for CHD presence. Results: Age, sex, carotid intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation, PS, peak systolic velocity (PSA of right internal carotid artery (RICA, and most resistance index data were significantly related with the presence of CHD. The area under the curve for a collective model, which included factors of the PS, carotid hemodynamics and age, was significantly higher than the other model. Age, PS, and PSA of RICA were significant contributors for predicting CHD presence. Conclusions: The model of PS and PSA of RICA has greater predictive value for CHD than PS alone. Adding age to PS and PSA of RICA further improves predictive value over PS alone.

  11. Associations between Carotid Artery Plaque Score, Carotid Hemodynamics and Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Liu, Mengxue; Ren, Tiantian; Wang, Xiangqian; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Mingliang; Han, LingFei; Wu, Zewei; Li, Haibo; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The carotid artery plaque score (PS) is an independent predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). This study aims to evaluate the combination of PS and carotid hemodynamics to predict CHD. Methods: A total of 476 patients who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography were divided into two groups depending on the presence of CHD. PS, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid blood flow were measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to establish the best prediction model for CHD presence. Results: Age, sex, carotid intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery and carotid bifurcation, PS, peak systolic velocity (PSA) of right internal carotid artery (RICA), and most resistance index data were significantly related with the presence of CHD. The area under the curve for a collective model, which included factors of the PS, carotid hemodynamics and age, was significantly higher than the other model. Age, PS, and PSA of RICA were significant contributors for predicting CHD presence. Conclusions: The model of PS and PSA of RICA has greater predictive value for CHD than PS alone. Adding age to PS and PSA of RICA further improves predictive value over PS alone. PMID:26569275

  12. DNA Ploidy as surrogate for biopsy gleason score for preoperative organ versus nonorgan-confined prostate cancer prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isharwal, Sumit; Miller, M Craig; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mangold, Leslie A; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Partin, Alan W; Veltri, Robert W

    2009-05-01

    Transformation of normal epithelium into cancer cells involves epigenetic and genetic changes and modifications in nuclear structure and tissue architecture. To evaluate nuclear morphometric alterations and clinicopathologic features for organ- vs nonorgan-confined prostate carcinoma (PCa) prediction. Of 557 prospectively enrolled patients, 370 had complete information and sufficient tumor area for all evaluated parameters (281 organ-confined and 89 nonorgan-confined PCa cases). Digital images of Feulgen DNA-stained nuclei were captured from biopsies using the AutoCyte imaging system, and the nuclear morphometric alterations were calculated. Logistic regression analysis with bootstrap resampling was used to determine the factors important for differentiation of the 2 groups and to generate models for organ- vs nonorgan-confined PCa prediction. Several nuclear morphometric features were significantly altered and could differentiate organ- and nonorgan-confined disease. DNA ploidy was the most important factor among the significant nuclear morphometric features and was the second most important factor for organ- vs nonorgan-confined PCa prediction when considered with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA), complexed PSA, free/total PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage. The combination of DNA ploidy with clinical stage, total PSA, and biopsy Gleason score showed an improvement of 1.5% in the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves compared with the combination of clinical stage, total PSA, and biopsy Gleason (73.97% vs 72.43%). The use of DNA ploidy in lieu of the biopsy Gleason score in each preoperative model evaluated resulted in equivalent or improved organ- vs nonorgan-confined PCa prediction. The results of our study have shown that DNA ploidy can serve as a surrogate biomarker that has the potential to replace biopsy Gleason scores for organ- vs nonorgan-confined PCa prediction.

  13. Change in PSA velocity is a predictor of overall survival in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer treated with nonhormonal agents: combined analysis of four phase-2 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzman, D L; Zhou, X C; Zahurak, M L; Lin, J; Antonarakis, E S

    2015-03-01

    Multiple phase-2 trials in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer (BRPC) have assessed the impact of nonhormonal agents on PSA kinetics. We have previously demonstrated that changes in PSA kinetics correlate with metastasis-free survival; however, it is unknown whether these changes also correlate with overall survival (OS). We performed a combined retrospective analysis of 146 men with BRPC treated on phase-2 trials using one of four investigational drugs: lenalidomide (n=60), marimastat (n=39), ATN-224 (n=22) and imatinib (n=25). We examined factors influencing OS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, PSA doubling time and PSA velocity), before and 6 months after treatment initiation. After a median follow-up of 83.1 months, 49 of 146 men had died. In univariate Cox regression analysis, two factors were associated with OS: baseline PSA velocity and change in PSA velocity on therapy. In a landmark multivariable model, stratified by study (which controlled for age, Gleason score, type of local therapy and use of androgen-deprivation therapy prior to metastases), baseline PSA velocity and increase in PSA velocity on therapy remained independent predictors of OS. Median OS for men with an increase in PSA velocity on treatment was 115.4 months and was not reached for men with a decrease in PSA velocity (hazard ratio=0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.88; P=0.02). This hypothesis-generating study suggests that within-subject changes in PSA velocity after initiation of nonhormonal therapy may correlate with OS in men with BRPC. If validated in prospective trials, change in PSA velocity may represent a reasonable intermediate end point for screening new agents in these patients.

  14. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  15. More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  16. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  17. Stop C. difficile Infections PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  18. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  19. Experience from the comparison of two PSA-studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTTAutomation (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    Two probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) made for nearly identical reactors units (Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3) have been compared. Two different analysis teams made the PSAs, and the analyses became quite different. The goal of the study is to identify, clarify and explain differences between PSA-studies. The purpose is to understand limitations and uncertainties in PSA, to explain reasons for differences between PSA-studies, and to give recommendations for comparison of PSA-studies and for improving the PSA-methodology. The reviews have been made by reading PSA-documentation, using the computer model and interviewing persons involved in the projects. The method and findings have been discussed within the project group. Both the PSA-project and various parts in the PSA-model have been reviewed. A major finding was that the two projects had different purpose and thus had different resources, scope and even methods in their study. The study shows that comparison of PSA results from different plants is normally not meaningful. It takes a very deep knowledge of the PSA studies to make a comparison of the results and usually one has to ensure that the compared studies have the same scope and are based on the same analysis methods. Harmonisation of the PSA-methodology is recommended in the presentation of results, presentation of methods, scope main limitation and assumption, and definitions for end states, initiating events and common cause failures. This would facilitate the comparison of the studies. Methods for validation of PSA for different application areas should be developed. The developed PSA review standards can be applied for a general validation of a study. The most important way to evaluate the real feasibility of PSA can take place only with practical applications. The PSA-documentation and models can be developed to facilitate the communication between PSA-experts and users. In any application consultation with the PSA-expert is however needed. Many

  20. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  1. Effectiveness diagnostic of prostate specific antigen (P.S.A.) radioimmunoassay and the P.S.A. density to assess prostatic state of Ivorian patients; Efficacite diagnostique du dosage radio-isotopique et de la densite de l'antigene specifique de la prostate (P.S.A.) dans le bilan prostatique des sujets ivoiriens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Zunon-Kipre, E.; Achy, O.B.; Ndrin, N.K. [Cocody Univ., UFR sciences Medicales (SMA), Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Achy, O.B.; Gnagne, Y.M. [Cocody Univ., Service d' Urologie, UFR/SMA, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2009-10-15

    By this first assay realized during two years, the authors wanted to assess the diagnostic performances of radioimmunoassay P.S.A., still unknown by Ivorian prescribers. It was about 78 patients who presented prostatic affections confirmed by histology. The dosages showed that, in prostate adenoma, a P.S.A. level was 9.5 ng/ml with P.S.A. density (P.S.A.D.) at 0.3. In prostate cancer, a P.S.A. level at 64.9 ng/ml with P.S.A.D. at 1.68. P.S.A. sensibility was good (91%) in spite of the value used, its specificity was about 94% for a level of 20 ng/ml. The predictive positive value was excellent with 20 ng/ml (95%). The risk to have prostate cancer with P.S.A. level of 10 ng/ml was 73.8% when rectal route (R.R.) was abnormal. The risk was low to 14.28% when the R.R. was normal. The radioimmunoassay of P.S.A. and P.S.A.D. rate improved significantly diagnostic indications in prostatic affections. Consequently, it must form part of first-line examination to the health assessment of old patients for a better prostatic lesions management. (authors)

  2. Proteins Annexin A2 and PSA in Prostate Cancer Biopsies Do Not Predict Biochemical Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David S; Sondhauss, Sven; Dunne, Jonathan C; Woods, Lisa; Delahunt, Brett; Ferguson, Peter; Murray, Judith; Nacey, John N; Denham, James W; Jordan, T William

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported the use of mass spectrometry and western blotting to identify proteins from tumour regions of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from 16 men who presented with apparently localized prostate cancer, and found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) appeared to be a better predictor of subsequent biochemical failure than prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In this follow-up study, ANXA2 and PSA were measured using western blotting of proteins extracted from biopsies from 37 men from a subsequent prostate cancer trial. No significant differences in ANXA2 and PSA levels were observed between men with and without biochemical failure. The statistical effect sizes were small, d=0.116 for ANXA2, and 0.266 for PSA. ANXA2 and PSA proteins measured from biopsy tumour regions are unlikely to be good biomarkers for prediction of the clinical outcome of prostate cancer presenting with apparently localized disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. PI-RADS version 2 for prediction of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy: a preliminary study in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason Score 7 (3+4) prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joongyub [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Medical Research Collaborating Center, Biomedical Research Institution, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine and Kidney Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate PI-RADSv2 for predicting pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score (GS) 7(3+4) PC. A total of 105 patients with biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC who underwent multiparametric prostate MRI followed by RP were included. Two radiologists assigned PI-RADSv2 scores for each patient. Preoperative clinicopathological variables and PI-RADSv2 scores were compared between patients with and without downgrading after RP using the Wilcoxon rank sum test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses with Firth's bias correction were performed to assess their association with downgrading. Pathological downgrading was identified in ten (9.5 %) patients. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, percentage of cores with GS 7(3+4), and greatest percentage of core length (GPCL) with GS 7(3+4) were significantly lower in patients with downgrading (p = 0.002-0.037). There was no significant difference in age and clinical stage (p = 0.537-0.755). PI-RADSv2 scores were significantly lower in patients with downgrading (3.8 versus 4.4, p = 0.012). At univariate logistic regression analysis, PSA, PSA density, and PI-RADSv2 scores were significant predictors of downgrading (p = 0.003-0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed only PSA density and PI-RADSv2 scores as independent predictors of downgrading (p = 0.014-0.042). The PI-RADSv2 scoring system was an independent predictor of pathological downgrading after RP in patients with biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC. (orig.)

  4. Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentration, PSA Mass, and Obesity: A Mathematical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2018-02-17

    To provide a mathematical background for understanding the phenomenon of analyte hemodilution using a kinetic analysis. The first assumption for this analysis is that change in concentration of any analyte, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is due to the flux of the analyte from an organ into the blood minus its flux from the blood. What results is a relatively simple differential equation that emphasizes the importance of plasma volume, organ mass, and two rate constants. The analyses demonstrate how serum PSA can be affected by plasma volume as well as body mass and how hemodilution due to obesity can be at least partly corrected for by expressing PSA in units of total mass or total mass density. At a time when obesity is prevalent, expressing analytes in units of total mass may make them relate more closely to disease status and prognosis.

  5. Polygenic hazard score to guide screening for aggressive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibert, Tyler M; Fan, Chun Chieh; Wang, Yunpeng

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a genetic tool to predict age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and to guide decisions of who to screen and at what age. DESIGN: Analysis of genotype, PCa status, and age to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diagnosis...... ng/L, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis). The resulting polygenic hazard score is an assessment of individual genetic risk. The final model was applied to an independent dataset containing genotype and PSA screening data. The hazard score was calculated for these men to test prediction of survival......; the validation dataset comprised 6411 men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prediction with hazard score of age of onset of aggressive cancer in validation set. RESULTS: In the independent validation set, the hazard score calculated from 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms was a highly significant predictor of age...

  6. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, Hector J; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I H; Dieriks, Birger V; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Amanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM or shared decision making (SDM approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA

  8. Evaluation of the novel ultrasound score for large joints in psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: six month experience in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Valentin S; Fleck, Martin; Kellner, Herbert; Strunk, Johannes; Sattler, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Ehrenstein, Boris; Backhaus, Marina; Hartung, Wolfgang

    2013-12-19

    To evaluate the utility of the recently introduced SOLAR score (sonography of large joints in Rheumatology), which has been validated in RA patients, in a cohort of patients with Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) presenting with involvement of large peripheral joints. The recently established SOLAR score has been designed to determine the degree of inflammation in the shoulder, the elbow, the hip and the knee joint in patients suffering from RA. Since large joints are frequently involved in PsA and AS, synovitis and synovial vascularity were scored semiquantitatively (grade 0-3) by grey scale (GSUS) and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) utilizing the validated scoring system. Each joint was scanned from different angles, the knee joint for example was divided into four areas to score for synovitis: the suprapatellar longitudinal, the medial longitudinal, the lateral longitudinal, and the posterior region. Each area was scored from 0-3, so a maximum score of 12 could be achieved. PsA and AS patients presenting with peripheral joint disease involving large joints were examined at baseline, 3 and 6 months after initiation of local or systemic therapy (DMARDs/Biologics). For evaluation of the inflammatory status, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined. A cohort of 126 patients were enclosed, and 83 of these were followed for 6 months. At baseline before modification of the therapy, patients received DMARDs (n = 83), DMARDs plus biologics (n = 30), or biologic monotherapy (n = 29). Following intervention, all US scores demonstrated a marked improvement. The GSUS and the PDUS scores for all joint areas, except the PDUS score of the hip, exhibited a significant improvement (p joint involvement in PsA and AS patients and allows for treatment monitoring.

  9. PSA screening for prostate cancer: why so much controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand

    2013-09-01

    Since prostate cancer reaches the advanced and non curable stage in the absence of any specific symptom or sign, it seems reasonable to diagnose this cancer at an early and curable stage. Screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the common technology used. The last follow-up of the first two prospective and randomized screening studies for prostate cancer, namely the Quebec and ERSPC (European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer) clinical trials started in 1988 and 1991, respectively, have shown reductions of prostate cancer death of 62% (PProstate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer) screening trial reported no benefit. It has been estimated, however, that 85% of men in the planned 'non-screened' group of the US study have been screened. With such a serious flaw, the PLCO study does not have the statistical power to reach any valid conclusion. In the Quebec study, only 7.3% of men were screened in the control arm. The important benefit observed in the ERSPC study was achieved using a less than optimal 4-year PSA screening interval which misses a significant number of cancers while the Quebec study used the optimal 1-year interval. With proper information obtained from their physicians or otherwise using data collected only from the clinical trials having the required statistical power, men should be in a good position to decide about being or not being screened for prostate cancer.

  10. Influence of metformin use on PSA values, free-to-total PSA, prostate cancer incidence and grade and overall survival in a prospective screening trial (ERSPC Aarau).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Marco; Beatrice, Josef; Huber, Andreas; Grobholz, Rainer; Manka, Lukas; Wyler, Stephen F; Chun, Felix F; Recker, Franz; Kwiatkowski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the effect of the oral antidiabetic drug metformin on PSA level, free-to-total PSA ratio (f/t-ratio), PCa incidence and grade as well as mortality in men participating in a population-based screening trial. Data from 4,314 men aged 55-70 years from a population-based PSA-screening trial (ERSPC Aarau) were analyzed. Information on metformin exposure was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum PSA threshold at ≥3 ng/ml triggered prostate biopsy. Data on PCa incidence and mortality were obtained through registry linkages. Median follow-up time was 7.6 years. Mean age at baseline was 65.5 years (±SD 4.4). In all, n = 150 (3.5 %) men used metformin [metf+]. Mean baseline PSA levels were comparable between both groups ([metf+] 1.6 ng/ml ± 2.4 vs. [metf-] 1.8ug/l ± 2.2, p = 0.4) while f/t-ratio was slightly higher in metformin users ([metf+] 30.7 % ± 10.9 vs. [metf-] 27.3 % ± 10.9, p = 0.01). Overall, n = 372 (8.6 %) PCa cases were detected. Neither cumulative PCa incidence (n = 11; 7.3 % [metf+] vs. n = 361 8.7 % [metf-]; p = 0.5) nor d`Amico risk groups were significantly different between both groups. One man in each group (metf+ 0.7 % and metf- 0.02 %) died from PCa (p incidence and grade were observed. The slightly higher f/t-ratio did not result in lower PCa detection rate. Metformin users were at significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality. The relatively small number of men on metformin is a main limitation of the study.

  11. Various Applications of Power Spectrum Analysis (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    ications: pro ckaging, and ower Spectru kage; Gamma analysis (P in responses d to dynam in the power s gnatures are fo IC. PSA ha rences betwee...on a d op plot in F re (top black connected to a shown in the m voltage is c rtion in the vo Applicat Paiboo Valid Sandia Na Analysis (P tion...tool. We cess monitor changes due m Analysis ; -ray Exposure SA) measures of an integrat ic stimuli. pectrum associ und to be sen s been an ef n

  12. Primary Gleason pattern in biopsy Gleason score 7 is predictive of adverse histopathological features and biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    as advanced pT3/4 cancer or pT2 margin-positive cancer and/or RP specimen GS ≥ 4+3 and/or positive lymph nodes. Biochemical failure was defined as the first prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. RESULTS: A total of 344 patients (78.0%) had GS 3+4 in biopsies, while 97 patients (22.0%) had GS 4......+3. No difference in age, PSA, percentage of biopsies with cancer, clinical tumour stage or volume on transrectal ultrasonography was found. Primary Gleason pattern 4 was associated with worse pathological stage (p = 0.049). On multivariate analysis, primary Gleason pattern 4 (p 0.0001), cT stage (p = 0.024), PSA...... (p 0.0001) and age (p = 0.009) predicted adverse histopathological features. In univariate analysis, Gleason score 3+4 had a significantly lower biochemical failure rate compared with Gleason score 4+3 (p = 0.0035). PSA (p 0.0001), primary Gleason pattern 4 (p = 0.001) and percentage of biopsies...

  13. The role of the percentage free PSA in the diagnosis of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.H. Tijani

    2016-12-24

    Dec 24, 2016 ... Blood samples were collected from these selected patients for repeat tPSA and free PSA (fPSA) thereafter, analyzed within 24 h of sample collection. The analytical procedure used for determination of tPSA and fPSA assay was the Hybritech. Paramagnetic Particle Two-Site Immunoenzymatic (“Sandwich”).

  14. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  15. A comparative study of cognitive function following traumatic brain injury: Significance of initial Glasgow coma scale score to predict cognitive outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Majumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability all over the world. It is associated with diversities of outcomes including cognitive deficits. The worse cognitive outcome is often associated with more severe degree of TBI as measured by initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score. Materials and Methods: Present study compared the cognitive function of TBI patients having initial GCS score 9-10 with those having the initial GCS score 11-12. The assessment on Postgraduate Institute battery of brain dysfunction was conducted when the patients came for their follow-up visit at a tertiary health care facility between 6 months and 12 months of sustaining TBI. Results: There was moderate degree of cognitive dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 9-10 and no dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 11-12. Conclusion: The initial GCS score of 10 may be critical to predict cognitive deficits among TBI patients during 6-12 months of recovery period.

  16. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10–15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement. More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI, the 4 Kallikrein (4K score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the

  17. Is it suitable to eliminate bone scan for prostate cancer patients with PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Mun Su; Park, Kyung Kgi; Yom, Chan Dong; Lee, Dae Hoon; Chung, Byung Ha

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between bone metastasis (BM) and clinical or pathological variables, including the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration. This retrospective study included 579 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (Pca) who underwent a bone scan study at our institution between 2002 and 2010. We used receiver operating characteristics curves to evaluate accuracy of bone metastasis between serum PSA 10 and 20 ng/mL. A positive bone scan result was found in 83 men (14.3%) with PCa. However, 27 men (4.6%) with serum PSA between 10 and 20 ng/mL, 29/579 men (5.0%) with GS ≤ 7, and 21/83 (25.3%) with serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL and Gleason score (GS) ≤ 7 had positive bone scans. In the logistic regression analyses, clinical T stage (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.29-4.33; P = 0.021), GS (OR = 3.41; 95% CI, 2.91-4.63; P = 0.019), and serum PSA (OR = 8.37; 95% CI, 3.91-19.21; P bone scans for the detection of BM was 0.640 (P = 0.020; 95% CI, 0.563-0.717). With serum PSA at 10 ng/mL and GS ≤ 7, the AUC values of bone scans were 0.828 (P Bone scans might be necessary in men with serum PSA between 10 and 20 ng/mL. New guidelines for eliminating bone scans in patients with newly diagnosed Pca are needed, especially in Asians.

  18. The Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract on Serum PSA Levels: Analysis of the CAMUS Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Gerald L.; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S.; Crawford, E. David; Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Saw palmetto extracts are used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence concluding that saw palmetto was ineffective in reducing lower urinary symptoms. We sought to determine whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in CAMUS affect serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind multi-centered North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012 in which 369 men >45 years of age with AUA symptom score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation saw palmetto, which consisted of 320mg for first 24 weeks to 640mg for next 24 weeks to 960mg for last 24 weeks of this 72 week trial. Serum PSA levels (Beckman-Coulter) were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72 and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t and Fisher's exact tests. Results Serum PSA levels were similar at baseline for the placebo (1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in PSA levels over the course of the study were similar: placebo group mean change 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and saw palmetto group mean change 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml (p value 0.50). Additionally, no differential effect on serum PSA levels was observed between treatment arms when groups were stratified by baseline PSA values. Conclusions Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum PSA levels more than placebo even at relatively high doses. PMID:23253958

  19. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  20. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  1. Comparison of mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All subjects were non-obese, had no prostatic symptoms and were not masturbating. Standard technique of specimen collection, processing and analysis of PSA values using Immunoassay technique were applied. The celibate group had a mean PSA value of 2.6±0.2ng/ml, while the sexually-active group had a mean PSA ...

  2. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4) and Gleason score 7 (4+3) in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mijović M.; Vukićević D.; Đerković B.; Nedeljković V.; Vitković L.

    2014-01-01

    Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP) directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade) and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade become...

  3. Collagen I and III and metalloproteinase gene and protein expression in prostate cancer in relation to Gleason score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio H. Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if the expression of metalloproteinase, collagen I and III are related to Gleason score, preoperative PSA and pathological stage in prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study group included radical prostatectomy specimens of 33 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2009. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Gleason score=6 (13 patients, Gleason score=7 (10 patients, Gleason score>8 (10 patients. The control group included prostates of patients submitted to cystoprostatectomy and benign prostatic tissues adjacent to the cancer area. Specific areas of tissues were selected under microscope and further processed for collagen I and III analysis by real time PCR. In addition, 10 deparaffined sections of each group were used to evaluate collagen I, III and metalloproteinase immune expression. The results were correlated with Gleason score, preoperative PSA and pathological stage. RESULTS: We found significant difference in both collagen I and III gene expression between benign and tumoral areas in the prostate samples from Gleason score=6 (collagen I=0.4±0.2 vs 5±2.4, p8 (collagen I=8±3.4 vs 1.4±0.8, p<0.07; collagen III=1.8±0.5 vs 0.6±0.1, p<0.05. There was no correlation of collagen expression with Gleason score, preoperative PSA or pathological stage. There was a positive correlation between metalloproteinase expression and Gleason score (r²=0.47. CONCLUSIONS: The positive correlation between metalloproteinase expression and Gleason score suggests that metalloproteinase could be a promising factor to improve Gleason score evaluation. Its expression and regulation do not seem to be related with collagen degradation.

  4. Policy and System Approach (PSA: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of public health challenges have emerged at global and national level in the last two decades. The response to these challenges has rarely been swift and often “knee-jerk.” The national and state level program officials responsible for the activities often apportion the blame on weak health systems or fragmented health service delivery mechanisms, amongst other. In India, the viral illnesses (including those due to dengue and chikungunya are becoming the increasing realities. The Public health response of early identification, disease surveillance, reporting and the preventive and curative measures, remains suboptimal. The health challenges which require multidimensional interventions are usuallyattempted to be resolved through piece meal solutions. This article proposes “policy and system approach (PSA,” combining concepts of “Health in all policies” for intersectoral coordination and “health system approach” for intra-sectoral tackling of the emerging and existing health challenges.

  5. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  6. Study on communicating risk information obtained from PSA within nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunogane, Nobuaki; Onoue, Akira [Institute of Nuclear Technology, Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Kojima, Shigeo [Computer Software Development Corp., Tokyo(Japan)

    2000-09-01

    In this study, the communication of PSA information in nuclear power plants (NPPs), namely, how the risk information obtained from the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) should be presented and communicated to plant personnel, was examined assuming that the safety management system based on the risk information was introduced to NPPs. This is called PSA communication. First, when risk-informed safety management is to be introduced into NPPs, plant personnel should have sufficient related knowledge. In order to provide such knowledge to the personnel through training, risk information is classified into three types: basic information, detailed information and task information. A hierarchical risk information summary for reporting, coordinating and communicating tasks is proposed. In this summary, the concerns of those who have received the information are placed at the top and the related risk information positioned below. At the same time, and by way of a trial, the risk information relating to on-line maintenance (OLM) is prepared. In order to enhance the safety-consciousness and the safety of the entire plant, specific plans such as 'risk tags' which indicate the safety significance of equipment is proposed. Finally, a guideline providing examination procedures for developing detailed PSA communication plans is introduced. (author)

  7. PSA testing for prostate cancer: an online survey of the views and reported practice of General Practitioners in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Glyn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA testing in the early detection of prostate cancer is controversial. Current UK policy stipulates that any man who wishes to have a PSA test should have access to the test, provided he has been given full information about the benefits and limitations of testing. This study aimed to determine UK GPs' current reported practice regarding PSA testing, and their views towards informed decision-making and PSA testing. Method Online questionnaire survey, with a sample of 421 GPs randomly selected from a database of GPs across the UK. Results 95% (400/421 of GPs responded. 76% of GPs reported having performed a PSA test for an asymptomatic man at least once in the previous three months, with 13% reported having tested more than five men in this period. A majority of GPs reported they would do a PSA test for men presenting with a family history and requesting a test, for asymptomatic men requesting a test and also for men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Reported testing rates were highest for men with a family history. Amongst men with lower urinary tract symptoms and men with no symptoms, reported testing rates were significantly higher for older than younger men. The majority of GPs expressed support for the current policy (67%, and favoured both the general practitioner and the man being involved in the decision making process (83%. 90% of GPs indicated that they would discuss the benefits and limitation of testing with the man, with most (61% preferring to ask the man to make a further appointment if he decides to be tested. Conclusion This study indicates that PSA testing in asymptomatic men is a regular occurrence in the UK, and that there is general support from GPs for the current policy of making PSA tests available to 'informed' men who are concerned about prostate cancer. While most GPs indicated they would discuss the benefits and limitations prior to PSA testing

  8. Significance of erection hardness score as a diagnostic tool to assess erectile function recovery in Japanese men after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Akira; Yao, Akihisa; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize time-dependent recovery of erectile function in Japanese patients following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using the erection hardness score (EHS). This study prospectively included 170 Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) undergoing RARP without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. The erectile function of each patient was assessed based on the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and EHS at the baseline and on every visit to an outpatient clinic after RARP. In this series, potency was defined as the ability to have an erection sufficient for intercourse, corresponding to EHS ≥3, while patients with EHS ≥2 were regarded as those with erectile function. Of these 170 patients, 20 and 75 underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing procedures, respectively; however, non-nerve-sparing procedures were performed in the remaining 75. A proportional increase in the IIEF-5 score according to EHS was noted at 24 months after RARP. At 6, 12 and 24 months after RARP, the recovery rates of erectile function were 11.9, 21.7 and 35.8 %, respectively, while those of potency were 3.8, 9.8 and 13.7 %, respectively. Of several factors examined, the age, preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were identified as independent predictors of erectile function recovery. These findings suggest that favorable erectile function recovery could not be achieved in Japanese PC patients even after the introduction of RARP; therefore, it might be preferable for such a cohort to use EHS rather than IIEF-5 as an assessment tool for the postoperative recovery of erectile function.

  9. Multiple Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysms in Patients Undergoing Renal Artery Embolization Following Partial Nephrectomy: Correlation with RENAL Nephrometry Scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nakul [Houston Methodist Hospital (United States); Patel, Anish [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (United States); Ensor, Joe [Houston Methodist Research Institute, The Houston Methodist Cancer Center (United States); Ahrar, Kamran; Ahrar, Judy; Tam, Alda; Odisio, Bruno; Huang, Stephen; Murthy, Ravi; Mahvash, Armeen; Avritscher, Rony; McRae, Stephen; Sabir, Sharjeel; Wallace, Michael [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Matin, Surena [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Urology (United States); Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the incidence of multiple renal artery pseudoaneurysms (PSA) in patients referred for renal artery embolization following partial nephrectomy and to study its relationship to RENAL nephrometry scores.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 25 patients referred for renal artery embolization after partial nephrectomy were retrospectively reviewed for the following parameters: size and number of tumors, RENAL nephrometry scores, angiographic abnormalities, technical and clinical outcomes, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) after embolization.ResultsTwenty-four patients had primary renal tumors, while 1 patient had a pancreatic tumor invading the kidney. Multiple tumors were resected in 4 patients. Most patients (92 %) were symptomatic, presenting with gross hematuria, flank pain, or both. Angiography revealed PSA with (n = 5) or without (n = 20) AV fistulae. Sixteen patients (64 %) had multiple PSA involving multiple renal vessels. Higher RENAL nephrometry scores were associated with an increasing likelihood of multiple PSA. Multiple vessels were embolized in 14 patients (56 %). Clinical success was achieved after one (n = 22) or two (n = 3) embolization sessions in all patients. Post-embolization eGFR values at different time points after embolization were not significantly different from the post-operative eGFR.ConclusionA majority of patients requiring renal artery embolization following partial nephrectomy have multiple pseudoaneurysms, often requiring selective embolization of multiple vessels. Higher RENAL nephrometry score is associated with an increasing likelihood of multiple pseudoaneurysms. We found transarterial embolization to be a safe and effective treatment option with no long-term adverse effect on renal function in all but one patient with a solitary kidney.

  10. Metastasis on bone scan with low prostate specific antigen (≤20 ng/ml) and Gleason's score (<8) in newly diagnosed Pakistani males with prostate cancer: should we follow Western guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    To find out diagnostic correlation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason' s score (GS) with bone metastasis (BM) in newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC) patients in Pakistan. This retrospective study included 204 newly diagnosed PC patients who were referred for BS for staging. The mean age, mean PSA and incidence of BM on BS were 71±09 years, 111.0±58.5 ng/ml and 67/204 (33%), respectively. The mean GS of the studied population was 7±1. According to PSA levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 10-≤20 ng/ml (4/204), >20-≤50 ng/ml (22/204), >50-≤100 (25/204) and >100 ng/ml (38/204). The incidence of positive BS (%) for BM and mean GS (score ±SD) for each group were 14%, 7±1; 10%, 6±1; 32%, 7±1; 56%, 8∓1 and 82%, 8±1 respectively (significant p value). PSA and GS were statistically significant predictors of BM on BS and their predictive value was additive (p6 was more sensitive (88.9%) and less specific (56.2%) for diagnosing BM. (1) There is an overall increased incidence of BM in newly diagnosed patients with PC and even at serum PSA level≤20 ng/ml and GS<8; (2) PSA and GS are independent predictors for BM but age is not; (3) in view of possible aggressive behavior of PC in local population, one must be careful in adopting Western guidelines for using BS in newly diagnosed Asian males with PC having PSA≤20 ng/ml and GS <8.

  11. Developing a magnetic resonance imaging scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona; Lassere, Marissa; Bird, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first steps in developing an OMERACT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A preexisting MRI dataset (finger joints) from 10 patients with PsA was scored by 4 readers for bone erosion, bone edema, synovitis, tendinopathy, and ext......We describe the first steps in developing an OMERACT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for peripheral psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A preexisting MRI dataset (finger joints) from 10 patients with PsA was scored by 4 readers for bone erosion, bone edema, synovitis, tendinopathy......, and extracapsular features of inflammation (including enthesitis) according to specified criteria. Scoring reliability between readers was moderate to high for bone edema and erosion, but lower for soft tissue inflammation. Measures to improve reliability for future exercises will include reviewing definitions...

  12. The Chances of Subsequent Cancer Detection in Patients with a PSA > 20 ng/ml and an Initial Negative Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS–guided prostate biopsy is known to carry a significant false-negative rate, leading some patients to have multiple biopsies. We investigated cancer detection rates in patients with a PSA >20 ng/ml and a negative initial biopsy. We reviewed our database of 2396 TRUS-guided biopsies done between 1997 and 2002 in order to give a follow-up of at least 6 years. PSA, PSA density (PSAD, PSA velocity (PSAV, prostate volume, and DRE findings were analysed in relation to cancer status. Of the patients, 388 (16% had a PSA >20 ng/ml, including 99 (26% with benign biopsies. Of those, 67 were rebiopsied, including 19 (28% with cancer on the first rebiopsy and four (6% on further biopsies. PSAD, DRE, and volume significantly differed between rebiopsied patients with and without cancer (p 20 ng/ml and have an initial negative biopsy have a high chance of malignancy being detected on a second biopsy. However, if a second biopsy is also negative, then the chances of subsequent biopsies showing signs of cancer are very low if the DRE is normal and particularly if the PSAD is >0.35 ng/ml/cm3.

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA test result turns out to have prostate cancer. Some prostate cancers, particularly those that grow quickly, may not ... and prevention. Cancer.Net. http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostate-cancer/risk-factors-and-prevention. Accessed Aug. 2, ...

  14. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  15. Utility of RhoC and ZAG protein expression as biomarkers for prediction of PSA failure following radical prostatectomy for high grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, John; Oliver, Alice; Sherwin, Justin C; Frydenberg, Mark; Peters, Justin S; Costello, Anthony; Harewood, Laurence; Love, Christopher; Redgrave, Nicholas; van Golen, Kenneth L; Bailey, Michael; Pedersen, John

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prognostic utility of semi-quantiative expression of RhoC protein in whole prostates from patients who had radical prostatectomies for high grade prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects who had surgery >55 months previously with primary Gleason pattern 4 PCa were identified from practice records, archival tissues were retrieved for review and RhoC immunohistochemistry, and ZAG expression was also assessed as a control. Eighty-nine subjects were included in the study; 57 had a rising prostate specific antigen (PSA) post-operatively ('cases') and 32 did not ('controls'). By univariate analysis, expression of both RhoC and ZAG proteins was greater in controls than cases, but this was significant only for ZAG. By multivariate analysis, Gleason variables (patterns and score), extraprostatic extension and decreased RhoC staining all contributed to predicting PSA failure (p ZAG expression was inversely correlated with Gleason pattern and hence was not independently predictive in our multivariate model. Increased RhoC expression predicted a good outcome after radical prostatectomy. ZAG staining also correlated with a favourable outcome but was not independently predictive due to its relationship with Gleason pattern.

  16. Smaller prostate gland size and older age predict Gleason score upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Boris; Dahl, Douglas M; Olumi, Aria F; Young, Robert H; McDougal, W Scott; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2013-10-01

    Gleason score is important for prostate cancer (CaP) risk stratification and prognostication but has a significant rate of upgrading. We examined the effect of prostate size and age on upgrading of Gleason 6 CaP. A retrospective review was performed of patients with Gleason 6 CaP who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2001 through 2010. Preoperative clinical and pathologic variables were assessed to determine association with risk of upgrading at prostatectomy. A total of 1,836 patients were identified with Gleason 6 on prostate biopsy. Upgrading was observed in 543 (29.6%) patients with a final Gleason score of 3+4 in 463 (25.2%), 4+3 in 49 (2.7%), and 8-10 in 31 (1.7%). On univariate logistic regression, age, prostate weight, and PSA were significant predictors of Gleason score upgrading and remained significant on multiple logistic regression. Prostate weight was inversely related to risk of upgrading. To further explore this effect, we performed multiple logistic regression to examine risk of Gleason 6, 7, or 8-10 disease in 2,493 patients with Gleason 6-10 at prostatectomy. After controlling for age and PSA, there was a progressively increased risk of Gleason 6, 7, and 8-10 disease with decreasing prostate weight. Older age, higher PSA, and smaller prostate gland size are associated with increased risk of Gleason score upgrading. The inverse relationship of prostate weight to risk of Gleason upgrading may be related to increased high-grade disease in smaller glands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PSA LEVEL 3 DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA PADA KAJIAN KESELAMATAN PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kajian keselamatan PLTN menggunakan metodologi kajian probabilistik sangat penting selain kajian deterministik. Metodologi kajian menggunakan Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA Level 3 diperlukan terutama untuk estimasi kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Metode ini banyak dilakukan setelah kejadian kecelakaan Fukushima. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan implementasi PSA Level 3 pada kajian keselamatan PWR, postulasi kecelakan luar dasar desain PWR AP-1000 dan disimulasikan di contoh tapak Bangka Barat. Rangkaian perhitungan yang dilakukan adalah: menghitung suku sumber dari kegagalan teras yang terjadi, pemodelan kondisi meteorologi tapak dan lingkungan, pemodelan jalur paparan, analisis dispersi radionuklida dan transportasi fenomena di lingkungan, analisis deposisi radionuklida, analisis dosis radiasi, analisis perlindungan & mitigasi, dan analisis risiko. Kajian menggunakan rangkaian subsistem pada perangkat lunak PC Cosyma. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa implementasi metode kajian keselamatan PSA Level 3 sangat efektif dan komprehensif terhadap estimasi dampak, konsekuensi, risiko, kesiapsiagaan kedaruratan nuklir (nuclear emergency preparedness, dan manajemen kecelakaan reaktor terutama untuk kecelakaan parah atau kecelakaan luar dasar desain PLTN. Hasil kajian dapat digunakan sebagai umpan balik untuk kajian keselamatan PSA Level 1 dan PSA Level 2. Kata kunci: PSA level 3, kecelakaan, PWR   Reactor safety assessment of nuclear power plants using probabilistic assessment methodology is most important in addition to the deterministic assessment. The methodology of Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is especially required to estimate severe accident or beyond design basis accidents of nuclear power plants. This method is carried out after the Fukushima accident. In this research, the postulations beyond design basis accidentsof PWR AP - 1000 would be taken, and simulated at West Bangka sample site. The

  18. Polysialic Acid Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM is an adverse prognosis factor in glioblastoma, and regulates olig2 expression in glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metellus Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive and frequent brain tumor, albeit without cure. Although patient survival is limited to one year on average, significant variability in outcome is observed. The assessment of biomarkers is needed to gain better knowledge of this type of tumor, help prognosis, design and evaluate therapies. The neurodevelopmental polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM protein is overexpressed in various cancers. Here, we studied its expression in GBM and evaluated its prognosis value for overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS. Methods We set up a specific and sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for PSA-NCAM quantification, which correlated well with PSA-NCAM semi quantitative analysis by immunohistochemistry, and thus provides an accurate quantitative measurement of PSA-NCAM content for the 56 GBM biopsies analyzed. For statistics, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency between the immunohistochemistry and ELISA data. Patients' survival was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and curves were compared using the log-rank test. On multivariate analysis, the effect of potential risk factors on the DFS and OS were evaluated using the cox regression proportional hazard models. The threshold for statistical significance was p = 0.05. Results We showed that PSA-NCAM was expressed by approximately two thirds of the GBM at variable levels. On univariate analysis, PSA-NCAM content was an adverse prognosis factor for both OS (p = 0.04 and DFS (p = 0.0017. On multivariate analysis, PSA-NCAM expression was an independent negative predictor of OS (p = 0.046 and DFS (p = 0.007. Furthermore, in glioma cell lines, PSA-NCAM level expression was correlated to the one of olig2, a transcription factor required for gliomagenesis. Conclusion PSA-NCAM represents a valuable biomarker for the prognosis of GBM patients.

  19. Child Injury: What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-16

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Many childhood deaths and injuries are preventable, including those caused by crashes, suffocation, poisoning, drowning, fires, and falls. The PSA discusses ways to help prevent these deaths and injuries.  Created: 4/16/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  20. THE DISCRIMINATIVE ABILITY OF PERCENT FREE PSA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To study the discriminative role of % free PSA in patients with a total PSA > 10 ng/ml. Patients and Methods Our patient cohort con-sisted of 90 males aged between 45 and 81 years (mean age: 67 ± 9 years). All patients had a biopsy-proven prostate pathology. Fifty-six patients had BPH (Group I) while 34 had ...

  1. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, John R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mubayi, Vinod [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pratt, W. Trevor [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Do Sam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Goo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-17

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E&C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal [Ref. 1]. The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E&C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report [Ref. 2] that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E&C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  2. Periprostatic fat thickness on MRI: correlation with Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungmin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the relationship between periprostatic fat thickness on MRI and Gleason score of prostate cancer using radical prostatectomy as the reference standard. This study included 190 patients (mean age [± SD], 66.9 ± 7.0 years) who underwent MRI before radical prostatectomy. Two radiologists measured the subcutaneous and periprostatic fat thickness on midsagittal T2-weighted MR images as the shortest perpendicular distance from the pubic symphysis to the skin and prostate, respectively. Subcutaneous and periprostatic fat along with age, height, weight, body mass index, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were correlated with Gleason score by using Pearson (r) or Spearman (ρ) correlation coefficients and compared between low- (Gleason score = 6) and high- (≥ 7) grade prostate cancer by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The mean subcutaneous and periprostatic fat thicknesses were 24.0 ± 8.4 mm and 5.0 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. The Gleason score was significantly correlated with age (ρ = 0.181, p = 0.012), PSA (ρ = 0.345, p Gleason score of prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy as the reference standard and was an independent predictive factor for high-grade prostate cancer.

  3. Significant discrepancies exist between clinician assessment and patient self-assessment of functional capacity by validated scoring tools during preoperative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John Whittemore; Wanderer, Jonathan Porter; McEvoy, Matthew David

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of functional capacity is necessary to direct decisions regarding cardiac evaluation and may help identify patients at high risk for perioperative complications. Patient self-triage regarding functional capacity could be useful for discerning which patients benefit from a clinician evaluation at a Preoperative Evaluation Center prior to the day of surgery. We evaluated the feasibility of preoperative, patient self-triage regarding functional capacity. Patients were recruited immediately prior to their preoperative evaluation. Study participants completed electronic versions of the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS)-Short Form 12a-Physical Function. DASI and PROMIS questionnaire responses were scored and evaluated for correlation with clinician assessments of functional capacity. Correlation was analyzed around the dichotomous outcome of evaluated the usability of the questionnaires. After IRB approval, 204 patients were enrolled and completed both DASI and PROMIS questionnaires. Clinicians assessed functional capacity at assessments assessments (Fisher's exact, two-tailed P value assessments and patient self-assessments of functional capacity. Further study is needed to determine if either patient self-triage by means of activity questionnaires or clinician evaluation is valid and reliable in the preoperative setting.

  4. [Retrospective evaluation of PSA density for selection of biopsy candidates with prostate specific antigen in the gray zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochigi, T; Kawamura, S; Numahata, K; Tokuyama, S; Kuwahara, M; Horaguchi, T; Satou, S

    2001-09-01

    We examined the usefulness of prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) for selection of biopsy candidate with prostate specific antigen levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. in prostate cancer screening retrospectively. The screening was conducted on male candidates in Natori city, aged 55 years or older, for 6 years from 1994 through 1999. We could analyze serum PSA levels and PSA density in 118 men with PSA levels between 4.1 and 10.0 ng./ml. All of 118 men underwent ultrasound guided systematic prostate biopsy regardless of findings of digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. Prostate volume was estimated by transrectal ultrasound measurements using the prolate ellipse formula (pi/6 x length x width x height). PSAD was calculated by dividing serum PSA level by prostate volume. Serum PSA levels were determined by Tandem-R assay. In 118 men, twenty-five men had prostate cancer. There was no significant difference in mean PSA between those with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer, but the difference was significant in the mean PSA density (mean 0.26 and 0.16, respectively, p PSA and PSAD demonstrated superior benefit for PSAD in 118 men. A sensitivity, a specificity, a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of PSAD cut-off of 0.15 were 88%, 52.7%, 33.3% and 94.2%. PSAD cut-off of 0.18 showed the highest sum of sensitivity and specificity, which gave a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 72%, a positive predictive value of 43.5% and a negative predictive value of 93.1%. PSAD cut-off of 0.15 would seem to be preferable to cut-off of 0.18 because of less cancer missing. Although further studies are needed to determine optimal cut-off value to be used in clinical practice, PASD seems to be useful for the selection of biopsy candidates with PSA levels of 4.1 to 10.0 ng./ml. in the prostate cancer screening.

  5. Is there a role for {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the early detection of metastatic disease in surgically treated prostate cancer patients with a mild PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara; Santi, Ivan; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Montini, Gian Carlo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico; Marzola, Maria Cristina [Sanata Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Radiology, Service of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Service of Urology, Department of Specialist Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the re-staging of prostate cancer (PC) patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), who presented a mild increase of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.5 ng/ml (early biochemical relapse) during follow-up (FU). We evaluated 102 consecutive patients (mean age = 68 years, range = 54-82 years) previously treated with RP and who presented during FU a mild increase of trigger PSA serum levels <1.5 ng/ml: mean 0.86 {+-} 0.40 ng/ml (range 0.2-1.5) and median 0.93 ng/ml (range 0.67-1.10). In this patient series {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was used as the first imaging examination at the time of the detection of a mild serum PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed following standard procedures in our centre. At the time of PET/CT, 86 patients were not receiving any pharmacologic treatment, while 16 were under anti-androgenic therapy. Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy in cases of local recurrence, (b) surgical lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging procedures or (d) FU lasting for at least 12 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the following variables: age, TNM staging, Gleason score, time from RP to the biochemical relapse, anti-androgen therapy at the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan, trigger PSA value and PSA kinetics, i.e. PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel), in order to assess the significant predictive factors related to the findings of a positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan. Overall, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 29 of 102 patients (28% of cases). In detail, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected: local relapse in 7 patients, bone metastases in 13 patients (4 single and 9 multiple) and lymph node metastases in 9 patients (6 single and 3 multiple). Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) TRUS

  6. Is there a role for ¹¹C-choline PET/CT in the early detection of metastatic disease in surgically treated prostate cancer patients with a mild PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Fuccio, Chiara; Rubello, Domenico; Schiavina, Riccardo; Santi, Ivan; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Montini, Gian Carlo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Martorana, Giuseppe; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Fanti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of whole-body (11)C-choline PET/CT in the re-staging of prostate cancer (PC) patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), who presented a mild increase of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.5 ng/ml (early biochemical relapse) during follow-up (FU). We evaluated 102 consecutive patients (mean age = 68 years, range = 54-82 years) previously treated with RP and who presented during FU a mild increase of trigger PSA serum levels <1.5 ng/ml: mean 0.86 ± 0.40 ng/ml (range 0.2-1.5) and median 0.93 ng/ml (range 0.67-1.10). In this patient series (11)C-choline PET/CT was used as the first imaging examination at the time of the detection of a mild serum PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml. (11)C-Choline PET/CT was performed following standard procedures in our centre. At the time of PET/CT, 86 patients were not receiving any pharmacologic treatment, while 16 were under anti-androgenic therapy. Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy in cases of local recurrence, (b) surgical lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging procedures or (d) FU lasting for at least 12 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the following variables: age, TNM staging, Gleason score, time from RP to the biochemical relapse, anti-androgen therapy at the time of (11)C-choline PET/CT scan, trigger PSA value and PSA kinetics, i.e. PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel), in order to assess the significant predictive factors related to the findings of a positive (11)C-choline PET/CT scan. Overall, (11)C-choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 29 of 102 patients (28% of cases). In detail, (11)C-choline PET/CT detected: local relapse in 7 patients, bone metastases in 13 patients (4 single and 9 multiple) and lymph node metastases in 9 patients (6 single and 3 multiple). Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) TRUS-guided biopsy in 7 patients with local

  7. The GALAD scoring algorithm based on AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP significantly improves detection of BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J; Bilgi, H; Heider, D; Schotten, C; Manka, P; Bedreli, S; Gorray, M; Ertle, J; van Grunsven, L A; Dechêne, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death in cirrhotic patients worldwide. The detection rate for early stage HCC remains low despite screening programs. Thus, the majority of HCC cases are detected at advanced tumor stages with limited treatment options. To facilitate earlier diagnosis, this study aims to validate the added benefit of the combination of AFP, the novel biomarkers AFP-L3, DCP, and an associated novel diagnostic algorithm called GALAD. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2008 and from 2010 to 2012, 285 patients newly diagnosed with HCC and 402 control patients suffering from chronic liver disease were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP were measured using the µTASWako i30 automated immunoanalyzer. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers was measured as single parameters and in a logistic regression model. Furthermore, a diagnostic algorithm (GALAD) based on gender, age, and the biomarkers mentioned above was validated. Results: AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP showed comparable sensitivities and specifities for HCC detection. The combination of all biomarkers had the highest sensitivity with decreased specificity. In contrast, utilization of the biomarker-based GALAD score resulted in a superior specificity of 93.3 % and sensitivity of 85.6 %. In the scenario of BCLC 0/A stage HCC, the GALAD algorithm provided the highest overall AUROC with 0.9242, which was superior to any other marker combination. Conclusions: We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Artificial neural network (ANN velocity better identifies benign prostatic hyperplasia but not prostate cancer compared with PSA velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lein Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To validate an artificial neural network (ANN based on the combination of PSA velocity (PSAV with a %free PSA-based ANN to enhance the discrimination between prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. Methods The study comprised 199 patients with PCa (n = 49 or BPH (n = 150 with at least three PSA estimations and a minimum of three months intervals between the measurements. Patients were classified into three categories according to PSAV and ANN velocity (ANNV calculated with the %free based ANN "ProstataClass". Group 1 includes the increasing PSA and ANN values, Group 2 the stable values, and Group 3 the decreasing values. Results 71% of PCa patients typically have an increasing PSAV. In comparison, the ANNV only shows this in 45% of all PCa patients. However, BPH patients benefit from ANNV since the stable values are significantly more (83% vs. 65% and increasing values are less frequently (11% vs. 21% if the ANNV is used instead of the PSAV. Conclusion PSAV has only limited usefulness for the detection of PCa with only 71% increasing PSA values, while 29% of all PCa do not have the typical PSAV. The ANNV cannot improve the PCa detection rate but may save 11–17% of unnecessary prostate biopsies in known BPH patients.

  9. Development of a fully-coupled, all atates, all hazards level 2 PSA at leibstadt nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvoncek, Pavol; Nusbaumer, Olivier [Safety Compliance and Technical Support Department, Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant, Leibstadt (Sweden); Torri, Alfred [Risk Management Associates, Inc., Encinitas (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This paper describes the development process, the innovative techniques used and insights gained from the latest integrated, full scope, multistate Level 2 PSA analysis conducted at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL), Switzerland. KKL is a modern single-unit General Electric Boiling Water Reactor (BWR/6) with Mark III Containment, and a power output of 3600MWth/1200MWe, the highest among the five operating reactors in Switzerland. A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses accident phenomena in nuclear power plants, identifies ways in which radioactive releases from plants can occur and estimates release pathways, magnitude and frequency. This paper attempts to give an overview of the advanced modeling techniques that have been developed and implemented for the recent KKL Level 2 PSA update, with the aim of systematizing the analysis and modeling processes, as well as complying with the relatively prescriptive Swiss requirements for PSA. The analysis provides significant insights into the absolute and relative importance of risk contributors and accident prevention and mitigation measures. Thanks to several newly developed techniques and an integrated approach, the KKL Level 2 PSA report exhibits a high degree of reviewability and maintainability, and transparently highlights the most important risk contributors to Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) with respect to initiating events, components, operator actions or seismic component failure probabilities (fragilities)

  10. PI-RADS version 2 for prediction of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy: a preliminary study in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason Score 7 (3+4) prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate PI-RADSv2 for predicting pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score (GS) 7(3+4) PC. A total of 105 patients with biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC who underwent multiparametric prostate MRI followed by RP were included. Two radiologists assigned PI-RADSv2 scores for each patient. Preoperative clinicopathological variables and PI-RADSv2 scores were compared between patients with and without downgrading after RP using the Wilcoxon rank sum test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression analyses with Firth's bias correction were performed to assess their association with downgrading. Pathological downgrading was identified in ten (9.5 %) patients. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, percentage of cores with GS 7(3+4), and greatest percentage of core length (GPCL) with GS 7(3+4) were significantly lower in patients with downgrading (p = 0.002-0.037). There was no significant difference in age and clinical stage (p = 0.537-0.755). PI-RADSv2 scores were significantly lower in patients with downgrading (3.8 versus 4.4, p = 0.012). At univariate logistic regression analysis, PSA, PSA density, and PI-RADSv2 scores were significant predictors of downgrading (p = 0.003-0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed only PSA density and PI-RADSv2 scores as independent predictors of downgrading (p = 0.014-0.042). The PI-RADSv2 scoring system was an independent predictor of pathological downgrading after RP in patients with biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC. • PI-RADSv2 was an independent predictor of downgrading in biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC • PSA density was also an independent predictor of downgrading • MRI may assist in identifying AS candidates in biopsy-proven GS 7(3+4) PC patients.

  11. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  12. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  13. PCA3 sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer detection in patients with abnormal PSA and/or suspicious digital rectal examination. First Latin American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Christian G; Valdevenito, Raul; Vergara, Ivonne; Anabalon, Patricio; Sanchez, Catherine; Fulla, Juan

    2013-11-01

    Prostate Cancer Gene 3 (PCA3) is a recently described and highly specific urinary marker for prostate cancer (CaP). Its introduction in clinical practice to supplement low specificity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) can improve CaP diagnosis and follow-up. However, before its introduction, it is necessary to validate the method of PCA3 detection in distinct geographic populations. Our aim was to describe for the first time in Latin America, the application of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay for PCA3 detection in urine in Chilean men and its utility for CaP diagnosis in men with an indication of prostate biopsy. Sixty-four Chilean patients (mean age, 64 years) with indication of prostate biopsy because of elevated PSA and/or suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) were prospectively recruited. PCA3 scores were assessed from urine samples obtained after DRE, before biopsy, and compared with PSA levels and biopsy outcome. The median PSA value and mean PCA3 score were 5.8 ng/ml and 31.7, respectively. Using a cutoff PCA3 score of 35, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting CaP were 52% and 87%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.77 for PCA3 and 0.57 for PSA, for the same group of patients. In patients with previous negative biopsy, PCA3 specificity increased by 2.2%. This is the first report in Latin America on the use of PCA3 in diagnosing CaP. Our results are comparable to those reported in other populations in the literature, demonstrating the reproducibility of the test. PCA3 score was highly specific and we specially recommend its use in patients with persistent elevated PSA and prior negative biopsies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) be used to guide the need for hospital admission and predict significant illness in children presenting to the emergency department? An assessment of PEWS diagnostic accuracy using sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillitos, Peter J; Hadley, Graeme; Maconochie, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Designed to detect early deterioration of the hospitalised child, paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) validity in the emergency department (ED) is less validated. We aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of two commonly used PEWS (Brighton and COAST) in predicting hospital admission and, for the first time, significant illness. Retrospective analysis of PEWS data for paediatric ED attendances at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK, in November 2012. Patients with missing data were excluded. Diagnoses were grouped: medical and surgical. To classify diagnoses as significant, established guidelines were used and, where not available, common agreement between three acute paediatricians. 1921 patients were analysed. There were 211 admissions (11%). 1630 attendances were medical (86%) and 273 (14%) surgical. Brighton and COAST PEWS performed similarly. hospital admission: PEWS of ≥3 was specific (93%) but poorly sensitive (32%). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was low at 0.690. Significant illness: for medical illness, PEWS ≥3 was highly specific (96%) but poorly sensitive (44%). The AUC was 0.754 and 0.755 for Brighton and COAST PEWS, respectively. Both scores performed poorly for predicting significant surgical illness (AUC 0.642). PEWS ≥3 performed well in predicting significant respiratory illness: sensitivity 75%, specificity 91%. Both Brighton and COAST PEWS scores performed similarly. A score of ≥3 has good specificity but poor sensitivity for predicting hospital admission and significant illness. Therefore, a high PEWS should be taken seriously but a low score is poor at ruling out the requirement for admission or serious underlying illness. PEWS was better at detecting significant medical illness compared with detecting the need for admission. PEWS performed poorly in detecting significant surgical illness. PEWS may be particularly useful in evaluating respiratory illness in a paediatric ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  15. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Loci at ATF7IP and KLK2 Associated with Percentage of Circulating Free PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu Jin

    2013-01-01

    RESULTS: We identified two loci that were associated with %fPSA at a genome-wide significance level (P <5 ×10−8. The first associated SNP was rs3213764 (P = 6.45 × 10−10, a nonsynonymous variant (K530R in the ATF7IP gene at 12p13. This variant was also nominally associated with tPSA (P = .015. The second locus was

  16. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA; Jaemfoerelse av SKIFS 2004:1 och Tillsynshandbok PSA mot ASME PRA Standard och Europeiska krav paa PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-15

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review

  17. Predictors of time to biochemical recurrence in a radical prostatectomy cohort within the PSA-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Satkunasivam, Raj; Gill, Inderbir S; Lieskovsky, Gary; Daneshmand, Sia; Pinski, Jacek K; Stern, Mariana C

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine predictors for early and late biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy among localized prostate cancer patients. The study included localized prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) at the University of Southern California from 1988 to 2008. Competing risks regression models were used to determine risk factors associated with earlier or late biochemical recurrence, defined using the median time to biochemical recurrence in this population (2.9 years after radical prostatectomy). The cohort for this study included 2262 localized prostate cancer (pT2-3N0M0) patients who did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies. Of these patients, 188 experienced biochemical recurrence and a subset continued to clinical recurrence, either within (n=19, 10%) or following (n=13, 7%) 2.9 years after RP. Multivariable stepwise competing risks analysis showed Gleason score ≥7, positive surgical margin status, and ≥pT3a stage to be associated with biochemical recurrence within 2.9 years following surgery. Predictors of biochemical recurrence after 2.9 years were Gleason score 7 (4+3), preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and ≥pT3a stage. Higher stage was associated with biochemical recurrence at any time following radical prostatectomy. Particular attention may need to be made to patients with stage ≥pT3a, higher preoperative PSA, and Gleason 7 prostate cancer with primary high-grade patterns when considering longer followup after RP.

  18. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA: results from the alpha omega trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg A Brouwer

    Full Text Available Alpha linolenic acid (ALA is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker for prostate cancer.The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration 4 ng/mL.Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815 and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807, a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL (P = 0·12. The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58.An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  19. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Klaasen, Veronique M; Smit, Liesbeth A; Giltay, Erik J; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration 4 ng/mL). Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  20. A simple computer program for calculating PSA recurrence in prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Zhongyue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men. The most commonly used diagnostic and tumor recurrence marker is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA. After surgical removal or radiation treatment, PSA levels drop (PSA nadir and subsequent elevated or increased PSA levels are indicative of recurrent disease (PSA recurrence. For clinical follow-up and local care PSA nadir and recurrence is often hand calculated for patients, which can result in the application of heterogeneous criteria. For large datasets of prostate cancer patients used in clinical studies PSA measurements are used as surrogate measures of disease progression. In these datasets a method to measure PSA recurrence is needed for the subsequent analysis of outcomes data and as such need to be applied in a uniform and reproducible manner. This method needs to be simple and reproducible, and based on known aspects of PSA biology. Methods We have created a simple Perl-based algorithm for the calculation of post-treatment PSA outcomes results based on the initial PSA and multiple PSA values obtained after treatment. The algorithm tracks the post-surgical PSA nadir and if present, subsequent PSA recurrence. Times to PSA recurrence or recurrence free intervals are supplied in months. Results Use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a sample dataset from prostate cancer patients. The results are compared with hand-annotated PSA recurrence analysis. The strengths and limitations are discussed. Conclusions The use of this simple PSA algorithm allows for the standardized analysis of PSA recurrence in large datasets of patients who have undergone treatment for prostate cancer. The script is freely available, and easily modifiable for desired user parameters and improvements.

  1. Analysis of monotherapy prostate brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer. Initial PSA and Gleason are important for recurrence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Galego

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcome of a cohort of localized prostate cancer patients treate with 125-I permanent brachytherapy at the São José Hospital – CHLC, Lisbon. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on 429 patients with low and intermediate-risk of prostate adenocarcinoma, according to the recommendations of the EORTC, who underwent 125I brachytherapies in intraoperative dosimetry “real-time” system between September 2003 and September 2013. Results The mean follow-up was 71.98 months. Biochemical relapse of disease by rising PSA (Phoenix criterion was observed in 18 patients (4.2%. Through the application of Kaplan-Meier survival curves in this sample, the rate of survival at 6 years without biochemical relapse was higher than 95%. By Iog rank test comparing biochemical relapse with initial PSA (15-10 and <10 and Gleason values (7 and <7, there was no statistical difference (P=0.830 of the initial PSA in the probability of developing biochemical relapse. In relation to Gleason score, it was noted a statistical difference (P<0.05, demonstrating that patients with Gleason 7 are more likely to develop biochemical relapse. Conclusions Brachytherapy as monotherapy is at present an effective choice in the treatment of localized prostate adenocarcinoma. Biochemical relapses are minimal. The initial PSA showed no statistically difference in the rate of relapses, unlike the value Gleason, where it was demonstrated that patients with Gleason 7 have a higher probability of biochemical relapse. Cases with PSA bounce should be controlled before starting a salvage treatment.

  2. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  3. Simulation and optimization of an industrial PSA unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barg C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA units have been used as a low cost alternative to the usual gas separation processes. Its largest commercial application is for hydrogen purification systems. Several studies have been made about the simulation of pressure swing adsorption units, but there are only few reports on the optimization of such processes. The objective of this study is to simulate and optimize an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. This unit consists of six beds, each of them have three layers of different kinds of adsorbents. The main impurities are methane, carbon monoxide and sulfidric gas. The product stream has 99.99% purity in hydrogen, and the recovery is around 90%. A mathematical model for a commercial PSA unit is developed. The cycle time and the pressure swing steps are optimized. All the features concerning with complex commercial processes are considered.

  4. PSA testing in Austria: induced morbidity and saved mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutuc, Christian; Waldhoer, Thomas; Lunglmayr, Gerhard; Hoeltl, Wolfgang; Haidinger, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Opportunistic screening of healthy men by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing led to a steep increase of prostate cancer incidence in Austria. The objective of this study was to quantify how many additional men are diagnosed with prostate cancer by PSA testing, to save one man from prostate cancer death. Regression models for incidence and mortality for the time periods 1983-1991 and 1992-2003 by age groups 50-59 and 60-69 years were estimated. For 1992-2003, expected numbers of incidence and mortality were calculated. The first estimates for the years 1992-2003 were calculated using the regression model including the years 1983-1991. The second estimates were also calculated using the regression model, but including only the years 1992-2003. The difference between estimates was then summed up for 1992-2003. The corresponding sums of incidence and mortality were compared to provide estimates for the effect of the introduction of PSA screening on incidence/mortality ratio. According to our calculation for the time period 1992-2003, in age group 50-69 years, a total of 512 expected prostate cancer deaths were prevented because of opportunistic PSA screening, whereas PSA testing identified a total of 9648 additional men with asymptomatic prostate cancer. In conclusion, to save one man in the age group 50-69 years in the time period 1992-2003 from prostate cancer death by PSA testing, a total of 18.8 men with asymptomatic prostate cancer had to be identified. Although this study probably underestimates the benefit (reduced mortality) and overestimates excess incidence of prostate cancer, it is far from sure that in all of these additionally identified men prostate cancer would ever have surfaced as a clinical disease, if not screened for.

  5. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50). Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1), and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9). In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007). In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF. PMID:22449081

  6. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  7. Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines investigated were steroid receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell lines BT-20 and ...

  8. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  9. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 1 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  10. Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings 2 PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    This 30 second PSA encourages people to wash their hands often while in the hospital or visiting someone in the hospital. It also encourages them to remind their healthcare providers to wash their hands, too.  Created: 8/19/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  11. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  12. System analysis procedures for conducting PSA of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Jeong, Won Dae; Kim, Tae Un; Kim, Kil You; Han, Sang Hoon; Chang, Seung Chul; Sung, Tae Yong; Yang, Jun Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Jin, Young Ho

    1997-03-01

    This document, the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) procedures guide for system analysis, is intended to provide the guidelines to analyze the target of system consistently and technically in the performance of PSA for nuclear power plants(NPPs). The guide has been prepared in accordance with the procedures and techniques for fault tree analysis(FTA) used in system analysis. Normally the main objective of system analysis is to assess the reliability of system modeled by Event Tree Analysis(ETA). A variety of analytical techniques can be used for the system analysis, however, FTA method is used in this procedures guide. FTA is the method used for representing the failure logic of plant systems deductively using AND, OR or NOT gates. The fault tree should reflect all possible failure modes that may contribute to the system unavailability. This should include contributions due to the mechanical failures of the components, Common Cause Failures (CCFs), human errors and outages for testing and maintenance. After the construction of fault tree is completed, system unavailability is calculated with the CUT module of KIRAP, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed through the process as above stated. As above mentioned, the procedures for system analysis is based on PSA procedures and methods which has been applied to the safety assessments of constructing NPPs in the country. Accordingly, the method of FTA stated in this procedures guide will be applicable to PSA for the NPPs to be constructed in the future. (author). 6 tabs., 11 figs., 7 refs.

  13. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: tumor volume and Gleason score predicts cancer outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roca, Ricardo L.R. Felts de, E-mail: Ricardo@delarocaurologia.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Francisco Paula da, E-mail: fpf@uol.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Urologia. Dept. de Cirurgia Pelvica; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Bezerra, Stephania Martins, E-mail: iwerneck@gmail.com, E-mail: stephaniab@gmail.com [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: positive surgical margins (PSMs) are common adverse factors to predict the outcome of a patient submitted to radical prostatectomy (PR). However, not all of these men will follow with biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence. Relationship between PSMs with these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinicopathological findings in order to recognize more aggressive tumors in order to recommend complementary treatment to these selected patients. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 228 patients submitted to open retropubic RP between March 1991 and June 2008, where 161 had and 67 did not have PSMs. Minimum follow-up time was considered 2 years after surgery. BCR was considered when PSA {>=} 0.2 ng/ml. CR was determined when clinical evidence of tumor appeared. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. The estimated 5-year risk of BCR and CR in presence of PSMs was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to log-rank tests. Results: from the total of 228 patients, 161 (71%) had PSMs, while 67 (29%) had negative surgical margins (NSMs). Prostatic circumferential margin was the most common (43.4%) site. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) associations between the presence of PSMs and BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.06). Among 161 patients with PSMs, 61 (37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. Predicting progression-free survival for 5 years, BCR was correlated with pathological stage; Gleason score; pre-treatment PSA; tumor volume in specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. RC correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analyses the clinicopathological factors predicting BCR for 5 years, results statistically significant links with prostate weight; pre-treatment PSA; Gleason score; pathological stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural

  14. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  15. Correlation of Serum PSA and Gleason Score in Nigerian Men with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02994508 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  16. PSA testing for men at average risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce K Armstrong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common – arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities – including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council – have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations. But disagreement continues. The contention is partly over what the new evidence means. It is also a result of different valuing and prioritisation of outcomes that are hard to compare: prostate cancer deaths prevented (a small and disputed number; prevention of metastatic disease (somewhat more common; and side-effects of treatment such as incontinence, impotence and bowel trouble (more common again. A sizeable proportion of men diagnosed through PSA testing (somewhere between 20% and 50% would never have had prostate cancer symptoms sufficient to prompt investigation; many of these men are older, with competing comorbidities. It is a complex picture. Below are four viewpoints from expert participants in the evolving debate, commissioned for this cancer screening themed issue of Public Health Research & Practice. We asked the authors to respond to the challenge of PSA testing of asymptomatic, normal-risk men. They raise important considerations: uncertainty, harms, the trustworthiness and interpretation of the evidence, cost (e.g. of using multiparametric

  17. Prostate cancer-specific death in brachytherapy treated high-risk patients stratified by pre-treatment PSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Fiano, Ryan; Adamovich, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of high-risk patients treated with a permanent prostate brachytherapy approach, stratified by pre-treatment PSA. Material and methods 448 high-risk patients (NCCN criteria) underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. High risk patients were stratified by pre-treatment PSA (≤ 10.0, 10.1-20, and > 20 ng/ml). Biochemical failure (BF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), distant failure (DM), and overall mortality (OM) were assessed as a function of prognostic group. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on outcome. Results The 10-year OM, BF, and PCSM for the entire cohort were 28.5%, 13.3%, and 4.9%, respectively. At 10 years, PCSM was 2.5%, 10.7%, and 4.5% in the PSA ≤ 10, 10.1-20, and > 20 ng/ml groups, respectively. No statistically significant differences in BF or overall survival (OS) were noted when stratified by pre-treatment PSA. DF was the most common in the 10.1-20 ng/ml cohort (8.6% at 10 years). In multivariate analysis, PCSM was most closely related to percent positive biopsies (p = 0.001) and tobacco (p = 0.042). Conclusions High-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiotherapy resulted in excellent long-term biochemical control and PCSM. Overall, PCSM was low in all cohorts but highest in the intermediate PSA group (10.1-20 ng/ml). PMID:28951747

  18. Urinary Biomarker Panel to Improve Accuracy in Predicting Prostate Biopsy Result in Chinese Men with PSA 4–10 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical performance of a panel of urinary biomarkers to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa in Chinese men with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL. A total of 122 patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL who underwent consecutive prostate biopsy at three hospitals in China were recruited. First-catch urine samples were collected after an attentive prostate massage. Urinary mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The predictive accuracy of these biomarkers and prediction models was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve. The diagnostic accuracy of PCA3, PSGR, and MALAT-1 was superior to that of PSA. PCA3 performed best, with an AUC of 0.734 (95% CI: 0.641, 0.828 followed by MALAT-1 with an AUC of 0.727 (95% CI: 0.625, 0.829 and PSGR with an AUC of 0.666 (95% CI: 0.575, 0.749. The diagnostic panel with age, prostate volume, % fPSA, PCA3 score, PSGR score, and MALAT-1 score yielded an AUC of 0.857 (95% CI: 0.780, 0.933. At a threshold probability of 20%, 47.2% of unnecessary biopsies may be avoided whereas only 6.2% of PCa cases may be missed. This urinary panel may improve the current diagnostic modality in Chinese men with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL.

  19. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state. PMID:24994780

  20. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada) between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  1. What Is the Clinical Significance of FDG Unexpected Uptake in the Prostate in Patients Undergoing PET/CT for Other Malignancies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bhosale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the clinical significance of unexpected, abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT for staging of other primary malignancies without a prior history of prostate carcinoma. Methods. Retrospective search of FDG-PET/CT studies to identify patients with unexpected, abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate gland, who underwent subsequent biopsy, was performed. 26 patients were identified. Images were reviewed to determine the pattern of uptake within the prostate (focal or diffuse and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax. PSA and Gleason scores were recorded. Results. 15/26 (58% patients were found to have prostate carcinoma. Gleason scores ranged from 6 to 9.9. There was no statistical difference in the pattern of uptake (focal versus diffuse or the SUVmax. Serum PSA levels with cancer (range, 2–26.8 ng; mean, 10.2 ng and those without cancer (range, 2–10.5 ng; mean, 2.2 ng were statistically significant (P<0.007, Wilcoxon rank sum test. Conclusions. Patients with abnormal uptake in the prostate have a 58% likelihood of occult prostate cancer. In the setting of elevated serum PSA levels, abnormal prostate uptake should therefore be viewed with suspicion and a urology consult should be obtained; however, it is irrelevant in patients with underlying aggressive malignancies.

  2. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  3. Teen Pregnancy - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-05

    This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.  Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/5/2011.

  4. Asthma - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-03

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the May, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Children and adults can have asthma and attacks can be frightening. To help control asthma, know the warning signs of an attack, stay away from asthma triggers, and follow your health care provider's advice.  Created: 5/3/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/3/2011.

  5. Primary Gleason pattern in biopsy Gleason score 7 is predictive of adverse histopathological features and biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Vainer, Ben; Iversen, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether primary Gleason pattern in biopsy Gleason score (GS) 7 predicted adverse histopathological features and had an impact on the risk of biochemical failure in a consecutive series of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Between 2006 and 2010, 441 patients with biopsy GS 7 underwent RP at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Favourable histopathological features were defined as pT2 margin-negative cancer, RP specimen GS ≤ 3+4 and no lymph-node metastasis. Adverse histopathological features were defined as advanced pT3/4 cancer or pT2 margin-positive cancer and/or RP specimen GS ≥ 4+3 and/or positive lymph nodes. Biochemical failure was defined as the first prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. A total of 344 patients (78.0%) had GS 3+4 in biopsies, while 97 patients (22.0%) had GS 4+3. No difference in age, PSA, percentage of biopsies with cancer, clinical tumour stage or volume on transrectal ultrasonography was found. Primary Gleason pattern 4 was associated with worse pathological stage (p = 0.049). On multivariate analysis, primary Gleason pattern 4 (p Gleason score 3+4 had a significantly lower biochemical failure rate compared with Gleason score 4+3 (p = 0.0035). PSA (p Gleason pattern 4 (p = 0.001) and percentage of biopsies with cancer (p = 0.02) were independently associated with risk of biochemical failure. In biopsies with GS 7, a primary Gleason pattern 4 was associated with significantly elevated risk of adverse histopathological features and biochemical failure compared to pattern 3 in patients undergoing RP. This study underlines the heterogeneity of biopsy GS 7.

  6. Impact of Lesion Visibility on Transrectal Ultrasound on the Prediction of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (Gleason Score 3 + 4 or Greater) with Transrectal Ultrasound-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fusion Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Nguyen, Hao G; Zagoria, Ronald J; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R; Behr, Spencer C; Westphalen, Antonio C

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of lesion visibility with transrectal ultrasound on the prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer with transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy. This HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant, institutional review board approved, retrospective study was performed in 178 men who were 64.7 years old with prostate specific antigen 8.9 ng/ml. They underwent transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy from January 2013 to September 2016. Visible lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were assigned a PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System), version 2 score of 3 or greater. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when a hypoechoic lesion was identified. We used a 3-level, mixed effects logistic regression model to determine how transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging concordance predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer. The diagnostic performance of the 2 methods was estimated using ROC curves. A total of 1,331 sextants were targeted by transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion or systematic biopsies, of which 1,037 were negative, 183 were Gleason score 3 + 3 and 111 were Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging alone at 20.5% and 19.7% of these locations, respectively. Men with positive imaging had higher odds of clinically significant prostate cancer than men without visible lesions regardless of modality (transrectal ultrasound OR 14.75, 95% CI 5.22-41.69, magnetic resonance imaging OR 12.27, 95% CI 6.39-23.58 and the 2 modalities OR 28.68, 95% CI 14.45-56.89, all p magnetic resonance imaging alone (0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.87, p = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal ultrasound were 42.3% and 91.6%, and the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging

  7. Development of a Fully-Coupled, All States, All Hazards Level 2 PSA at Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Zvoncek

    2017-03-01

    The analysis provides significant insights into the absolute and relative importances of risk contributors and accident prevention and mitigation measures. Thanks to several newly developed techniques and an integrated approach, the KKL Level 2 PSA report exhibits a high degree of reviewability and maintainability, and transparently highlights the most important risk contributors to Large Early Release Frequency (LERF with respect to initiating events, components, operator actions or seismic component failure probabilities (fragilities.

  8. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...

  9. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Loeb (Stacy); M.G. Sanda (Martin G.); D.L. Broyles (Dennis L.); S.S. Shin (Sanghyuk S.); C.H. Bangma (Chris); J.T. Wei (John T.); A.W. Partin (Alan W.); G.G. Klee (George); K.M. Slawin (Kevin M.); L.S. Marks (Leonard S.); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); D.W. Chan (Daniel); L. Sokoll (Lori); A.B. Cruz (Amabelle B.); I.A. Mizrahi (Isaac A.); W.J. Catalona (William)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting

  10. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Brasso, Klaus; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients is debatable. We investigated the association between PSA doubling time (PSAdt), PSA velocity (PSAvel) and PSAvel risk count (PSAvRC) and PCa mortality in a cohort of patients...... were included of which 116, 76 and 71 had a PSA at consent ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml, respectively. Median follow-up was 13.6 years. For patients with PSA at consent between 10.1 and 25 ng/ml, the 13-year risks of PCa mortality were associated with PSA kinetics: PSAdt ≤3 years: 62.0% versus PSAdt >3...... years: 16.3% (Gray's test: P associated with changes of 13-year risks of PCa...

  11. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Cheryl K; Maggie Guo; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs), biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controvers...

  12. Colorectal Cancer - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the July, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Colorectal cancer kills about 50,000 men and women every year. Screening can save lives! Screening can find abnormal growths so they can be removed before turning into cancer, and can find the cancer early, when it's easiest to treat. If you're over 50, talk to your doctor about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 7/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/5/2011.

  13. [Clinicopathologic and biological correlations (PSA-PAP) in pathology of the prostate. Apropos of 150 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, J; Chevallier, D; Peyrottes, A; Benoliel, J; Toubol, J

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of 150 patients (16 controls with no disease of the prostate, 96 cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and 38 cases of carcinoma of the prostate (CP)), the authors intended to answer 3 questions: How can the borderline values of PSA in BPH be interpreted? Is there a correlation between the Gleason and PSA values in carcinomas? Should the simultaneous measurements of PSA and PAP be continued? All patients were examined with a rectal touch, transrectal echography (TRE) and PAS and PAP assays. All CP were examined with bone radionuclide scanning (BR). The correlation coefficient being 0.391 (p 0.001), the PSA value and prostatic weight can be regarded as linearly correlated in BPH (5 g BPH = 1 ng/ml PSA). This lower value of PSA is linked with the increase produced by TRE in the assessment of prostatic weight. On the other hand, the authors did no observe a correlation between the PSA and the Glisson grade in carcinomas with negative BR. Lastly, the sensitivity of PSA is noticeably higher than that of PAP (75% vs. 50%), and no false negative finding with PSA was corrected by PAP measurements.

  14. Analytic expressions for the construction of a fire event PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Dong San; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model is analytically presented and discussed. Many fire PSA models have fire induced initiating event fault trees not shown in an internal event PSA model. Fire-induced initiating fault tree models are developed for addressing multiple initiating event issues. A single fire event within a fire compartment or fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events. As an example, a fire in a turbine building area can cause a loss of the main feed-water and loss of off-site power initiating events. Up to now, there has been no analytic study on the construction of a fire event PSA model using an internal event PSA model with fault trees of initiating events. In this paper, the changing process of an internal event PSA model to a fire event PSA model was analytically presented and discussed. This study results show that additional cutsets can be obtained if the fault trees of initiating events for a fire event PSA model are not exactly developed.

  15. Development of a Base Model for the New Fire PSA Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, Daeil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wee Kyong; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and have been training many operators and inspectors to widely spread the new method. However, there is a limitation in time and efficiency for many foreigners, who generally have communication problem, to participate in the EPRI/NRC training to learn the new method. Since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and KAERI-KINS is jointly preparing the base model for the new fire PSA training. This paper describes how the base model is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base model of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed in two ways from the internal PSA model. Since we have the base model and know the process of making the fire PSA model, the training for the new fire PSA method can be in detail performed in Korea.

  16. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set: A Report from the PsA Workshop at OMERACT 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Elmamoun, Musaab; Tillett, William; Campbell, Willemina; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gladman, Dafna D; Goel, Niti; Gossec, Laure; Hoejgaard, Pil; Leung, Ying Ying; Lindsay, Chris; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Shea, Bev; Christensen, Robin; Coates, Laura; Eder, Lihi; McHugh, Neil; Kalyoncu, Umut; Steinkoenig, Ingrid; Ogdie, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). At OMERACT 2016, research conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted 24 focus groups with 130 patients from 7 countries representing 5 continents to identify patient domains. We achieved consensus through 2 rounds of separate surveys with 50 patients and 75 physicians, and a nominal group technique meeting with 12 patients and 12 physicians. We conducted a workshop and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health-related quality of life, and systemic inflammation, which were recommended for all RCT and LOS. These were important, but not required in all RCT and LOS: economic cost, emotional well-being, participation, and structural damage. Independence, sleep, stiffness, and treatment burden were on the research agenda. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was endorsed at OMERACT 2016. Next steps for the PsA working group include evaluation of PsA outcome measures and development of a PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set.

  17. Impact of PSA testing and prostatic biopsy on cancer incidence and mortality: comparative study between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A-E; Drummond, F J; Black, A; van Leeuwen, P J; Sharp, L; Murray, L J; Connolly, D; Egevad, L; Boniol, M; Autier, P; Comber, H; Gavin, A

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the impact of different PSA testing policies and health-care systems on prostate cancer incidence and mortality in two countries with similar populations, the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). Population-level data on PSA tests, prostate biopsies and prostate cancer cases 1993-2005 and prostate cancer deaths 1979-2006 were compiled. Annual percentage change (APC) was estimated by joinpoint regression. Prostate cancer rates were similar in both areas in 1994 but increased rapidly in RoI compared to NI. The PSA testing rate increased sharply in RoI (APC = +23.3%), and to a lesser degree in NI (APC = +9.7%) to reach 412 and 177 tests per 1,000 men in 2004, respectively. Prostatic biopsy rates rose in both countries, but were twofold higher in RoI. Cancer incidence rates rose significantly, mirroring biopsy trends, in both countries reaching 440 per 100,000 men in RoI in 2004 compared to 294 in NI. Median age at diagnosis was lower in RoI (71 years) compared to NI (73 years) (p Mortality rates declined from 1995 in both countries (APC = -1.5% in RoI, -1.3% in NI) at a time when PSA testing was not widespread. Prostatic biopsy rates, rather than PSA testing per se, were the main driver of prostate cancer incidence. Because mortality decreases started before screening became widespread in RoI, and mortality remained low in NI, PSA testing is unlikely to be the explanation for declining mortality.

  18. The effect of PTZ-induced epileptic seizures on hippocampal expression of PSA-NCAM in offspring born to kindled rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabzadeh Aliakbar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal epileptic seizures during pregnancy can affect the hippocampal neurons in the offspring. The polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM, which is expressed in the developing central nervous system, may play important roles in neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. This study was designed to assess the effects of kindling either with or without maternal seizures on hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in rat offspring. Methods Forty timed-pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four groups: A Kind+/Seiz+, pregnant kindled (induced two weeks prior to pregnancy rats that received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. pentylenetetrazol, PTZ injections on gestational days (GD 14-19; B Kind-/Seiz+, pregnant non-kindled rats that received PTZ injections on GD14-GD19; C Kind+/Seiz-, pregnant kindled rats that did not receive any PTZ injections; and D Kind-/Seiz-, the sham controls. Following birth, the pups were sacrificed on PD1 and PD14, and PSA-NCAM expression and localization in neonates’ hippocampi were analyzed by Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results Our data show a significant down regulation of hippocampal PSA-NCAM expression in the offspring of Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.001 groups compared to the sham control group. The PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was markedly decreased in all parts of the hippocampus, especially in the CA3 region, in Kind+/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 and Kind-/Seiz+ (p = 0.007 group’s newborns on both PD1 and 14. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal seizures but not kindling influence the expression of PSA-NCAM in the offspring’s hippocampi, which may be considered as a factor for learning/memory and cognitive impairments reported in children born to epileptic mothers.

  19. The OMERACT Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) is reliable and sensitive to change: results from an OMERACT workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøyesen, Pernille; McQueen, Fiona M; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year.......The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year....

  20. Outcomes of Gleason Score ≤ 8 among high risk prostate cancer treated with 125I low dose rate brachytherapy based multimodal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Soo; Gong, In Hyuck; Choi, Don Kyung; Hwang, Jin Ho; Shin, Hyun Soo; Oh, Jong Jin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy-based multimodal therapy in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) and analyze its optimal indications. We reviewed the records of 50 high-risk PCa patients [clinical stage ≥ T2c, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, or biopsy Gleason score ≥ 8] who had undergone 125I LDR brachytherapy since April 2007. We excluded those with a follow-up period Gleason score ≥ 9 and Gleason score ≤ 8. The mean initial PSA was 22.1 ng/mL, and mean D90 was 244.3 Gy. During a median follow- up of 39.2 months, biochemical control was obtained in 72% (36/50) of the total patients; The estimated 3-year BCR-free survival was 92% for the patients with biopsy Gleason scores ≤ 8, and 40% for those with Gleason scores ≥ 9 (pGleason score ≥ 9 was observed to be significantly associated with BCR (p=0.021). Acute and late grade ≥ 3 toxicities were observed in 20% (10/50) and 36% (18/50) patients, respectively. Our results showed that 125I LDR brachytherapy-based multimodal therapy in high-risk PCa produced encouraging relatively long-term results among the Asian population, especially in patients with Gleason score ≤ 8. Despite small number of subjects, biopsy Gleason score ≥ 9 was a significant predictor of BCR among high risk PCa patients after brachytherapy.

  1. A urinary biomarker-based risk score correlates with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rianne J; van der Leest, Marloes M G; Dijkstra, Siebren; Barentsz, Jelle O; Van Criekinge, Wim; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Schalken, Jack A; Mulders, Peter F A; van Oort, Inge M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics would greatly benefit from more accurate, non-invasive techniques for the detection of clinically significant disease, leading to a reduction of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a novel urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx), multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) outcomes, and biopsy results for PCa detection. This retrospective observational study used data from the validation study of the SelectMDx score, in which urine was collected after digital rectal examination from men undergoing prostate biopsies. A subset of these patients also underwent a mpMRI scan of the prostate. The indications for performing mpMRI were based on persistent clinical suspicion of PCa or local staging after PCa was found upon biopsy. All mpMRI images were centrally reviewed in 2016 by an experienced radiologist blinded for the urine test results and biopsy outcome. The PI-RADS version 2 was used. In total, 172 patients were included for analysis. Hundred (58%) patients had PCa detected upon prostate biopsy, of which 52 (52%) had high-grade disease correlated with a significantly higher SelectMDx score (P PSA and 0.65 for PCA3. There was a positive association between SelectMDx score and the final PI-RADS grade. There was a statistically significant difference in SelectMDx score between PI-RADS 3 and 4 (P PI-RADS 4 and 5 (P < 0.01). The novel urinary biomarker-based SelectMDx score is a promising tool in PCa detection. This study showed promising results regarding the correlation between the SelectMDx score and mpMRI outcomes, outperforming PCA3. Our results suggest that this risk score could guide clinicians in identifying patients at risk for significant PCa and selecting patients for further radiological diagnostics to reduce unnecessary procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. PSA bounce after {sup 125}I-brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a favorable prognosticator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeler, Daniel S.; Schwab, Christoph; Schmid, Hans-Peter [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Urology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Thoeni, Armin F. [Lindenhofspital Berne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berne (Switzerland); Hochreiter, Werner [Hirslanden Klinik Aarau, Department of Urology, Aarau (Switzerland); Prikler, Ladislav [Klinik Uroviva Buelach, Department of Urology, Buelach (Switzerland); Suter, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Zug, Department of Urology, Zug (Switzerland); Stucki, Patrick [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Department of Urology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Schiefer, Johann; Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Permanent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) with iodine 125 is an established curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. After treatment, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics may show a transient rise (PSA bounce). Our aim was to investigate the association of PSA bounce with biochemical control. Patients treated with BT in Switzerland were registered in a prospective database. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in our analysis. Clinical follow-up and PSA measurements were assessed after 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. If PSA increased, additional follow-up visits were scheduled. Cases of PSA bounce were defined as a rise of at least 0.2 ng/ml above the initial PSA nadir with a subsequent decline to or below the initial nadir without treatment. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise to nadir + 2 ng/ml. Between March 2001 and November 2010, 713 patients with prostate cancer undergoing BT with at least 2 years of follow-up were registered. Median follow-up time was 41 months. Biochemical failure occurred in 28 patients (3.9 %). PSA bounce occurred in 173 (24.3 %) patients; only three (1.7 %) patients with PSA bounce developed biochemical failure, in contrast to 25 (4.6 %) patients without previous bounce (p < 0.05). The median time to bounce was 12 months, the median time to biochemical failure was 30 months. The median bounce increase was 0.78 ng/ml. Twenty-eight patients with bounce (16.5 %) had a transient PSA rise of + 2 ng/ml above the nadir. In most cases, an early increase in PSA after BT indicates PSA bounce and is associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure. (orig.) [German] Die permanente Low-dose-rate-Brachytherapie (BT) mit {sup 125}I ist ein etabliertes kuratives Verfahren bei lokalisiertem Prostatakarzinom. Posttherapeutisch koennen die PSA-Konzentrationen einen voruebergehenden Anstieg zeigen (Bounce-Phaenomen). Untersucht werden sollte ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der

  3. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-15

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea.

  4. The role of the percentage free PSA in the diagnosis of prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and methods: A total 169 consecutive patients with tPSA of 4–10 ng/ml with non-suspicious findings on digital rectal examination (DRE) had a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided 10-core prostate biopsy. The technique of PSA analysis was the Access hybritech assay technique using the Beckman's Access ...

  5. PYGOPUS2 expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma is a potential risk stratification marker for PSA progression following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kenneth R; Popadiuk, Paul; Thoms, John; Aoki, Satoko; Anwar, Shahgul; Fitzgerald, Emily; Andrews, Phillip; Voisey, Kim; Gai, Luis; Challa, Satya; He, Zhijian; Gonzales-Aguirre, Paola; Simmonds, Andrea; Popadiuk, Catherine

    2017-09-18

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men. Without clear pathological indicators of disease trajectory at diagnosis, management of PrCa is challenging, given its wide-ranging manifestation from indolent to highly aggressive disease. This study examines the role in PrCa of the Pygopus (PYGO)2 chromatin effector protein as a risk stratification marker in PrCa. RNA expression was performed in PrCa cell lines using Northern and RT-PCR analyses. Protein levels were assessed using immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from radical prostatectomies with 5-year patient follow-up data including Gleason score tumour staging, margin and lymph node involvement and prostate serum antigen (PSA) levels. Biochemical recurrence (BR) was defined as a postoperative PSA level of >0.2 nL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SAS and Kaplan-Meier curves using graphPad (Prism). In vitro depletion of PYGO2 by RNAi in both androgen receptor positive and negative PrCa cell lines attenuated growth and reduced Ki67 and 47S rRNA expression, while PYGO2 protein was localised to the nuclei of tumours as determined by immunohistochemistry. High expression levels of PYGO2 in tumours (n=156) were correlated with BR identified as PSA progression, after 7-year follow-up independent of other traditional risk factors. Most importantly, high PYGO2 levels in intermediate grade tumours suggested increased risk of recurrence over those with negative or weak expression. Our data suggest that elevated PYGO2 expression in primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a potential risk factor for BR. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, T; Asobe, M; Takara, H; Miyamoto, Y; Takenouchi, H

    2013-07-29

    We demonstrated multi-span transmission using a periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). An in-line PSA with a carrier recovery and phase locking system is implemented as a repeater amplifier in a recirculating loop. We achieved a PSA gain as high as + 18 dB and a high external gain of + 12 dB for the in-line PSA as a black box. The impairments caused by phase noise resulting from fiber nonlinearity and intensity noise caused by the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of an optical amplifier are largely suppressed using the phase and amplitude regeneration capabilities of the PSA. The ultra long-haul transmission of a 28-Gb/s binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal over 5400 km was achieved with phase and amplitude regeneration.

  7. EOP Improvement Proposal for SGTR based on The OPR PSA Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hee; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong San; Yang, Joon Eon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This updating process was also focused to enhance the PSA quality and to respect the as built and as operated conditions of target plants. For this purpose, the EOP(Emergency Operating Procedure) and AOP(Abnormal Operating Procedure) of target plant were reviewed in detail and various thermal hydraulic(T/H) analysis were also performed to analyze the realistic PSA accident sequence model. In this paper, the unreasonable point of SGTR (Steam Generator Tube Rupture) EOP based on PSA perspective was identified and the initial proposal for EOP change items from PSA insight was proposed. In this paper, the unreasonable point of SGTR EOP based on PSA perspective was identified and the EOP improvement items are proposed to enhance safety and operator's convenience for the target plant.

  8. Lessons learnt from PSA for new and advanced reactors in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmachev, G.; Morozov, V. [JSC ' ' Atomenergoproekt' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Customer requirements to probabilistic safety targets are usually stronger than existing Regulatory or IAEA ones. It appears that industry takes the lead over regulation in this case and forces the designer to find and implement appropriate means to enhance safety, which sometimes have no reference to practical experience. On the other hand, regulatory documents and the existing PSA methodology are mainly oriented to operating plants. This creates problems when developing a PSA as well as performing regulatory reviews. The scope of the PSA may be different depending on a design stage such as the development conceptual, basic or detailed design. In addition, the base case PSA is usually performed for NPP in design. However, a customer may require additional PSA applications to consider, for instance, risk monitoring. In this case the scope of the PSA should be extended to implement special attributes of the application needed that often requires specific information not available at the design stage. Lack of design information affecting PSA development may be associated with incompleteness of the design that is typical for interim design stages and communication problems caused by the involvement of many different companies in the deign activity. To deal with this issue bounding technologies and the iterative PSA development are used. However this sometimes contradicts to the ''best estimate'' approach recommended by regulatory guides. PSA development for advanced NPPs has raised some issues originated from unknown new components, processes and technologies incorporated into the design of an advanced plant. The paper addresses some issues resolved while carrying out PSAs for advanced NPPs. Some PSA results for new advanced VVER plants under construction and the first lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Lack of prognostic significance of p16 and p27 after radical prostatectomy in hormone-naïve prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachostergios Panagiotis J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of normal cell cycle control is an early event in the evolution of cancer. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors p16 and p27 has been previously associated with progression of prostate cancer (PC. 70 patients diagnosed with early stage PCwere treated with radical prostatectomy (RP at our institution and their tumor specimens were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of p16 and p27. Available clinical data of time to PSA recurrence were correlated with the examined parameters and combined with pre-operative PSA level, Gleason score and pathological TNM (pT stage assessment. Results Nuclear overexpression of p16 was not associated with time to biochemical failure (BF (p = 0.572. Same was the case for nuclear p27 overexpression (p = 1.000. Also, no significant correlations were found between either p16 or p27, and pre-operative PSA level, pT stage and Gleason grade. pT stage emerged as the only independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (p = 0.01. Conclusions These data question previously reported data supporting the prognostic relevance of both p16 and p27 proteins in early PC.

  10. A national multicenter phase 2 study of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) pox virus vaccine with sequential androgen ablation therapy in patients with PSA progression: ECOG 9802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Robert S; Chen, Yu-Hui; Bubley, Glenn J; Stein, Mark N; Hahn, Noah M; Carducci, Michael A; Lattime, Edmund C; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis. To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden. Patients who had PSA progression following local therapy were treated with PROSTVAC-V (vaccinia)/TRICOM on cycle 1 followed by PROSTVAC-F (fowlpox)/TRICOM for subsequent cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (step 1). Androgen ablation was added on progression (step 2). Step 1 primary end points included progression at 6 mo and characterization of change in PSA velocity pretreatment to post-treatment. Step 2 end points included PSA response with combined vaccine and androgen ablation. In step 1, 25 of 40 eligible patients (63%) were progression free at 6 mo after registration (90% confidence interval [CI], 48-75). The median pretreatment PSA velocity was 0.13 log(PSA)/mo, in contrast to median postregistration velocity of 0.09 log(PSA)/mo (p=0.02), which is an increase in median PSA doubling time from 5.3 mo to 7.7 mo. No grade ≥4 treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the 27 patients eligible and treated for step 2, 20 patients achieved a complete response (CR) at 7 mo (CR rate: 74%; 90% CI, 57-87). Although supportive of larger studies in the cooperative group setting, this study is limited by the small number of patients and the absence of a control group as in a phase 3 study. A viral PSA vaccine can be administered safely in the multi-institutional cooperative group setting to patients with minimal disease volume alone and combined with androgen ablation, supporting the feasibility of future phase 3 studies in this

  11. Postoperative monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA after treatment with high-intensive focused ultrasound (HIFU

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    Blyumberg B.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to estimate efficiency of treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensive focused ultrasound on the basis of laboratory analysis of postoperative level prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Objects of research. Objects of research consisted of 110 patients treated in urological clinic of Hospital n.a. S. R. Mirotvortsev (Saratov State Medical University during the period February, 2009 — March, 2012. Patients took 110 sessions of primary operative treatment of prostate cancer by HIFU therapy method. Technique and research methods. Concentration of PSA in blood changed in all patients every 1,5 month within 6 months after operation, irrespective of its kind (including after repeated HIFU, further — after every 3 month till one year, and later on after 6 months. We were guided by references of the International Consensus, which considers PSA level more than 0,5 ng/ml in blood after 3 months of treatment to be unsatisfactory result. We also headed for PSA level before treatment and oncological risk degree. Results. Median nadir formed 0,5 ng/ml PSA by 3 months after treatment. Patients demonstrated different indicators of PSA dynamics depending on oncological risk, stage and hormonal therapy management. Patients with low oncological risk had initially lower PSA concentration, further PSA concentration reached nadir level faster. At patients with widespread forms of prostate cancer accurate dependence of PSA concentration according to prevalence of process was traced. Time of PSA nadir amount did not differ and was marked as 12-14 weeks on average. At patients received hormonal therapy, lower value of PSA nadir was marked. The conclusion. Monitoring of PSA concentration (PSA nadir by 3 months, dynamics of PSA concentration change is of great importance in early revealing of relapse after prostate HIFU therapy. High level of PSA nadir and PSA growth according to time period are important prognostic factors.

  12. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eden [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants.

  13. Exploring Prostate Cancer Genome Reveals Simultaneous Losses of PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 in Patients with PSA Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeawuchi, Chinyere; Schmidt, Hartmut; Voss, Reinhard; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Neumann, Joerg; Eltze, Elke; Hoogland, Agnes Marije; Jenster, Guido; Brandt, Burkhard; Semjonow, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa) creates a challenge to patients’ outcome prediction and their clinical management. An approach that scrutinizes every cancer focus is needed in order to generate a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and by correlating to patients’ clinico-pathological information, specific prognostic biomarker can be identified. Our study utilized the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Genome-wide assay to investigate forty-three fresh frozen PCa tissue foci from twenty-three patients. With a long clinical follow-up period that ranged from 2.0–9.7 (mean 5.4) years, copy number variation (CNV) data was evaluated for association with patients’ PSA status during follow-up. From our results, the loss of unique genes on 10q23.31 and 10q23.2–10q23.31 were identified to be significantly associated to PSA recurrence (p < 0.05). The implication of PTEN and FAS loss (10q23.31) support previous reports due to their critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the PAPSS2 gene (10q23.2–10q23.31) may be functionally relevant in post-operative PSA recurrence because of its reported role in androgen biosynthesis. It is suggestive that the loss of the susceptible region on chromosome 10q, which implicates PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 may serve as genetic predictors of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. PMID:25679447

  14. Exploring Prostate Cancer Genome Reveals Simultaneous Losses of PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 in Patients with PSA Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere Ibeawuchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa creates a challenge to patients’ outcome prediction and their clinical management. An approach that scrutinizes every cancer focus is needed in order to generate a comprehensive evaluation of the disease, and by correlating to patients’ clinico-pathological information, specific prognostic biomarker can be identified. Our study utilized the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Genome-wide assay to investigate forty-three fresh frozen PCa tissue foci from twenty-three patients. With a long clinical follow-up period that ranged from 2.0–9.7 (mean 5.4 years, copy number variation (CNV data was evaluated for association with patients’ PSA status during follow-up. From our results, the loss of unique genes on 10q23.31 and 10q23.2–10q23.31 were identified to be significantly associated to PSA recurrence (p < 0.05. The implication of PTEN and FAS loss (10q23.31 support previous reports due to their critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the PAPSS2 gene (10q23.2–10q23.31 may be functionally relevant in post-operative PSA recurrence because of its reported role in androgen biosynthesis. It is suggestive that the loss of the susceptible region on chromosome 10q, which implicates PTEN, FAS and PAPSS2 may serve as genetic predictors of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

  15. High prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) scores are associated with elevated Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and biopsy Gleason score, at magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy after a previous negative standard biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Cattaneo, Giovanni; Manfredi, Matteo; Mele, Fabrizio; Fiori, Cristian; Bollito, Enrico; Cirillo, Stefano; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    To determine the association among prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and Gleason score, in a cohort of patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), undergoing magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy (TBx) after a previous negative randomised 'standard' biopsy (SBx). In all, 282 patients who underwent TBx after previous negative SBx and a PCA3 urine assay, were enrolled. The associations between PCA3 score/PI-RADS and PCA3 score/Gleason score were investigated by K-means clustering, a receiver operating characteristic analysis and binary logistic regression. The PCA3 score difference for the negative vs positive TBx cohorts was highly statistically significant. A 1-unit increase in the PCA3 score was associated to a 2.4% increased risk of having a positive TBx result. A PCA3 score of >80 and a PI-RADS grade of ≥4 were independent predictors of a positive TBx. The association between the PCA3 score and PI-RADS grade was statistically significant (the median PCA3 score for PI-RADS grade groups 3, 4, and 5 was 58, 104, and 146, respectively; P = 0.006). A similar pattern was detected for the relationship between the PCA3 score and Gleason score; an increasing PCA3 score was associated with a worsening Gleason score (median PCA3 score equal to 62, 105, 132, 153, 203, and 322 for Gleason Score 3+4, 4+3, 4+4, 4+5, 5+4, and 5+5, respectively; P PI-RADS grade: notably, in the 'indeterminate' PI-RADS grade 3 subgroup. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA to Exosomal Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Filella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate specific antigen (PSA remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa, in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity and distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive PCa. The emerging role of the prostate health index and the 4Kscore is reviewed in this article. Both are blood-based tests related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, which provide the risk of suffering PCa and avoiding negative biopsies. Furthermore, the use of urine has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene. Available results about the PCA3 score showed its usefulness to decide the repetition of biopsy in patients with a previous negative result, although its relationship with the aggressiveness of the tumor is controversial. More recently, aberrant microRNA expression in PCa has been reported by different authors. Preliminary results suggest the utility of circulating and urinary microRNAs in the detection and prognosis of PCa. Although several of these new biomarkers have been recommended by different guidelines, large prospective and comparative studies are necessary to establish their value in PCa detection and prognosis.

  17. Trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality before and after the introduction of PSA testing in the Slovak and Czech Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusova, Martina; Ondrus, Dalibor; Karabinos, Juraj; Muzik, Jan; Kliment, Jan; Gulis, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    As two neighboring countries in central Europe with national cancer registries, the Slovak (SR) and Czech Republics (CR) are countries with a medium global rate in the occurrence of prostate cancer. This paper analyzes the incidence of prostate cancer and mortality before and after the introduction of PSA testing in the two Republics and the possible reasons for any differences discovered and compares the results with selected regions and countries of the world. In the Slovak Republic, prostate cancer incidence (age-adjusted to the world standard population) has risen from 14.6/100,000 in 1968 (95% CI, ±1.5772) to 36.2/100,000 in 2005 (95% CI, ±2.0678). The estimated annual increase in the incidence during the period 1968-1991 (before nationwide PSA testing) was 0.421; from 1991 (when nationwide PSA testing began) to up to 2003 it was 0.941. Mortality rates grew from 7.3/100,000 in 1968 to 14.9/100,000 in 2005. In spite of the geographic proximity of the two countries, the increase in incidence occurred faster in the Czech than in the Slovak Republic, from 15.8/100,000 in 1977 (95% CI, ±0.9748) to 59.5/100,000 in 2005 (95% CI, ±1.7187). The estimated annual increase in incidence in the Czech Republic for the period of 1977-1991 was 0.581. From 1991 (when national PSA testing began) until 2003, it was 1.981. In the period before 1991, mortality rose more sharply in the Czech than in the Slovak Republic, whereas after the introduction of PSA testing mortality stabilized more quickly in the Czech than in the Slovak Republic. In the Slovak Republic, a significant reduction in mortality was observed after 2002 and has continued to the present and probably is not affected only by the results connected with the increase in PSA testing. The difference in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in the Slovak and the Czech Republics results from a difference in the intensity of PSA testing as well as from the introduction of complex, more effective treatment in

  18. [Influence of clinical factors on Gleason score upgrade in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiming; Qin, Xiaojian; Han, Chengtao; Gu, Chengyuan; Wan, Fangning; Qu, Yuanyuan; Gu, Weijie; Ma, Chunguang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate clinical factors affecting Gleason score upgrade in patients receiving radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 322 patients with prostate cancer who received RP from January 2012 to December 2013 at Department of Urology at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were included, and their data of age, body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, percentage core, clinical staging, pathological characteristics, biopsy Gleason score and RP Gleason score were analyzed. Differences in categorical variables and continuous variables were compared using χ² tests and Student's t-test, respectively. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI of the association of Gleason score upgrade with clinical factors. Gleason score upgrade occurred in 107 of 322 (33.3%) patients. There was no difference in age, BMI and clinical staging between the two groups. Compared with patients without Gleason score upgrade, higher levels of PSA (χ² =6.740, P=0.034), smaller prostate volume (t=3.481, P=0.002) and elevated percentage core (t=-2.097, P=0.037) were observed in patients with Gleason score upgrade. In addition, lymph node metastasis (χ² =4.193, P=0.041) and extracapsular extension (χ² =4.747, P=0.029) were more common in patients with Gleason score upgrade. After adjusting for potential confounders, PSA levels (OR=2.451, 95% CI: 1.290-4.660), prostate volume (OR=0.982, 95% CI: 0.969-0.995) and percentage core (OR=2.756, 95% CI: 1.033-7.357) were independent predictors for Gleason score upgrade. Gleason score upgrade happens at a relatively high rate. PSA levels, prostate volume and percentage core are important factors affecting Gleason score upgrade.

  19. MRI bone oedema scores are higher in the arthritis mutilans form of psoriatic arthritis and correlate with high radiographic scores for joint damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu M; Østergaard, Mikkel; Doyle, Anthony; Dalbeth, Nicola; Lobo, Maria; Reeves, Quentin; Robinson, Elizabeth; Taylor, William J; Jones, Peter B; Pui, Karen; Lee, Jamie; McQueen, Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of bone disease in the arthritis mutilans (AM) form of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods Twenty-eight patients with erosive PsA were enrolled (median disease duration of 14 years). Using x-rays of both hands and feet, 11 patients were classified as AM and 17 as non-AM (erosive psoriatic arthritis without bone lysis)by two observers. MRI scans (1.5T) of the dominant hand (wrist and fingers scanned separately) were obtained using standard contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and fat-saturated T2-weighted sequences. Scans were scored separately by two readers for bone erosion, oedema and proliferation using a PsA MRI scoring system. X-rays were scored for erosions and joint space narrowing. Results On MRI, 1013 bones were scored by both readers. Reliability for scoring erosions and bone oedema was high (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.80 and 0.77 respectively) but only fair for bone proliferation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.42). MRI erosion scores were higher in AM patients (53.0 versus 15.0, p = 0.004) as were bone oedema and proliferation scores (14.7 versus 10.0, p = 0.056 and 3.6 versus 0.7, p = 0.003 respectively). MRI bone oedema scores correlated with MRI erosion scores and X-ray erosion and joint space narrowing scores (r = 0.65, p = 0.0002 for all) but not the disease activity score 28-C reactive protein (DAS28CRP) or pain scores. Conclusions In this patient group with PsA, MRI bone oedema, erosion and proliferation were all more severe in the AM-form. Bone oedema scores did not correlate with disease activity measures but were closely associated with X-ray joint damage scores. These results suggest that MRI bone oedema may be a pre-erosive feature and that bone damage may not be coupled with joint inflammation in PsA. PMID:19126234

  20. BIOCARBURANTS PSA Peugeot Citroën et les biocarburants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Béatrice

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Les biocarburants représentent une filière essentielle pour PSA Peugeot Citroën dans le cadre de la protection de l’environnement, un axe stratégique majeur pour le groupe - de la production de ses véhicules au recyclage, de la qualité de l’air à l’effet de serre et au développement d’énergies renouvelables. Depuis plusieurs années, PSA a intégré la filière huiles végétales/biocarburants dans ses activités pour atteindre ses objectifs globaux d’innovation et de croissance. De nombreuses flottes de véhicules circulent en France avec du gazole contenant 30 % de biocarburant issu des oléagineux : une expérience réussie, qui dure depuis plus de dix ans. Le constructeur est favorable à l’utilisation de biocarburants en mélange dans les carburants pétroliers conventionnels, essence et gazole - une voie qui présente plusieurs avantages : * Un bilan CO2 global favorable (par absorption de CO2 lors de la photosynthèse de la plante-source, qui contribue à limiter « l’effet de serre ». * Une source complémentaire de carburant pour réduire les importations de pétrole (et de gazole. * Un soutien au secteur agricole (débouché supplémentaire, dans le cadre de la valorisation des terres en jachère. Issus de la transformation des céréales ou de la betterave à sucre, ou des plantes oléagineuses comme le colza, le tournesol ou le soja, les biocarburants sont par essence des énergies renouvelables. Outre leur bilan exceptionnellement favorable pour lutter contre l’effet de serre, ces carburants offrent de réelles performances environnementales, en particulier par la réduction des émissions de particules (cas des EMHV.

  1. Cribriform morphology predicts upstaging after radical prostatectomy in patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 prostate cancer at transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Daniel T; Schieda, Nicola; El Hallani, Soufiane; Breau, Rodney H; Morash, Chris; Robertson, Susan J; Mai, Kien T; Belanger, Eric C; Flood, Trevor A

    2015-10-01

    Selected patients with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies containing Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 prostate cancer (PCa) may be considered candidates for active surveillance (AS). The purpose of this study was to determine if there are features that predict PCa upstaging and/or upgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 PCa diagnosed on TRUS-guided biopsies. We searched our institution's database for patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 PCa diagnosed on TRUS-guided biopsy who underwent subsequent RP between January 2010 and January 2015. Two blinded genitourinary pathologists independently reviewed and assessed the following on biopsies: (a) nuclear size, nucleolar size and distribution of macronucleoli of PCa, which were subjectively graded using a semi-quantitative scale from 1 to 3, and (b) PCa with cribriform morphology and the size of cribriform disease. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA density (PSAD) were also recorded. The Gleason score and stage (presence or absence of organ-confined disease (OCD)) were retrieved from RP reports. Comparisons were performed between groups using the chi-square test and Spearman correlation. One hundred and four patients were identified to have met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 63 (±6.1) years. Mean PSA and PSAD at diagnosis were 7.5 (±4.2) and 0.25 (±0.15) ng/mL, respectively. Gleason scores were upgraded to greater than 3 + 4 = 7 in 26.9 % (28/104) of patients, and 44.2 % (46/104) of patients had no OCD after RP. There was no correlation between age, PSA, PSAD or percent of biopsies with Gleason pattern 4 for either Gleason score upgrading or absence of OCD at the time of RP (p > 0.05). Thirty patients had cribriform morphology on TRUS-guided biopsy of which 60 % (18/30) had no OCD at RP (p = 0.04) while 36.7 % (11/30) were upgraded to Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7 after RP (p = 0.15). There

  2. Propensity Score Estimation with Data Mining Techniques: Alternatives to Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bryan S. B.; Kim, Jee-Seon; Steiner, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score analysis (PSA) is a methodological technique which may correct for selection bias in a quasi-experiment by modeling the selection process using observed covariates. Because logistic regression is well understood by researchers in a variety of fields and easy to implement in a number of popular software packages, it has…

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tallon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2 scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3, while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy, the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12% when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  4. Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy - a single centre, open-label study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pontifex, Eliza K

    2011-01-27

    Abstract Introduction With the development of increasing numbers of potential therapeutic agents in inflammatory disease comes the need for effective biomarkers to help screen for drug efficacy and optimal dosing regimens early in the clinical trial process. This need has been recognized by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, which has established guidelines for biomarker validation. To seek a candidate synovial biomarker of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we determined whether changes in immunohistochemical markers of synovial inflammation correlate with changes in disease activity scores assessing 28 joints (ΔDAS28) or magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores (ΔMRI) in patients with PsA treated with a biologic agent. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with PsA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsies and MRI scans of an inflamed knee joint at baseline and 12 weeks after starting treatment with either anakinra (first 10 patients) or etanercept (subsequent 15 patients) in two sequential studies of identical design. DAS28 scores were measured at both time points. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD68 and Factor VIII (FVIII) was performed on synovial samples and scored by digital image analysis (DIA). MRI scans performed at baseline and at 12 weeks were scored for synovitis semi-quantitatively. The ΔDAS28 of the European League Against Rheumatism good response definition (>1.2) was chosen to divide patients into responder and non-responder groups. Differences between groups (Mann Whitney U test) and correlations between ΔDAS28 with change in immunohistochemical and MRI synovitis scores (Spearman\\'s rho test) were calculated. Results Paired synovial samples and MRI scans were available for 21 patients (8 anakinra, 13 etanercept) and 23 patients (8 anakinra, 15 etanercept) respectively. Change in CD3 (ΔCD3) and CD68 expression in the synovial sublining layer (ΔCD68sl) was significantly greater in

  5. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for monitoring of antimony in samples of vegetation from a mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro Gordillo, M.C.; Pinilla Gil, E. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Rodriguez Gonzalez, M.A.; Murciego Murciego, A. [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Ostapczuk, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    A potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) method has been developed and checked for the fast and reliable determination of antimony in vegetation samples of Cistus ladanifer from a mining area in Badajoz, Southwest Spain. The method, modified from previous PSA methods for Sb in environmental samples, is based on dry ashing of the homogenized leaves, dissolution in hydrochloric acid, and PSA analysis on a mercury film plated on to a glassy carbon disk electrode. The influence of experimental variables such as the deposition potential, the deposition time, the signal stability and the calibration parameters, has been investigated. The method has been compared with an independent technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) by analysis of standards and reference materials and comparison of the results. As a result of automation of the PSA equipment, the proposed method enables unattended analysis of 20 digested samples in a total time of 2 h, thus providing a useful tool for Sb monitoring of a large number of samples. (orig.)

  6. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for monitoring of antimony in samples of vegetation from a mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Gordillo, M C; Pinilla Gil, E; Rodríguez González, M A; Murciego Murciego, A; Ostapczuk, P

    2001-06-01

    A potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) method has been developed and checked for the fast and reliable determination of antimony in vegetation samples of Cistus ladanifer from a mining area in Badajoz, Southwest Spain. The method, modified from previous PSA methods for Sb in environmental samples, is based on dry ashing of the homogenized leaves, dissolution in hydrochloric acid, and PSA analysis on a mercury film plated on to a glassy carbon disk electrode. The influence of experimental variables such as the deposition potential, the deposition time, the signal stability and the calibration parameters, has been investigated. The method has been compared with an independent technique (instrumental neutron activation analysis) by analysis of standards and reference materials and comparison of the results. As a result of automation of the PSA equipment, the proposed method enables unattended analysis of 20 digested samples in a total time of 2 h, thus providing a useful tool for Sb monitoring of a large number of samples.

  7. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2006-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  8. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Mediation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2004-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  9. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2007-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  10. Radiographic progression with nonrising PSA in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryce, A H; Alumkal, J J; Armstrong, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced prostate cancer is a phenotypically diverse disease that evolves through multiple clinical courses. PSA level is the most widely used parameter for disease monitoring, but it has well-recognized limitations. Unlike in clinical trials, in practice, clinicians may rely on PSA...... monitoring alone to determine disease status on therapy. This approach has not been adequately tested. METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic men (n=872) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who were treated with the androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide...... treated with enzalutamide. As restaging in advanced prostate cancer patients is often guided by increases in PSA levels, our results demonstrate that disease progression on enzalutamide can occur without rising PSA levels. Therefore, a disease monitoring strategy that includes imaging not entirely reliant...

  11. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lau, Cheryl K; Guo, Maggie; Viczko, Jeannine A; Naugler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    .... Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker...

  12. Safety analyses: the importance of PSA and ZEDB. ZEDB: tool determining plant-specific reliability data; Sicherheitsanalysen, Bedeutung von PSA und ZEDB. ZEDB: Instrument zur Ermittlung anlagenspezifischer Zuverlaessigkeitsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmstaedt, Kai-Uwe [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Brokdorf (Germany); Schubert, Bernd [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmBH, Stoerfall- und Zuverlaessigkeitsanalysen, Anlagentechnik, Hamburg (Germany); Seidel, Andre [VGB Power Tech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Safety inspections of nuclear power plants under the Atomic Energy Act are regulated, inter alia, in the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) guideline. These analyses are performed in addition to the safety assessments based, on deterministic principles. In this way, the influence of components, systems, and structures, as well as actions by personnel, on plant behavior in terms of technical safety can be described in a holistic approach and the safety level thus can be assessed quantitatively. Conducting a PSA requires plant-specific reliability data which are determined in the plant in question, but are also collected and stored centrally in the central reliability and event database (ZEDB). (orig.)

  13. The association of general practitioners’ risk attitudes, level of empathy and burnout status with PSA testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Når alment praktiserende læger sammenlignes, finder man ofte stor variation i raten af PSA-tests foretaget på mandlige patienter. Dette studie viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Således har patienter, som er registreret hos en læge, som har mange bekymringer for fej...

  14. utility of prostate specific antigen (psa) in the indigenous african man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    categories of ≤4ng/ml and >4ng/ml in ratios of 3.3:1 and 1.5:1 respectively. It, however, had PSA levels between 2 and 15 ng/ml. The odd ratio for BPH to be in the normal range was 2.0 while cancer of the prostate had a 1.7 odd ratio for elevated PSA. Seven patients clinically diagnosed as BPH had histological findings of ...

  15. [Effect of compound Chinese traditional medicine PC-SPES II in inhibiting proliferation of human prostate cancer cell LNCaP and on expressions of AR and PSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bi-yan; Li, Yu-feng; Lai, Yun; Li, Yun-sen; Chen, Zi-jun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of compound Chinese traditional medicine PC-SPES II I in inhibiting proliferation of human prostate cancer cell LNCaP based on the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. The effect of PC-SPES II on LNCaP cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. According to the findings, at the mass concentration of 180-1 440 mg x L(-1), PC-SPES II significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells; the IC50 of PC-SPES II at 24 h and 48 h were 311.48, 199.01 mg x L(-1), respectively. The flow Cytometry detection showed 240 mg x L(-1) PC-SPES II arrested cells in G2/M phase, and an obvious apoptotic peak appeared before G0/G1 peak and rose over time. Meanwhile, Hoechst 33258 staining revealed apoptotic cellular morphology. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining manifested an increase in apoptotic cell ratio at the PC-SPES II concentration of 480 mg x L(-1) in a dose dependent manner. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) secretion of LNCaP cells was tested by PSA ELISA kit. Besides, compared with 25 mg x L(-1) Bic, 480 mg x L(-1) PC-SPES II significantly reduced the cell secretion of PSA. The AR and PSA mRNA and protein expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. According to the results, after the induction of LNCaP cells with synthetic androgen 25 μg x L(-1) R1881, 240-480 mg x L(-1) PC-SPES II notably down-regulated the AR and PSA mRNA and protein expressions and inhibited the translocation of AR from cytoplasm to nucleus. In summary, PC-SPES II significantly can inhibit the in vitro proliferation of LNCaP cells and arrest cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Its mechanism may be associated with the down-regulation of the AR and PSA expressions and the inhibition of AR nuclear translocation.

  16. The Hidden Burden of Outpatient Repeat PSA Testing in a Prospective Cohort

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, E

    2017-05-01

    PSA testing is widespread throughout Europe for diagnostic purposes and follow up. We performed a prospective outpatient cohort study of 250 men (2013-2015) in two hospital sites. Included were those men being followed up by urology with PSA blood testing. First appointments and those men in whom non-PSA tests were ordered by urology were excluded. The median age was 67.2yrs (46-88). Eighty-one point two percent of samples had a combination of 21 different serology tests at an added cost of >€18,000. Abnormal serology resulted in 53 referrals. Twenty-six-six percentof correspondence referenced abnormal serology other than PSA. Follow up of non-PSA test results poses a challenge in an outpatient setting with failure to appropriately follow-up on abnormal results, increased costs, and medico-legal implications. There is currently no Irish legislature in place to safeguard hospital physicians. This study quantifies the levels of expenditure, resources and risk associated with ambulant PSA testing.

  17. Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yu, Dong Han; Kim, Seung Hwan

    1997-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated through wind tunnel experiment. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. Because there are some discrepancies between the results from Gaussian plume model and those from field test, the effect of terrain on the atmospheric dispersion was investigated by using CTDMPLUS code. Through this study we find that the model which can treat terrain effect is essential in the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and the CTDMPLUS model can be used as a useful tool. And it is suggested that modification of a model and experimental study should be made through the continuous effort. The health effect assessment near the Yonggwang site by using IPE (Individual plant examination) results and its site data was performed. The health effect assessment is an important part of consequence analysis of a nuclear power plant site. The MACCS was used in the assessment. Based on the calculation of CCDF for each risk measure, it is shown that CCDF has a slow slope and thus wide probability distribution in cases of early fatality, early injury, total early fatality risk, and total weighted early fatality risk. And in cases of cancer fatality and population dose within 48km and 80km, the CCDF curve have a steep slope and thus narrow probability distribution. The establishment of methodologies for necessary models for consequence analysis resulting form a server accident in the nuclear power plant was made and a program for consequence analysis was developed. The models include atmospheric transport and diffusion, calculation of exposure doses for various pathways, and assessment of health effects and associated risks. Finally, the economic impact resulting form an accident in a nuclear power plant was investigated. In this study, estimation models for each cost terms that considered in economic

  18. Guidance to risk-informed evaluation of technical specifications using PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, O.; Haeggstroem, A. (Scandpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Maennistoe, I. (VTT, Helsingfors (Finland))

    2010-04-15

    This report presents guidance for evaluation of Technical Specification conditions with PSA. It covers quality in PSA, how to verify that the PSA model is sufficiently robust and sufficiently complete and general requirements on methods. Acceptance criteria for evaluation of changes in the TS conditions are presented. As the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has developed over the years, it has demonstrated to constitute a useful tool for evaluating many aspects of the TS from a risk point of view. and in that way making the PSAs as well as the decision tools better. This also means that it will be possible to take credit for safety system overcapacity as well as inherent safety features and strength of non-safety classed systems. However, PSA is only one of the tools that shall be used in an evaluation process of TS changes (strengthening/relaxation). PSA is an excellent tool to be used to verify the importance, and thereby possibly relaxation, of TS requirements. But, since PSA is only one tool in the evaluation, it is not sufficient in itself for defining which equipment that shall or shall not have TS requirements. The purpose of this guidance document is to provide general requirements, requirements on methods and acceptance criteria on risk-informed evaluation of TS changes based on PSA. The purpose is not to provide a single solution. As part of the review of the TS conditions this guidance specify requirements on: - Quality verification of the PSA model; - Verification that the PSA model is sufficiently robust with regard to SSCs for which requirements both are and are not defined by the TS; - Verification that the SSCs, for which TS demands are to be evaluated, are modelled in a sufficient manner; - Methods for performing the evaluation; - Which evaluation criteria that shall be used (and how that is verified to be correct); - Acceptance criteria: This guidance also briefly discusses the documentation of the analysis of the TS changes. This guidance

  19. Identification of the vital digital assets based on PSA results analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Moon Kyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univiersity, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyundoo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As the main systems for managing totally about the operation, control, monitoring, measurement, and safety function in an emergency, instrumentation and control systems (I and C) in nuclear power plants have been digitalized gradually for the precise operation and its convenience. The digitalization of infrastructure makes systems vulnerable to cyber threats and hybrid attacks. According to ICS-CERT report, as time goes by, the number of vulnerabilities in ICS industries increases rapidly. Recently, due to the digitalization of I and C, it has begun to rise the need of cyber security in the digitalized I and C in NPPs. However, there are too many critical digital assets (CDAs) in NPPs. More than 60% of the total critical systems are digital system. Addressing more than 100 security controls for each CDA needs too much effort for both licensee and inspector. It is necessary to focus on more significant CDAs for effective regulation. Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results are analyzed in order to identify more significant CDAs which could evoke an accident of NPPs by digital malfunction or cyber-attacks. By eliciting minimal cut sets using fault tree analyses, accident-related CDAs are drawn. Also the CDAs that must be secured from outsiders are elicited in case of some accident scenario. It is expected that effective cyber security regulation based on the graded approach can be implemented. Furthermore, defense-in-depth of digital assets for NPPs safety can be built up. Digital technologies such as computers, control systems, and data networks currently play essential roles in modern NPPs. Further, the introduction of new digitalized technologies is also being considered. These digital technologies make the operation of NPPs more convenient and economical; however, they are inherently susceptible to problems such as digital malfunction of components or cyber-attacks. Recently, needs for cyber security on digitalized nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C

  20. Automated installation for gas separation and purification using the Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) process; Instalacao automatizada para separacao e purificacao de gases por PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Celia F. Cordeiro; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Sistemas Quimicos e Informatica

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes the first laboratorial PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) unit designed and built in Brazil for gas separation by adsorption process. It consists of a stainless steel column, which was filled with zeolite 5A molecular sieve. Six solenoid valves located at the feed., product, countercurrent and high-pressure air lines were used to regulate the flow directions of different streams. Pressure and flowrate transducers and thermocouples were used to record respectively the pressure, flowrate of both feed and product stream and temperature history of the process. These instruments and the solenoid valves were joined to a programmable logic controller. By the use of a computer the unit can be automatically operated to simulate all steps in the PSA cycle and data can be easily acquired and recorded. The unit will be used to study basic parameters of PSA processes and to separate several gas mixtures. As a first goal the unit will be operated to produce oxygen-enriched air using synthetic zeolites. This PSA laboratory unit is an important step in CDTN`s objective of consolidating a research group in gas separation by adsorption processes. (author) 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-based risk model to determine the risk of significant prostate cancer prior to biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J; Hayen, Andrew; Thompson, James E; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Böhm, Maret; Abuodha, Magdaline; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Ting, Francis; Barentsz, Jelle; Roobol, Monique; Vass, Justin; Rasiah, Krishan; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D

    2017-12-01

    To develop and externally validate a predictive model for detection of significant prostate cancer. Development of the model was based on a prospective cohort including 393 men who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) before biopsy. External validity of the model was then examined retrospectively in 198 men from a separate institution whom underwent mpMRI followed by biopsy for abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level or digital rectal examination (DRE). A model was developed with age, PSA level, DRE, prostate volume, previous biopsy, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score, as predictors for significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with >5% grade 4, ≥20% cores positive or ≥7 mm of cancer in any core). Probability was studied via logistic regression. Discriminatory performance was quantified by concordance statistics and internally validated with bootstrap resampling. In all, 393 men had complete data and 149 (37.9%) had significant prostate cancer. While the variable model had good accuracy in predicting significant prostate cancer, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80, the advanced model (incorporating mpMRI) had a significantly higher AUC of 0.88 (P prostate cancer. Individualised risk assessment of significant prostate cancer using a predictive model that incorporates mpMRI PIRADS score and clinical data allows a considerable reduction in unnecessary biopsies and reduction of the risk of over-detection of insignificant prostate cancer at the cost of a very small increase in the number of significant cancers missed. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Kristiansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13 has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of HOXB13 in comparison to commonly used immunohistochemical markers for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Histologically confirmed prostate cancer lymph node metastases from 64 cases were used to test the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers: prostate specific antigen (PSA, Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, homeobox gene NKX3.1, prostein, androgen receptor (AR, HOXB13, and ETS-related gene (ERG. All markers were evaluated semi-quantitatively using Remmele's immune reactive score. Results: The detection rate of prostate origin of metastasis for single markers was 100% for NKX3.1, 98.1% for AR, 84.3% for PSMA, 80.8% for PSA, 66% for PSAP, 60.4% for HOXB13, 59.6% for prostein, and 50.0% for ERG. Conclusions: Our data suggest that HOXB13 on its own lacks sensitivity for the detection of prostatic origin. Therefore, this marker should be only used in conjunction with other markers, preferably the highly specific PSA. The combination of PSA with NKX3.1 shows a higher sensitivity and thus appears preferable in this setting.

  3. L-type amino acid transporter 1 expression is highly correlated with Gleason score in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Atsuki; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Masawa, Nobuhide; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2013-03-01

    Upregulation of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), a member of the system L amino acid transporter family, may be detected by immunohistochemical methods. Immunoreactive LAT1 expression in prostate cancer is considered to be a promising biomarker for high-grade malignancy. However, the mutual association between LAT1 and Gleason score, the most fixed indicator for grading the malignancy of prostate cancers, remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the correlations between LAT1 and other factors in prostate cancer, including the Gleason score. We evaluated 54 cases of primary prostate cancer, surgically resected without any neoadjuvant therapies and performed immunohistochemistry for LAT1, Ki-67, CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor on the tissue sections. The Gleason score as well as the age, pathological stage (pStage) of prostate cancer and serum concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of each case were also assessed. Statistical analysis for the correlations between LAT1 expression and Gleason score and each of the other characteristics studied was performed. As a result, a strong significant correlation between immuno-reactive LAT1 expression and Gleason score was identified (P<0.01). We concluded that immunoreactive LAT1 expression in tissue sections of prostate cancer may be useful as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy.

  4. Upgrading of Gleason score on radical prostatectomy specimen compared to the pre-operative needle core biopsy: an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Rishi; Singh, Prabhjot; Gupta, Narmada P; Hemal, Ashok K; Dogra, Prem N; Seth, Amlesh; Kumar, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of Gleason grading/scoring on preoperative needle core biopsy (NCB) compared to the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. Data of NCB and RP specimens was analyzed in 193 cases. Gleason grade/scoring was done on both NCB and RP specimens. Sixteen cases were excluded for various reasons. The Gleason scores of the two sets of matched specimens were compared and also correlated with the PSA, age, and number of needle biopsy cores. The overall change was also correlated with the initial score on NCB. The mean age and PSA were 63.3+/-2(5.27) years and 18.48+/-2(28.42) ng/ml, respectively. The average Gleason score increased from 5.51 +/- 2(1.52) to 6.2 +/- 2(1.42) (PNCB was NCB. This trend may be correlated positively with lower initial Gleason score on preoperative biopsy and the lower number of cores taken.

  5. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  6. Study of serum antioxidant capacity and relation with CA 19-9 and PSA in patients with gastrointestinal tract and prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Vélez, M; Martínez Martínez, F

    2011-09-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the possible relation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and tumor marker (TM) values in serum samples of patients with and without gastrointestinal tract and prostate tumors. We measured the TAC using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays in 80 serum samples: 20 presented elevated values of CA 19-9; 20 had elevated PSA levels and two groups of 20 samples had values within reference ranges respectively. Total antioxidant capacity - measured using the two different analytical methods - was higher in serum samples from patients with elevated CA 19-9 and PSA levels. This antioxidant status, measured by ORAC assay, correlated significantly with CA 19-9 (r: 0.502, Pantioxidant capacity in these pathological processes could contribute to improve diagnosis of these patients. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution characteristics of leukocytes in EPS and correlation with serum PSA levels: results from a Chinese male population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongming; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; Liao, Ming; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Mo, Linjian; Li, Li; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-02-01

    To explore the distribution characteristics of leukocytes in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) in a large Chinese male population and the correlation with leukocytes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. From September to December 2009, EPS specimens were collected from 2504 men (age 20-69 years) who had undergone prostatic massage and were recruited from a large-scale community-based population survey in Southern China. The EPS specimens were divided into 5 categories according to the leukocyte count. The lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained by questionnaire. Asymptomatic and symptomatic men were defined according to the findings from the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index questionnaire. EPS specimens were successfully collected from 1779 of the 2504 participants (71%). The degree of inflammation in the EPS specimens progressively increased with age, education, and body mass index (P EPS progressively increases with increasing age, body mass index, and education. Moreover, an increase of leukocytes in the EPS specimen correlated with increasing PSA levels. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the minor elevations have clinical significance for prostatitis assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term PSA Control with Repeated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in a Patient with Oligometastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Francesco; Cocuzza, Paola; Coraggio, Gabriele; Ferrazza, Patrizia; Derosa, Lisa; Galli, Luca; Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Locantore, Luisa; Boni, Roberto; Fabrini, Maria G; Erba, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies and main causes of cancer death in Western countries. In the presence of metastatic disease, systemic treatment remains the main clinical option. However, since the introduction of highly sensitive imaging techniques, a new clinical 'entity' of metastatic patients with a limited number of lesions has been defined: oligometastatic patients. In this patient group, the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or other local therapies against all active sites of disease revealed by 18F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) could achieve sufficient prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control. However, a clear benefit of this procedure in terms of significant endpoints is yet to be demonstrated. This case report describes our experience with treating a castration-resistant PCa patient with 18F-choline PET/CT-guided SBRT. Because of the occurrence of 5 metachronous lesions over 4 years, the pattern of recurrence was defined by the local multidisciplinary team as oligometastatic disease, and the patient was treated with 5 courses of SBRT which yielded good PSA control. He started systemic therapy with abiraterone acetate almost 5 years after the diagnosis of recurrent PCa. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of pomegranate extract on rising PSA levels in men following primary therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantuck, A J; Pettaway, C A; Dreicer, R; Corman, J; Katz, A; Ho, A; Aronson, W; Clark, W; Simmons, G; Heber, D

    2015-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of pomegranate juice on PSA doubling times (PSADT) in subjects with rising PSA levels after primary therapy for prostate cancer. Double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institutional study, evaluated the effects of pomegranate liquid extract on serum PSA levels. The primary end point of this study was change in serum PSADT. Additional secondary and exploratory objectives were to evaluate the safety of pomegranate juice and to determine the interaction of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype and pomegranate treatment on PSADT. One-hundred eighty-three eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the active and placebo groups with a ratio of 2:1 (extract N=102; placebo N=64; juice N=17). The majority of adverse events were of moderate or mild grade. Median PSADT increased from 11.1 months at baseline to 15.6 months in the placebo group (P0.05). Placebo AA patients experienced a 1.8 month change in median PSADT from 10.9 months at baseline to 12.7 months (P=0.22), while extract patients experienced a 12 month change in median PSADT from 13.6 at baseline to 25.6 months (P=0.03). Compared with placebo, pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in prostate cancer patients with rising PSA after primary therapy. A significant prolongation in PSADT was observed in both the treatment and placebo arms. Men with the MnSOD AA genotype may represent a group that is more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of pomegranate on PSADT; however, this finding requires prospective hypothesis testing and validation.

  11. Impact of 18F-choline PET/CT in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: influence of androgen deprivation therapy and correlation with PSA kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohsen; Haim, Silke; Zakavi, Rasoul; Steinmair, Martin; Waldenberger, Peter; Kunit, Thomas; Nader, Michael; Langsteger, Werner; Loidl, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the potential of (18)F-fluoromethyldimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl-ammonium (FCH) PET/CT in the detection of recurrent disease or distant metastases and correlated its diagnostic accuracy with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in prostate cancer patients with biochemical evidence of recurrence. Furthermore, the influences of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and its duration on (18)F-FCH PET were assessed in this study. This prospective study included 250 prostate cancer patients with PSA relapse who underwent (18)F-FCH PET/CT. At the time of (18)F-FCH PET/CT imaging, the mean PSA level was 46.9 ± 314.7 ng/mL and 55.2% (138/250) of patients were receiving ADT. Overall, ADT was performed on 67.2% (168/250) of patients after initial treatment. Imaging was performed on an integrated PET/CT system. Acquisition started 1 min after intravenous injection of (18)F-FCH (4.07 MBq/kg of body weight) with dynamic PET images in the pelvic region during 8 min (1 min/frame) followed by a static semi-whole-body acquisition. The final diagnosis of positive PET lesions was based on histopathology or a consensus of clinical findings, additional imaging, or follow-up imaging modalities. (18)F-FCH PET/CT was able to correctly detect malignant lesions in 74% (185/250) of patients but was negative in 26% (65/250). In 28% of patients, only 1 lesion was detected (69/250); from these, 65.2% (45 patients) had a local recurrence, 18.8% (13 patients) a single lymph node, and 15.9% (11 patients) a solitary bone metastasis. The sensitivity of the (18)F-FCH PET was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in patients with ongoing ADT (85%; confidence interval, 80%-91%) than in patients without ADT (59.5%; confidence interval, 50%-69%). (18)F-FCH PET sensitivity was 77.5%, 80.7%, 85.2%, and 92.8% for the trigger PSA levels of more than 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 ng/mL, respectively. Scan sensitivity was 33% in patients with a trigger PSA level of less than 0.3 ng/mL and 77% in patients with a

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the detection and characterization of prostate cancer: correlation with microvessel density and Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J; Chen, Y; Zhu, Y; Yao, X; Qi, J

    2011-08-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between the peak intensity of the lesion at contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and the microvessel density (MVD) and Gleason score in biopsy specimens of prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using cadence-contrast pulse sequence (CPS) technology was performed in 147 patients with suspected prostate cancer before biopsy. An auto-tracking contrast quantification (ACQ) software was used to analyse the peak intensity (PI) of the lesion. The Gleason score and MVD immunoreactivity were determined in the prostate biopsy specimens. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Prostate cancer was detected in 73 of 147 patients. The PI values of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher than those of non-malignant patients [9.81 (4.23) versus 5.69 (3.19) dB; pPI value increased significantly with a higher Gleason score (pPI and MVD in prostate cancer, with a correlation coefficient of 0.617. No correlation was found between PI value and age, prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) level (p>0.05). The PI obtained by CPS harmonic ultrasonography appears to be of value as an indicator of MVD and increases with a higher Gleason score. CPS harmonic ultrasonography could be promising as a useful imaging technique in the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The presence of positive surgical margins in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer results in biochemical recurrence at a similar rate to that in patients with extracapsular extension and PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Hinkelammert, Reemt; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Eltze, Elke; Bettendorf, Olaf; Semjonow, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether patients with organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) and positive surgical margins (SMs) had a similar biochemical recurrence (BCR) risk compared with patients with pT3a and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ≤ 10ng/ml. Furthermore, we examined the effects of incorporating SM status, Gleason score (Gls), and preoperative PSA level into the discrimination accuracy of the current tumor node metastasis-staging system. We analyzed 863 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy from 1999 to 2008. Only individuals with pT2N0 or pT3N0, without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, were included. We performed chi-square automatic interaction detection analysis to generate a classification model for predicting BCR by analyzing interactions between age at surgery, SM status, Gls, PSA, and tumor stage, tumor volume and relative tumor volume. Cox regression analyses tested the relationship between SM status and BCR rate after stratification according to T-stage and the novel classification. The predictive and discrimination accuracy of the current T-stage and of the classification model was quantified with time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and integrated discrimination improvement. The topographical association between extracapsular extension of PCa and positive SM was analyzed in patients with pT3aR1 using a computational reconstruction diagram of the prostate. The chi-square automatic interaction detection analysis found interactions among pT Stage, SM status, PSA and Gls and generated a classification model for BCR prediction: pT2R0, pT2R1, pT3a PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, pT3a PSA>10 ng/ml and pT3b. Men with pT2R1 had a shorter time to BCR compared with men with pT3a-PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml (PpT2R1/pT3a-PSA>10 ng/ml>pT2R1/pT3a PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml>pT2R0 (Pextension and positive SM was found in patients with pT3aR1 (P = 0.01). Patients with pT2R1 develop a similar BCR risk to that of patients with pT3a PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml. Gls≥7b is

  14. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  15. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  16. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Vesely, W.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  17. Study of possibility using LANL PSA-methodology for accident probability RBMK researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrin, S.V.; Yuferev, V.Y.; Zlobin, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    The reactor facility probabilistic safety analysis methodologies are considered which are used at U.S. LANL and RF NIKIET. The methodologies are compared in order to reveal their similarity and differences, determine possibilities of using the LANL technique for RBMK type reactor safety analysis. It is found that at the PSA-1 level the methodologies practically do not differ. At LANL the PHA, HAZOP hazards analysis methods are used for more complete specification of the accounted initial event list which can be also useful at performance of PSA for RBMK. Exchange of information regarding the methodology of detection of dependent faults and consideration of human factor impact on reactor safety is reasonable. It is accepted as useful to make a comparative study result analysis for test problems or PSA fragments using various computer programs employed at NIKIET and LANL.

  18. Polymorphisms in the AR and PSA genes as markers of susceptibility and aggressiveness in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuasne, Hellen; Rodrigues, Iara Sant'Ana; Fuganti, Paulo Emílio

    2010-01-01

    The study of genes involved in androgen pathway can contribute to a better knowledge of prostate cancer. Our aim was to examine if polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) genes were involved in prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness. Genotypes were determined...... by PCR-RFLP (PSA) or using a 377 ABI DNA Sequencer (AR). PSA(G/G) genotype (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99) and AR short CAG repeats (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.21–2.96) increased risk for prostate cancer and were related with tumor aggressiveness. About 38.3% of tumors showed microsatellite instability...

  19. Literature Survey on Technical Issues and Insights of Multi-Unit PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sejin; Park, Soyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The need consider the risk impact in case of multi-unit in a single site increased after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. This means that we have to consider the single-unit initiators impacting the other units and the simultaneous accidents of the multi-unit on the same site. Particularly, this kind of technical concern is serious in case of the Republic of Korea where multi-units had to be located in high-density population area due to geographical features. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) in the Republic of Korea has been trying to identify the state of the art of international and domestic regulations and techniques on multi-unit risk assessment and planning the road map for the safety researches. However, we have to say that finding a common accepted methodology along with safety criteria for multi-unit PSA was not an easy task up to now. This paper summarizes and analyzes related international and domestic journals' papers, conferences' papers and reports about the multi-unit PSA classifying categories with themes to understand the technical tendency of multi-unit PSA. In addition, some insights that were obtained from this classification have been arranged too. This paper investigated the technical trend of the multi-unit PSA as collecting of the international and domestic journals' papers, conferences papers and reports, and analyzing them. Upon the literature survey, a few statistics, technical issues, and insights were summarized. Both of the fundamental and practical researches need to find a globally accepted methodology to calculate and determine quantitative objectives for a multi-unit PSA. We want to expect that this paper can be shared to understand the current status of multi-unit PSA.

  20. Gleason Score ≤ 6 Prostate Cancer at Radical Prostatectomy: Does a High-Risk Setting Truly Exist? A Recursive Partitioning Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John M; Mitchell, Darrion L; Russo, J Kyle; Mott, Sarah L; Tracy, Chad R; Smith, Mark C; Buatti, John M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a "high-risk" subpopulation of low-grade (Gleason score ≤6) prostate cancer defined by lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival (bRFS) might be identified within a large population of men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) alone, with mature follow-up. Patients were retrospectively identified for inclusion by cT1-2 prostate cancer managed with RP alone. Exclusion criteria were: Gleason score ≥7 at RP, any pre- or post-RP radiotherapy or hormone therapy, or PSA follow-up Gleason score ≤6 prostate cancer managed using RP alone is associated with high rates of bRFS; however, margin positivity predicts early PSA failure rates in >20% of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metastatic Prostate Cancer Diagnosed by Bone Marrow Aspiration in an Elderly Man Not Undergoing PSA Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Alam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer screening by PSA testing remains controversial, particularly in the elderly. Practice guidelines from most clinical societies suggest discontinuing PSA screening at age 70 while the USPSTF recommends against screening at any age. Recent reports have demonstrated an increased incidence of metastatic prostate cancer, with men aged 75 or older accounting for roughly half of those newly diagnosed at an incurable stage. We herein describe the case of an elderly gentleman with no history of prostate cancer screening who presented with anorexia and back pain of unclear etiology. Evaluation with bone marrow aspiration revealed a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer.

  2. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. METHODS: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR...

  3. The value of Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen level in predicting the need for a baseline nuclear bone scan in patients with newly diagnosed 84 prostate cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Chorfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study was to correlate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level and Gleason score with the baseline bone scan results in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and try to determine a group of patients whose risk of bone metastases is low enough to omit safely this staging modality.Methods: This retrospective study included 84 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (Pca who underwent a staging bone scan in Nuclear Medicine department between August 2013 and August 2014. Data were collected on age, bony pain, prostate-specific antigen (PSA level and Gleason score, then, bone scan results were analyzed with respect to these parameters. Bone scan was recorded as positive, negative or equivocal. In case of equivocal lesions, a single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT-CT was performed allowing a better morphological precision. Results: The median age of the patients was 71, 38 years. Bone metastases were detected in 41 patients (49% of cases, bony pain was a reliable presenting sign of skeletal involvement. Both prostate-specific antigen (PSA level and Gleason score were independent predictors of positive bone scan. However, the combination of these two parameters enhanced predictability of bone scan results. According to this study, the risk to develop a bone metastasis was very low in asymptomatic patients with PSA level < 20 ng/ml irrespective of the Gleason score or with PSA level < 30 ng/ml associated to a Gleason score < 7. Conclusion: The present study discourages the routine use of bone scan as a pre-treatment staging modality in asymptomatic patients with PSA level < 20 ng/ml irrespective of the Gleason score or with PSA level < 30 ng/ml associated to a Gleason score < 7, allowing considerable cost savings and decreasing time from diagnosis to treatment.

  4. Syncopation and the score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyang Song

    Full Text Available The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature. Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10 were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved.

  5. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade group (IV); and Gleason score 9–10 (prognostic grade group (V). PMID:23464824

  6. PSA testing for prostate cancer: an online survey of the views and reported practice of General Practitioners in the UK.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brett, J.; Watson, E.; Hewitson, P.; Bukach, C.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.; Austoker, J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the early detection of prostate cancer is controversial. Current UK policy stipulates that any man who wishes to have a PSA test should have access to the test, provided he has been given full information about the benefits and

  7. Association of GPs' risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnout status with PSA testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette F; Carlsen, Anders H; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel undersøger, om variationen i raten af PSA-tests mellem alment praktiserende læger kan forklares af psykologiske faktorer som f.eks. lægens risikovillighed. Resultaterne viser, at lægens risikovillighed influerer på raten af PSA-tests. Forfatterne finder blandt andet, at patienter, s...

  8. The low molecular weight protein PsaI stabilizes the light-harvesting complex II docking site of photosystem I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plöchinger, Magdalena; Torabi, Salar; Rantala, Marjaana

    2016-01-01

    PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of PsaI dest...... of mutant plants into state 2 in darkness represents a compensatory and/or protective metabolic mechanism. This involves an increased reduction and/or reduced oxidation of the PQ pool, presumably to sustain a balanced excitation of both photosystems upon the onset of light.......PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of Psa......I destabilizes the association of PsaL and PsaH to PSI, both forming the light-harvesting complex (LHC)II docking site of PSI. These alterations at the LHCII binding site surprisingly did not prevent state transition but led to an increased incidence of PSI-LHCII complexes, coinciding with an elevated...

  9. Reduction in uptake of PSA tests following decision aids: systematic review of current aids and their evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Edwards, A.; Brett, J.; Bradburn, M.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Elwyn, G.

    2005-01-01

    A man's decision to have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test should be an informed one. We undertook a systematic review to identify and appraise PSA decision aids and evaluations. We searched 15 electronic databases and hand-searched key journals. We also contacted key authors and organisations.

  10. PSA-based prostate cancer screening: The role of active surveillance and informed and shared decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSince the first publication describing the identification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1960s, much progress has been made. The PSA test changed from being initially a monitoring tool to being also used as a diagnostic tool. Over time, the test has been heavily debated due to

  11. [Results of a series of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate in 6000 patients. Part I: pathology, digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and PSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, Rafael; Mayayo Dehesa, Teodoro; Alonso González, Mónica; Burgos Revilla, Francisco Javier; Lennie Zucharino, Alberto

    2005-09-01

    To analyze the results of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy of the prostate in 6000 patients, and their relation to common-use clinical parameters. We collected PSA, digital rectal examination, TRUS characteristics, and pathology report in a data- base including 6000 patients who underwent sextant TRUS biopsy from 1994 to December 2002. 861 of them underwent more than one biopsy, accounting for a total of 7127 biopsies. Sextant biopsy with samples from the most lateral portions of the prostate was the standard procedure so that they included peripheral zone only. We analyze pathological results and their relation with clinical variables. Total percentage of cancer in biopsy samples was 42.6%, with 39.1% in the first biopsy. Overall, repeated biopsies resulted in a 3.5% diagnostic yield increase. PIN or focal glandular atypia were detected in 2.0% and 2.1% of the cases respectively. The percentage of patients with Gleason score =first biopsy to 70% in the third. Similarly, single core involvement increased from 21.% to 65%. Digital rectal examination and presence of hypoechogenic nodules specificity were 82.6 and 78.2% respectively. The incidence of prostate cancer with PSA between 4 and 10 ng/ml was 29.6%, 16.7% in those with PSA lower than 4 ng/ml. TRUS biopsy of the lateral prostatic areas offers a good diagnostic yield in comparison with most series of extensive biopsies. The sensitivity of TRUS has decreased but it maintains a high specificity which should not be forgotten when planning the TRUS strategy

  12. Treatment for A2-B2 prostatic carcinoma: results of hormone-radiotherapy combination in PSA era; Traitement des cancers prostatiques A2-B2: resultats d`une association hormonoradiotherapique dans l`ere du PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, N.; Richaud, P.; Gaston, R.; Chacon, B.; Mauriac, L.; Bussieres, E. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    1998-05-01

    Prospective analysis of results of combined neo-adjuvant hormonotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in A2-B2 prostate adenocarcinoma. Between 1986 and 1994, 36 patients with clinical stage A2 (five patients), B1 (12 patients) and B2 (19 patients) N0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate declined for radical surgery, underwent a brief neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy before external beam radiotherapy at our radiation therapy department. They all had a PSA determination before the combined treatment and no evidence of local extension or metastatic spread. They were followed clinically and with serial PSA levels for a median time of 58 months. Relapse was defined by a PSA level {>=}2.5 ng/mL. Median pre-treatment PSA level was 16.5 ng/mL; 16 patients had less than 15 ng/mL. Combined treatment was very well tolerated. After 3 months of neo-adjuvant hormonotherapy, digital rectal examination was normalized in 27 cases with a PSA value {<=} 1 ng/mL in 23. Only four tumors have relapsed (one local failure, two metastases and one PSA failure). The single factor that predicted biochemical relapse was pre-treatment PSA level: the 5-year actuarial rate of PSA failure when PSA level < 15 ng/ml was 0% and 27.5% if it was {>=} 15 ng/mL (p = 0.05). During follow- up only two patients suffered grade 2 rectitis and seven complained a total impotency. This limited study advocates hormonal neo-adjuvant therapy and radiotherapy association in intra-capsular prostatic carcinoma in patients declined for surgery or when pre-treatment PSA is above 15 ng/mL, with mild acute and late toxicity. (authors)

  13. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale,

  14. Pavement scores synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to summarize the use of pavement scores by the states, including the : rating methods used, the score scales, and descriptions; if the scores are used for recommending pavement : maintenance and rehabilitation action...

  15. Prebiopsy multiparametric MRI-based risk score for predicting prostate cancer in biopsy-naive men with prostate-specific antigen between 4-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Bora, Girdhar S; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-09-04

    Risk calculators have traditionally utilized serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values in addition to clinical variables to predict the likelihood of prostate cancer (PCa). To develop a prebiopsy multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)-based risk score (RS) and a statistical equation for predicting the risk of PCa in biopsy-naive men with serum PSA between 4-10 ng/mL that may help reduce unnecessary biopsies. Prospective cross-sectional study. In all, 137 consecutive men with PSA between 4-10 ng/mL underwent prebiopsy mpMRI (diffusion-weighted [DW]-MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging [MRSI]) during 2009-2015 were recruited for this study. 1.5T (Avanto, Siemens Health Care, Erlangen, Germany); T1 -weighted, T2 -weighted, DW-MRI, and MRSI sequences were used. All eligible patients underwent mpMRI-directed, cognitive-fusion transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. An equation model and an RS were developed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and a multivariable logistic regression approach. A 10-fold crossvalidation and simulation analyses were performed to assess diagnostic performance of various combinations of mpMRI parameters. Of 137 patients, 32 were diagnosed with PCa on biopsy. Multivariable analysis, adjusted with positive pathology, showed apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), metabolite ratio, and PSA as significant predictors of PCa (P < 0.05). A statistical equation was derived using these predictors. A simple 6-point mpMRI-based RS was derived for calculating the risk of PCa and it showed that it is highly predictive for PCa (odds ratio = 3.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24-6.27, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.87). Both models (equation and RS) yielded high predictive performance (AUC ≥0.85) on validation analysis. A statistical equation and a simple 6-point mpMRI-based RS can be used as a point-of-care tool to potentially help limit the number of negative biopsies in men with PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL. 1 Technical

  16. Multiparametric MRI of the prostate with three functional techniques in patients with PSA elevation before initial TRUS-guided biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmuth, Horst; Cozub-Poetica, Corina; Bernand, Stefan; Beer, Meinrad; Jaeger, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) of the prostate is increasingly being used for local staging and detection of recurrence of prostate cancer (PCA). In patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), mp-MRI could provide information on the position of the cancer, allowing adjustments to be made to the needle depth and direction before repeat transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy to ensure accurate sampling of lesions. The purpose of the prospective study was to evaluate mp-MRI of the prostate in patients with PSA elevation before initial TRUS-guided biopsy. Methods: mp-MRI was performed in 94 patients using a 1.5-T scanner (MAGNETOM Aera®; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and 16-channel phased-array body coil (Siemens Healthcare). T2 weighted images (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and MR spectroscopy were obtained. TRUS-guided random biopsies and additional targeted biopsies of suspicious MRI areas were performed. Results: Additional targeted biopsies were obtained in 17 of 43 (40%) patients with PCA. 11 of 17 targeted biopsies contained PCA. 5 of 11 PCAs were diagnosed only by additional targeted biopsies. Sensitivity of mp-MRI in patients was 97.7% and specificity was 11.8%. mp-MRI was false negative in one patient. Sensitivity of mp-MRI in 207 lesions was 80.9% and specificity was 44.7%. In a logistic regression model, the apparent diffusion coefficient value was the only significant parameter to differentiate malignant and benign lesions. Conclusion: mp-MRI should be performed in patients with PSA elevation before initial TRUS-guided biopsy to allow additional targeted biopsies from suspicious areas of MRI. We recommend mp-MRI with T2WI, DWI, DCE MRI and MR spectroscopy. DWI as the most reliable technique should be used in every mp-MRI. Advances in knowledge: DWI is the most reliable technique in mp-MRI of the prostate. PMID:26268144

  17. [Risk factors of ISUP Modified Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-dong; Qu, Gen-yi; Xu, Ning; Xue, Xue-yi; Wei, Yong; Zheng, Qing-shui; Li, Jun-feng; Cai, Hai; Lin, Yun-zhi

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the factors upgrading the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Gleason score using the specimens from preoperative prostatic biopsy and radical prostatectomy. A total of 164 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by biopsy underwent radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed their age, prostate volume, preoperative PSA level, PSA density (PSAD) , the time interval between biopsy and surgery, the number of positive punctures, positive surgical margin, seminal vesicle invasion, lymphatic invasion, and Gleason scores from biopsy and prostatectomy. We also determined the predictors of Gleason score upgrading by logistic regression analysis. Of the 164 cases analyzed, 95 (57.93% ) showed a consistency between the Gleason score of preoperative prostatic biopsy and that after radical prostatectomy, 55 (33.54% ) increased and 14 (8.52%) decreased after prostatectomy as compared with preoperative biopsy. The prostate volume (P score (P Gleason score upgrading. The risk of Gleason score upgrading was 27 times higher in the patients with the prostate volume ≤ 25 ml and 9 times higher in the 25-40 ml group than in the > 60 ml group (P Gleason score of biopsy (≤ 6) and small prostate volume (≤ 40 ml) may be the predictors of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy.

  18. Association between percentage of tumor involvement and Gleason score upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Moul, Judd W; Bañez, Lionel L; Sun, Leon; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Xie, Dongha; Polascik, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    To find the predictors of Gleason score upgrading in a cohort of low-risk prostate cancer patients, data were analyzed comprising 1,632 consecutive men with low-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1993 and 2009. Assessment focused on preoperative parameters including patient age, race, diagnostic prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score, along with pathological parameters including percentage of tumor involvement (PTI), tumor laterality, pathological stage, extra-capsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margins. These parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. Kaplan-Meier curves compared differences in biochemical disease-free survival in men having cancers with and without Gleason score upgrading. Cases involving pathological Gleason score upgrading were identified in 723 (44.3 %) of 1,632 patients. Kaplan-Meier PSA recurrence-free survival curves showed a difference in outcome between men with and without Gleason score upgrading (p Gleason score upgraded patients, 35 (4.8 %) men had PTI of Gleason score, pathologic stage, and surgical margin status were independent predictors of pathological Gleason score upgrading on multivariate logistic regression. PTI correlates closely with Gleason score upgrading in a low-risk prostate cancer cohort. Low-risk prostate cancer patients with clinical findings suggestive of high PTI or large volume cancers should not benefit from active surveillance strategies.

  19. Cancer - What You Don't Know Can Kill You PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-22

    This 60 second PSA is based on the July 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which provides information on colorectal and breast cancer and the importance of getting screened.  Created: 7/22/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/22/2010.

  20. Tools Related to the Federal Tobacco Products Regulations: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    PSA to announce a new mobile text message program that will help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 9/16/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCA PSA MODEL USING A BEST-ESTIMATE THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG HYUN LEE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA has been widely used to estimate the overall safety of nuclear power plants (NPP and it provides base information for risk informed application (RIA and risk informed regulation (RIR. For the effective and correct use of PSA in RIA/RIR related decision making, the risk estimated by a PSA model should be as realistic as possible. In this work, a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs for the Hanul Nuclear Units 3&4 is first carried out in a systematic way. That is, the behaviors of peak cladding temperature (PCT were analyzed with various combinations of break sizes, the operating conditions of safety systems, and the operator's action time for aggressive secondary cooling. Thereafter, the results of the thermal-hydraulic analysis have been reflected in the improvement of the PSA model by changing both accident sequences and success criteria of the event trees for the LOCA scenarios.

  2. Student-Designed Public Service Announcement (PSA) Videos to Enhance Motivation and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Educators often focus on enhancing student motivation and engagement. This article describes an activity with these aims, in which undergraduates (a) learn about theories and research on means of persuasion and (b) in small groups design and record a public service announcement (PSA) video, write a brief paper that outlines the theories used to…

  3. Should baseline PSA testing be performed in men aged 40 to detect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We aimed to evaluate the presenting features and treatment outcome of prostate cancer in men aged <50 years, in a region where prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening is not readily available and most men present with symptoms. Methods. We analysed the data of 1 571 men with prostatic adenocarcinoma ...

  4. National STD Awareness Month and GYT: Get Yourself Tested PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-03

    April is National STD Awareness Month. In this PSA, native communities, especially adolescents and young adults, are encouraged to get educated, tested, and treated by visiting gytnow.org.  Created: 3/3/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 3/3/2011.

  5. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. |

  6. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This PSA helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged cigarettes and smokeless tobacco.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  7. Don't Sell Tobacco to Minors: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-08

    PSA helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18.  Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/8/2010.

  8. Put Out the Myth: There Is No Such Thing as a Safe Cigarette PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-21

    PSA helps raise retailers' and manufacturers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the production and sale of cigarettes labeled as "light," "low," or "mild.".  Created: 7/21/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/21/2010.

  9. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Cessation PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    You can quit smoking! This inspiring 30 second PSA features three people who successfully quit smoking after many years. They share their practical tips on how to quit for good.  Created: 4/4/2012 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 4/4/2012.

  10. The Obesity Epidemic – What Can Be Done? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which provides information on obesity and what you can do to help fight the epidemic.  Created: 8/3/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/3/2010.

  11. Time from first detectable PSA following radical prostatectomy to biochemical recurrence: A competing risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. De Boo (Leonora); M. Pintilie (Melania); P. Yip (Paul); J. Baniel (Jack); N.E. Fleshner (Neil); D. Margel (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In this study, we estimated the time from first detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) following radical prostatectomy (RP) to commonly used definitions of biochemical recurrence (BCR). We also identified the predictors of time to BCR. Methods: We identified subjects

  12. Patients with Central Lines - What You Need to Know to Avoid a Bloodstream Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-01

    This 60 second PSA is based on the March, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates bloodstream infections in patients with central lines are largely preventable when healthcare providers use CDC-recommended infection control steps.  Created: 3/1/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/1/2011.

  13. Graphic Health Warnings for Cigarettes: What You Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-18

    PSA about new graphic health warnings for cigarette packages and advertisements.  Created: 11/18/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 11/18/2010.

  14. New Hope for Stopping HIV - Testing and Medical Care Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-29

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December 2011 CDC Vital Signs report, "HIV Prevention through Care and Treatment" that shares new hope for preventing HIV and improving the health of people with HIV.  Created: 11/29/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/29/2011.

  15. Utility of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in the Indigenous African Man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the great possibility that the indigenous black African man with prostate diseases requires a different diagnostic approach and strategies beyond the standard PSA reference levels generated in non-African study subjects. Design: A hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The ...

  16. Evaluating engrailed-2 and cytokines in urine with serum PSA as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating engrailed-2 and cytokines in urine with serum PSA as potential biomarkers in patients with prostatism at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. ... Conclusion: EN-2 expression in urine was not a predictive marker, however, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were elevated in urine of CaP patients. The potential ...

  17. Total Order Reliability in PSA: Importance of Basic Events and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Borgonovo; C. Smith

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold. First, to formalize the properties of the total order reliability importance measure for PSA models. Second, to extend the definition of the total order importance measure to groups of basic events. This allows one to obtain the importance of systems and to address the relevance of interactions among systems.

  18. Correlation between low Gleason score and prostate specific antigen levels with incidence of bone metastases in prostate cancer patients: when to omit bone scans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, I Putu Gde; Mochtar, Chaidir Arief; Umbas, Rainy

    2013-01-01

    To identify correlation and incidence of bone metastases in prostate cancer patient with low Gleason scores (GS) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. This descriptive restrospective study covered patients with prostate cancer in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in 2006-2011. Of a total of 478, those who had PSA values, histological examination, and bone scan were included, resulting in 358 eligible cases. PSA values were measured using the sandwich electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Histological examination was graded according to Gleason's grading system and divided into 3 categories: well differentiated (GS ≤ 6), moderately differentiated (GS 7) and poorly differentiated (GS 8-10). Bone scans were performed using a radiopharmaceutical agent (Tc 99m methylenen diphosphonate) with images captured by gamma camera. The mean age was 67.5 ± 7.8, mean GS was 7.7 ± 1.3 and median PSA was 56.9 (range: 0.48-17000 ng/ mL). There were 11 patients (3.0%) with positive bone scan with PSAbone metastasis. In our study, there were still small percentage of patients with bone metastasis even when low values of PSA (PSA<10 ng/mL) and GS (GS ≤ 6) were applied.

  19. Deciding on PSA-screening - Quality of current consumer information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfage, Ida J; van den Bergh, Roderick C N; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-11-01

    Given that screening for prostate cancer has the potential to reduce prostate cancer mortality at the expense of considerable overdiagnosis and overtreatment, the availability of core consumer information - correct, balanced and supportive of autonomous decision-making - is a must. We assessed the quality of consumer information available through the Internet per November 2009 and its possible contribution to informed decision-making by potential screenees. Consumer information on PSA-screening was sought through the Internet in November 2009. Materials had to be targeted at potential consumers, offered by not-for-profit organisations, released in 2005 or after, in English or Dutch. Per material 2 of the authors assessed independently from each other whether standardised pre-defined topics were addressed, whether the content was correct and which approach was taken towards the decision-making process about uptake. Twenty-three materials were included, of which 11 were released (shortly) after the results of 2 large randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer had been published in March 2009. That a PSA-test result can be abnormal because of non-cancerous conditions (false positive) and that it may miss prostate cancer (false negative) was not addressed in 2/23 and 8/23 materials, respectively. The risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment was not mentioned in 6 out of 23. PSA-screening was presented as a usual thing to do in some materials, whereas other materials emphasised the voluntary nature of PSA-screening ('it is your decision'). The content of 19/23 materials was considered sufficiently informative according to the pre-defined criteria, 12/23 materials were considered supportive of informed decision-making by men. Most materials of not-for-profit organizations supplied adequate information about PSA-screening, whilst the degree of persuasion towards uptake reflected variations in opinions on men

  20. Evaluation and prognostic significance of ACAT1 as a marker of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraon, Punit; Trudel, Dominique; Kron, Ken; Dmitromanolakis, Apostolos; Trachtenberg, John; Bapat, Bharati; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Jarvi, Keith A; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among men in North America. While a majority of prostate cancer cases remain indolent, subsets of patients develop aggressive cancers, which may lead to death. The current methods of detection include digital rectal examination and the serum PSA test. However, due to lack of specificity, neither of these approaches is able to accurately discriminate between indolent and aggressive cancer, which is why there is a need for additional prognostic factors. Previously, we identified enzymes of the ketogenic pathway, particularly ACAT1, to be elevated in aggressive prostate cancer. In the current study, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic potential of ACAT1 by analyzing its expression using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray consisting of 251 clinically localized prostate cancer patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy. Using quantitative digital imaging software, we found that ACAT1 expression was significantly greater in cancerous cores compared to adjacent benign cores (P cancers versus GS≤6 cancers (P cancers versus GS7 cancers (P = 0.001), as well as pT3/pT4 versus pT2 cancers (P = 0.001). In addition, ACAT1 predicted biochemical recurrence in univariate (HR, 1.81, CI = 1.13-2.9, P = 0.0128), and multivariate models (HR, 1.69, CI = 1.01-2.81, P = 0.0431) including pre-operative PSA level, Gleason score and pathological stage. In univariate time-to-recurrence analysis, ACAT1 expression predicted recurrence in ERG negative cases (P = 0.0025), whereas ERG positive cases did not display any differences. Taken together, these findings indicate that ACAT1 expression could serve as a potential prognostic marker in prostate cancer, specifically in differentiating indolent and aggressive forms of cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Porous silicon antibody microarrays for quantitative analysis: measurement of free and total PSA in clinical plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järås, Kerstin; Adler, Belinda; Tojo, Axel; Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-12-24

    The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44 ng/ml, LOD: 0.14 ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9 ng/ml, LOD: 0.47 ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295 ng/ml, LOD: 0.76 ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyzes several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate on growth and PSA secretion of human prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, V; Di Carlo, A; De Luca, C; Mariano, A

    2001-05-01

    Prolonged increase of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) level in the culture medium of a well differentiated human prostatic cancer cell (LNCaP) inhibits cellular growth and stimulates PSA secretion. The differentiation of the cells tested was documented by their responsiveness to androgens and the ability to synthesize cellular markers of differentiation (PSA). The raise in cAMP level was produced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) or by agents acting at distinct levels in the pathway of cAMP generation (forskolin) or degradation (IBMX). Each of these three agents in a range of concentrations between 10-4-10-6 M had an inhibitory effect on the growth which is dose and time-dependent. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by complete restoration of cell growth soon after the withdrawal of the substances from the culture medium. When cAMP levels in culture medium was raised, an increase in PSA content was observed. However, the effects of cAMP on PSA content was not due to increase in PSA synthesis, since simultaneous measurement of secreted and cellular PSA indicated that the principal effect of the cyclic nucleotide was to enhance the secretion of stored PSA. Furthermore the inhibition of cellular growth by cAMP suggests new approaches in prostatic carcinoma therapy.

  3. Increased PSA expression on prostate cancer exosomes in in vitro condition and in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; Angelini, Daniela F; Iessi, Elisabetta; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Borsellino, Giovanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Pierella, Federico; Marzio, Vittorio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Battistini, Luca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells. To this aim, we exploited Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), an immunocapture-based ELISA, and nanoscale flow-cytometry. The results show that microenvironmental acidity induces an increased release of nanovesicles expressing both PSA and the exosome marker CD81. In order to verify whether the changes induced by the local selective pressure of extracellular acidity may correspond to a clinical pathway we used the same approach to evaluate the levels of PSA-expressing exosomes in the plasma of PCa patients and controls, including subjects with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The results show that only PCa patients have high levels of nanovesicles expressing both CD81 and PSA. This study shows that tumor acidity exerts a selective pressure leading to the release of extracellular vesicles that express both PSA and exosome markers. A comparable scenario was shown in the plasma of prostate cancer patients as compared to both BPH and healthy controls. These results suggest that microenvironmental acidity may represent a key factor which determines qualitatively and quantitatively the release of extracellular vesicles by malignant tumors, including prostate cancer. This condition leads to the spill-over of nanovesicles into the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients, where the levels of tumor biomarkers expressed by

  4. Importance of Wells score and Geneva score for the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruettner, Joachim; Walter, Thomas; Lang, Siegfried; Meyer, Michael; Apfaltrer, Paul; Henzler, Thomas; Viergutz, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology guidelines for pulmonary embolism (PE) published in 2008 and updated in 2014 recommend a risk stratification including risk scores like Wells and the Geneva score. The utility and practicability of these scores are controversially discussed. Recently, in a trauma cohort and in spinal surgery patients, no correlation between Wells Score and PE diagnosis was found. The aim of the study was the evaluation of Wells and Geneva scores in patients presenting with chest pain, dyspnoea or syncope in an emergency department. We retrospectively examined 326 patients suspected of PE, including assessment, according to Wells and Geneva scores. PE was detected in 13.5 %. The average Wells score was 1.0, the average Geneva score 3.9. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed for both scores a high significant area under the curve (Wells score 0.68; Geneva score 0.64). The association between the scores and the diagnosis of PE was calculated with logistic regression analysis and showed high significant odds ratios (OR) for both scores (Wells score 1.38; Geneva score 1.24). There was no significant difference between the area under the curve (AUC) of Wells score and Geneva score. The utility of Wells and Geneva scores for the evaluation of patients suspected of PE in an emergency patient cohort. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Scoring nail psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Bastiaens, M.T.; Plusje, L.G.; Baran, R.L.; Pasch, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scoring systems are indispensable in evaluating the severity of disease and monitoring treatment response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the competence of various nail psoriasis severity scoring systems and to develop a new scoring system. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective,

  7. Take Charge. Take the Test. "Look Out For Yourself" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  8. We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time Radio PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-27

    As part of the We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages Hispanics/Latinos to talk openly about HIV and AIDS with their families, friends, partners, and communities.  Created: 8/27/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 8/27/2014.

  9. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  10. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-30

    PSA to help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18 and the requirement to sell products face-to-face.  Created: 9/30/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/30/2010.

  11. Exploring Functional ?-Cell Heterogeneity In Vivo Using PSA-NCAM as a Specific Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Melis; Castel, Julien; Tourrel-Cuzin, C?cile; Brun, Manuel; G?ant, Anne; Dubois, Mathilde; Catesson, Sandra; Rodriguez, Marianne; Luquet, Serge; Cattan, Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Lang, Jochen; Ktorza, Alain; Magnan, Christophe; Kargar, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mass of pancreatic beta-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous beta-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of beta-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats. METHODS: Two rat beta-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e. beta(high) and beta(low...

  12. Making Food Safer to Eat - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the June, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six Americans gets sick from eating contaminated food each year. To reduce your risk, remember to clean, separate, cook, and chill.  Created: 6/7/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/7/2011.

  13. The Tobacco Use Epidemic - What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-07

    This PSA is based on the September, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that, despite the dangers of tobacco use, about 46.6 million adults in the U.S. smoke, and 88 million nonsmokers are exposed to secondhand smoke. .  Created: 9/7/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/7/2010.

  14. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  15. Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context - Phase 2 Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authen, S. (Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, J. (Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)); Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2012-02-15

    The OECD/NEA CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRisk) has set up a task group called DIGREL to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). A parallel Nordic activity carried out a pre-study where a comparison of Nordic experiences and a literature review were performed. The study showed a wide range of approaches and solutions to the challenges given by digital I and C. In 2011, a proposal for the failure modes taxonomy was defined. This is based on a set of requirements agreed on the purpose of the taxonomy. The following levels of details can be distinguished from the hardware point of view: (1) the entire system, (2) a division, (3) processing units (and cabinets), (4) modules, i.e. subcomponents of processing units and (5) generic components, i.e. subcomponents of modules. Module level seems to be the most appropriate from the PSA modelling point of view. The software failure modes taxonomy is still an open issue. An existing simplified PSA model has been complemented with fault tree models for a four-redundant distributed protection system in order to study and demonstrate the effect of design features and modelling approaches. The example shows that even rather simple I and C design leads to rather complex model despite of the fact that many things have been simplified and only a few protection signals are considered. One lesson from the example is that the Alpha factor model should be used to model common cause failures instead of the Beta factor model. Two options were developed to the comparison of different fail-safe principles. The role of detectable and undetectable failure modes with respect to the failed versus spurious actuations can be clearly seen in the results, showing the importance to model these features in PSA. (Author)

  16. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Jessica PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Exposure to secondhand smoke can trigger a life-threatening asthma attack. This 30 second PSA features Jessica, a mother with a young son who suffers from asthma attacks triggered by secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 4/4/2012 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 4/4/2012.

  17. Galectin-3 Is a Substrate for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in Human Seminal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sarika; Block, Ashley S.; Davidson, Mari. K.; Rank, Roger. G.; Mahadevan, Maha; Diekman, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 is a multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle control, immunomodulation, and cancer progression, including prostate cancer. Galectin-3 function is regulated by proteolytic cleavage that destroys galectin-3 multivalency while preserving carbohydrate-binding activity. In human semen, galectin-3 is present in seminal plasma and is also associated with prostasomes, exosome-like vesicles secreted by the prostate. In the current study, we characterized the proteolytic activity that cleaves galectin-3 in human seminal plasma. Methods An in vitro assay was developed to investigate galectin-3 cleavage in seminal plasma. The effect of protease inhibitors, divalent ion chelators, and Zn2+ on the cleavage activity was determined. Proteases enriched from seminal plasma were tested for their ability to cleave galectin-3. Affinity purification and microsequence analysis were used to identify the cleavage site in galectin-3. Results Galectin-3 was identified in human seminal plasma in an intact and truncated form. Gelatinases enriched from seminal plasma did not cleave galectin-3. Inhibitor studies indicated that the galectin-3 cleavage activity in seminal plasma is a Zn2+ sensitive, serine protease. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was demonstrated to cleave galectin-3 between tyrosine107-glycine108 and produce a functionally-active, monovalent lectin. Conclusions PSA is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease secreted by the prostatic epithelium and normally functions in liquefaction of semen following ejaculation. Furthermore, PSA is implicated in the promotion of localized prostate tumors and bone metastases by its roles in immunomodulation, invasion, and apoptosis. Our results indicate that PSA regulates galectin-3 in human semen and may regulate galectin-3 function during prostate cancer progression. PMID:20672323

  18. Prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA); a relevant approach for the small population of the Cayman Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Blacke, Camille; Patil, Pallavi; Amblihalli, Vibha P; Nicholson, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into subgroups by baseline PSA levels as follows: 100 ng/mL and were correlated to the age and presence of cancer. Benign lesions had lower PSA levels compared to cancer which generally had higher values. Only three cases that had less than 4 ng/mg were turned out to be malignant. When PSA value was more than 100 ng/mL, all the cases were malignant. Between PSA values of 4-100 ng/mL, the probability of cancer diagnosis was 56.71% (76 cancers out of 134 in this range). Limitation of PSA testing has the risk of over diagnosis and the resultant negative biopsies owing to poor specificity. Whereas the cutoff limit for cancer diagnosis still remains 4 ng/mL from our study, most of the patients can be assured of benign lesion below this level and thus morbidity associated with the biopsy can be prevented. When the PSA value is greater than 100 ng, biopsy procedure was mandatory as there were 100% cancers above this level. On the background of vast literature linking PSA to prostate cancer and its difficulty in implementing in clinical practice, we studied literature of this conflicting and complex topic and tried to bring relevant protocols to the small population of Cayman Islands for the screening of prostate cancer. In this study, a total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the

  19. Lycopene Supplementation in the Complementary Management of PSA Failure: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial for Prostate Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Kucuk, Omer; Fowke, Jay H

    2007-01-01

    ...) or whole-food supplement (Lyc-O-Mato(Registered)) in control of biochemical (PSA) failure in 78 African-American prostate cancer survivors treated initially by radical prostatectomy or radiation...

  20. Einschätzung des PSA-Rezidivs nach kurativer Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weißbach L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Das in die Nachsorge kurativ behandelter Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom aufgenommene PSA-Monitoring schafft einen neuen klinischen Status. Wir haben es jetzt mit einem "bio-chemisch Kranken" zu tun, bei dem nicht selten kein lokales Rezidivgeschehen und schon gar nicht eine Fernmetastasierung nachgewiesen werden kann. Um zwischen der lokalen und systemischen Erkrankung unterscheiden zu können, hat man sich früher der "pathohistologischen Prädiktion" bedient. Hierauf beruht auch ein großer Teil der häufig eingesetzten Nomogramme. Mit der Bestimmung der PSA-DT ist eine Methode in das diagnostische Repertoire aufgenommen worden, die nach weiterer Evaluierung dazu dienen könnte, lokale Maßnahmen (RT nach RP oder Salvage-Prostatektomie, HIFU bzw. Kryotherapie oder eine Androgendeprivation vorzunehmen. Vieles deutet darauf hin, daß wir in Zukunft nicht nur mit einer Berechnung der PSA-DT die lokale von der systemischen Progression unterscheiden können, sondern auch das Übergangsstadium zur klinischen Metastasenerkrankung voraussagen und das Risiko, am Prostatakrebs zu sterben, einschätzen können.

  1. Multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods research of nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Handing; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Weidong; Lei, Dina

    2017-01-01

    2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant severe accident was caused by both earthquake and tsunami, which results in large amount of radioactive nuclides release. That accident has caused the radioactive contamination on the surrounding environment. Although this accident probability is extremely small, once such an accident happens that is likely to release a lot of radioactive materials into the environment, and cause radiation contamination. Therefore, studying accidents consequences is important and essential to improve nuclear power plant design and management. Level 3 PSA methods of nuclear power plant can be used to analyze radiological consequences, and quantify risk to the public health effects around nuclear power plants. Based on multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods studies of nuclear power plant, and the description of the multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA technology roadmap and important technical elements, as well as taking a coastal nuclear power plant as the reference site, we analyzed the impact of off-site consequences of nuclear power plant severe accidents caused by multiple external hazards. At last we discussed the impact of off-site consequences probabilistic risk studies and its applications under multiple external hazards compound conditions, and explained feasibility and reasonableness of emergency plans implementation.

  2. Hybrid approach for the assessment of PSA models by means of binary decision diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Llano, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.ibanez@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Rauzy, Antoine, E-mail: Antoine.RAUZY@3ds.co [Dassault Systemes, 10 rue Marcel Dassault CS 40501, 78946 Velizy Villacoublay Cedex (France); Melendez, Enrique, E-mail: ema@csn.e [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), C/Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nieto, Francisco, E-mail: nieto@iit.upcomillas.e [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Santa Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Binary decision diagrams are a well-known alternative to the minimal cutsets approach to assess the reliability Boolean models. They have been applied successfully to improve the fault trees models assessment. However, its application to solve large models, and in particular the event trees coming from the PSA studies of the nuclear industry, remains to date out of reach of an exact evaluation. For many real PSA models it may be not possible to compute the BDD within reasonable amount of time and memory without considering the truncation or simplification of the model. This paper presents a new approach to estimate the exact probabilistic quantification results (probability/frequency) based on combining the calculation of the MCS and the truncation limits, with the BDD approach, in order to have a better control on the reduction of the model and to properly account for the success branches. The added value of this methodology is that it is possible to ensure a real confidence interval of the exact value and therefore an explicit knowledge of the error bound. Moreover, it can be used to measure the acceptability of the results obtained with traditional techniques. The new method was applied to a real life PSA study and the results obtained confirm the applicability of the methodology and open a new viewpoint for further developments.

  3. Penile Metastases of Recurrent Prostatic Adenocarcinoma without PSA Level Increase: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pierro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of penile metastases from recurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma that was the first sign of a widespread metastatic disease in the absence of any increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA level. In April 2011, an 80-year-old man presented to our Radiotherapy Unit with multiple palpable hard nodules in the penis, dysuria, and moderate perineal pain, 7 years after he had received radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Nodules in the penis had appeared in February 2011. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR imaging suggested the diagnosis of multiple penile metastases. A total body computed tomography scan revealed a systemic spread of the disease, with multiple metastases in the liver, bones, and lungs. PSA level was 0.126 ng/ml. A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the liver lesion was undertaken, and the histopathologic examination revealed the prostatic origin of the metastases, so androgen deprivation therapy was started. The diagnosis of metastases should be considered in a patient with prior history of prostate malignancies presenting with solid nodules in the penis, even if the PSA level is low.

  4. High Activity Arthroplasty Score has a lower ceiling effect than standard scores after knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Louis, Pascal; Diesinger, Yann

    2014-04-01

    The tested hypothesis was following: the High Activity Arthroplasty Score has a significant lower ceiling effect than American Knee Society Score and Oxford Knee Score after total knee arthroplasty. One hundred patients operated on for total knee arthroplasty with more than one-year follow-up have been included. The ceiling effect was 53% for the American Knee Society Score, 33% for the Oxford Knee Score, and 0% for the High Activity Arthroplasty Score. High Activity Arthroplasty Score had a significantly lower ceiling effect than American Knee Society Score and Oxford Knee Score. High Activity Arthroplasty Score has the potential to detect more subtle differences in level of function than standard scoring systems among a non-selected total knee arthroplasty population. © 2014.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based PSA decision aid, Prosdex. Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Jeff

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informed decision making is the theoretical basis in the UK for men's decisions about Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA testing for prostate cancer testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a web-based PSA decision-aid, Prosdex, on informed decision making in men. The objective is to assess the effect of Prosdex on six specific outcomes: (i knowledge of PSA and prostate cancer-related issues – the principal outcome of the study; (ii attitudes to testing; (iii decision conflict; (iv anxiety; (v intention to undergo PSA testing; (vi uptake of PSA testing. In addition, a mathematical simulation model of the effects of Prosdex will be developed. Methods A randomised controlled trial with four groups: two intervention groups, one viewing Prosdex and the other receiving a paper version of the site; two control groups, the second controlling for the potential Hawthorn effect of the questionnaire used with the first control group. Men between the ages of 50 and 75, who have not previously had a PSA test, will be recruited from General Practitioners (GPs in Wales, UK. The principal outcome, knowledge, and four other outcome measures – attitudes to testing, decision conflict, anxiety and intention to undergo testing – will be measured with an online questionnaire, used by men in three of the study groups. Six months later, PSA test uptake will be ascertained from GP records; the online questionnaire will then be repeated. These outcomes, and particularly PSA test uptake, will be used to develop a mathematical simulation model, specifically to consider the impact on health service resources. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial: ISRCTN48473735.

  6. Selective Activation of a Perforin-Granzyme B Fusion Protein Toxin by PSA as Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Protein toxins represent a class of agents that can kill cells in a proliferation independent manner. Many such...PSA and PSMA 15. SUBJECT TERMS Granzyme B, PSA, PSMA, protoxin, protease, zymogen 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8

  7. Methodological approaches to perform a site specific PSA on the effects of comprehensive events; Methodische Ansaetze zur Durchfuehrung einer standortspezifischen PSA zu den Auswirkungen uebergreifender Einwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerschmann, Michael; Sperbeck, Silvio; Frey, Walter

    2016-12-15

    Main objective of the project 3612R01550 performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is the development of an approach for systematic consideration of dependencies in case of internal and external hazards and their combinations in the probabilistic plant model for nuclear power plants. One of the major aspects of a site specific Level 1 PSA carried out for a nuclear power plant outlined in this report is taking comprehensively into account the entire risks resulting from internal and external hazards. In a first step, all the hazards which may occur at the site under investigation have to be identified. This requires a compilation of the potential hazards and their possible combinations: Based on this compilation of generic hazards a site specific list of hazards to be considered in the analysis can be derived based on a screening process taking into account regulatory requirements and insights from site and plant walk-downs. In a second step, the hazards to be considered for the specific site have to be classified with respect to the depth of the probabilistic analyses to be carried out. This classification covers three categories: hazards with a negligible contribution to the overall risk, hazards with such a low risk contribution that a rough quantitative assessment is sufficient, and hazards which need in-depth probabilistic analysis. Based on the available Level 1 PSA model for internal events, a systematic approach for in-depth probabilistic analyses of hazards and their combinations is proposed. In this context, lists of those structures, systems and components, which can be impaired in their required function resulting in a risk increase, are provided. One of these lists contains the equipment, the other one the dependencies to be considered for the corresponding hazard. In addition to the general approach for performing site specific PSA, a procedure for modelling dependencies in

  8. Histological inflammation and risk of subsequent prostate cancer among men with initially elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in the Finnish prostate cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Hemminki, Tytti H; Laurila, Marita; Auvinen, Anssi; Määttänen, Liisa; Huhtala, Heini; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Kujala, Paula M

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether histological signs of inflammation are associated with an increased risk of subsequent prostate cancer (PCa) in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations and benign initial biopsy. Study subjects were men aged 54-67 years with an elevated PSA (≥4 ng/mL or 3-4 ng/mL and free to total PSA ratio ≤0.16 or positive digital rectal examination), but a benign biopsy result within the Finnish population-based randomised screening trial for PCa, which started in 1996. A total of 293 prostate biopsies without PCa or suspicion of malignancy from the first screening round in the Tampere centre were re-evaluated by a uropathologist to assess histological inflammation. Results of the subsequent screening rounds were obtained from the trial database and PCa diagnoses made outside the screening were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The median length of follow-up was 10.5 years. Cox regression analysis was used to assess PCa risk after the initial benign biopsy. Histological inflammation was found in 66% of the biopsies. Subjects with inflammation at the biopsy had a slightly lower PCa risk in the second screening round (18 vs 27%, rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-1.34) relative to men without inflammation. In further follow-up, the PCa risk remained nonsignificantly lower (hazard ratio [HR] 0.71, CI 0.46-1.10; P = 0.13). The risk was not appreciably affected by adjustment for age, PSA, prostate volume and family history of PCa (HR 0.67, CI 0.42-1.07; P = 0.092). Histological inflammation in a prostate biopsy among men with an initial false-positive screening test was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent PCa, but instead with a decreased risk which was of borderline significance. Inflammation in prostate biopsy is not a useful risk indicator in PCa screening. © 2013 BJU International.

  9. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level correlate with growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells treated in vitro with a novel anticancer drug, irofulven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska BAHigdon, A L; Muñoz, R M; Bushong, P; Waters, S J

    2001-01-01

    Irofulven (hydroxymethylacylfulvene, HMAF, MGI 114) is a novel agent with alkylating activity and a potent inducer of apoptosis. It is currently undergoing Phase II clinical trials for several tumor types, including hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Reduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels has been proposed as a generally useful endpoint for evaluating the antitumor efficacy of treatments for prostate cancer. However, the utility of PSA as a marker of tumor cell burden could be compromised, if drugs directly affected PSA secretion and/or expression. In these studies, we evaluated the effects of irofulven on PSA protein and mRNA levels during the course of treatment of prostate tumor cells in vitro. The rate of PSA secretion (normalized per equal cell number) by control and drug treated cells was similar, as determined by a solid phase, two-site immunoradiometric assay. Consistent with the lack of effect of irofulven on PSA protein level, the drug does not appear to affect the expression of PSA mRNA (on a per cell basis) as assessed by RT-PCR. Thus, changes in PSA secretion and expression appear to reflect irofulven-induced cell growth inhibition rather than reflecting a direct effect of the drug on PSA. These results suggest that PSA should be a reasonable marker of tumor burden in irofulven-treated prostate cancer patients.

  10. Validation of the OMERACT Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) for the Hand and Foot in a Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes following treatment and the reliability and responsiveness to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods. Forty patients with PsA randomized to either......). Results. Inflammatory features improved numerically but statistically nonsignificantly in the ABA group but not the placebo group. Baseline intrareader intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were good (≥ 0.50) to very good (≥ 0.80) for all features in both hand and foot. Baseline interreader ICC were......AMRIS may be a valid tool for MRI assessment of hands and feet in PsA clinical trials....

  11. [Preliminary applicability evaluation of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 diagnostic score in 3.0T multi-parameters magnetic resonance imaging combined with prostate specific antigen density for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, M Z; Zhao, W L; Wei, C G; Zhang, C Y; Wen, R; Gu, Y F; Li, M J; Zhang, Y Y; Wu, J F; Li, X; Shen, J K

    2017-12-19

    Objective: To investigate the preliminary applicability of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) score in the condition of 3.0T multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (Mp-MRI) combined with clinical classic indicators for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: The clinical and MRI materials of 247 patients of suspicious prostate disease treated in Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from June 2015 to November 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, including 110 cases with PCa and 137 cases without cancer.All cases underwent the high-resolution axial T(2)-weighted imaging (T(2)WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and were confirmed pathologically by puncture biopsies.The Mp-MRI materials of all cases were scored according to PI-RADS v2.The prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) value were calculated according to the formulas.The univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for the observed indicators (age, prostate volume, PSA, PSAD and PI-RADS v2 score) to determine the independent predictors for PCa.Then, a Logistic regression model (combined prediction model) was established by the independent predictors for combined diagnosis of PCa.The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curve analysis was performed to get the sensitivity and specificity of each independent predictor and the model to diagnose PCa.The differences of AUC values of each independent predictor and the model were compared with each other to evaluate the diagnostic performance for PCa. Results: The differences in the age, prostate volume, PSA, PSAD and the PI-RADS v2 score between patients with PCa and non-cancer group were all statistically significant ( t =2.870, Z =-4.230, -7.787, -9.477, -10.826, all P PI-RADS v2 score were independent predictors for PCa ( OR =3.331, 10.546, both P PI-RADS v2 score and PSAD to forecast PCa was

  12. Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System and Likert Scoring System: Multiparametric MR Imaging Validation Study to Screen Patients for Initial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard-Penna, Raphaëlle; Mozer, Pierre; Cornud, François; Barry-Delongchamps, Nicolas; Bruguière, Eric; Portalez, Daniel; Malavaud, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    .4%, the negative predictive value was 96.5%, and accuracy was 83.2%. The respective data for Likert scale scores of 3 or greater were 93.8%, 73.6%, 44.3%, 98.1%, and 73.3%. Good interobserver agreement was observed for the Likert scale (κ = 0.80) and the summed PI-RADS (κ = 0.73) scoring systems. PI-RADS provided the site-specific stratified risk of cancer-positive cores in biopsy-naive men with normal DRE results and elevated PSA levels. There was no significant difference between summed PI-RADS scores of 9 or greater and Likert scale scores of 3 or greater in the detection of cancer in the peripheral zone.

  13. Increasing Fractional Doses Increases the Probability of Benign PSA Bounce in Patients Undergoing Definitive HDR Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Carlin R.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Peter Y.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Limbacher, Amy; Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: Daniel.krauss@beaumont.edu

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce is a temporary elevation of the PSA level above a prior nadir. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the frequency of a PSA bounce following high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is associated with individual treatment fraction size. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2014, 554 patients underwent treatment of low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer with definitive HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy and had ≥3 subsequent PSA measurements. Four different fraction sizes were used: 950 cGy × 4 fractions, 1200 cGy × 2 fractions, 1350 cGy × 2 fractions, 1900 cGy × 1 fraction. Four definitions of PSA bounce were applied: ≥0.2, ≥0.5, ≥1.0, and ≥2.0 ng/mL above the prior nadir with a subsequent return to the nadir. Results: The median follow-up period was 3.7 years. The actuarial 3-year rate of PSA bounce for the entire cohort was 41.3%, 28.4%, 17.4%, and 6.8% for nadir +0.2, +0.5, +1.0, and +2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The 3-year rate of PSA bounce >0.2 ng/mL was 42.2%, 32.1%, 41.0%, and 59.1% for the 950-, 1200-, 1350-, and 1900-cGy/fraction levels, respectively (P=.002). The hazard ratio for bounce >0.2 ng/mL for patients receiving a single fraction of 1900 cGy compared with those receiving treatment in multiple fractions was 1.786 (P=.024). For patients treated with a single 1900-cGy fraction, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year rates of PSA bounce exceeding the Phoenix biochemical failure definition (nadir +2 ng/mL) were 4.5%, 18.7%, and 18.7%, respectively, higher than the rates for all other administered dose levels (P=.025). Conclusions: The incidence of PSA bounce increases with single-fraction HDR treatment. Knowledge of posttreatment PSA kinetics may aid in decision making regarding management of potential biochemical failures.

  14. Contribuição da densidade do PSA para predizer o câncer da próstata em pacientes com valores de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Sócrates de Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o perfil dos pacientes submetidos a biópsia prostática, determinando possíveis padrões que, associados aos níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml, possam levar a uma diminuição de biópsias desnecessárias. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De 2007 a 2009, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1.282 indivíduos submetidos a biópsia prostática e que apresentavam níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de câncer foi de 28,6%. Pacientes com câncer eram, em média, mais idosos, com valores de PSA e densidade de PSA mais altos e menor volume da próstata. Na análise da densidade de PSA, os pacientes com câncer tiveram média de 0,31 ng/ml/cc, enquanto nos pacientes com resultado negativo a média foi de 0,10 ng/ml/cc. Utilizando como critério de positividade para câncer o ponto de corte de densidade de PSA de 0,15 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos especificidade de 74% e sensibilidade de 70%. Para aumentar a sensibilidade é preciso reduzir o ponto de corte. Com o valor 0,09 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos sensibilidade de 84% (IC 95%: 80-87% e especificidade de 75% (IC 95%: 72-78%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso sistemático da densidade de PSA na indicação de prosseguimento da investigação do paciente com biópsia poderia reduzir a quantidade de procedimentos desnecessários.

  15. Expression and prognostic significance of ELL-associated factor 2 in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yachen; Dong, Yun; Yang, Dongrong; Xue, Boxin; Li, Feng; Gu, Peng; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Shaoxiong; Zhou, Songlin; Ying, Rong; Wang, Zhou; Shan, Yuxi

    2016-05-01

    ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) is an androgen-regulated tumor suppressor in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of EAF2 protein in human prostate cancer specimens along with BPH specimens as a control, and to evaluate potential association of EAF2 expression with clinical characteristics and overall survival of the prostate cancer patients. The expression of EAF2 was evaluated in 44 prostate cancer and 23 BPH tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry. The relationships of EAF2 expression with clinical characteristics and overall survival rates were analyzed by Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. The immunostaining intensity of EAF2 in BPH specimens was significantly higher than that in prostate cancer (p < 0.05). EAF2 expression decreased significantly in high-grade and advanced-stage human prostate tumors and inversely correlated with PSA level, Gleason scores, bone metastasis and tumor stage. Importantly, loss of EAF2 expression was associated with a significant decrease in patient survival. Expression of EAF2 is decreased in prostate carcinogenesis, and EAF2 loss is associated with high-risk patients and poor survival.

  16. Prognostic significance of a positive surgical margin in pathologically organ-confined prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, Sascha A; Zacharias, Mario; Isbarn, Hendrik; Steuber, Thomas; Eichelberg, Christian; Köllermann, Jens; Fisch, Margit; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Chun, Felix K-H

    2010-08-01

    To identify risk factors of a positive surgical margin (PSM) and the significance of a PSM after radical prostatectomy (RP) on biochemical recurrence (BCR) in exclusively pathologically confirmed organ-confined (OC) prostate cancer, as despite an excellent prognosis after RP, some patients with pathologically confirmed OC disease have BCR, and the prognostic significance of a PSM in these men remains unclear. We assessed 932 men with pathologically OC disease who were treated with RP by nine different surgeons between 1992 and 2004. The prognostic significance of clinical and pathological variables, including tumour volume (TV) and percentage of high-grade TV (%HGTV) were assessed. Logistic and Cox regression models were fitted to identify risk factors of a PSM and BCR. BCR was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 0.1 ng/mL and increasing after an undetectable PSA level. The total PSM rate was 12.9% (120 men); the mean TV (P < 0.001), but not %HGTV (P= 0.2) was significantly higher in patients with PSM. TV, nerve-sparing RP technique and surgical volume were independent risk factors for a PSM (P= 0.03). After a median follow-up of 35 months the overall BCR rate was 8.8% (82 men). Patients with a PSM had significantly higher BCR rates (21.7% vs 6.9%; P < 0.001). In univariable analysis, a high %HGTV (70.4%) was the most informative risk factor of BCR, followed by RP Gleason score (65.8%) and PSM (65.7%). Removal of PSM from a multivariable Cox model decreased the accuracy by 12.1% (P < 0.001). Our findings show that in OC prostate cancer, the risk of a PSM depends on TV, surgical technique and surgical volume. PSM is a significant risk factor for BCR. However, only 20% men with OC disease and a PSM develop BCR; conversely, 80% of men are cured despite a PSM. Therefore, adjuvant therapy must be considered, with caution to avoid unnecessary overtreatment.

  17. Adverse Disease Features in Gleason Score 3 + 4 "Favorable Intermediate-Risk" Prostate Cancer: Implications for Active Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlacco, Alessandro; Cheville, John C; Rangel, Laureano J; Gearman, Derek J; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    According to a recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines update, patients with Gleason score (GS) 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) and "favorable intermediate-risk" (FIR) characteristics might be offered active surveillance (AS). However, the risk of unfavorable disease features and its prediction in this subset of patients is not completely understood. To identify the risk of unfavorable disease and potential predictors of adverse outcomes among GS 3 + 4 FIR PCa patients. The study included patients with biopsy GS 3 + 4 and otherwise fulfilling the NCCN low-risk definition (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] 50% (OR 1.57), percentage of surface area (OR: 1.02), and perineural invasion (OR: 1.89) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease at RP. The retrospective design is a limitation. AS is a possible option for a subset of men with FIR GS 3 + 4. However, clinical models alone have a limited role in GS upgrade prediction, and alternative tools warrant further investigation. Patients with Gleason score 3 + 4 at biopsy, low prostate-specific antigen, and low stage might consider the option of active surveillance, but the use of clinical information alone might be not adequate for thorough risk-adapted counseling. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  19. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-02-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring functional beta-cell heterogeneity in vivo using PSA-NCAM as a specific marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Karaca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mass of pancreatic beta-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous beta-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of beta-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats. METHODS: Two rat beta-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e. beta(high and beta(low-cells. Insulin release, Ca(2+ movements, ATP and cAMP contents in response to various secretagogues were analyzed. Gene expression profiles and exocytosis machinery were also investigated. In a second part, beta(high and beta(low-cell distribution and functionality were investigated in animal models with decreased or increased beta-cell function: the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat and the 48 h glucose-infused rat. RESULTS: We show that beta-cells are heterogeneous for PSA-NCAM in rat pancreas. Unlike beta(low-cells, beta(high-cells express functional beta-cell markers and are highly responsive to various insulin secretagogues. Whereas beta(low-cells represent the main population in diabetic pancreas, an increase in beta(high-cells is associated with gain of function that follows sustained glucose overload. CONCLUSION: Our data show that a functional heterogeneity of beta-cells, assessed by PSA-NCAM surface expression, exists in vivo. These findings pinpoint new target populations involved in endocrine pancreas plasticity and in beta-cell defects in type 2 diabetes.

  2. Study on LOOP and SBO Frequency for Multi-Unit PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kyung Ho; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In conventional single unit PSA, it was assumed that all accidents or events are independent and the risk of only one unit has been evaluated. In other words, the possibility that simultaneous events occur on multiple units was excluded because it was assumed that the probability of concurrent events were extremely low. After Fukushima accidents, however, it was found that external hazards such as tsunami may impact on multiple units; that means, for the sake of proper mitigation the risk of accidents in shared SSCs should be reevaluated. New risk metrics to improve conventional CDF (Core Damage frequency) based on reactor-year is needed to perform MUPSA (Multi-Unit Probabilistic Safety Assessment). IAEA suggested SCDF (Site CDF) as a risk metrics for MUPSA. The frequency based on reactor-year was converted to the frequency based on site-year. In addition, shared SSCs were modeled in single unit PSA as if those units have independent shared SSCs. Therefore, the risk of shared SSCs should be reevaluated. In this paper, the frequency of LOOP (Loss of Offsite Power), which is typically a multi-unit event, was evaluated and the frequency of SBO (Station Blackout) depending on LOOP frequency and emergency power systems such as EDG (Emergency Diesel Generator) and AAC (Alternate AC), that can mitigate SBO events, was modeled. This paper describes how to calculate LOOP and SBO frequency from the simple example for two-unit site with shared AAC. The events impacting on multiple units, which were excluded in conventional PSA, should be considered for MUPSA.

  3. Exploring Functional β-Cell Heterogeneity In Vivo Using PSA-NCAM as a Specific Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Melis; Castel, Julien; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Brun, Manuel; Géant, Anne; Dubois, Mathilde; Catesson, Sandra; Rodriguez, Marianne; Luquet, Serge; Cattan, Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Lang, Jochen; Ktorza, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Background The mass of pancreatic β-cells varies according to increases in insulin demand. It is hypothesized that functionally heterogeneous β-cell subpopulations take part in this process. Here we characterized two functionally distinct groups of β-cells and investigated their physiological relevance in increased insulin demand conditions in rats. Methods Two rat β-cell populations were sorted by FACS according to their PSA-NCAM surface expression, i.e. βhigh and βlow-cells. Insulin release, Ca2+ movements, ATP and cAMP contents in response to various secretagogues were analyzed. Gene expression profiles and exocytosis machinery were also investigated. In a second part, βhigh and βlow-cell distribution and functionality were investigated in animal models with decreased or increased β-cell function: the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat and the 48 h glucose-infused rat. Results We show that β-cells are heterogeneous for PSA-NCAM in rat pancreas. Unlike βlow-cells, βhigh-cells express functional β-cell markers and are highly responsive to various insulin secretagogues. Whereas βlow-cells represent the main population in diabetic pancreas, an increase in βhigh-cells is associated with gain of function that follows sustained glucose overload. Conclusion Our data show that a functional heterogeneity of β-cells, assessed by PSA-NCAM surface expression, exists in vivo. These findings pinpoint new target populations involved in endocrine pancreas plasticity and in β-cell defects in type 2 diabetes. PMID:19440374

  4. Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context. Phase 3. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authen, S. [Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Holmberg, J.-E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Digital protection and control systems appear as upgrades in older plants, and are commonplace in new nuclear power plants. To assess the risk of nuclear power plant operation and to determine the risk impact of digital systems, there is a need to quantitatively assess the reliability of the digital systems in a justifiable manner. In 2007, the OECD/NEA CSNI directed the Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRisk) to set up a task group to coordinate an activity in this field. One of the recommendations was to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), resulting in a follow-up task group called DIGREL. The taxonomy will be the basis of future modelling and quantification efforts. It will also help define a structure for data collection and to review PSA studies. This an interim report of the project. A draft guidelines document on the failure modes taxonomy has been developed. The taxonomy is rather complete covering all levels from the system level down to module and basic component level failure modes, including hardware and software aspects. There are still open issues to be resolved by the task group, especially related to I and C unit and module level taxonomy. In a parallel Nordic activity, a comparison of Nordic experiences and a literature review on main international references has been performed. The study showed a wide range of approaches and solutions to the challenges given by digital I and C, and also indicated that no state-of-the-art currently exists. An existing simplified PSA model has been complemented with fault tree models for a four-redundant distributed protection system in order to study and demonstrate the effect of design features and modelling approaches. The model has been used to test the effect of CCF modelling, fail-safe principle and voting logic. A comparison has been made between unit-level and module-level modelling. (Author)

  5. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Josephine, E-mail: jkang3@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 21 Century Oncology, Inc., Fort Myers, FL (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  6. Childhood Obesity – Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-02

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

  7. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This 60 second PSA is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  8. The Tobacco Use Epidemic – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This 60 second PSA is based on the September, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Fewer Americans are smoking cigarettes, and daily smokers are smoking less; however, even occasional smoking causes harm. The best option for any smoker is to quit completely. Quitting at any age has benefits, and the sooner you quit, the sooner your body can begin to heal.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2011.

  9. An Hipotesis for PSA's solar furnace mirror improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Padula, C.D.; Bartolini, C.; Beskin, G.; Cosentino, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Nanni, D.; Piccioni, A.

    2002-07-01

    The PSA's Solar Furnace capabilities can be greatly improved by replacing the present array mirrors with new ones. We will explain a rather cheap method (now under test) for the fabrication of the new mirrors, with a simple spherical figuring, and everyone identical to each other. Furthermore, we will describe the geometry the new array should have in order to avoid excessive aberrations due to the high obliquity of the rays with which most of the mirrors in the array have to deal with. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. HIV Testing – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-30

    This 60 second PSA is based on the December, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that last year, 82.9 million adults between 18 and 64 reported having been tested for HIV, yet 55 percent of adults – and 28.3 percent of adults with a risk factor for HIV – haven't been tested.  Created: 11/30/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 11/30/2010.

  11. CDC: Tips from Former Smokers – Tiffany PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-28

    When Tiffany was 16, her mother—a cigarette smoker—died of lung cancer. Tiffany quit smoking at 34 because she wanted to be around for her own daughter, who had just turned 16. In this 60 second PSA from CDC's Tips From Former Smokers campaign, Tiffany offers tips on how to quit.  Created: 3/28/2013 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  12. Detection rate for significant cancer at confirmatory biopsy in men enrolled in Active Surveillance protocol: 20 cores vs 30 cores vs MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The detection rate for significant prostate cancer of extended vs saturation vs mMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy was prospectively evaluated in men enrolled in active surveillance (AS protocol. Mterials and methods: From May 2013 to September 2016 75 men aged 66 years (median with very low risk PCa were enrolled in an AS protocol and elegible criteria were: life expectancy greater than 10 years, cT1C, PSA below 10 ng/ml, PSA density < 0.20, 2 < unilateral positive biopsy cores, Gleason score (GS equal to 6, greatest percentage of cancer (GPC in a core < 50%. All patients underwent 3.0 Tesla pelvic mpMRI before confirmatory transperineal extended (20 cores or saturation biopsy (SPBx; 30 cores combined with mpMRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy (4 cores of suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 3-5. Results: 21/75 (28% patients were reclassified by SPBx based on upgraded GS ≥ 7; mpMRI lesions PI-RADS 4-5 vs PI-RADS 3-5 diagnosed 9/21 (42.8% vs 16/21 (76.2% significant PCa with 2 false positives (6.5%. The detection rate for significant PCa was equal to 76.2% (mpMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy vs 81% (extended vs 100% (SPBx (p = 0.001; mpMRI/TRUS targeted biopsy and extended biopsy missed 5/21 (23.8% and 4/21 (19% significant PCa which were found by SPBx (p = 0.001 being characterised by the presence of a single positive core of GS ≥ 7 with GPC < 10%. Conclusions: Although mpMRI improve the diagnosis of clinically significant PCa, SPBx is provided of the best detection rate for PCa in men enrolled in AS protocols who underwent confirmatory biopsy.

  13. Detection rate for significant cancer at confirmatory biopsy in men enrolled in Active Surveillance protocol: 20 cores vs 30 cores vs MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Pietro; Cimino, Sebastiano; Garufi, Antonio; Priolo, Giandomenico; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Giardina, Raimondo; Reale, Giulio; Barbera, Michele; Panella, Paolo; Pennisi, Michele; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2016-12-30

    The detection rate for significant prostate cancer of extended vs saturation vs mMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy was prospectively evaluated in men enrolled in active surveillance (AS) protocol. Mterials and methods: From May 2013 to September 2016 75 men aged 66 years (median) with very low risk PCa were enrolled in an AS protocol and elegible criteria were: life expectancy greater than 10 years, cT1C, PSA below 10 ng/ml, PSA density < 0.20, 2 < unilateral positive biopsy cores, Gleason score (GS) equal to 6, greatest percentage of cancer (GPC) in a core < 50%. All patients underwent 3.0 Tesla pelvic mpMRI before confirmatory transperineal extended (20 cores) or saturation biopsy (SPBx; 30 cores) combined with mpMRI/TRUS fusion targeted biopsy (4 cores) of suspicious lesions (PI-RADS 3-5). 21/75 (28%) patients were reclassified by SPBx based on upgraded GS ≥ 7; mpMRI lesions PI-RADS 4-5 vs PI-RADS 3-5 diagnosed 9/21 (42.8%) vs 16/21 (76.2%) significant PCa with 2 false positives (6.5%). The detection rate for significant PCa was equal to 76.2% (mpMRI/TRUS fusion biopsy) vs 81% (extended) vs 100% (SPBx) (p = 0.001); mpMRI/TRUS targeted biopsy and extended biopsy missed 5/21 (23.8%) and 4/21 (19%) significant PCa which were found by SPBx (p = 0.001) being characterised by the presence of a single positive core of GS ≥ 7 with GPC < 10%. Although mpMRI improve the diagnosis of clinically significant PCa, SPBx is provided of the best detection rate for PCa in men enrolled in AS protocols who underwent confirmatory biopsy.

  14. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  15. [Salvage radiotherapy for patients with PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy: comparisons among ASTRO and Phoenix biochemical failure definitions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, L; Mongiat-Artus, P; Ravery, V; Hennequin, V; Maylin, C; Desgrandchamps, F; Hennequin, C

    2009-07-01

    Study about the efficacy of salvage radiotherapy (RT), in terms of biochemical disease free survival (bDFS), according to ASTRO and Phoenix (nadir+2) definitions, for persistent or rising PSA after radical prostatectomy. Retrospective analysis of 59 patients who underwent RT between 1990 and 2003 for PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Patients received a median of 66Gy to the prostate bed with 3D or 2D RT. The main end point was bDFS according to ASTRO and Phoenix (nadir+2) definitions. Different criterion sets were analysed to calculate bDFS and pretreatment factors that might predict biochemical relapse were sought for each. After a 38-month median follow-up, the 3-year bDFS rates were: 60 and 72% for ASTRO and Phoenix (nadir+2 ng/ml) definitions respectively. According to univariate analysis, pre-RT PSA> or =1 ng/ml and seminal vesicle involvement were associated with biochemical relapse. Multivariate analysis retained only pre-RT PSA> or =1 ng/ml as an independent predictor of biochemical relapse for the two definitions. Salvage RT is an effective treatment after radical prostatectomy according to ASTRO or Phoenix definitions. Only pre-RT PSA> or =1 ng/ml predicted relapse.

  16. Lassen Veränderungen des Prostata-spezifischen Antigen- (PSA- Spiegels nach Prostatastanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das pathologische Ergebnis zu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmer BG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die diagnostische Biopsie der Prostata führt bekanntermaßen zum Anstieg des Serum-PSA-Spiegels. Diese prospektive Untersuchung sollte die Frage klären, ob die Änderungen des Serum-PSA-Spiegels nach Stanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das histologische Ergebnis zulassen und so als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Frage der Rebiopsie dienen können. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 79 konsekutive Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prostatakarzinoms (PCA und einem Gesamt-PSA 50 ng/ml wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen. Ausschlußkriterien waren klinische Hinweise für eine Prostatitis und Prostatabiopsie innerhalb der letzten 3 Monate. Die Serum-PSA-Werte wurden mit einem ultrasensitiven Enzymimmunoassay bestimmt. Die Bestimmung des Gesamt-PSA und des freien PSA im Serum erfolgte unmittelbar vor und 60 Minuten nach der Biopsie. Die Spiegel des Gesamt-PSA und freien PSA, sowie die f/t-PSA-Ratio vor und nach Biopsie wurden in Korrelation zum histologischen Ergebnis gesetzt. Ergebnisse: 86 Biopsieserien wurden bei 79 Patienten durchgeführt. 38 Biopsieserien diagnostizierten ein PCA, 48 eine benigne Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die abschließende Histologie nach wiederholter Biopsie war PCA und BPH in je 43 Fällen. Insgesamt fand sich ein Anstieg des durchschnittlichen Gesamt-PSA von 18,39 ng/ml auf 107,8 ng/ml, des durchschnittlichen freien PSA von 3,43 ng/ml auf 33,7 ng/ml und der durchschnittlichen f/t PSA-Ratio von 18,1 % auf 52,0 %. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen dem Anstieg dieser Parameter und der Anzahl der Biopsiezylinder (4–51. Bezüglich des histologischen Befundes ergaben sich statistisch signifikante Unterschiede für das Gesamt-PSA vor und die f/t PSA-Ratio vor und nach Stanzbiopsie. Schlußfolgerung: Die Analyse der PSA-Parameter nach Stanzbiopsie bietet keine zusätzliche Information über die konventionellen PSA-Parameter vor der Biopsie hinaus. Sie korrelieren vor allem nicht mit falsch

  17. Cancers de la prostate de score de Gleason supérieur ou égal à 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Sine

    Résumé. Buts : Evaluer les résultats oncologiques des patients pris en charge pour cancers de la prostate de score de Gleason ≥ à 8 en utilisant comme critères de jugement: le PSA total, la survie globale et la survie sans progression. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective menée au service ...

  18. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  19. Early warning scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  20. Radical prostatectomy outcome when performed with PSA above 20 ng/ml.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, S S

    2012-02-01

    Many centres currently do not offer radical prostatectomy (RP) to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer due to concerns regarding poor outcome, despite evidence to the contrary. We identified 18 men undergoing RP with serum PSA >20 ng\\/ml (high-risk by National Comprehensive Cancer Network definition) and minimum follow-up of 12 years (mean 13.5). Mean preoperative PSA was 37.0 ng\\/ml (Range 21.1-94.0). Prostatectomy pathology reported extracapsular disease in 16 (88.9%), positive surgical margins in 15 (83%) and positive pelvic lymph nodes in 5 (27.8%). Overall and cancer-specific survival at 5 and 10-years was 83.3%, 88.2%, 72% and 76.5% respectively. With complete follow-up 11 (61.1%) are alive, and 5 (27.8%) avoided any adjuvant therapy. Complete continence (defined as no involuntary urine leakage and no use of pads) was achieved in 60%, with partial continence in the remainder. We conclude that surgery for this aggressive variant of localised prostate cancer can result in satisfactory outcome.

  1. MODIFICATION OF THE SPAR-H METHOD TO SUPPORT HRA FOR LEVEL 2 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, S.; Boring, R.; Banaseanu, G.; Akl, Y.; Xu, M.

    2016-10-01

    Currently, available Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods were generally developed to support Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) models. There has been an increased emphasis placed on Level 2 PSA in recent years; however, the currently used HRA methods are not ideal for this application, including the SPAR-H method. Challenges that will likely be present during a severe accident such as degraded or hazardous operating conditions, shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, unavailability of instrumentation, and others are not routinely considered for Level 1 HRA analysis. These factors combine to create a much more uncertain condition to be accounted for in the HRA analysis. While the SPAR-H shaping factors were established to support Level 1 HRA, previous studies have shown it may be used for Level 2 HRA analysis as well. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in a joint project are investigating modifications to the SPAR-H method to create more consistency in applying the performance shaping factors used in the method for Level 2 analysis.

  2. Zušlechťování bioplynu metodou PSA

    OpenAIRE

    Krhut, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Tato práce řeší zušlechťování bioplynu metodou PSA a zmodernizování laboratorní jednotky. Surový bioplyn obsahuje mnoho nežádoucích složek, které snižují jeho energetický potenciál, a to v nejvyšší míře oxid uhličitý. Pro rozšíření možností využití bioplynu je třeba tuto složku odstranit. Jednou z rozšířených metod pro odstranění CO2 z bioplynu je metoda Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA – česky adsorpce za měnícího se tlaku). Tato práce popisuje tuto metodu a porovnává ji s jinými metodami čišt...

  3. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author).

  4. A new method to consider human actions in the framework of a dynamic PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloos, M.; Peschke, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The variety of accident sequences to be considered in the framework of a PSA derives from mutual dependencies between the physical process, the behaviour of the technical system, human actions and stochastic influences along the time axis. Because the conventional PSA approach is not able to adequately account for these interactions, so-called probabilistic dynamics methods have been developed. They generally achieve a more realistic modelling of accident scenarios and a more realistic safety assessment. At GRS, the method MCDET - a combination of Monte Carlo Simulation und the Discrete Dynamic Event Tree method - was developed. The implementation of MCDET was supplemented by a so called Crew-Module which allows - together with a deterministic dynamics code - to simulate human actions as a dynamic process evolving over time in interaction with the system and process dynamics. The Crew-Module accounts for communications between crew members and for performance shaping factors like stress, knowledge or ergonomics. This paper presents the Crew- Module and gives an overview of the results which may be obtained from its combination with MCDET and a deterministic dynamics code. The emergency operating procedure 'Secondary Side Bleed and Feed' in a German PWR is selected as an illustrative application. (authors)

  5. Advancement of the methodology for automated integration of external hazards into level 1 PSA modeling. Technical report; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik zur automatisierten Integration uebergreifender Einwirkungen in PSA-Modelle der Stufe 1. Technischer Fachbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Nadine; Herb, Joachim

    2017-03-15

    In the course of the research and development project RS1539 funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy (BMWi) the methodology for the automated integration of hazards in Level 1 PSA models has been enhanced. Thereby, the analysis tool pyRiskRobot provides the methodological framework for mapping a generic spectrum of internal and external hazards onto complex PSA plant models. The reimplementation of the software tool via the programming language python extends the applicability and facilitates the handling of pyRiskRobot in comparison to the previous Ruby-based version RiskRobot. Moreover, the development of functions to perform the topological modelling of fault trees and the probabilistic specification of modified fault tree elements have been continued. Due to the reimplementation and further developments, the tool enables to systematically generate fault trees of varying complexity, to flexibly integrate fault trees in existing PSA models and to automatically duplicate interconnected topologies. Thus, pyRiskRobot allows the efficient and traceable realization of hazard specific, usually laborious modifications of PSA models. In addition, pyRiskRobot has been extended to serve as a functional interface between the data compilations comprising the potential influences of hazards on PSA relevant components and the data base of a PSA plant model. Based on this conceptual design, additional analyses of the data can be carried out prior to the integration within the PSA model topology. The reimplemented functionalities of pyRiskRobot have been validated with respect to reference applications, such as the modelling of an internal fire scenario, against the previous version RiskRobot. The existing method collection for the automated modification of fault tree topologies has been extended based on the requirements for further applications, among others the modelling of an external flooding scenario. The deduced hazard specific modelling approaches

  6. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  7. Direct comparison of PI-RADS version 2 and version 1 regarding interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anton S; Cornelius, Alexander; Reiner, Cäcilia S; Stocker, Daniel; Ulbrich, Erika J; Barth, Borna K; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Eberli, Daniel; Donati, Olivio F

    2017-09-01

    to simultaneously evaluate interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy in the of PI-RADS v2 and compare it to v1. A total of 67 patients (median age 65.3 y, range 51.2-78.2 y; PSA 6.8μg/L, 0.2-33μg/L) undergoing MRI of the prostate and subsequent transperineal template biopsy within ≤6 months from MRI were included. Four readers from two institutions evaluated the likelihood of prostate cancer using PI-RADS v1 and v2 in two separate reading sessions ≥3 months apart. Interreader agreement was assessed for each pulse-sequence and for total PI-RADS scores using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Differences were considered significant for non-overlapping 95%-confidence intervals. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A Z ). A p-value PI-RADS scores per quadrant were nearly identical (ICC 1 =ICC 2 =0.71). Diagnostic accuracy showed no significant differences (p=0.09-0.93) between v1 and v2 in any of the readers (range: A Z =0.78-0.88). PI-RADS scores show similar interreader agreement in v2 and v1 at comparable diagnostic performance. The simplification of the DCE interpretation in v2 might slightly improve agreement while not negatively affecting diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The contribution of the Patient Support Assistant to direct patient care: an exploration of nursing and PSA role perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Jane; Kearin, Mark

    2007-04-01

    Health care systems have seen the introduction of the unregulated worker into patient care areas to assist Registered Nurses (RNs) in the provision of health care. A study was undertaken to identify the perceptions of both nurses and unregulated workers of the unregulated worker role in direct patient care in a regional hospital in New South Wales, Australia. The nomenclature used for a non regulated worker in the workplace in which this study occurred is Patient Support Assistant (PSA). Separate surveys were designed for PSA and nursing staff. Twenty seven per cent of PSAs (n=21) and 36% of nursing staff surveyed (n=120) responded. Results identified that both groups identified the main role of PSAs were attending to general cleaning and providing physical assistance to nurses, medical and physiotherapy staff, primarily for manual handling of heavy or difficult patients. Some activities of the role identified in the job description, such as pre-operative shaves on male patients and assisting with the application of traction, appeared no longer to be relevant for current practices. Both groups identified a positive team working relationship between nurses and PSAs. However, there was evidence to suggest that not all RNs had a clear understanding of the role of the PSA and the PSAs believed that they did not receive adequate feedback about their work. There was a mixed view as to whom the PSA should report. A high percentage of RNs felt they should be responsible for the supervision of the PSA. This was in contrast to a high percentage also believing that RNs should not be accountable either for PSA work or for delegating tasks to PSAs. Challenges voiced by PSAs included being expected to achieve both allocated cleaning tasks and provide patient support, being requested to assist with aggressive patients and working with other PSAs. A major recommendation of the study is that employment of Assistants in Nursing may provide enhanced scope and role clarity for

  9. Phytohormone and Putative Defense Gene Expression Differentiates the Response of ‘Hayward’ Kiwifruit to Psa and Pfm Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin V. Wurms

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (Pfm are closely related pathovars infecting kiwifruit, but Psa is considered one of the most important global pathogens, whereas Pfm is not. In this study of Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ responses to the two pathovars, the objective was to test whether differences in plant defense responses mounted against the two pathovars correlated with the contrasting severity of the symptoms caused by them. Results showed that Psa infections were always more severe than Pfm infections, and were associated with highly localized, differential expression of phytohormones and putative defense gene transcripts in stem tissue closest to the inoculation site. Phytohormone concentrations of jasmonic acid (JA, jasmonate isoleucine (JA-Ile, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid were always greater in stem tissue than in leaves, and leaf phytohormones were not affected by pathogen inoculation. Pfm inoculation induced a threefold increase in SA in stems relative to Psa inoculation, and a smaller 1.6-fold induction of JA. Transcript expression showed no effect of inoculation in leaves, but Pfm inoculation resulted in the greatest elevation of the SA marker genes, PR1 and glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase (β-1,3-glucosidase (32- and 25-fold increases, respectively in stem tissue surrounding the inoculation site. Pfm inoculation also produced a stronger response than Psa inoculation in localized stem tissue for the SA marker gene PR6, jasmonoyl-isoleucine-12-hydrolase (JIH1, which acts as a negative marker of the JA pathway, and APETALA2/Ethylene response factor 2 transcription factor (AP2 ERF2, which is involved in JA/SA crosstalk. WRKY40 transcription factor (a SA marker was induced equally in stems by wounding (mock inoculation and pathovar inoculation. Taken together, these results suggest that the host appears to mount a stronger, localized, SA-based defense response to Pfm

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-6 in combination with prostate volume are possible prostate cancer tumor markers in patients with gray-zone PSA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K; Arichi, N; Tokugawa, S; Yoshioka, I; Namba, Y; Kishikawa, H; Takahara, S; Ichikawa, Y

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to assess whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin (IL)-6 in combination with prostate volume are able to accurately detect prostate cancer in patients with gray-zone prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. A total of 159 patients with PSA levels of <10 ng ml(-1) were enrolled. Forty-two (35.3%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer, whereas 117 (64.7%) had no cancer and were used as benign group. HGF and IL-6 density (HGFD and IL-6D, respectively) values were calculated by dividing serum HGF and IL-6 levels with prostate volume. Median IL-6 (2.3 pg ml(-1)) levels for the prostate cancer group were significantly higher than those for the benign group before adjustment for age (1.7 pg ml(-1)) (P=0.0098). After age adjustments, median IL-6 (2.17 pg ml(-1)), HGFD (0.00972 ng ml(-1) cm(-3)), and IL-6D (0.0848 pg ml(-1) cm(-3)) values for the prostate cancer group were significantly higher than those for the benign group (IL-6, 1.78 pg ml(-1); HGFD, 0.00732 ng/ml/cc; and IL-6D, 0.049 pg/ml/cc; P=0.0416, 0.007 and 0.0005, respectively). In receiver operating characteristic analyses, the areas under the curves for HGFD (0.64) and IL-6D (0.68) were significantly greater than those for HGF (0.52) and IL-6 (0.61) (P=0.0006 and 0.019, respectively). With an HGFD cutoff value of 0.00392 ng ml(-1) cm(-3) (sensitivity=100%, specificity=11%), 11.1% of the benign group were able to avoid unnecessary biopsies without missing prostate cancer. HGF and IL-6 levels in combination with prostate volume were shown to be useful parameters for prostate cancer screening in patients with gray-zone PSA levels.

  11. 11C–Choline PET / CT in the detection of prostate cancer relapse in patients with rising PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Aslanidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the diagnostic impact of 11C–Choline PET / CT in the detection of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa in patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy and to assess the correlation between PSA levels and PET / CT detection rate of PCa relapse.Subjects and methods. 85 patients with biochemical relapse (mean PSA 3.51 ± 3.87 ng / ml after radical prostatectomy (n = 64 and radiotherapy (n = 21 underwent 11C–Choline PET / CT. According to PSA level, patients were divided into three groups:  2 ng / ml, 2 to 9 ng / ml and > 9 ng / ml.Results. Overall, 11C–Choline PET / CT detected PCa relapse in 33 of 85 patients (39 %. The mean PSA value in PET-positive patients was 5.78 ± 4.95 (0.22–17.80 ng / ml, while in PET-negative patients – 1.43 ± 1.08 (0.28–4.57 ng / ml. Positive PET / CT results were obtained in 9 of 40 patients (22 % with PSA of < 2 ng / ml, in 17 of 38 patients (45 % with PSA of 2 to 9 ng / ml, and in 7 of 7 patients (100 % with PSA of > 9 ng / ml. Local relapse was detected in 42 % (14 / 33 patients. Both local and distant metastases were diagnosed in 39 % (13 / 33 cases. Distant relapsewas identified in 19 % (6 / 33 cases. PET / CT allowed to assess the efficacy of treatment in 26 % (12 / 47 PET-negative patients under hormone therapy at the scan time. However, PET / CT wasn’t able to localize the site of PCa recurrence in these hormone-ensitive patients what might have affected the overall detection rate.Conclusion. 1 11C–Choline PET / CT was able to detect and correctly identify the site of PCa relapse in 39 % cases and therefore was useful in determining the further therapeutic approach. 2 Our data confirmed the strong correlation between PSA levels and 11C–Choline PET / CT detection rate of PCa relapse (r = 0.9; p < 0.001. 3 11C–Choline PET / CT has limited utility in localizing the site of PCa recurrence in some patients under hormone therapy.

  12. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  13. The impact of primary Gleason grade on biochemical outcome following brachytherapy for hormone-naive Gleason score 7 prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Gregory S; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Galbreath, Robert W; Allen, Zachariah A; Adamovich, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Although the perception exists that biochemical outcome in patients with a Gleason score of 7 with dominant pattern 4 histology is inferior to that of patients with a Gleason score of 7 with a primary Gleason grade of 3, conflicting conclusions have been reported for radical prostatectomy and brachytherapy. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the dominant histologic pattern in Gleason score 7 prostate cancer on biochemical progression-free survival after brachytherapy. Between April 1995 and October 2001, 273 consecutive patients underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy without androgen deprivation therapy for clinical T1c-T3a NxM0 (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. No patient underwent seminal vesicle biopsy or pathological lymph node staging. All patients underwent brachytherapy more than 3 years before analysis. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate specific antigen (PSA) cut point ASTRO) consensus definition. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated for biochemical progression-free survival included primary Gleason grade; clinical T stage; pretreatment PSA level; risk group; percent positive biopsy results; perineural invasion; patient age; isotope; supplemental external-beam radiation therapy; prostate volume; brachytherapy planning volume; percent of the target volume receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose (V100/150/200); minimum percent of the prescribed dose covering 90% of the target volume (D90); tobacco consumption; hypertension; and diabetes. For the entire cohort, the actuarial 8-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 94.5% and 94.8% using a PSA cut point ASTRO consensus definition, respectively. For biochemically disease free patients, the median posttreatment PSA level was probability of 8-year biochemical progression-free survival and is independent of Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 histology.

  14. Utilidad de los puntajes clínicos para mejorar la predicción de enfermedad coronaria significativa después de una prueba de esfuerzo convencional Usefulness of clinical scores to improve prediction of significant coronary heart disease after conventional treadmill exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Guerrero

    2008-10-01

    comparing patients with and without outcomes, the first ones classified more frequently as having higher probability than those that had not, with statistically significant differences (Morise: p = 0,0002 and Duke: 0,0005. In the Morise score with cutoff value 48, 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity was achieved. In Duke, with cutoff value 38, it was 100% and 31% respectively. Discussion: concordance for Morise is better than for the other evaluated methods. The addition of clinical scores to the exercise testing interpretation improves its operative characteristics without any cost increment, achieving savings of 10% to 18%. Conclusions: clinical scores increase sensitivity and specificity, and for this reason they should be used as routine in the conventional exercise testing report. Nevertheless, it is necessary to look for solutions to improve its performance even further.

  15. The role of the percentage free PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in Blacks: Findings in indigenous West African men using TRUS guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The %fPSA is an effective discriminating tool in determining the need for prostate biopsy in indigenous West African men with PSA 4–10 ng/ml. A cut off of 15% was associated with the highest performance.

  16. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  17. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  18. Oncologic control obtained after radical prostatectomy in men with a pathological Gleason score ≥ 8: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenet, François; Comperat, Eva; Seringe, Elise; Drouin, Sarah J; Richard, François; Cussenot, Olivier; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    To assess the oncologic control afforded by radical prostatectomy (RP) in high-risk prostate cancers with a Gleason score ≥ 8. We performed a retrospective review of prostate cancer patients who underwent RP between 1995 and 2005 for prostate cancer and who had a pathologic Gleason score ≥ 8. Biochemical recurrence was defined as a single rise in PSA levels over 0.2 ng/ml after surgery. Overall, 64 patients were included and followed for a median time of 84.3 months. The mean age was 63 ± 5.2 years. The mean preoperative PSA was 11.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml (1.9-31), and 29 patients (46%) had a PSA > 10 ng/ml. The biopsy Gleason score was ≤ 7 for 49 patients (76.6%). After pathologic analysis, there were 25 (39%) stage pT2, 37 (58%) stage pT3, and 2 (3%) stage pT4 patients. Nine patients had lymph node involvement (14%). The surgical margins were positive in 25 patients (39%). In 51 patients, (80%) the Gleason score was underestimated by biopsies: 40 patients with a definitive score of Gleason 8 had a Gleason score of 6 or 7 on biopsies, while 11 patients with a Gleason score of 9 initially, had a Gleason score of 7 or 8. Twenty-seven patients underwent adjuvant treatment: external radiation therapy (n = 19), HRT (n = 3), or both (n = 5). During follow-up, 41 patients (64%) presented with a biochemical recurrence, and 11 (17%) died. The PSA-free survival rate at five year was 44%. RP remains a possible therapeutic option in certain cases of the high-risk cohort of patients with a Gleason score ≥ 8. However, patients should be warned that surgery might only be the first step of a multi-modal treatment approach. The modalities of adjuvant treatments and the right schedule to deliver it following RP still need to be defined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the prostate specific antigen, body mass index and age relationship: is an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model clinically useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sean; Tilling, Kate; Turner, Emma L; Lane, J Athene; Simpkin, Andrew; Davis, Michael; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Martin, Richard M

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies indicate a possible inverse relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and body mass index (BMI), and a positive relationship between PSA and age. We investigated the associations between age, BMI, PSA, and screen-detected prostate cancer to determine whether an age-BMI-adjusted PSA model would be clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer. Cross-sectional analysis nested within the UK ProtecT trial of treatments for localized cancer. Of 18,238 men aged 50-69 years, 9,457 men without screen-detected prostate cancer (controls) and 1,836 men with prostate cancer (cases) met inclusion criteria: no history of prostate cancer or diabetes; PSA BMI between 15 and 50 kg/m(2). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between log-PSA, age, and BMI in all men, controlling for prostate cancer status. In the 11,293 included men, the median PSA was 1.2 ng/ml (IQR: 0.7-2.6); mean age 61.7 years (SD 4.9); and mean BMI 26.8 kg/m(2) (SD 3.7). There were a 5.1% decrease in PSA per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI (95% CI 3.4-6.8) and a 13.6% increase in PSA per 5-year increase in age (95% CI 12.0-15.1). Interaction tests showed no evidence for different associations between age, BMI, and PSA in men above and below 3.0 ng/ml (all p for interaction >0.2). The age-BMI-adjusted PSA model performed as well as an age-adjusted model based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines at detecting prostate cancer. Age and BMI were associated with small changes in PSA. An age-BMI-adjusted PSA model is no more clinically useful for detecting prostate cancer than current NICE guidelines. Future studies looking at the effect of different variables on PSA, independent of their effect on prostate cancer, may improve the discrimination of PSA for prostate cancer.

  20. Advanced Reactor PSA Methodologies for System Reliability Analysis and Source Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, D.; Brunett, A.; Passerini, S.; Grelle, A.; Bucknor, M.

    2017-06-26

    Beginning in 2015, a project was initiated to update and modernize the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the GE-Hitachi PRISM sodium fast reactor. This project is a collaboration between GE-Hitachi and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the role of Argonne is to assess the reliability of passive safety systems, complete a mechanistic source term calculation, and provide component reliability estimates. The assessment of passive system reliability focused on the performance of the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms of the metal fuel core. The mechanistic source term assessment attempted to provide a sequence specific source term evaluation to quantify offsite consequences. Lastly, the reliability assessment focused on components specific to the sodium fast reactor, including electromagnetic pumps, intermediate heat exchangers, the steam generator, and sodium valves and piping.

  1. Correlação entre prostatite assintomatica com PSA elevado e cancer de prostata

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Mamprin Stopiglia

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: A prostatite assintomática é definida através da detecção laboratorial do aumento de células inflamatórias em secreções uretrais ou urina após massagem da glândula prostática e também detectada em biópsias. Esta alteração inflamatória é reconhecidamente uma causa de elevação dos níveis do PSA. Devido esta elevação também estar associada ao câncer prostático, desenvolvemos um estudo para avaliar a correlação entre prostatite assintomática com a referida doença maligna. No período de ja...

  2. Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context. Phase 1 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authen, S.; Larsson, J. (Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bjoerkman, K.; Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT, Helsingfors (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    Digital protection and control systems are appearing as upgrades in older nuclear power plants (NPPs) and are commonplace in new NPPs. To assess the risk of NPP operation and to determine the risk impact of digital system upgrades on NPPs, quantitative reliability models are needed for digital systems. Due to the many unique attributes of these systems, challenges exist in systems analysis, modeling and in data collection. Currently there is no consensus on reliability analysis approaches. Traditional methods have clearly limitations, but more dynamic approaches are still in trial stage and can be difficult to apply in full scale probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The number of PSAs worldwide including reliability models of digital I and C systems are few. A comparison of Nordic experiences and a literature review on main international references have been performed in this pre-study project. The study shows a wide range of approaches, and also indicates that no state-of-the-art currently exists. The study shows areas where the different PSAs agree and gives the basis for development of a common taxonomy for reliability analysis of digital systems. It is still an open matter whether software reliability needs to be explicitly modelled in the PSA. The most important issue concerning software reliability is proper descriptions of the impact that software-based systems has on the dependence between the safety functions and the structure of accident sequences. In general the conventional fault tree approach seems to be sufficient for modelling reactor protection system kind of functions. The following focus areas have been identified for further activities: 1. Common taxonomy of hardware and software failure modes of digital components for common use 2. Guidelines regarding level of detail in system analysis and screening of components, failure modes and dependencies 3. Approach for modelling of CCF between components (including software). (Author)

  3. PSA velocity in conservatively managed BPH: can it predict the need for BPH-related invasive therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochtar, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Laguna, M.P.; Debruyne, F.M.J.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the value of PSA velocity (PSAV) to predict benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression in patients managed with alpha(1)-blockers or watchful waiting (WW). METHODS: Nine hundred and forty two BPH patients treated with alpha(1)-blocker or WW were reviewed. PSAV was defined as:

  4. What If I Don't Treat My PSA-Detected Prostate Cancer? Answers from Three Natural History Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Roman; Wever, Elisabeth M.; Tsodikov, Alex; Penson, David F.; Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Katcher, Jeffrey; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A. M.; Draisma, Gerrit; de Koning, Harry J.; Etzioni, Ruth

    Background: Making an informed decision about treating a prostate cancer detected after a routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test requires knowledge about disease natural history, such as the chances that it would have been clinically diagnosed in the absence of screening and that it would

  5. A case of metastatic cancer with markedly elevated PSA level that was not detected by repeat prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hiromichi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Tokui, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Chikara

    2014-01-29

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used specific tumor marker for prostate cancer. We experienced a case of metastatic prostate cancer that was difficult to detect by repeat prostate biopsy despite a markedly elevated serum PSA level. A 64-year-old man was referred to our hospital with lumbar back pain and an elevated serum PSA level of 2036 ng/mL. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging showed systemic lymph node and osteoblastic bone metastases. Digital rectal examination revealed a small, soft prostate without nodules. Ten-core transrectal prostate biopsy yielded negative results. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was started because of the patient's severe symptoms. Twelve-core repeat transrectal prostate biopsy performed 2 months later, and transurethral resection biopsy performed 5 months later, both yielded negative results. The patient refused further cancer screening because ADT effectively relieved his symptoms. His PSA level initially decreased to 4.8 ng/mL, but he developed castration-resistant prostate cancer 7 months after starting ADT. He died 21 months after the initial prostate biopsy from disseminated intravascular coagulation. CUP remains a considerable challenge in clinical oncology. Biopsies of metastatic lesions and multimodal approaches were helpful in this case.

  6. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  7. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of Protocadherin8 (PCDH8) in Serum is a Potential Prognostic Marker for Low Gleason Score Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Li; Li, Yan-Li; Ma, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-13

    BACKGROUND PCDH8 is a newly-discovered suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated by aberrant methylation in several human cancers, including prostate cancer. The identification of PCDH8 methylation can be used as a potential predictive biomarker. Prostate cancer patients with high Gleason score are considered as being at high risk for tumor recurrence and progression, and adjuvant therapy is often routinely performed in clinical practice. In the present study, we did not measure the methylation of PCDH8 in these patients. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of PCDH8 methylation in serum of prostate cancer patients with low Gleason score. MATERIAL AND METHODS PCDH8 methylation in serum samples of 117 patients and 47 controls was checked by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Then, we correlated PCDH8 methylation status with the clinicopathological parameters of prostate cancer patients with low Gleason score and patient outcomes. RESULTS We found that PCDH8 was more frequently methylated in serum samples of patients with prostate cancer than in controls. PCDH8 methylation was correlated with advanced clinical stage (P=0.021), higher level of preoperative PSA (P=0.008), and positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.010). Moreover, patients with PCDH8 methylation had worse biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival (PGleason score were: PCDH8 methylation in serum (Exp (B)=3.147, 95% CI: 1.152-7.961, P=0.007), clinical stage (Exp (B)=2.53, 95% CI: 1.032-4.763, P=0.025) and lymph node status (Exp (B)=1.476, 95% CI: 1.107-4.572, P=0.042). CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that PCDH8 methylation in serum occurred frequently in prostate cancer patients and was correlated with risk factors for poor outcome. The methylation of PCDH8 in serum is a potential predictive marker for prostate cancer patients with low Gleason score after surgery.

  8. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  9. A Human Reliability Analysis of Post- Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, J. H.; Jang, S. C

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Yonggwang Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP showed that 10 items among 19 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP. Following tasks are the improvements in the HRA of post-accident human errors of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP compared with the previous one: Interviews with operators in the interpretation of the procedure, modeling of operator actions, and the quantification results of human errors, site visit. Applications of limiting value to the combined post-accident human errors. Documentation of information of all the input and bases for the detailed quantifications and the dependency analysis using the quantification sheets The assessment results for the new HRA results of post-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II. The number of the re-estimated human errors using the LPSD Korea Standard HRA method is 385. Among them, the number of individual post-accident human errors is 253. The number of dependent post-accident human errors is 135. The quantification results of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP with new HEPs show that core damage frequency (CDF) is increased by 5.1% compared with the previous baseline CDF It is expected that this study results will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of Supporting Requirements for the post

  10. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  11. Score test variable screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  12. Your Criminal Fico Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Scores.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97(2012): 469–478. Chan, Janet, and Lyria Bennett Moses, “Is Big Data Challenging Criminology?” Theoretical...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) One of the more contentious uses of big data ...analytics in homeland security is predictive policing, which harnesses big data to allocate police resources, decrease crime, and increase public safety

  13. Comparative study of four maxillofacial trauma scoring systems and expert score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; An, Jin-gang; He, Yang; Gong, Xi

    2014-11-01

    To select a scoring system suitable for the scoring of maxillofacial trauma by comparing 4 commonly used scoring systems according to expert scoring. Twenty-eight subjects who had experienced maxillofacial trauma constituted the study cohort. Four commonly used systems were selected: New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MFISS), and Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MISS). Each patient was graded using these 4 systems. From the experience of our trauma center, an expert scoring table was created. After the purpose and scheme of the study had been explained, 35 experts in maxillofacial surgery were invited to grade the injury of the 28 patients using the expert scoring table according to their clinical experience. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score were compared. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score demonstrated a normal distribution. All results demonstrated significant differences (P maxillofacial injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Score test variable screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Characteristics and outcome of Prostate cancer patients with overall biopsy Gleason score 3+4=7 and highest Gleason score 3+4=7 or > 3+4=7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Esther I; Kweldam, Charlotte F; Kümmerlin, Intan P; Nieboer, Daan; Bangma, Chris H; Incrocci, Luca; van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Roobol, Monique J; van Leenders, Geert J

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer heterogeneity and multifocality might result in different Gleason scores (GS) at individual biopsy cores. According to WHO/ISUP guidelines, the GS in each biopsy core should be recorded with optional reporting of overall GS for the entire case. We aimed to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of men with overall biopsy GS 3+4=7 with highest GS 3+4=7 (HI=OV) to those with highest GS > 3+4=7 (HI>OV). Prostate cancer biopsies from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) were revised according to WHO/ISUP 2014 guidelines (n=1031). In total 370 patients had overall GS 3+4=7, of whom 60 (16%) had at least one biopsy core with GS 4+3=7 or 4+4=8. Men with higher GS than 3+4 (HI>OV) in any of the cores had higher age, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level, number of positive biopsies, percentage tumour involvement, percentage Gleason grade 4 and cribriform or intraductal growth (all P3+4=7 had worse clinicopathologic features, but clinical outcome was not statistically significant. Therefore use of overall GS instead of highest GS for clinical decision-making is justified, potentially preventing overtreatment in prostate cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostate Carcinoma Tissue Gleason Score, and Androgen Receptor Expression with Bone Metastasis in Patients with Prostate Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yehui; Lin, Yun; Nie, Pin; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Yanqing; Yuan, Runqiang; Li, Miaoyuan; Zhao, Shijia; Lin, Huaxin; Li, Penghui; Zhang, Jinxiang; Hu, Zhiwen; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Xusheng

    2017-04-12

    BACKGROUND Prostate carcinoma (PCa) is often not diagnosed until advanced disease with bone metastasis. Predictive factors for bone metastasis are required to improve patient outcomes. The study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bone metastases in newly diagnosed patients with PCa. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 80 patients newly diagnosed with PCa by pathological examination between January 2012 and December 2014. Bone metastases were diagnosed by positron emission computed tomography. Clinical data, serological laboratory results, and pathological examination results were collected. RESULTS Among the 80 patients, 45 (56%) had bone metastases. Age, serum alkaline phosphatase, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PCa tissue Gleason score, androgen receptor (AR) expression, and Ki-67 expression were higher in patients with bone metastasis compared with those without (all PGleason score (OR: 4.095; 95%CI: 1.592-10.529; P=0.003), and AR expression (OR: 14.023; 95%CI: 3.531-55.6981; P=0.005) were independently associated with bone metastases. Cut-off values for PSA, Gleason score, and AR expression were 67.1 ng/ml (sensitivity: 55.6%; specificity: 97.1%), 7.5 (sensitivity: 75.6%; specificity: 82.9%), and 2.5 (sensitivity: 84.0%; specificity: 91.4%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS PSA, Gleason score, and AR expression in PCa tissues were independently associated with PCa bone metastases. These results could help identifying patients with PCa at high risk of bone metastases.

  17. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects: first steps towards global inflammation and damage scores of peripheral and axial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Møller, Jakob M; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Thomsen, Henrik S; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-06-01

    By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation with conventional MRI (convMRI). WBMRI (3.0-T) of patients with peripheral PsA (n = 18) or axial SpA (n = 18) and of HS (n = 12) was examined for proportion of evaluable features (readability) and the presence and pattern of lesions in axial and peripheral joints. Furthermore, global WBMRI scores of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint, but lower in the distal peripheral joints. Wrists, shoulders, knees, ankles and MTP joints were most commonly involved, with frequency of synovitis > bone marrow oedema (BMO) > erosion. WBMRI global BMO scores of peripheral and axial joints were higher in PsA {median 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P joint scores were ρ = 0.20-0.78. WBMRI allows simultaneous assessment of peripheral and axial joints in PsA and SpA, and the distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions and global scores can be determined. The study strongly encourages further development and longitudinal testing of WBMRI techniques and assessment methods in PsA and SpA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Doctors' perspectives on PSA testing illuminate established differences in prostate cancer screening rates between Australia and the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Entwistle, Vikki A

    2016-12-05

    To examine how general practitioners (GPs) in the UK and GPs in Australia explain their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing practices and to illuminate how these explanations are similar and how they are different. A grounded theory study. Primary care practices in Australia and the UK. 69 GPs in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). We included GPs of varying ages, sex, clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. GPs' accounts revealed fundamental differences in whether and how prostate cancer screening occurred in their practice and in the broader context within which they operate. The history of prostate screening policy, organisational structures and funding models appeared to drive more prostate screening in Australia and less in the UK. In Australia, screening processes and decisions were mostly at the discretion of individual clinicians, and varied considerably, whereas the accounts of UK GPs clearly reflected a consistent, organisationally embedded approach based on local evidence-based recommendations to discourage screening. The GP accounts suggested that healthcare systems, including historical and current organisational and funding structures and rules, collectively contribute to how and why clinicians use the PSA test and play a significant role in creating the mindlines that GPs employ in their clinic. Australia's recently released consensus guidelines may support more streamlined and consistent care. However, if GP mindlines and thus routine practice in Australia are to shift, to ultimately reduce unnecessary or harmful prostate screening, it is likely that other important drivers at all levels of the screening process will need to be addressed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Combining Prostate Health Index density, magnetic resonance imaging and prior negative biopsy status to improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druskin, Sasha C; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Young, Allen; Collica, Sarah; Srivastava, Arnav; Ghabili, Kamyar; Macura, Katarzyna J; Carter, H Ballentine; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E; Pavlovich, Christian P

    2017-12-12

    To determine the performance of Prostate Health Index (PHI) density (PHID) combined with MRI and prior negative biopsy (PNB) status for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). Patients without a prior diagnosis of PCa, with elevated prostate-specific antigen and a normal digital rectal examination who underwent PHI testing prospectively prior to prostate biopsy were included in this study. PHID was calculated retrospectively using prostate volume derived from transrectal ultrasonography at biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling, along with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, was used to determine the ability of serum biomarkers to predict clinically significant PCa (defined as either grade group [GG] ≥2 disease or GG1 PCa detected in >2 cores or >50% of any one core) on biopsy. Age, PNB status and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score were incorporated into the regression models. Of the 241 men who qualified for the study, 91 (37.8%) had clinically significant PCa on biopsy. The median (interquartile range) PHID was 0.74 (0.44-1.24); it was 1.18 (0.77-1.83) and 0.55 (0.38-0.89) in those with and without clinically significant PCa on biopsy, respectively (P PI-RADS score was complementary to PHID, with a PI-RADS score ≥3 or, if PI-RADS score ≤2, a PHID ≥0.44, detecting 100% of clinically significant disease. For that subgroup, of the biomarkers tested, PHID (AUC 0.90) demonstrated the highest discriminative ability for clinically significant disease on multivariable logistic regression incorporating age, PNB status and PI-RADS score. In this contemporary cohort of men undergoing prostate biopsy for the diagnosis of PCa, PHID outperformed PHI and other PSA derivatives in the diagnosis of clinically significant cancer. Incorporating age, PNB status and PI-RADS score led to even further gains in the diagnostic performance of PHID. Furthermore, PI-RADS score was found to

  20. A desirability function-based scoring scheme for selecting fragment-like class A aminergic GPCR ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Ádám A.; Ferenczy, György G.; Keserű, György M.

    2015-01-01

    A physicochemical property-based desirability scoring scheme for fragment-based drug discovery was developed for class A aminergic GPCR targeted fragment libraries. Physicochemical property distributions of known aminergic GPCR-active fragments from the ChEMBL database were examined and used for a desirability function-based score. Property-distributions such as log D (at pH 7.4), PSA, pKa (strongest basic center), number of nitrogen atoms, number of oxygen atoms, and the number of rotatable bonds were combined into a desirability score (FrAGS). The validation of the scoring scheme was carried out using both public and proprietary experimental screening data. The scoring scheme is suitable for the design of aminergic GPCR targeted fragment libraries and might be useful for preprocessing fragments before structure based virtual or wet screening.

  1. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for the detection of bone metastasis in recurrent prostate cancer and a PSA level <2 ng/ml

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Nielsen, Julie B; Dettmann, Katja

    2017-01-01

    /computed tomography ((68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is a novel and promising method for imaging in prostate cancer. The present study reports two cases of patients with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, with evidence of bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT images and low prostate specific antigen PSA levels (...Localization of prostate cancer recurrence, particularly in the bones, is a major challenge with standard of care imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence following curatively intended treatment. Gallium-68-labeled prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography...... with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence, including patients with low PSA levels and low PSA kinetics....

  2. mp-MRI Prostate Characterised PIRADS 3 Lesions are Associated with a Low Risk of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer - A Retrospective Review of 92 Biopsied PIRADS 3 Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Heath; Jyoti, Rajeev; Haxhimolla, Hodo Z

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether prostate image reporting and data system (PIRADS) 3 lesions as assessed by a 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represent clinically significant prostate cancer. A retrospective review was performed on a series of consecutive patients who underwent MRI guided biopsy of the prostate for clinical suspicion of prostate cancer between January 2013 and March 2014. Demographic, clinical, MRI and biopsy data were reviewed and compared. The same 3T MRI without the use of an endo-rectal coil was employed to assess each patient, obtaining high resolution T2 weighted images, diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast enhancement. The MRI data was sent to Dynacad software for analysis. A single experienced radiologist reported all the studies from this series using a modified PIRADS scoring system. Subsequently, all the lesions marked PIRADS 3 or above were targeted with 18G core biopsy using DynaTrim in-gantry MRI guidance system. Needle position targeting the lesion was recorded prior to each biopsy. All core biopsy samples were sent to one of two pathology laboratories where they were processed and reported as per the International Society of Urological Pathology protocols. One hundred and eighteen patients comprising a total of 215 lesions were reviewed. Amongst this cohort, 92 PIRADS 3 lesions were identified and biopsied. The mean age of patients in this cohort was 62.6 years. Median prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 6.5 ng/ml and median prostate size was 78.4 ml. Eightysix (93.5%) of biopsied PIRADS 3 lesions were benign and 6 (6.5%) lesions were found to be malignant. Of these 6 malignant lesions, 4 (66%) were Gleason score 6 (3 + 3) and 2 (33%) were Gleason score 7 (3 + 4). Of the 86 non-malignant lesions, 1 (1.2%) represented high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and 2 (2.4%) represented atypical small acinar proliferation. PIRADS 3 lesions within the peripheral zone were more likely to be associated with malignant

  3. Generación de anticuerpos monoclonales contra el antígeno específico de próstata (psa)para la detección del psa y su purificación

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Castro, Boris Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    El cáncer de próstata en Cuba es un problema de salud (2 672 casos diagnosticados y 2 769 defunciones en el 2007). Varios métodos diagnósticos se han implementado para la detección y manejo de esta enfermedad, destacando entre ellos la determinación serológica del antígeno específico de próstata (PSA). En el presente trabajo se generó y caracterizó un panel de 11 anticuerpos monoclonales (AcMs) IgG1 que detectan con alta afinidad los epítopos principales descritos del PSA, tanto en solución c...

  4. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fingerprinting of music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of a five-point Likert scoring system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluated according to results of MRI/ultrasonography image-fusion targeted biopsy of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Toshitaka; Smyth, Thomas B; Ukimura, Osamu; Ahmadi, Nariman; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Ohe, Chisato; Oishi, Masakatsu; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Gill, Inderbir S

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Likert scoring system in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC), using MRI/ultrasonography (US) image-fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) as a reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed 1218 MRI-detected lesions in 629 patients who underwent subsequent MRI/US FTB between October 2012 and August 2015. 3-Tesla MRI was independently reported by one of eight radiologists with varying levels of experience and scored on a five-point Likert scale. All lesions with Likert scores 1-5 were prospectively defined as targets for MRI/US FTB. CSPC was defined as Gleason score ≥7. The median patient age was 64 years, PSA level 6.97 ng/mL and estimated prostate volume 52.2 mL. Of 1218 lesions, 48% (n = 581) were rated as Likert 1-2, 35% (n = 428) were Likert 3 and 17% (n = 209) were Likert 4-5. For Likert scores 1-5, the overall cancer detection rates were 12%, 13%, 22%, 50% and 59%, respectively, and the CSPC detection rates were 4%, 4%, 12%, 33% and 48%, respectively. Grading using the five-point scale showed strong positive correlation with overall cancer detection rate (r = 0.949, P = 0.05) and CSPC detection rate (r = 0.944, P = 0.05). By comparison, in Likert 4-5 lesions, significant differences were noted in overall cancer detection rate (63% vs 35%; P = 0.001) and CSPC detection rate (47% vs 29%; P = 0.027) for the more experienced vs the less experienced radiologists. The detection rates of overall cancer and CSPC strongly correlated with the five-point grading of the Likert scale. Among radiologists with different levels of experience, there were significant differences in these cancer detection rates. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Value of PSA Density in Combination with PI-RADS™ for the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Florian A; Radtke, Jan P; Bonekamp, David; Kesch, Claudia; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Wieczorek, Kathrin; Kirchner, Marietta; Pahernik, Sascha; Hohenfellner, Markus; Hadaschik, Boris A

    2017-09-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has an emerging role in prostate cancer diagnostics. In addition, clinical information is a reliable predictor of significant prostate cancer. We analyzed whether the negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to rule out significant prostate cancer could be improved using clinical factors, especially prostate specific antigen density. A total of 1,040 consecutive men with suspicion of prostate cancer underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging first, followed by transperineal systematic and magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test different clinical factors as predictors of significant prostate cancer and build nomograms. To simplify these nomograms for clinical use patients were stratified into 3 prostate specific antigen density groups, including group 1-less than 0.07, group 2-0.07 to 0.15 and group 3-greater than 0.15 ng/ml/ml. After stratification we calculated the negative predictive value of a PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) Likert score of less than 3. Significant prostate cancer was defined as a Gleason score of 3 + 4 or greater. High grade prostate cancer was defined as a Gleason score of 4 + 3 or greater. Overall 451 men were diagnosed with significant prostate cancer, including 187 with a Gleason score of 4 + 3 or greater. On ROC curve analyses the predictive power of the developed nomogram for significant prostate cancer showed a higher AUC than that of PI-RADS alone (0.79 vs 0.75, p PI-RADS scoring. By increasing the probability of ruling out significant prostate cancer approximately 20% of unnecessary biopsies could be avoided safely. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Many young men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screen-detected prostate cancers may be candidates for active surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeri; Ebertowski, James; Janiga, Matthew; Arzola, Jorge; Gillespie, Gayle; Fountain, Michael; Soderdahl, Douglas; Canby-Hagino, Edith; Elsamanoudi, Sally; Gurski, Jennifer; Davis, John W.; Parker, Patricia A.; Boyd, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To identify a population of young men (aged 30-fold. Data for a subset of men (174) with PSA screen-detected cancer were evaluable for disease risk assessment. Of the 174 men with screen-detected disease, 81 (47%) had very-low-risk disease. Of that group, 96% (78/81) selected treatment and, of 57 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), the tumours of 49 (86%) carried favourable pathology (organ confined, < 10% gland involvement, Gleason ≤ 6). Conclusions Nearly half of young men with PSA screen-detected prostate cancer are AS candidates but the overwhelming majority seek treatment. Considering that many tumours show favourable pathology at RP, there is a possibility that these patients may benefit from AS management. PMID:23350937

  9. Validation of detection method prostatic specific antigen (PSA) by inmunocromatrografyc (Orgenics) applied to seminal liquid in stain dry and swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Sandra Liliana

    2016-01-01

    El antígeno prostático específico (PSA) es generalmente usado para detectar y monitorear cuantitativamente el desarrollo de cáncer de próstata por niveles en suero de esta proteína, esta también es encontrada en altas concentraciones en semen. Diversos métodos reproducibles, sensibles y simples han sido desarrollados para el análisis de la presencia de PSA incluyendo técnicas inmunocromatográficas. Los procedimientos más comunes para la detección forense de semen se han enfocado en la identif...

  10. Study of Scenarios Related to Design Extension Conditions of PHWR Using PSA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. Y.; Yi, S. D.; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Studies to establish the event classification framework and acceptance criteria for an event that exceeds the existing DBAs in order to enhance the safety operation of nuclear power plants in accordance with the domestic nuclear safety laws amended recently have been doing briskly in the country. In this perspective, a study of DECs for domestic PWRs has already begun, and accordingly, studies to cope with BDBAs including DECs for domestic CANDU plants also are required. In this paper, a postulated event which might be included into DECs for domestic CANDU is analyzed by CATHENA code, and Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) data needed for selecting events for DECs are drawn. In this paper, based on the assumption that all the heat sinks and power are not available, countermeasure capability against loss of safety functions such as power supply system in domestic CANDU are assessed. The results and available power and heat sink source which are the required coping facilities for mitigating the accident are presented and the available limited time also are assessed. Provided that ways of long-term core cooling are secured later, it is expected that the safety functions of a plant can be secured even in the extremely severe natural disasters.

  11. The AASM scoring manual: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M

    2009-11-01

    Summarize recently published studies and critiques evaluating the effects of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Sleep Scoring Manual. Only a few retrospective studies have been published evaluating the new AASM Scoring Manual. These have shown that when scoring polysomnograms (PSGs) using the AASM rules compared to previous standards and guidelines: increased amount and percentage of sleep time in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM) 1 (N1) and N3 sleep, and decreased NREM 2 (N2) sleep; improved interscorer reliability when scoring sleep stages in adults; large differences in apnea-hypopnea indexes (AHIs) using different hypopnea scoring definitions; and PSGs scored using the 'recommended' hypopnea definition in the new manual identified no significant sleep disordered breathing in 40% of lean individuals with symptomatic OSA (AHI ≥5/h by 1999 'Chicago' criteria) and a favorable response to treatment. Two years have passed since the AASM Scoring Manual was published, garnering less criticism than was feared by those who developed it. The improvement in interscorer reliability using the Manual is heartening since this goal shaped many of the choices made. The alternative hypopnea rule should be endorsed as a recommended option. The AASM Scoring Manual provides a foundation upon which we all can build rules and methods that quantify the complexity of sleep and its disorders. Multicenter validation and refinement of the Manual is encouraged.

  12. Is an Extended Prostate Biopsy Scheme Associated with an Improvement in the Accuracy Between the Biopsy Gleason Score and Radical Prostatectomy Pathology? A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugor, Vahudin; Poth, Sandor; Kühn, Reinhard; Bernat, Marija Maja; Porres, Daniel; Labanaris, Apostolos P

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether an extended prostate biopsy (PB) scheme is associated with an improvement in the accuracy between the PB Gleason score (GS) and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology and to identify probable preoperative variables that stratified patients likely to harbor significant upgrading (SU). A retrospective review of 538 patients' records diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent RP and exhibited a SU, at two tertiary medical centers, was conducted. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 194 who underwent a 6-core PB (36%), 156 who underwent a 12-core PB (28.9%) and 188 (34.9%) who underwent an 18-core PB. A multivariate analysis was conducted, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, prostate size and duration from PB to RP. The 6-core group exhibited a 42.7% SU, the 12-core group exhibited a 38.8% SU and the 18-core group exhibited a 14.1% SU. There was a highly significant lower rate of SU in the 18-core than that in the 6-core (p35 g significantly elevated the probability of SU in the 6-core (p35 g in patients who undergo a 6- or 12-core PB is the only preoperative variable that stratifies patients likely to harbor SU. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. The cutoff level of free/total prostate specific antigen (f/t PSA ratios in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: A validation study on a Turkish patient population in different age categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Erol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated an optimal cutoff level of free/total PSA ratios (f/t PSA in predicting prostate cancer in different age groups, focusing on the avoidance of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A total of 4955 men were enrolled into the study. Serum tPSA, fPSA, and f/t PSA ratios were determined for the study population. All males who had suspicious digital rectal examination and tPSA > 4 ng/mL underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for each group were generated by plotting the sensitivity versus 1-specificity for the f/t PSA ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR were obtained using various f/t PSA ratio cutoffs for different age groups. There were 657 patients with a PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL. According to sensitivity and specificity f/t% PSA cutoff points were determined to be 10%, 15%, 15%, and 10% in 50–59 years, 60–69 years, >70 years, and all ages categories, respectively, in patients with initial PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL. f/t PSA ratio had an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.81 (95% confidence level: 0.80–0.82 for all age groups in detecting prostate cancer. f/t PSA ratio has an AUC value of 0.669 (0.632–0.705 in detecting prostate cancer among patients with a PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL. Ten percent of f/t PSA ratio had the highest specificity with PLR and 30% f/t PSA ratio had the highest sensitivity with lower NLR in the all-age categories. The current study shows that the use of f/t PSA ratio in patients with PSA levels of 4–10 ng/mL should enhance the specificity of PSA screening and decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. The age-related changes warrant further investigation in a large, multicentric, and multinational population to improve the clinical use of f/t PSA cutoffs.

  14. A novel respiratory symptom scoring system for CF pulmonary exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Sequeiros, I M

    2012-02-01

    There is currently no simple scoring system to evaluate change in symptoms during a pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We evaluated 265 episodes in 58 adult CF patients. A simple symptom score was administered at the start and the end of each PEx. The score evaluated four symptoms: cough, sputum, breathlessness and fatigue. Each symptom was scored from one (mild symptoms) to four (severe symptoms). The total symptom score was the summation of all the four symptoms. The total symptom score was compared with CF Respiratory Questionnaire (CFRQ) and with spirometry. There was significant internal correlation between scores for each pair of symptoms. The total symptom score correlated with the functional activity score and the respiratory score domains and with the summary score for CFRQ. The total symptom score correlated with spirometry values. Symptom score improved after 2-week treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics in 88.3%, remained unchanged in 7.3% and worsened in 4.4% of all episodes. Changes in symptom score after IV treatment correlated with changes of all main spirometry measurements. This new symptom score is simple and sensitive to change over a short period. It correlates with established quality-of-life questionnaires and with spirometry. The changes of symptom score over a short period correlate with changes in spirometry. This score can be used as an added tool to assess the outcome of CF PExs.

  15. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury