Sample records for ps ii reaction

  1. Light-induced short-term adaptation mechanisms under redox control in the PS II-LHCII supercomplex: LHC II state transitions and PS II repair cycle (United States)

    Kruse, Olaf


    Oxygenic photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants. While cyanobacteria have adapted to relatively constant environments, higher plants had to evolve mechanisms to adapt to continuous environmental changes. These include changes in light intensity, temperature and availability of water. One of the great challenges in plant cell biology is therefore to determine the regulatory mechanisms employed by higher plants and some algae to adapt to these constant environmental changes. The particular emphasis of this review is the description and characterisation of light-induced redox-controlled processes regulating the photosynthetic reactions, which involves maintaining maximal electron transport flow through the PS II-Cytb6f-PS I-FoF1ATPase electron transport chain and minimising light-induced oxidative damage to PS II which drives the highly oxidising water-splitting reaction. Two of the mechanisms involved in such short-term regulation processes are known as light harvesting complex II (LHC II) state transitions and photosystem II (PS II) repair cycle. They are followed by, and indeed may be a precondition in order to establish, the onset of the subsequent long-term mechanisms of regulation. In particular, the redox control of LHC II state transitions by reversible phosphorylation has been in the focus of many investigations, leading to many new results demonstrating the complexity of thylakoid-associated redox control mechanisms.

  2. [Effects of NO3- stress on photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency of PS II and light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves]. (United States)

    Su, Xiu-Rong; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Yang, Feng-Juan; Wei, Min


    This paper studied the effects of different NO3- concentration on the photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency, and absorbed light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves. The results indicated that when the available NO3- concentration in the medium was low (14-98 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), an appropriate supplement of NO3- could enhance the capability of cucumber leaves in capturing light energy, and promote the photosynthesis. However, with further increase of NO3-, the photochemical efficiency of PS II decreased, electron transfer restrained, and net photosynthetic rate as well as the absorbed light energy used in photochemical reaction of PS II decreased. At the same time, the light energy used in antenna heat dissipation increased, while the photochemical efficiency decreased. After treated with 140 and 182 mmol NO3- x L(-1) for 6 days, the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) was decreased by 35% and 78%, respectively, maximal PS II efficiency at open centers in the absence of NPQ (F(v)/F(m)), antenna efficiency at open centers in the presence of NPQ (F(v)'/F(m)'), actual PS II efficiency (phi (PSII ) and photochemical quenching (q(P)) were lower, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher, and the deviation from full balance between PS I and PS II (beta/alpha - 1) was improved significantly, compared with the control. The fluctuant ranges of these chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were increased at higher NO3- concentration, compared with those at lower NO3- concentration. The absorbed light energy allocated to the photochemical reaction of PS II (P) was reduced by high light intensity and high NO3- concentration. Meanwhile, the proportion allocated in antenna heat dissipation (D) increased significantly. Antenna heat dissipation was the main way for excessive energy dissipation.

  3. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China]. (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan


    Taking four wheat varieties developed by Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, as test materials, with the measurement of content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of flag leaf, the PS II photochemistry efficiency of abaxial and adaxial surface of flag leaf and its adaptation to strong solar radiation during the period of heading stage in Xiangride region were investigated with the pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The results indicated that flag leaf angle mainly grew in horizontal state in Gaoyuan 314, Gaoyuan 363 and Gaoyuan 584, and mainly in vertical state in Gaoyuan 913 because of its smaller leaf area and larger width. Photosynthetic pigments were different among the 4 varieties, and positively correlated with intrinsic PS II photochemistry efficiencies (Fv/Fm). In clear days, especially at noon, the photosynthetic photoinhibition was more serious in abaxial surface of flag leaf due to directly facing the solar radiation, but it could recover after reduction of sunlight intensity in the afternoon, which meant that no inactive damage happened in PS II reaction centers. There were significant differences of PS II actual and maximum photochemical efficiencies at the actinic light intensity (ΦPS II and Fv'/Fm') between abaxial and adaxial surface, and their relative variation trends were on the contrary. The photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and NPQ) had a similar tendency in both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Although ΦPS II and qP were lower in adaxial surface of flag leaf, the Fv'/Fm' was significantly higher, which indicated that the potential PS II capture efficiency of excited energy was higher. The results demonstrated that process of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching could effectively dissipate excited energy caused by strong solar radiation, and there were higher adaptation capacities in wheat varieties natively cultivated in

  4. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance. (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martínez, Angel T


    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New layered tin(II) thiophosphates ASnPS4 (A = K, Rb, Cs): synthesis, structure, glass formation, and the modulated CsSnPS4. (United States)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Malliakas, Christos D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G


    The layered compounds KSnPS(4) (1), RbSnPS(4) (2), and CsSnPS(4) (3) were synthesized using the chalcophosphate flux technique at high temperature and are rare examples of divalent Sn(II) thiophosphates. Orange polyhedral crystals of compound 1 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 6.6673(13) Å, b = 11.9697(24) Å, c = 8.7604(18), and β=127.347(8)° in a 2-dimensional layered structure. Compound 2 is isostructural to 1. Yellow block shaped crystals of compound 3 crystallize in the monoclinic superspace group P2(1)(αβ0)0 with a commensurate q-vector at 1/4a* + 1/4c* with a = 18.0477(14) Å, b = 6.2021(5) Å, and c = 6.8415(5) Å. The structure of all three compounds contains SnS(3) pyramids, which is an extremely rare solid state chalcogenide coordination environment. All three compounds are semiconductors having well-defined band-gaps between 2.0 and 2.2 eV. The compounds are congruently melting and can be obtained as glasses by rapid quenching of the melt, which subsequently crystallize upon heating.

  6. Vitiligo following type II lepra reaction. (United States)

    Pavithran, K


    A middle-aged male with lepromatous leprosy developed bouts of skin lesions of depigmented macules and patches of vitiligo, just following attacks of type II lepra reaction each time. In view of the present concept of autoimmunity playing a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo as well as lepra reaction, their association in our patient appears to be more than fortuious. The depigmented macules persisted even after regression of skin lesions of leprosy following chemotherapy. The vitiligo macules responded partially to topical and systemic psoralen therapy.

  7. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation. (United States)

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb


    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction.

  8. Mesopic visual efficiency II: Reaction time experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walkey, H.; Orrevetelainen, P.; Barbur, J.; Halonen, L.; Goodman, T.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Freiding, A.; Szalmas, A.


    Reaction times are recorded to chromatic, mesopic stimuli to investigate mesopic reaction time spectral sensitivity. Measurements are made using three laboratory setups and a driving simulator. The chromatic stimuli have spectral distributions that range from quasi-monochromatic to broadband.

  9. Type II lepra reaction: an unusual presentation. (United States)

    Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, S; Mohan, H; Singh, R; Ram, J; Sachdev, A


    Ulcers with maculo-papular rash are an unusual presenting feature of leprosy. They occur as result of neuropathy, type-2 lepra reaction or Lucio's phenomenon. The hall mark of type-2 reaction is erythema nodosum. Very rarely it manifests as ulcerative skin lesions. We describe one such unusual case of a young male who presented with multiple ulcers and maculo-papular rash over the legs, chest and abdomen. In addition to this, he had fever, heart murmur, pulmonary infiltrates, neuropathy, and deranged liver function. A clinical differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis and systemic nectrozing vasculitis was made. Skin biopsy showed dense inflammation with lepra bacilli consistent with type-2 lepra reaction.

  10. Systems approach to excitation-energy and electron transfer reaction networks in photosystem II complex: model studies for chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Ebina, Kuniyoshi


    Photosystem II (PS II) is a protein complex which evolves oxygen and drives charge separation for photosynthesis employing electron and excitation-energy transfer processes over a wide timescale range from picoseconds to milliseconds. While the fluorescence emitted by the antenna pigments of this complex is known as an important indicator of the activity of photosynthesis, its interpretation was difficult because of the complexity of PS II. In this study, an extensive kinetic model which describes the complex and multi-timescale characteristics of PS II is analyzed through the use of the hierarchical coarse-graining method proposed in the authors׳ earlier work. In this coarse-grained analysis, the reaction center (RC) is described by two states, open and closed RCs, both of which consist of oxidized and neutral special pairs being in quasi-equilibrium states. Besides, the PS II model at millisecond scale with three-state RC, which was studied previously, could be derived by suitably adjusting the kinetic parameters of electron transfer between tyrosine and RC. Our novel coarse-grained model of PS II can appropriately explain the light-intensity dependent change of the characteristic patterns of fluorescence induction kinetics from O-J-I-P, which shows two inflection points, J and I, between initial point O and peak point P, to O-J-D-I-P, which shows a dip D between J and I inflection points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of rouleau formation. II. Reversible reactions


    Samsel, R.W.; Perelson, A S


    Red blood cells aggregate face-to-face to form long, cylindrical, straight chains and sometimes branched structures called rouleaux. Here we extend a kinetic model developed by R. W. Samsel and A. S. Perelson (1982, Biophys. J. 37:493-514) to include both the formation and dissociation of rouleaux. We examine thermodynamic constraints on the rate constants of the model imposed by the principle of detailed balance. Incorporation of reverse reactions allows us to compute mean sizes of rouleaux ...

  12. Observation of Coherence in the Photosystem II Reaction Center

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Franklin D; Senlik, S Seckin; Wilcox, Daniel E; Ogilvie, Jennifer P


    Photosynthesis powers life on our planet. The basic photosynthetic architecture comprises antenna complexes to harvest solar energy and reaction centers to convert the energy into a stable charge separated state. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the initial charge separation event occurs in the photosystem II reaction center; the only known natural enzyme that uses solar energy to split water. Energy transfer and charge separation in photosynthesis are rapid and have high quantum efficiencies. Recently, nonlinear spectroscopic experiments have suggested that electronic coherence may play a role in energy transfer efficiency in antenna complexes. Here we report the observation of coherence in the photosystem II reaction center by two dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The frequencies of the observed coherences match exciton difference frequencies and/or known vibrational modes of the photosystem II reaction center. These observations raise questions about the possible role of electronic and/or vibrational coheren...

  13. Kinetics of rouleau formation. II. Reversible reactions. (United States)

    Samsel, R W; Perelson, A S


    Red blood cells aggregate face-to-face to form long, cylindrical, straight chains and sometimes branched structures called rouleaux. Here we extend a kinetic model developed by R. W. Samsel and A. S. Perelson (1982, Biophys. J. 37:493-514) to include both the formation and dissociation of rouleaux. We examine thermodynamic constraints on the rate constants of the model imposed by the principle of detailed balance. Incorporation of reverse reactions allows us to compute mean sizes of rouleaux and straight chain segments within rouleaux, as functions of time and at equilibrium. Using the Flory - Stockmayer method from polymer chemistry, we obtain a closed-form solution for the size distribution of straight chain segments within rouleaux at any point in the evolution of the reaction. The predictions of our theory compare favorably with data collected by D. Kernick , A.W.L. Jay , S. Rowlands , and L. Skibo (1973, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 51:690-699) on the kinetics of rouleau formation. When rouleaux grow large, they may contain rings or loops and take on the appearance of a network. We demonstrate the importance of including the kinetics of ring closure in the development of realistic models of rouleaux formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 13 PMID:6426540

  14. The importance of a highly active and DeltapH-regulated diatoxanthin epoxidase for the regulation of the PS II antenna function in diadinoxanthin cycle containing algae. (United States)

    Goss, Reimund; Ann Pinto, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Christian; Richter, Michael


    The present study focuses on the regulation of diatoxanthin (Dtx) epoxidation in the diadinoxanthin (Ddx) cycle containing algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Cyclotella meneghiniana and Prymnesium parvum and its significance for the control of the photosystem II (PS II) antenna function. Our data show that Dtx epoxidase can exhibit extremely high activities when algal cells are transferred from high light (HL) to low light (LL). Under HL conditions, Dtx epoxidation is strongly inhibited by the light-driven proton gradient. Uncoupling of the cells during HL illumination restores the high epoxidation rates observed during LL. In Ddx cycle containing algae, non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) is directly correlated with the Dtx concentration and independent of the presence of the proton gradient. This means that a fast conversion of PS II from the heat dissipating state back to the light-harvesting state can only be realized by an efficient removal of the quenching pigment Dtx. It is proposed that the high Dtx epoxidation rates during LL illumination serve exactly this purpose. The inhibition of Dtx epoxidation by the DeltapH, on the other hand, ensures rapid increases in the Dtx concentration when photoprotection under conditions of HL illumination is required. The regulation of the PS II antenna function in Ddx cycle containing algae is different to that in violaxanthin (Vx) cycle containing plants, where for the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent NPQ the presence of a proton gradient is mandatory. In the green alga Chlorella vulgaris conversion of PS II from the heat dissipating state back to the light-harvesting state is controlled by the DeltapH, whose relaxation after a transition from HL to darkness or LL rapidly abolishes the thermal dissipation of excitation energy, including the Zx-dependent NPQ. Due to the inability of Zx to quench fluorescence in the absence of the DeltapH a fast epoxidation of Zx to Vx in LL is not

  15. Energy Spectra And Angular Distributions Of Imfs Produced In 8-gev Proton And 12-gev Proton And Ne-20 Induced Multifragmentation Reactions (the First Results Of The Kek-ps E393 And Nirs 11p052 Experiments)

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, K H; Murakami, T; Ito, H; Yasuda, K; Murata, J; Muramatsu, R; Tanaka, Y J; Hirai, Y; Miyazaki, K; Tanaka, Y; Nagasaka, Y; Haseno, M; Okuno, Y; Ushie, K; Hara, H; Tsuji, S; Satake, K; Kimura, K; Kubohara, R; Shibata, Y; Kosuge, F; Nakai, K; Ochiisi, H; Kouda, S; Nakamura, H; Morinobu, S; Sugaya, Y; Ohkuma, Y; Takada, E


    Energy Spectra And Angular Distributions Of Imfs Produced In 8-gev Proton And 12-gev Proton And Ne-20 Induced Multifragmentation Reactions (the First Results Of The Kek-ps E393 And Nirs 11p052 Experiments)

  16. Reaction path sampling of the reaction between iron(II) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, B.; Baerends, E.J.


    Previously, we have studied the coordination and dissociation of hydrogen peroxide with iron(II) in aqueous solution by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics at room temperature. We presented a few illustrative reaction events, in which the ferryl ion ([Fe(IV)O


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction. Ni and Pb are metals with several suggested mechanisms for their toxicity on the biological systems. We have recently investigated involvement of DNA in an electron transfer reaction as an enzyme. In this reaction non- fluorescent dichlorofluorescin (LDCF is converted to the dichlorofluorescein (DCF in the presence of peroxides and hematin. Methods. The fluorometric technique was used in this study. The pH effect on the reaction rate was investigated. The results showed that DCF has the maximum emission on tris buffer 0.05 Mat pH 8.4. Results. DNA and carnosine catalyze the reaction, which proceeds by the electron transfer mechanism. The presence of carnosine is necessary for the catalytic action of DNA as a cofactor. Ni (II and Pb (11 are the potent inhibitors of the reaction. The kinetic parameters and determined in the presence and absence of the above ligands. Discussion. DNA, which has the electrical properties only in the double helical forms, acts as a catalyst in the conversion of LDCF to DCF. The existence of the carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide with antioxidant and free radical scavenging roles, is an important factor for the progress of the reaction. Both Ni (11 and Pb (II inhibit the reaction. These metals could act as the electron pool to cause inhibition in such electron transfer reaction. This phenomenon could be related to the carcinogenic effect of these metals.

  18. Study of the Mn-binding sites in photosystem II using antibodies raised against lumenal regions of the D1 and D2 reaction center proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmasso, E.A.


    The experiments discussed in this thesis focus on identifying the protein segments or specific amino acids which provide ligands to the Mn cluster of photosystem II (PS II). This Mn cluster plays a central role in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PS II. The Mn cluster is thought to be bound by lumenal regions of the PS II reaction center proteins known as D1 and D2. First, several peptides were synthesized which correspond to specific lumenal segments of the D1 and D2 proteins. Next, polyclonal antibodies were successfully elicited using three of these peptides. The peptides recognized by these antibodies correspond to protein segments of the spinach reaction center proteins: Ile-321 to Ala-344 of D1 (D1-a), Asp-319 to Arg-334 of D1 (D1-b), and Val-300 to Asn-319 of D2 (D2-a). These antibodies were then used in assays which were developed to structurally or functionally probe the potential Mn-binding regions of the D1 and D2 proteins.

  19. Structural and optical properties of tin (II) sulfide thin films deposited using organophosphorus precursor (Ph3PS) (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier


    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using triphenylphosphine sulfide (Ph3PS) as a sulfur precursor in a chemical vapor deposition reactor in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The influence of the sulphidisation temperature in the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and Raman spectroscopy showed that pure SnS thin films have been successfully obtained at 250 °C. All the deposited films were polycrystalline and showed orthorhombic structure, with a preferential orientation according to the direction . The optical measurements showed that the films deposited exhibited a direct allowed transition and have a relatively high absorption coefficient. The presence of mixed tin sulfide phases granted by the variation of the sulphidisation temperature has affected the optical properties of the deposited films. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k), has low values compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The grown films can be considered as a good light absorbing material and a promising candidate for application in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Spectroscopic properties of photosystem II reaction center revisited (United States)

    Gelzinis, Andrius; Abramavicius, Darius; Ogilvie, Jennifer P.; Valkunas, Leonas


    Photosystem II (PSII) is the only biological system capable of splitting water to molecular oxygen. Its reaction center (RC) is responsible for the primary charge separation that drives the water oxidation reaction. In this work, we revisit the spectroscopic properties of the PSII RC using the complex time-dependent Redfield (ctR) theory for optical lineshapes [A. Gelzinis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 154107 (2015)]. We obtain the PSII RC model parameters (site energies, disorder, and reorganization energies) from the fits of several spectra and then further validate the model by calculating additional independent spectra. We obtain good to excellent agreement between theory and calculations. We find that overall our model is similar to some of the previous asymmetric exciton models of the PSII RC. On the other hand, our model displays differences from previous work based on the modified Redfield theory. We extend the ctR theory to describe the Stark spectrum and use its fit to obtain the parameters of a single charge transfer state included in our model. Our results suggest that C h lD1 +P h e oD1 - is most likely the primary charge transfer state, but that the Stark spectrum of the PSII RC is probably also influenced by other states.

  1. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes. (United States)

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo


    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  2. A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Power, Derek G; Kindler, Hedy L; Holen, Kyle D; Kemeny, Margaret M; Ilson, David H; Tang, Laura; Capanu, Marinela; Wright, John J; Kelsen, David P


    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma. We performed a phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate(RR); the null hypothesis was RR <1% versus the alternative ≥15%. One response in the first stage(15 patients) was required before proceeding with an additional 18 patients. If at least 2 or more responses out of 33 were observed, further study with bortezomib was warranted. Correlative studies evaluated pre-treatment tumor expression of NFkB, IkB, p53, p21, and cyclin D1. We enrolled 16 patients (15 evaluable for response) from four institutions. No patients demonstrated an objective response(95% CI, 0-22%); one patient achieved stable disease. Fourteen out of 16 patients experienced ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The most common toxicity was fatigue in six patients (n = 4 grade 2, n = 2 grade 3). Seven patients experienced neuropathy (n = 5 grade 1, and 1 each grade 2 and 3). Seven (60%) had high cytoplasmic staining for NFkB. Single agent bortezomib is inactive in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and should not be pursued. Future study of proteasome inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered in combination with targeted inhibition of other non-overlapping oncogenic pathways as a potential rational approach.

  3. Mn(II) oxidation in Fenton and Fenton type systems : Identification of Reaction Efficiency and Reaction Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genuchten, C.M.; Peña, Jasquelin


    Efficient and low-cost methods of removing aqueous Mn(II) are required to improve the quality of impacted groundwater supplies. In this work, we show that Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) permits the oxidative removal of Mn(II) from solution by reaction with the reactive oxidant species produced

  4. The Reaction between Iron(II) Iodide and Potassium Dichromate(VI) in Acidified Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher


    This "Science note" teaching lesson explores the possible reaction between the ions in a reaction mixture consisting of iron(II) iodide and potassium dichromate(VI) in acidified aqueous solution. The electrode potentials will be used to deduce any spontaneous reactions under standard thermodynamic conditions (298 K, 1 bar (approximately…

  5. Correlated behavior of the EPR signal of cytochrome b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments. (United States)

    Fiege, R; Shuvalov, V A


    EPR signals of Cyt b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments have been investigated. In 2,3-dicyano-5,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone-oxidized PS-II membrane fragments the light-induced decrease of the EPR signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- is accompanied by the appearance of the EPR multiline signal of the Mn cluster. Addition of F- ions, which act as a stronger ligand for heme Fe(III) than OH-, decreases to the same extent the dark- and light-induced signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- and the light-induced multiline signal of the Mn cluster. These results are discussed in terms of the light-induced formation of a bound OH' radical shared between the Cyt b-559 heme Fe and the Mn cluster as a first step of water oxidation.

  6. : Recyclable, ligand free palladium(II) catalyst for Heck reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Palladium substituted in cerium dioxide in the form of a solid solution, Ce0·98 Pd0·02 O1·98 is a new heterogeneous catalyst which exhibits high activity and 100% trans-selectivity for the Heck reactions of aryl bromides including heteroaryls with olefins. The catalytic reactions work without any ligand. Nano-.

  7. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan


    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  8. Metal Chelation in Asymmetric Diels-Alder Reaction (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoo Hyun; Chu, Chan Kook; Chang, Min Ho [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In the reaction, the inverse asymmetric induction has been observed by the use of either monovalent Lewis acids or divalent Lewis acids. The reaction of the acrylate of (S)-ethyl lactate with cyclopentadiene proceeded with 86% endo-S selectivity in the presence of TiCl{sub 4}, divalent Lewis acid, whereas did with 32% endo-R selectivity in the presence of BF{sub 3{center_dot}}Et{sub 2}O, monovalent Lewis acid. When a chiral dienophile which was prepared from benzyl ester of (S)-proline or methyl ester of (S)-indoline-2-carboxylic acid was employed in the reaction, a similar diastereofacial selectivity was also observed. Recently, we reported the similar selectivity in the reaction of methyl (2S,5S)-(5-t-butyldimethylsilyloxypiperidin- 2-yl)ethanoatewith cyclopentadiene.

  9. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli


    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  10. Photosystem II: the reaction center of oxygenic photosynthesis. (United States)

    Vinyard, David J; Ananyev, Gennady M; Dismukes, G Charles


    Photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water into chemical products that power the planet. The stripped protons contribute to a membrane electrochemical potential before combining with the stripped electrons to make chemical bonds and releasing O2 for powering respiratory metabolisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the kinetics and thermodynamics of water oxidation that highlights the conserved performance of PSIIs across species. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the site of water oxidation based upon the improved (1.9-Å resolution) atomic structure of the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) within cyanobacterial PSII. We combine these insights with recent knowledge gained from studies of the biogenesis and assembly of the WOC (called photoassembly) to arrive at a proposed chemical mechanism for water oxidation.

  11. Standard Gibbs energy of metabolic reactions: II. Glucose-6-phosphatase reaction and ATP hydrolysis. (United States)

    Meurer, Florian; Do, Hoang Tam; Sadowski, Gabriele; Held, Christoph


    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a key reaction for metabolism. Tools from systems biology require standard reaction data in order to predict metabolic pathways accurately. However, literature values for standard Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis are highly uncertain and differ strongly from each other. Further, such data usually neglect the activity coefficients of reacting agents, and published data like this is apparent (condition-dependent) data instead of activity-based standard data. In this work a consistent value for the standard Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis was determined. The activity coefficients of reacting agents were modeled with electrolyte Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (ePC-SAFT). The Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis was calculated by combining the standard Gibbs energies of hexokinase reaction and of glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis. While the standard Gibbs energy of hexokinase reaction was taken from previous work, standard Gibbs energy of glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis reaction was determined in this work. For this purpose, reaction equilibrium molalities of reacting agents were measured at pH7 and pH8 at 298.15K at varying initial reacting agent molalities. The corresponding activity coefficients at experimental equilibrium molalities were predicted with ePC-SAFT yielding the Gibbs energy of glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis of -13.72±0.75kJ·mol(-1). Combined with the value for hexokinase, the standard Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis was finally found to be -31.55±1.27kJ·mol(-1). For both, ATP hydrolysis and glucose-6-phosphate hydrolysis, a good agreement with own and literature values were obtained when influences of pH, temperature, and activity coefficients were explicitly taken into account in order to calculate standard Gibbs energy at pH7, 298.15K and standard state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetics of the reaction of Fe-II(EDTA) with oxygen in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambardella, F; Ganzeveld, IJ; Winkelman, JGM; Heeres, EJ; Heeres, H.J.


    The kinetics of the reaction of oxygen with aqueous Fe-II(EDTA) solutions has been determined in a range of process conditions (C-Fe(II)(EDTA) = 15-60 mol/m(3), P-O2 = 5-20 kPa, pH = 5-8, T = 298-328 K, C-NaCl = 0-15 kg/m(3)) using a gas-liquid stirred cell reactor. The oxygen absorption rates were

  13. Reactions of aquacobalamin and cob(II)alamin with chlorite and chlorine dioxide. (United States)

    Dereven'kov, Ilia A; Shpagilev, Nikita I; Valkai, László; Salnikov, Denis S; Horváth, Attila K; Makarov, Sergei V


    Reactions of aquacobalamin (H2O-Cbl(III)) and its one-electron reduced form (cob(II)alamin, Cbl(II)) with chlorite (ClO2-) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2• ) were studied by conventional and stopped-flow UV-Vis spectroscopies and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). ClO2- does not react with H2O-Cbl(III), but oxidizes Cbl(II) to H2O-Cbl(III) as a major product and corrin-modified species as minor products. The proposed mechanism of chlorite reduction involves formation of OCl- that modifies the corrin ring during the course of reaction with Cbl(II). H2O-Cbl(III) undergoes relatively slow destruction by ClO 2• via transient formation of oxygenated species, whereas reaction between Cbl(II) and ClO 2• proceeds extremely rapidly and leads to the oxidation of the Co(II)-center.

  14. Evaluating the Role of HLA-DM in MHC Class II-Peptide Association Reactions. (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Maben, Zachary J; Becerra, Aniuska; Stern, Lawrence J


    Ag presentation by MHC class II (MHC II) molecules to CD4(+) T cells plays a key role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC II is catalyzed by HLA-DM (DM), a nonclassical MHC II molecule. The mechanism of DM-facilitated peptide loading is an outstanding problem in the field of Ag presentation. In this study, we systemically explored possible kinetic mechanisms for DM-catalyzed peptide association by measuring real-time peptide association kinetics using fluorescence polarization assays and comparing the experimental data with numerically modeled peptide association reactions. We found that DM does not facilitate peptide association by stabilizing peptide-free MHC II against aggregation. Moreover, DM does not promote transition of an inactive peptide-averse conformation of MHC II to an active peptide-receptive conformation. Instead, DM forms an intermediate with MHC II that binds peptide with faster kinetics than MHC II in the absence of DM. In the absence of peptides, interaction of MHC II with DM leads to inactivation and formation of a peptide-averse form. This study provides novel insights into how DM efficiently catalyzes peptide loading during Ag presentation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Evaluating the role of HLA-DM in MHC II-peptide association reactions1 (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Maben, Zachary; Becerra, Aniuska; Stern, Lawrence J.


    Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) to CD4+ T cells plays a key role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC II is catalyzed by HLA-DM (DM), a non-classical MHC II molecule. The mechanism of DM-facilitated peptide loading is an outstanding problem in the field of antigen presentation. In this study we systemically explored possible kinetic mechanisms for DM-catalyzed peptide association, by measuring real time peptide association kinetics using fluorescence polarization assays and comparing the experimental data with numerically modeled peptide association reactions. We found that DM does not facilitate peptide association by stabilizing peptide-free MHC II against aggregation. Moreover, DM does not promote transition of an inactive peptide-averse conformation of MHC II to an active peptide-receptive conformation. Instead, DM forms an intermediate with MHC II that binds peptide with faster kinetics than MHC II in the absence of DM. In the absence of peptides, interaction of MHC II with DM leads to inactivation and formation of a peptide-averse form. This study provides novel insights into how DM efficiently catalyzes peptide loading during antigen presentation. PMID:26062997

  16. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Document Server


    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  17. Redox reactions of Cu(II)-amine complexes in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Kishore, Kamal E-mail:


    A number of amines can be employed for all volatile treatment (AVT) of steam generator (SG) systems of nuclear power reactors. These amines form complexes with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions which come into water due to corrosion. The redox reactions of a number of Cu(II)-AVT amine complexes and the stability of the transient species formed have been studied by pulse radiolysis technique. Rate constants for the reaction of e{sub aq}{sup -} with a number of Cu(II)-amine complexes have been determined by following the decay of e{sub aq}{sup -} absorption. Stability of Cu(I)-amine complexes was studied by following the kinetics of the bleaching signal formed at the {lambda}{sub max} of the Cu(II) amine complex. Except for Cu(I)-triethanolamine complex all other Cu(I)-amine complexes were found to be stable. One-electron oxidation of Cu(II) amine complexes was studied using azidyl radicals for the oxidation reaction as OH radicals react with the alcohol groups present in the amines used in this study. Cu(III)-amine complexes were found to be unstable and decayed by second-order kinetics.

  18. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, S. G. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Burshtein, A. I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot (Israel)


    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics.

  19. Efficient buchwald hartwig reaction catalyzed by spions-bis(NHC-Pd(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghotbinejad


    Full Text Available A powerful and convenient reaction procedure for the C-N coupling reaction (the Buchwald-Hartwig reaction, yielding products of N-arylanilines and N-arylamines in both conventional heating and microwave irradiation has been reported. The protocol utilizes a stable and new supper ferromagnetic nanoparticle chelating N-heterocyclic dicarbene palladium(II complex (Pd-NHC as catalyst which helps/allows us to complete the reaction with only 0.002 mol% Pd producing high yield products. We also examined the reusability of the catalyst. It was found that the catalyst could be recovered by external magnetic field and  reused for seven times without obvious loss in catalytic activity.

  20. Electrophysiological Study of Nerves in Type-II Reaction in Leprosy. (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Mukhija, R D; Thacker, A K


    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection primarily affecting the peripheral nervous system, skin and reticuloendothelial system. Cutaneous nerves are severely affected in lepra reaction and this leads to morbidity. To study electrophysiological pattern of different nerves involved in Type-II reactions in leprosy. The present study was undertaken in 21 leprosy patients with Type-II reactions attending in and out-patient department of Dermatology & Venereology, B.R.D. Medical College, Gorakhpur from July 2005 to October 2006. This was a prospective case control study in which 20 healthy, age and sex matched people with no evidence of any disease (particularly nerve involvement) were included. Lesser number of cases were studied. The proximal motor conduction latency was significantly prolonged in both ulnar and common peroneal nerve and proximal motor conduction velocity was also significantly reduced. On examining the values beyond 2S.D. of the control value, distal latency was not affected and only proximal conduction was affected in ulnar nerve. In Type II lepra reaction the motor conduction abnormalities are not prominent. Abnormalities are relatively more marked in the proximal segment.

  1. Impact of Mn(II)-Manganese Oxide Reactions on Ni and Zn Speciation. (United States)

    Hinkle, Margaret A G; Dye, Katherine G; Catalano, Jeffrey G


    Layered Mn oxide minerals (phyllomanganates) often control trace metal fate in natural systems. The strong uptake of metals such as Ni and Zn by phyllomanganates results from adsorption on or incorporation into vacancy sites. Mn(II) also binds to vacancies and subsequent comproportionation with structural Mn(IV) may alter sheet structures by forming larger and distorted Mn(III)O6 octahedra. Such Mn(II)-phyllomanganate reactions may thus alter metal uptake by blocking key reactive sites. Here we investigate the effect of Mn(II) on Ni and Zn binding to phyllomanganates of varying initial vacancy content (δ-MnO2, hexagonal birnessite, and triclinic birnessite) at pH 4 and 7 under anaerobic conditions. Dissolved Mn(II) decreases macroscopic Ni and Zn uptake at pH 4 but not pH 7. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy demonstrates that decreased uptake at pH 4 corresponds with altered Ni and Zn adsorption mechanisms. These metals transition from binding in the interlayer to sheet edges, with Zn increasing its tetrahedrally coordinated fraction. These effects on metal uptake and binding correlate with Mn(II)-induced structural changes, which are more substantial at pH 4 than 7. Through these structural effects and the pH-dependence of Mn(II)-metal competitive adsorption, system pH largely controls metal binding to phyllomanganates in the presence of dissolved Mn(II).

  2. Antigen processing of glycoconjugate vaccines; the polysaccharide portion of the pneumococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine co-localizes with MHC II on the antigen processing cell surface. (United States)

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R


    Pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharides (PS) are T-independent (TI) antigens and do not induce immunological memory or antibodies in infants. Conjugation of PnPS to the carrier protein CRM(197) induces PS-specific antibody in infants, and memory similar to T-dependent (Td) antigens. Conjugates have improved immunogenicity via antigen processing and presentation of carrier protein with MHC II and recruitment of T cell help, but the fate of the PS attached to the carrier is unknown. To determine the location of the PS component of PnPS-CRM(197) in the APC, we separately labeled PS and protein and tracked their location. The PS of types 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was specifically labeled by Alexa Fluor 594 hydrazide (red). The CRM(197) was separately labeled red in a reaction that did not label PS. Labeled antigens were incubated with APC which were fixed, permeabilized and incubated with anti-MHC II antibody labeled green by Alexa Fluor 488, followed by confocal microscopy. Labeled CRM(197) was presented on APC surface and co-localized with MHC II (yellow). Labeled unconjugated 14 or 19F PS did not go to the APC surface, but PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) was internalized and co-localized with MHC II. Monoclonal antibody to type 14 PS bound to intracellular type 14 PS and PS-CRM(197). Brefeldin A and chloroquine blocked both CRM(197) and PS labeled 14-CRM(197) and 19F-CRM(197) from co-localizing with MHC II. These data suggest that the PS component of the CRM(197) glycoconjugate enters the endosome, travels with CRM(197) peptides to the APC surface and co-localizes with MHC II.

  3. EPR study on the ligand-exchange reaction between bis(diethyldiselenocarbamato)copper(II) and bis(octyldithiocarbonato)copper(II) (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Dimitrova, Anna


    EPR study on the ligand-exchange reaction between bis(diethyldiselenocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(Et 2dsc) 2, and bis(octyldithiocarbonato)copper(II), Cu(octxant) 2, in CH 2Cl 2, CHCl 3, CCl 4, C 6H 6 and C 6H 5·CH 3 is reported for the first time. Mixing of equimolar amounts of the parents (chromophores CuSe 4 and CuS 4, respectively) in C 6H 6, C 6H 5·CH 3 and CH 2Cl 2 makes EPR signals of both parents superimposed by the spectrum of a mixed-chelate Cu(xant)(dsc) complex (chromophore CuS 2Se 2). A new additional EPR spectrum appears in CHCl 3 or CCl 4 due to a five-coordinate mixed-ligand complex with the chromophore Cu(S 3Se)S as follows by comparing the g-values of parents and mixed-ligand complexes. The appearance of this complex could be explained having in mind donor-acceptor properties of complexes, solvents and the resultant reaction of Cu(octxant) 2 with the ester of diselenocarbamic acid yielded in Cu(Et 2dsc) 2 destruction by CCl 4 or CHCl 3.

  4. The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with Fe(II) ions at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Sehested, K.; Løgager, T.


    The rate constant for the reaction between Fe(II) ions and H2O2 has been determined at pH 0.4-2 as a function of temperature in the range 5-300-degrees-C. H2O2 was produced by irradiating the aqueous solution with a pulse of electrons. The rate constants at 20 and 300-degrees-C were determined...

  5. Inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia


    Pre-start work is going on at the end of the PS long shut-down. The photo shows secondary beams drawn from an internal target (bottom) towards South Hall, behind the shielding wall (top) (see also photo 7409012X).

  6. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  7. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  8. Bullet Cantilever Embedded MOSFET Characteristics for Detection of Photosystem I Reaction Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazia A. Eliza


    Full Text Available This paper presents a micro sensor for detection and characterization of biomolecular photodiodes - Photosystem I (PS I reaction centers. In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers, Photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II. Photon capture triggers rapid charge separation and the conversion of light energy into an electric voltage across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm reaction centers. In this work, MOSFET embedded micro cantilevers have been used to detect the energy harvesting biomolecules. The bending of cantilevers due to immobilization of reaction centers induces stress on MOSFET gate and hence modulates the MOSFET current voltage characteristics. Again, the optoelectrical property of PS I alter the electrostatic properties of the MOS gate, which reflects in the transport characteristics of the transistor.

  9. RG-II from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer suppresses asthmatic reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Duk Jung


    Full Text Available In asthma, T helper 2 (TH2-type cytokines such as interleukin(IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are produced by activated CD4+ T cells.Dendritic cells played an important role in determining thefate of naïve T cells into either TH1 or TH2 cells. Wedetermined whether RG-II regulates the TH1/TH2 immuneresponse by using an ovalbumin-induced murine model ofasthma. RG-II reduced IL-4 production but increased interferon-gamma production, and inhibited GATA-3 geneexpression. RG-II also inhibited asthmatic reactions includingan increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolarlavage fluid, an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration inlung tissues, airway luminal narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness.This study provides evidence that RG-II plays acritical role in ameliorating the pathogenic process ofasthmatic inflammation in mice. These findings provide newinsights into the immunotherapeutic role of RG-II in terms ofits effects in a murine model of asthma. [BMB reports 2012;45(2: 79-84

  10. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia


    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  11. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia


    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  12. Ab initio calculations concerning the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) catalyzed glycine condensation in aqueous sodium chloride solution (United States)

    Liedl, Klaus R.; Rode, Bernd M.


    Starting from results of detailed experimental work concerning the copper(II) catalyzed glycine condensation, quantum-mechanical studies of species which should be relevant for the reaction mechanism are presented. This reaction is of special interest because it could be important in explaining the formation of the first peptides on prebiotic earth. SCF geometry optimizations of aquo-chloro-glycinato—copper(II) complexes at Hartree—Fock level were performed especially to study the necessity of chlorine for the reaction. In that way a hypothetical reaction mechanism could be confirmed. Structural distortions as expected from the Jahn—Teller effect resulted from optimizations of copper complexes in C1 geometry.

  13. Photosystem II reaction center damage and repair cycle: chloroplast acclimation strategy to irradiance stress.


    Vasilikiotis, C; Melis, A


    A daily occurrence in the life of a plant is the function of a photosystem II (PSII) damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts. This unique phenomenon involves the frequent turnover of D1, the 32-kDa reaction-center protein of PSII (chloroplast psbA gene product). In the model organism Dunaliella salina (a green alga), growth under low light (100 mol of photons per m2 per sec) entails damage, degradation, and replacement of D1 every 7 hr. Growth under irradiance stress (2200 micromol of photons...

  14. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  15. N-Heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Ting-Ting; Jin, Ai-Ping; Shao, Li-Xiong


    A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II)-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes...

  16. Visualizing the Reaction Cycle in an Iron(II)- and 2-(Oxo)-glutarate-Dependent Hydroxylase. (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Martinie, Ryan J; Bergman, Jonathan A; Pollock, Christopher J; Hu, Kai; Allen, Benjamin D; Chang, Wei-Chen; Silakov, Alexey; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Boal, Amie K


    Iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)-glutarate-dependent oxygenases catalyze diverse oxidative transformations that are often initiated by abstraction of hydrogen from carbon by iron(IV)-oxo (ferryl) complexes. Control of the relative orientation of the substrate C-H and ferryl Fe-O bonds, primarily by direction of the oxo group into one of two cis-related coordination sites (termed inline and offline), may be generally important for control of the reaction outcome. Neither the ferryl complexes nor their fleeting precursors have been crystallographically characterized, hindering direct experimental validation of the offline hypothesis and elucidation of the means by which the protein might dictate an alternative oxo position. Comparison of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the substrate complex, an Fe(II)-peroxysuccinate ferryl precursor, and a vanadium(IV)-oxo mimic of the ferryl intermediate in the l-arginine 3-hydroxylase, VioC, reveals coordinated motions of active site residues that appear to control the intermediate geometries to determine reaction outcome.

  17. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  18. A novel 4-aminoantipyrine-Pd(II complex catalyzes Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Contreras-Celedón


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient catalytic system based on a Pd complex of 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-AAP–Pd(II, was found to be highly active for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl iodides and bromides with phenylboronic acids under mild reaction conditions. Good to excellent product yields from the cross-coupling reaction can be achieved when the reaction is carried out in ethanol, in the open air, using low loading of 4-AAP–Pd(II as a precatalyst, and in the presence of aqueous K2CO3 as the base. A variety of functional groups are tolerated.

  19. Catecholase activity of a mu-hydroxodicopper(II) macrocyclic complex: structures, intermediates and reaction mechanism. (United States)

    Koval, Iryna A; Belle, Catherine; Selmeczi, Katalin; Philouze, Christian; Saint-Aman, Eric; Schuitema, Anna Maria; Gamez, Patrick; Pierre, Jean-Louis; Reedijk, Jan


    The monohydroxo-bridged dicopper(II) complex (1), its reduced dicopper(I) analogue (2) and the trans-mu-1,2-peroxo-dicopper(II) adduct (3) with the macrocyclic N-donor ligand [22]py4pz (9,22-bis(pyridin-2'-ylmethyl)-1,4,9,14,17,22,27,28,29,30- decaazapentacyclo -[22.2.1(14,7).1(11,14).1(17,20)]triacontane-5,7(28),11(29),12,18,20(30), 24(27),25-octaene), have been prepared and characterized, including a 3D structure of 1 and 2. These compounds represent models of the three states of the catechol oxidase active site: met, deoxy (reduced) and oxy. The dicopper(II) complex 1 catalyzes the oxidation of catechol model substrates in aerobic conditions, while in the absence of dioxygen a stoichiometric oxidation takes place, leading to the formation of quinone and the respective dicopper(I) complex. The catalytic reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten behavior. The dicopper(I) complex binds molecular dioxygen at low temperature, forming a trans-mu-1,2-peroxo-dicopper adduct, which was characterized by UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy and electrochemically. This peroxo complex stoichiometrically oxidizes a second molecule of catechol in the absence of dioxygen. A catalytic mechanism of catechol oxidation by 1 has been proposed, and its relevance to the mechanisms earlier proposed for the natural enzyme and other copper complexes is discussed.

  20. A novel reverse flow reactor coupling endothermic and exothermic reactions. Part II: sequential reactor configuration for reversible endothermic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Scholts, H.A.R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    The new reactor concept for highly endothermic reactions at elevated temperatures with possible rapid catalyst deactivation based on the indirect coupling of endothermic and exothermic reactions in reverse flow, developed for irreversible reactions in Part I, has been extended to reversible

  1. Reaction of Ru(II) diazafluorenone compound with nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film. (United States)

    Heuer, William B; Xia, Hai-Long; Abrahamsson, Maria; Zhou, Zhen; Ardo, Shane; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; Meyer, Gerald J


    The Ru(II) compounds [Ru(bpy)(2)(mcbH)](2+) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(dafo)](2+), bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine where mcbH is 3-(CO(2)H)-2,2'-bipyridine and dafo is 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one, were synthesized, characterized, and anchored to nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO(2) thin films for excited state and interfacial electron transfer studies. X-ray crystallographic studies of [Ru(bpy)(2)(mcbH)](PF(6))(Cl) revealed a long Ru-N distance to the unsubstituted pyridine ligand of mcbH. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)(2)(dafo)](2+) with TiO(2) thin films resulted in interfacial chemistry. The IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and photoluminescence spectral data indicated a room-temperature ring-opening reaction of the dafo ligand of [Ru(bpy)(2)(dafo)](2+) that ultimately yielded a carboxylate group in the 3-position of bipyridine anchored to TiO(2). Comparative reactions of [Ru(bpy)(2)(mcbH)](2+) with TiO(2) were performed and support this conclusion. In regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells with 0.5 M LiI/0.05 M I(2) in acetonitrile, photocurrent action spectra were observed for both sensitized materials. The incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) was significantly lower for Ru(bpy)(2)(dafo)/TiO(2), behavior attributed to a lower excited-state injection yield.

  2. Peroxynitrite Chemistry Derived from Nitric Oxide Reaction with a Cu(II)-OOH Species and a new Copper Mediated NO Reductive Coupling Reaction (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Siegler, Maxime A.; Karlin, Kenneth D.


    New peroxynitrite-copper chemistry ensues via addition of nitric oxide (•NO(g)) to a CuII-hydroperoxo species. In characterizing the system, the ligand-Cu(I) complex was shown to effect •NO(g) reductive coupling, a new reaction type. Biological implications are discussed. PMID:24322625

  3. Peroxynitrite chemistry derived from nitric oxide reaction with a Cu(II)-OOH species and a copper mediated NO reductive coupling reaction. (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Siegler, Maxime A; Karlin, Kenneth D


    New peroxynitrite-copper chemistry ensues via addition of nitric oxide (˙NO(g)) to a Cu(II)-hydroperoxo species. In characterizing the system, the ligand-Cu(i) complex was shown to effect a seldom observed ˙NO(g) reductive coupling reaction. Biological implications are discussed.

  4. Degradation reaction of Diazo reactive black 5 dye with copper (II) sulfate catalyst in thermolysis treatment. (United States)

    Lau, Yen-Yie; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ang, Tze-Zhang; Ong, Soon-An; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Ho, Li-Ngee


    The theme of present research demonstrates performance of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) as catalyst in thermolysis process to treat reactive black 5 (RB 5) dye. During thermolysis without presence of catalyst, heat was converted to thermal energy to break the enthalpy of chemical structure bonding and only 31.62% of color removal. With CuSO 4 support as auxiliary agent, the thermally cleaved molecular structure was further destabilized and reacted with CuSO 4 . Copper ions functioned to delocalize the coordination of π of the lone paired electron in azo bond, C=C bond of the sp 2 carbon to form C-C of the sp 3 amorphous carbon in benzene and naphthalene. Further, the radicals of unpaired electrons were stabilized and RB 5 was thermally decomposed to methyl group. Zeta potential measurement was carried out to analyze the mechanism of RB 5 degradation and measurement at 0 mV verified the critical chemical concentration (CCC) (0.7 g/L copper (II) sulfate), as the maximum 92.30% color removal. The presence of copper (II) sulfate catalyst has remarkably increase the RB 5 dye degradation as the degradation rate constant without catalyst, k 1 is 6.5224 whereas the degradation rate constant with catalyst, k 2 is 25.6810. This revealed the correlation of conversion of thermal energy from heat to break the chemical bond strength, subsequent fragmentation of RB 5 dye molecular mediated by copper (II) sulfate catalyst. The novel framework on thermolysis degradation of molecular structure of RB 5 with respect to the bond enthalpy and interfacial intermediates decomposition with catalyst reaction were determined.

  5. Reaction Coordinate, Free Energy and Rate of Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (United States)

    Paul, Sanjib; Paul, Tanmoy Kumar; Taraphder, Srabani


    The role of structure and dynamics of an enzyme has been investigated at three different stages of its function including the chemical event it catalyzes. A one-pot computational method has been designed for each of these stages based on classical and/or QM-MM molecular dynamics and transition path sampling simulations. For a pair of initial and final states A and B separated by a high free energy barrier, using a two-stage selection process, several collective variables (CVs) are identified that can delineate A and B. However, these CVs are found to exhibit strong cross-coupling over the transition paths. A set of mutually orthogonal order parameters is then derived from these CVs and an optimal reaction coordinate, r determined applying half trajectory likelihood maximization along with a Bayesian information criterion. The transition paths are also used to project the multi-dimensional free energy surface and barrier crossing dynamics along r. The proposed scheme has been applied to the rate determining intramolecular proton transfer reaction of the well known enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). The potential-of-mean force, F(r) in the absence of the chemical step is found to reproduce earlier results on the equilibrium population of two sidechain orientations of the key residue His-64. Estimation of rate constants, k from mean first passage times for the three different stages of catalysis shows that the rate determining step of intramolecular proton transfer occurs with k ≃ 1.0 X 10 6 sec -1 , in close agreement with known experimental results.

  6. Micelle-catalyzed reaction between ninhydrin and nickel dipeptide complex [Ni(II)-Gly-Tyr]+. (United States)

    Akram, Mohd; Kumar, Dileep; Kabir-ud-Din


    The interaction of nickel dipeptide complex [Ni(II)-Gly-Tyr](+) with ninhydrin has been investigated in the absence and presence of cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and gemini (16-s-16, s=4, 5, 6) surfactants spectrophotometrically at 80°C and pH 5.0. The product formed was the same and the reaction followed first- and fractional-order kinetics with respect to [Ni(II)-Gly-Tyr](+) and [ninhydrin], respectively, in both aqueous as well as micellar media. In the presence of CTAB, rate increased and reached up to a maximum, then decreased. Also, whereas typical rate constant (k(Ψ)) increase and leveling-off regions, just like CTAB, were observed with geminis, the latter produced a third region of increasing k(Ψ) at higher concentrations. This unusual third-region effect of the gemini micelles is assigned to changes in their micellar morphologies. The micellar catalysis is explained in terms of pseudo-phase model. The binding constants and the values of activation parameters such as activation energy (E(a)), enthalpy of activation (ΔH(#)) and entropy of activation (ΔS(#)) have been evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactions of OH Radicals with Tris (1,10-Phenanthroline) Iron (II) Studied by Pulse Radiolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siekierska Floryan, E.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn


    The reaction of OH radicals with aqueous tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) leads to the formation of an adduct, which exhibits a broad absorption band at rmpH = 6, λmax = 460 nm, and epsilon (Porson)460 = 6700 (molar, decadic, 1 mol−1 cm−1). The rate of formation of the adduct is first order...... in complex concentration with a bimolecular rate constant Image independent of pH in the range pH 3–11. The adduct decays by mixed-order kinetics, but at 310 nm a second-order formation of a decay product can be directly observed. The reaction of OH radicals with aqueous 1,10-phenanthroline leads also...... to the formation of an adduct which absorbs in the whole visible region with a maximum at 425 nm and ε425 = 2612 (molar, decadic, 1 mol−1 cm−1) in neutral solution. The adduct exhibits a red shift in acidic and alkaline media. The formation is first order in 1,10-phenanthroline with a bimolecular rate constant...

  8. Photoinhibition in vivo of photosystem II reactions during development of the photosystems of wheat seedlings. (United States)

    Mahmudov, Z M; Abdullayev, Kh D; Gasanov, R A


    Photoinhibition of O2 evolution and reactions leading to millisecond-delayed light emission (ms-DLE) of chlorophyll by illumination of leaves with excess white light were investigated in wheat seedlings greened for different times in a special chamber with constant conditions (20 degrees C; CO2 and humidity). A sharp reduction in initial and steady state rates of O2 evolution and in the intensity of different components of ms-DLE under excess light on the stage of lag-phase of chlorophyll biosynthesis (4-6h of greening) were observed. An increasing stability of the oxygen-evolving process and ms-DLE of chlorophyll during formation of the thylakoid membrane photosystems (12-24 h of greening) was shown. Rifampicin did not influence the stability of oxygen evolution whereas cycloheximide led to the intensification of photoinhibition of the initial and steady-state rates of oxygen evolution under the inhibitory light action. The early stages of photosystems formation during short time of greening of etiolated seedlings were more sensitive to the action of inhibitory light, possibly due to a weak interaction of the oxygen-evolving system components and connection with reaction centers of Photosystem II.

  9. Amplified degradation of photosystem II D1 and D2 proteins under a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation and UVB radiation : dependence on redox status of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babu, T.S.; Jansen, M.A.K.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M.


    Plants exposed to a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UVB radiation exhibit a marked boost in degradation of the D1 and D2 photosystem II (PS II) reaction center proteins beyond that predicted by the sum of rates in PAR and UVB alone (amplified degradation). Becausee

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of complement components in the course of type I (Lepra) and type II (ENL) reactions. (United States)

    Sehgal, V N; Sharma, V; Sharma, V K


    Complement components C1q and C4 of classic pathway; C3d, a breakdown product of C3, and factor B of alternate pathway: and C3, a component both of classic and alternate pathways, were studied in 35 patients, comprising 18 type I (Lepra) and 17 type II (ENL) reactions. There was a significant decrease in C3 and factor B with a concomitant rise of C3d during ENL. These changes indicate their preeminent role in immunogenesis of type II (ENL) reaction. The changes in the classic pathway components, on the other hand, were insignificant, apparently suggesting its limited involvement in ENL. Furthermore, reversion of factor B and C3d after subsidence of reaction is intriguing and may indicate that they are not substantially affected even with contemporary treatment. Complement components, of both classic and alternate pathways, showed no significant alterations either during type I (Lepra) reaction or after its amelioration.

  11. SPS and PS Experiments Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    OPEN SESSION: 09:00 Status report of NA58 / COMPASS: A. Magnon 09:40 Status report of PS212 / DIRAC: L. Tausher 10:10 PS212 / DIRAC Addendum: L. Nemenov CLOSED SESSION on Tuesday, 27 April 2004 after the open session, Main Building, 6th floor conference room

  12. N-Heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki–Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Gao


    Full Text Available A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes. Both activated and deactivated aryl chlorides work well to give the corresponding coupling products in good to excellent yields by using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as the ionic liquid.

  13. Modulation of enzymatic PS synthesis by liposome membrane composition. (United States)

    Pinsolle, Alexandre; Roy, Philippe; Cansell, Maud


    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid known to exert important physiological roles in humans. However, this phospholipid (PL) is poorly available as a natural source and hardly produced by the chemical route. In this work, PS was obtained by transphosphatidylation using phospholipase D (PLD) and PL self-assembled into liposomes as the substrates. The aim was to better understand how the liposome membrane composition could modulate PS yield. Three lecithins were used as PL substrates, one originated from a marine source providing a high amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and two issued from soya differing in their phosphatidylcholine (PC) content. Different parameters such as Ca(2+) content, enzyme and L-serine concentrations modulated PS synthesis. The presence of Ca(2+) increased PS conversion yield. The alcohol acceptor (L-serine) concentration positively acted on PL conversion, by governing the equilibrium between transphosphatidylation and hydrolysis. Beside these specific reaction conditions, it was demonstrated that the membrane composition of the liposomes modulated PS synthesis. A direct correlation between PS accumulation and the amount of cholesterol or α-tocopherol incorporated into the soya lecithins was observed. This result was interpreted in terms of "head" spacers promoting PLD transphosphatidylation. On the whole, this work provided key parameters for the formulation of liposomes using enzymatic PLD technology, to produce lecithins enriched in different proportions of PS and esterified with various types of fatty acids depending on the initial lecithin source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Libera as a PS orbit measurement system building block

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    During the year 2004, extensive tests using a Libera data processor have been made in order to study its suitability as a building block for a complete PS trajectory and orbit measurement system. The Libera consists of four fast 12-bits ADCs, a Virtex II Pro FPGA and a large memory. This note presents some of the results of the analysis of acquisitions made on a position pick-up in the CERN PS.

  15. Long-term safety and efficacy of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) grafts in a preclinical model of retinitis pigmentosa. (United States)

    Li, Yao; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Erol, Deniz; Yang, Jin; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Davis, Richard J; Egli, Dieter; Tsang, Stephen H


    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved phase I/II clinical trials for embryonic stem (ES) cell-based retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) transplantation, but this allograft transplantation requires lifelong immunosuppressive therapy. Autografts from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer an alternative solution to this problem. However, more data are required to establish the safety and efficacy of iPS transplantation in animal models before moving iPS therapy into clinical trials. This study examines the efficacy of iPS transplantation in restoring functional vision in Rpe65(rd12)/Rpe65(rd12) mice, a clinically relevant model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Human iPS cells were differentiated into morphologically and functionally RPE-like tissue. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblots confirmed RPE fate. The iPS-derived RPE cells were injected into the subretinal space of Rpe65(rd12)/Rpe65(rd12) mice at 2 d postnatally. After transplantation, the long-term surviving iPS-derived RPE graft colocalized with the host native RPE cells and assimilated into the host retina without disruption. None of the mice receiving transplants developed tumors over their lifetimes. Furthermore, electroretinogram, a standard method for measuring efficacy in human trials, demonstrated improved visual function in recipients over the lifetime of this RP mouse model. Our study provides the first direct evidence of functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of retinal degeneration using iPS transplantation and supports the feasibility of autologous iPS cell transplantation for retinal and macular degenerations featuring significant RPE loss.

  16. The rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M.; Batenburg, J.J.; Golde, L.M.G. van; Smith, B.T.


    1. 1. The rate-limiting reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine by type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung was examined. 2. 2. Studies on the uptake of [Me-3H]choline and its incorporation into its metabolites indicated that in these cells the choline phosphate pool was much larger

  17. Double-blind trial of the efficacy of pentoxifylline vs thalidomide for the treatment of type II reaction in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sales


    Full Text Available Type II reaction in leprosy, or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, is often characterized by severe clinical symptoms together with nerve function impairment leading to permanent disabilities. Thalidomide has been shown to be a highly effective drug for the treatment of ENL. It is, however, contraindicated for women of childbearing age due to its teratogenicity. On the other hand, pentoxifylline, used to treat hypercoagulable states, is not teratogenic and, like thalidomide, can inhibit the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-a and other cytokines. In the present randomized double-blind clinical study we compared the effectiveness of orally administered pentoxifylline vs thalidomide in treating type II reaction in 44 patients. Daily doses of 300 mg thalidomide or 1.2 g pentoxifylline were administered for 30 days to multibacillary leprosy patients undergoing type II reaction. Randomly chosen patients were included in the study before, during, and after specific multidrug therapy. Clinical evaluations were performed on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days of treatment and laboratory tests were carried out on the 1st and 30th days. As expected, overall, thalidomide proved to be more effective in the treatment of type II leprosy reaction. Nevertheless, continuous treatment with pentoxifylline was effective in relieving the clinical signs of ENL, especially limb edema and systemic symptoms, in 62.5% of the patients.

  18. Cationic Pd(II-catalyzed C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions at room temperature: synthetic and mechanistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nishikata


    Full Text Available Cationic palladium(II complexes have been found to be highly reactive towards aromatic C–H activation of arylureas at room temperature. A commercially available catalyst [Pd(MeCN4](BF42 or a nitrile-free cationic palladium(II complex generated in situ from the reaction of Pd(OAc2 and HBF4, effectively catalyzes C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides, arylboronic acids and acrylates under milder conditions than those previously reported. The nature of the directing group was found to be critical for achieving room temperature conditions, with the urea moiety the most effective in promoting facile coupling reactions at an ortho C–H position. This methodology has been utilized in a streamlined and efficient synthesis of boscalid, an agent produced on the kiloton scale annually and used to control a range of plant pathogens in broadacre and horticultural crops. Mechanistic investigations led to a proposed catalytic cycle involving three steps: (1 C–H activation to generate a cationic palladacycle; (2 reaction of the cationic palladacycle with an aryl iodide, arylboronic acid or acrylate, and (3 regeneration of the active cationic palladium catalyst. The reaction between a cationic palladium(II complex and arylurea allowed the formation and isolation of the corresponding palladacycle intermediate, characterized by X-ray analysis. Roles of various additives in the stepwise process have also been studied.

  19. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H


    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5{approx}3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs.

  20. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H


    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  1. Study of Auditory, Visual Reaction Time and Glycemic Control (HBA1C) in Chronic Type II Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    M, Muhil; Sembian, Umapathy; Babitha; N, Ethiya; K, Muthuselvi


    Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiencyleads to micro and macro vascular disorder. Neuropathy is one of the major complication of chronic uncontrolled Diabetes affecting the Reaction time. To study the correlation between the glycosylated HbA1C and Auditory, visual Reaction time in chronic Type II diabetes (40-60y) of on oral hypoglycemic drugs of>10 y duration in two groups (n-100 in each group , both Males & females) and compared within the study groups and also with the age matched control group (100). HbA1C-Glycosylated HbA1C was measured by Particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric test method. Auditory and visual reaction time (ART, VRT) were measured by PC 1000 Reaction timer for control & study groups i.e. Group-I - Chronic Type II DM for >10 y with HbA1c 10 y with HbA1c > 7.0 ie impaired glycemic control. Exclusion Criteria- Subjects with Auditory and visual disturbances, alcoholism and smoking. Statistical Analysis - One-way ANOVA. Using SPSS 21 software. Both the groups had prolonged ART and VRT than controls. Among the study group, G-II (DM with HbA1C >7) had increased Auditory & Visual Reaction time than Group I which is statistically significant p-value 7 who have shown increased Auditory and Visual Reaction time than chronic DM with HbA1C<7.Severity of Peripheral neuropathy in Type II Diabetics could be due to elevated HbA1C.

  2. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction. (United States)

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C


    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture.

  3. Mesoscale simulation of polymer reaction equilibrium: Combining dissipative particle dynamics with reaction ensemble Monte Carlo. II. Supramolecular diblock copolymers. (United States)

    Lísal, Martin; Brennan, John K; Smith, William R


    We present an alternative formulation of the reaction ensemble dissipative particle dynamics (RxDPD) method [M. Lisal, J. K. Brennan, and W. R. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 16490 (2006)], a mesoscale simulation technique for studying polymer systems in reaction equilibrium. The RxDPD method combines elements of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (RxMC), and is primarily targeted for the prediction of the system composition, thermodynamic properties, and phase behavior of reaction equilibrium polymer systems. The alternative formulation of the RxDPD method is demonstrated by considering a supramolecular diblock copolymer (SDC) melt in which two homopolymers, A(n) and B(m), can reversibly bond at terminal binding sites to form a diblock copolymer, A(n)B(m). We consider the effect of the terminal binding sites and the chemical incompatibility between A- and B-segments on the phase behavior. Both effects are found to strongly influence the resulting phase behavior. Due to the reversible nature of the binding, the SDC melt can be treated as the reaction equilibrium system A(n)+B(m)right harpoon over left harpoonA(n)B(m). To simulate the A(n)+B(m)right harpoon over left harpoonA(n)B(m) melt, the system contains, in addition to full A(n), B(m), and A(n)B(m) polymers, two fractional polymers: one fractional polymer either fA(n) or fB(m), and one fractional polymer fA(n)B(m), which have fractional particles at the ends of the polymer chains. These fractional particles are coupled to the system via a coupling parameter. The time evolution of the system is governed by the DPD equations of motion, accompanied by random changes in the coupling parameter. Random changes in the coupling parameter mimic forward and reverse reaction steps as in the RxMC approach, and they are accepted with a probability derived from the expanded ensemble grand canonical partition function. Unlike the original RxDPD method that considers coupling of entire fractional

  4. Copper(II)-catalysed oxidative coupling reaction of 3-hydroxyacetanilide with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone for the spectrophotometric determination of traces of copper(II). (United States)

    Kumar, M S Hemantha; Nagaraja, P; Yathirajan, H S


    A spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of traces of copper(II), based on the catalytic oxidative coupling reaction of 3-hydroxyacetanilide with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone in the presence of ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Beer's law is obeyed in the copper(II) concentration range of 0.008-0.16 microg mL(-1), and the molar absorptivity at 530 nm is 2.5x10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The Sandell's sensitivity of the product is 0.000254 microg cm(-2). The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters have been investigated. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of water and soil samples and the results are compared with the literature method.

  5. Novel tridentate diamino organomanganese(II) complexes as homogeneous catalysts in manganese(II)/copper(I) catalyzed carbon-carbon bond forming reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Donkervoort, J.G.; Vicario, J.L.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Gossage, R.A.; Cahiez, G.


    The new, paramagnetic arylmanganese(II) complex Li[MnCl2(NCN)] (2, NCN [C6H3(CH2NMe2)2-2,6]−) has been obtained in high yield from the reaction of MnCl2 and [Li(NCN)]2 in a 2:1 molar ratio. In THF solution, 2 is likely an ionic species [Li(THF)n] [MnCl2(NCN)] (molecular weight determination and

  6. Palladium(II-catalyzed Heck reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids with olefins under mild conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh


    Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.

  7. Reaction-driven de novo design, synthesis and testing of potential type II kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Schneider, Gisbert; Geppert, Tim; Hartenfeller, Markus; Reisen, Felix; Klenner, Alexander; Reutlinger, Michael; Hähnke, Volker; Hiss, Jan A; Zettl, Heiko; Keppner, Sarah; Spänkuch, Birgit; Schneider, Petra


    De novo design of drug-like compounds with a desired pharmacological activity profile has become feasible through innovative computer algorithms. Fragment-based design and simulated chemical reactions allow for the rapid generation of candidate compounds as blueprints for organic synthesis. We used a combination of complementary virtual-screening tools for the analysis of de novo designed compounds that were generated with the aim to inhibit inactive polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a target for the development of cancer therapeutics. A homology model of the inactive state of Plk1 was constructed and the nucleotide binding pocket conformations in the DFG-in and DFG-out state were compared. The de novo-designed compounds were analyzed using pharmacophore matching, structure-activity landscape analysis, and automated ligand docking. One compound was synthesized and tested in vitro. The majority of the designed compounds possess a generic architecture present in known kinase inhibitors. Predictions favor kinases as targets of these compounds but also suggest potential off-target effects. Several bioisosteric replacements were suggested, and de novo designed compounds were assessed by automated docking for potential binding preference toward the inactive (type II inhibitors) over the active conformation (type I inhibitors) of the kinase ATP binding site. One selected compound was successfully synthesized as suggested by the software. The de novo-designed compound exhibited inhibitory activity against inactive Plk1 in vitro, but did not show significant inhibition of active Plk1 and 38 other kinases tested. Computer-based de novo design of screening candidates in combination with ligand- and receptor-based virtual screening generates motivated suggestions for focused library design in hit and lead discovery. Attractive, synthetically accessible compounds can be obtained together with predicted on- and off-target profiles and desired activities.

  8. Photosystem II reaction center damage and repair cycle: chloroplast acclimation strategy to irradiance stress. (United States)

    Vasilikiotis, C; Melis, A


    A daily occurrence in the life of a plant is the function of a photosystem II (PSII) damage and repair cycle in chloroplasts. This unique phenomenon involves the frequent turnover of D1, the 32-kDa reaction-center protein of PSII (chloroplast psbA gene product). In the model organism Dunaliella salina (a green alga), growth under low light (100 mol of photons per m2 per sec) entails damage, degradation, and replacement of D1 every 7 hr. Growth under irradiance stress (2200 micromol of photons per m2 per sec) entails damage to D1 every 20 min. The rate of de novo D1 biosynthesis under conditions of both low light and irradiance stress was found to be fairly constant on a per chloroplast or cell basis. The response of D. salina to the enhanced rate of damage entails an accumulation of photodamaged centers (80% of all PSII) and the formation of thylakoid membranes containing a smaller quantity of photosystem I (PSI) centers (about 10% of that in cells grown under low light). These changes contribute to a shift in the PSII/PSI ratio from 1.4:1 under low-light conditions to 15:1 under irradiance stress. The accumulation of photodamaged PSII under irradiance stress reflects a chloroplast inability to match the rate of D1 degradation or turnover with the rate of damage for individual PSII complexes. The altered thylakoid membrane organization ensures that a small fraction of PSII centers remains functional under irradiance stress and sustains electron flow from H2O to ferredoxin with rates sufficient for chloroplast photosynthesis and cell growth.

  9. Fe(II) Oxidation Is an Innate Capability of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria That Involves Abiotic and Biotic Reactions (United States)

    Carlson, Hans K.; Clark, Iain C.; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Iavarone, Anthony T.


    Phylogenetically diverse species of bacteria can catalyze the oxidation of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] coupled to nitrate (NO3−) reduction, often referred to as nitrate-dependent iron oxidation (NDFO). Very little is known about the biochemistry of NDFO, and though growth benefits have been observed, mineral encrustations and nitrite accumulation likely limit growth. Acidovorax ebreus, like other species in the Acidovorax genus, is proficient at catalyzing NDFO. Our results suggest that the induction of specific Fe(II) oxidoreductase proteins is not required for NDFO. No upregulated periplasmic or outer membrane redox-active proteins, like those involved in Fe(II) oxidation by acidophilic iron oxidizers or anaerobic photoferrotrophs, were observed in proteomic experiments. We demonstrate that while “abiotic” extracellular reactions between Fe(II) and biogenic NO2−/NO can be involved in NDFO, intracellular reactions between Fe(II) and periplasmic components are essential to initiate extensive NDFO. We present evidence that an organic cosubstrate inhibits NDFO, likely by keeping periplasmic enzymes in their reduced state, stimulating metal efflux pumping, or both, and that growth during NDFO relies on the capacity of a nitrate-reducing bacterium to overcome the toxicity of Fe(II) and reactive nitrogen species. On the basis of our data and evidence in the literature, we postulate that all respiratory nitrate-reducing bacteria are innately capable of catalyzing NDFO. Our findings have implications for a mechanistic understanding of NDFO, the biogeochemical controls on anaerobic Fe(II) oxidation, and the production of NO2−, NO, and N2O in the environment. PMID:23687275

  10. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation at circumneutral pH: Reaction kinetics, mineral products, and distribution of neutrophilic iron oxidizers in wetland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollrath, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823775


    Multiple studies have shown that neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidizers can conserve energy from Fe(II) oxidation, however, it is still unclear how they can compete against the fast abiotic reaction at neutral pH, or to which extent these bacteria increase the overall Fe(II) oxidation rate. Similar to

  11. Reactions of H2O3 in the pulse-irradiated Fe(II)-O2 system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Bjergbakke, Erling; Lang Rasmussen, O.


    G(Fe(III)] is measured in pulse-irradiated O2-saturated solutions of 20 to 160 μMFe(II), at the p H's 0.46, 1.51, and 2.74 H2SO4 and HClO4 and with dose rates between 1 and 8 krad/1 μsec pulse. Based on homogeneous kinetics, the results are interpreted by a system of 18 reactions. The formation...

  12. New insights into the mechanisms of the thermal Fenton reactions occurring using different iron(II)-complexes. (United States)

    Bossmann, S H; Oliveros, E; Kantor, M; Niebler, S; Bonfill, A; Shahin, N; Wörner, M; Braun, A M


    Although the Fenton reagent (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and an iron(II) salt) has been known for more than a century, the manifold mechanisms occurring during the thermal Fenton reaction are still under discussion. Indeed, this discussion served as a powerful driving force for the steadily increasing insight into the field of inorganic radical and electron transfer chemistry. In this work, an experimental approach towards the elucidation of the first steps taking place in the reaction between several iron(II)-complexes and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water at pH = 3.0 is presented. 2,4-xylidine (2,4-dimethylaniline) reacts differently with reactive intermediates via the addition or hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxyl radical (HO*) or electron transfer reactions to higher valent iron-species, such as a hydrated ferryl-complex (Fe(IV)). The chemical reactivity of the employed iron(II)-complexes with H2O2 differed strongly depending on their ground-state one-electron oxidation potentials. The results are interpreted in accordance with the paradigm originally developed by Goldstein et al. which is based on the evidence obtained from the Marcus theory that outer-sphere electron transfer reactions between metal complexes are not likely to occur because they are too slow. Therefore, most of the "Fenton-reagents" form transient metal complexes, which can be described as [LnFe-H2O2]m+. They form, depending on the reaction conditions, either the hydroxyl radical or higher-valent iron complex species.

  13. New insights into the mechanisms of the thermal Fenton reactions occurring using different Iron(II)-complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, S.H.; Oliveros, E.; Kantor, M.; Niebler, S.; Bonfill, A.; Shahin, N.; Woerner, M.; Braun, A.M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik am Engler-Bunte Inst. der Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Although the Fenton reagent (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and an iron(II) salt) has been known for more than a century, the manifold of mechanisms occurring during the thermal Fenton reaction, is still under controversial discussion. Indeed, this discussion served to be a powerful driving force for the steadily increasing insight into the field of inorganic radical and electron transfer chemistry. In this work, an experimental approach towards the elucidation of the first steps taking place in the reaction between several iron(II)-complexes and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in water at pH = 3.0 is presented. 2,4-xylidine (2,4-dimethylaniline) reacts differently with reactive intermediates via the addition or hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxyl radical (HO.) or electron transfer reactions to higher valent iron-species, such as a hydrated ferryl-complex (Fe(IV)). The chemical reactivity of the employed iron(III)-complexes with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} strongly differed in dependence of their ground-state redox potentials Fe(II)/(III). The results are interpreted in accordance with the paradigm originally developed by Goldstein et. al. which is based on the evidence obtained from the Marcus-theory that outer-sphere electron transfer reactions between metal complexes are not likely to occur, because they are too slow. Therefore, most of the ''Fenton-reagents'' form transient metal complexes, which can be described as [L{sub n}Fe-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup m+}. They form, depending on the reaction conditions, either the hydroxyl radical or higher-valent iron complex species. (orig.)

  14. Catecholase activity of dicopper(II)-bispidine complexes: stabilities and structures of intermediates, kinetics and reaction mechanism. (United States)

    Born, Karin; Comba, Peter; Daubinet, André; Fuchs, Alexander; Wadepohl, Hubert


    A mechanism for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (dtbc) with dioxygen to the corresponding quinone (dtbq), catalyzed by bispidine-dicopper complexes (bispidines are various mono- and dinucleating derivatives of 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane with bis-tertiary-amine-bispyridyl or bis-tertiary-amine-trispyridyl donor sets), is proposed on the basis of (1) the stoichiometry of the reaction as well as the stabilities and structures [X-ray, density functional theory (B3LYP, TZV)] of the bispidine-dicopper(II)-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorcatechol intermediates, (2) formation kinetics and structures (molecular mechanics, MOMEC) of the end-on peroxo-dicopper(II) complexes and (3) kinetics of the stoichiometric (anaerobic) and catalytic (aerobic) copper-complex-assisted oxidation of dtbc. This involves (1) the oxidation of the dicopper(I) complexes with dioxygen to the corresponding end-on peroxo-dicopper(II) complexes, (2) coordination of dtbc as a bridging ligand upon liberation of H(2)O(2) and (3) intramolecular electron transfer to produce dtbq, which is liberated, and the dicopper(I) catalyst. Although the bispidine complexes have reactivities comparable to those of recently published catalysts with macrocyclic ligands, which seem to reproduce the enzyme-catalyzed process in various reaction sequences, a strikingly different oxidation mechanism is derived from the bispidine-dicopper-catalyzed reaction.

  15. Seizures following chloroquine treatment of type II lepra reaction: a case report. (United States)

    Ebenso, B E


    A case of tonic-clonic seizures following chloroquine treatment for leprosy reactions in a Nigerian male is reported. Seizures were controlled with phenytoin sodium capsules. A casual relationship between the seizures and chloroquine is suggested. There have been no previous reports of this adverse reaction in leprosy patients receiving chloroquine for treatment of reactions. The author recommends that chloroquine be used with caution especially in patients with seizures.

  16. Formation of a new copper(II) dimer through heterocyclic ligand ring opening reaction: Supramolecular features and magnetic properties (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna Lisboa; Gervini, Vanessa Carratu; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Junior, Jorge Luiz Pimentel; Bortoluzzi, Adailton João; Burrow, Robert Alan; Duarte, Rafael; da Silva, Robson Ricardo; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes


    Two new compounds were synthesized and characterized in this work: the heterocycle (Z)-1-(4-(hydroxyimino)-3,5-dimethyl-1-(methylcarbamothioyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-methylthiosemicarbazide and a copper(II) thiosemicarbazonato dimeric complex. Green prismatic single crystals of the dimer were obtained by the reaction of the heterocycle with copper(II) chloride dihydrate. Both compounds were essentially characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction crystallography. The crystal structures revealed molecules connected through supramolecular hydrogen bond interactions and copper(II) centers in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal environment. SQUID magnetometry performed for the dimer revealed both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in the studied complex, presenting a critical temperature of 19 K.

  17. A Rh(II)-catalyzed multicomponent reaction by trapping an α-amino enol intermediate in a traditional two-component reaction pathway (United States)

    Liu, Shunying; Yao, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Wei, Qinghua; Chen, Jianghui; Wu, Xiang; Xia, Fei; Hu, Wenhao


    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) represent an ideal organic synthesis tool for the rapid construction of complex molecules due to their step and atom economy. Compared to two-component reactions, the development of new MCRs has been greatly limited during the 170 years since the first MCR was reported. Theoretically, the trapping of an active intermediate generated from two components by a third component could change the traditional two-component reaction pathway, leading to the discovery of MCRs. We report an example of the trapping of α-imino enols generated in situ from 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles via α-imino metal carbene species by vinylimine ions using C(2)-substituted indoles and paraformaldehyde as precursors in the presence of a rhodium(II) catalyst. The traditional enol-ketone transformation pathway was suspended by the trapping procedure and efficiently switched to an MCR pathway to produce α-amino-β-indole ketones in moderate to good yields. Unexpectedly, the resulting products and the theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculation results indicated that the enolic carbon had a stronger nucleophilicity than the well-known traditional enamic carbon in the trapping process. The reaction mechanism was investigated using control experiments and detailed DFT calculations, and the synthetic application of the products was also illustrated. The developed strategy provides a mild and rapid access to α-amino-β-indole ketones and suggests a rationale for the discovery of MCRs by trapping an active intermediate with a third component in a traditional two-component reaction pathway. PMID:28345053

  18. Copper(II)–imida‐salen Complexes Encapsulated into NaY Zeolite for Oxidations Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuźniarska‐Biernacka, Iwona; Carvalho, M. Alice; Rasmussen, Søren Birk


    heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, EPR and Raman spectroscopy as well as by chemical analysis. The structures of the copper(II) complexes were proposed on the basis of theoretical studies (DFT). The catalytic activities of the encapsulated copper(II) complexes in NaY were compared...

  19. Oxygen dependency of neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidation by Leptothrix differs from abiotic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollrath, S.; Behrends, T.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidizing microorganisms are found in many natural environments. It has been hypothesized that, at low oxygen concentrations, microbial iron oxidation is favored over abiotic oxidation. Here, we compare the kinetics of abiotic Fe(II) oxidation to oxidation in the presence of

  20. Iodometric microgram determination of Mn(II) in aqueous media by an indirect chemical amplification reaction. (United States)

    El-Wakil, A M; Farag, A B; El-Shahawi, M S


    A rapid, simple and highly sensitive iodometric amplification method is described for the determination of microgram amounts of Mn(II). The method is based on oxidation of Mn(II) with an excess of periodate in acetate buffer (pH 2.8-3.0), masking of the unreacted periodate with molybdate, and after addition of iodide, titration of the liberated iodine is with thiosulphate. The proposed method offers 20-fold amplification for Mn(II) and was found suitable for the determination of Mn(II) in the presence of permanganate ions. Mn(II) in tap water and an industrial waste water has been successfully determined by the proposed method.

  1. Reaction of Pb(II) and Zn(II) with Ethyl Linoleate To Form Structured Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Complexes: A Model for Degradation in Historic Paint Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Margaret G.; Palmer, Michael R.; Suchomel, Matthew R.; Berrie, Barbara H. (NGA); (Bordeaux)


    To investigate soap formation in drying oils in historic paints, the reaction between metal acetates (K+, Zn2+, Pb2+) and ethyl linoleate (EL) was studied using optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron microscopy. Pb(II) and Zn(II) react rapidly with EL to form highly structured, spherulitic, luminescent crystallites that aggregate. Evidence from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction indicates that these are organic–inorganic hybrid complexes or coordination polymers. FTIR absorbance peaks at ca. 1540 cm–1 for Pb(II) and ca. 1580 cm–1 for Zn(II) are consistent with the formation of carboxylate complexes. The complexes formed offer insight into the degradation processes observed in oil paint films, suggesting that soap formation is rapid when metal ions are solubilized and can occur with unsaturated fatty acids that are present in fresh oils. These complexes may account for the atypical luminescence observed in lead-containing cured oil paint films.

  2. Concentration fluctuations in non-isothermal reaction-diffusion systems. II. The nonlinear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedeaux, D.; Ortiz de Zárate, J.M.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Sengers, J.V.; Kjelstrup, S.


    In this paper, we consider a simple reaction-diffusion system, namely, a binary fluid mixture with an association-dissociation reaction between two species. We study fluctuations at hydrodynamic spatiotemporal scales when this mixture is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of a temperature

  3. Laboratory simulation of natural sulphurization: II. Reaction of multifunctionalized lipids with inorganic polysulphides at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Graaf, W. de; Driel, G.B. van


    A number of geochemically relevant model compounds (alkenes, ketones, aldehydes, acids, alcohols and esters) have been subjected to a reaction with sodium hydrogen polysulphide either in one solvent or mediated by a phase transfer reagent. This reaction, referred to as the hydrosulphurization

  4. The histopathology of type I (lepra) and type II (ENL) reactions in leprosy. (United States)

    Sehgal, V N; Gautam, R K; Koranne, R V; Beohar, P C


    The histopathological features in type I (lepra) reaction comprised a loose and disorganised granuloma in the upper and mid-dermis, dermal edema and variable cellular contents, namely, epithelioid cells, lymphocytes, giant cells, and macrophages. While ENL reactions, were characterised by predominant involvement of subcutaneous vessels, vasculitis, and polymorphonuclear infiltration in and around the blood vessels.

  5. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia


    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  6. The PS Booster hits 40

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler


    Many accelerators’ "round" birthdays are being celebrated at CERN these days – the PS turned 50 in 2009, the SPS was 35 in 2011, and this year it's the turn of the PS Booster to mark its 40th anniversary. Originally designed to accelerate 1013 protons to 800 MeV, it has far exceeded its initial design performance over the years.   The PS Booster in the 1970s. Imagine the scene: a group of accelerator physicists staring expectantly at a monitor, when suddenly a shout of joy goes up as a signal flickers across the screen. Does that sound familiar? Well, turn the clock back 40 years (longer hair, wider trouser legs) and you have the situation at the PS Booster on 26 May 1972. On that day, beam was injected into the Booster for the first time. “It was a real buzz,” says Heribert Koziol, then Chairman of the Running-in Committee. “We were very happy – and also a little relieved – when the beam finally...

  7. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. II. Radical-pair reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Chia, A; Górecka, A; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D


    We apply the quantum-walk approach proposed in the preceding paper [A. Chia et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032407 (2016)] to a radical-pair reaction where realistic estimates for the intermediate transition rates are available. The well-known average hitting time from quantum walks can be adopted as a measure of how quickly the reaction occurs and we calculate this for varying degrees of dephasing in the radical pair. The time for the radical pair to react to a product is found to be independent of the amount of dephasing introduced, even in the limit of no dephasing where the transient population dynamics exhibits strong coherent oscillations. This can be seen to arise from the existence of a rate-limiting step in the reaction and we argue that in such examples, a purely classical model based on rate equations can be used for estimating the time scale of the reaction but not necessarily its population dynamics.

  8. Nuclear reactions with radioactive and stable beams (Part II); Reacciones nucleares con haces radiactivos y estables (Parte II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    At the present time there is a great interest at world level in experiments, with accelerated nuclei of short half life. The dispersion, fusion, transfer and break processes in the interaction of weakly light projectiles bounded with targets of Z great its have been object of intense recent investigation, at world level. Our group, in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame, it has measured and analyzed these processes for weakly bound systems as: {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 8}Li + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 10}Be + {sup 208}Pb. On the other hand a research line that has wakened up great interest, it is that of studies of resonant reactions using the Inverse Kinematics technique with thick targets. The use of this technique allows to measure an entire excitation function with a single bombardment. Our group has carried out, in the ININ, preliminary bombardments for the system {sup 12}C + {sup 4}He. This allowed to establish the feasibility of implementing this technique in our Laboratory. The application of this and other techniques to different systems like {sup 18}O + {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C, {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O, {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O, it opens the possibility to measure the fusion of these systems at very low energy and to deepen in the knowledge of the nuclear structure and the nuclear astrophysics. In this technical report, the activities carried out by our group during the second stage of this project, considered for 2005 are described. Also in that year, our group carries out a research stay in the University of Notre Dame, during this stay, the angular distribution of the projectiles of {sup 8}B dispersed in an enriched target of {sup 58}Ni was measured. The same as in the previous experiments, in this occasion it was also possible to measure those angular distributions of the projectiles of {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li dispersed in this same target. In this same one our stay group participates in other three experiments proposed by collaborators of

  9. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii


    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  10. Vasovagal reactions in whole blood donors at 3 REDS-II blood centers in Brazil (United States)

    Goncalez, T. T.; Sabino, E. C.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Wright, D.J.; Leao, S.; Sampaio, D.; Takecian, P. L.; Carneiro-Proietti, AB; Murphy, E.; Busch, M.; Custer, B.


    Background In Brazil little is known about adverse reactions during donation and the donor characteristics that may be associated with such events. Donors are offered snacks and fluids prior to donating and are required to consume a light meal after donation. For these reasons the frequency of reactions may be different than those observed in other countries. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of eligible whole blood donors at three large blood centers located in Brazil between July 2007 and December 2009. Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) along with donor demographic and biometric data were collected. Reactions were defined as any presyncopal or syncopal event during the donation process. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of VVRs. Results Of 724,861 donor presentations, 16,129 (2.2%) VVRs were recorded. Rates varied substantially between the three centers: 53, 290 and 381 per 10,000 donations in Recife, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte, respectively. Although the reaction rates varied, the donor characteristics associated with VVRs were similar [younger age (18–29), replacement donors, first time donors, low estimated blood volume (EBV)]. In multivariable analysis controlling for differences between the donor populations in each city younger age, first-time donor status and lower EBV were the factors most associated with reactions. Conclusion Factors associated with VVRs in other locations are also evident in Brazil. The difference in VVR rates between the three centers might be due to different procedures for identifying and reporting the reactions. Potential interventions to reduce the risk of reactions in Brazil should be considered. PMID:22073941

  11. Vasovagal reactions in whole blood donors at three REDS-II blood centers in Brazil. (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma T; Sabino, Ester C; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Leao, Silvana; Sampaio, Divaldo; Takecian, Pedro L; Proietti, Anna B; Proitetti, Anna B; Murphy, Edward; Busch, Michael; Custer, Brian


    In Brazil little is known about adverse reactions during donation and the donor characteristics that may be associated with such events. Donors are offered snacks and fluids before donating and are required to consume a light meal after donation. For these reasons the frequency of reactions may be different than those observed in other countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted of eligible whole blood donors at three large blood centers located in Brazil between July 2007 and December 2009. Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) along with donor demographic and biometric data were collected. Reactions were defined as any presyncopal or syncopal event during the donation process. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of VVRs. Of 724,861 donor presentations, 16,129 (2.2%) VVRs were recorded. Rates varied substantially between the three centers: 53, 290, and 381 per 10,000 donations in Recife, São Paulo, and Belo Horizonte, respectively. Although the reaction rates varied, the donor characteristics associated with VVRs were similar (younger age [18-29 years], replacement donors, first-time donors, low estimated blood volume [EBV]). In multivariable analysis controlling for differences between the donor populations in each city younger age, first-time donor status, and lower EBV were the factors most associated with reactions. Factors associated with VVRs in other locations are also evident in Brazil. The difference in VVR rates between the three centers might be due to different procedures for identifying and reporting the reactions. Potential interventions to reduce the risk of reactions in Brazil should be considered. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Interfacial reaction of SnII on mackinawite (FeS) (United States)

    Dulnee, Siriwan; Scheinost, Andreas C.


    The interaction of SnII with metastable, highly reactive mackinawite is a complex process due to transient changes of the mackinawite surface in the sorption process. In this work, we show that tin redox state and local structure as investigated by Sn-K X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) change with pH. We observe at pH 9, SnII is completely oxidized to SnIV by an FeII/FeIII (hydr)oxide, most likely green rust, forming on the surface of mackinawite. Six O atoms at 2.04 Å and 6 Fe atoms at 3.29 Å indicate a structural incorporation by green rust, with SnIV substituting for Fe in the crystal structure. The transition between SnII and SnIV and between sulfur and oxygen coordination takes place at a pH of 7 to 8 and an Eh of - 250 mV, close to the thermodynamically predicted transitions from mackinawite to Fe (hydr)oxide and from sulfide to sulfate. The uptake processes of SnII by mackinawite are largely in line with the uptake processes of divalent cations with soft Lewis-acid character like Cd, Hg and Pb, and lead to a strong retention of Sn with logRd values from 5 to 7 across the investigated pH range of 5 to 11.

  13. Iron (II) tetrakis(diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as effective electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA


    Full Text Available Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium at iron (II) tetrakis (diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine (PtFeOCPc) catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been described. The ORR followed the direct 4-electron...

  14. Oxygen reduction reaction at MWCNT-modified nanoscale iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine: remarkable performance over platinum and tolerance toward methanol in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fashedemi, OO


    Full Text Available A nanoscale iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (nanoFeTSPc) catalyst obtained by co-ordinating with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and subsequently anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been...

  15. Photochemistry of Solutes in Different Locations in/on Ice. Part II: Reaction Rate Measurements (United States)

    Hullar, T.; Anastasio, C.


    Particularly in polar regions, photochemical reactions in snowpacks can be an important mechanism for transforming organic and inorganic compounds. Chemicals within snow and ice are found in three different compartments: distributed in the bulk ice, concentrated in liquid-like regions (LLRs) within the ice matrix (such as at grain boundaries), or in quasi-liquid layers at the air-ice interface. While some experiments suggest reaction rates may vary in these different compartments, it is not clear if the reaction rates are different or if the changes are due to variations in the reaction environment (such as photon flux). A companion presentation discusses our work identifying solute location in laboratory ice samples; here, we describe experimental measurements of reaction rates in different ice compartments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common pollutants in snow and ice. We first prepared aqueous solutions of a single PAH. We then froze these samples using various methods that segregate the solute into different locations in the ice matrix. With simulated sunlight, we illuminated these samples and measured photon flux (using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde) and the photodecay of the PAH. We will discuss differences in PAH photochemistry as a function of location in the ice sample and the implications of these results for environmental snow and ice.

  16. Structural zinc(II thiolate complexes relevant to the modeling of Ada repair protein: Application toward alkylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The TtZn(II-bound perchlorate complex [TtZn–OClO3] 1 (Ttxyly = hydrotris[N-xylyl-thioimidazolyl]borate was used for the synthesis of zinc(II-bound ethanthiothiol complex [TtZn–SCH2CH3] 2 and its hydrogen-bond containing analog Tt–ZnSCH2CH2–NH(COOC(CH33 3. These thiolate complexes were examined as structural models for the active sites of Ada repair protein toward methylation reactions. The Zn[S3O] coordination sphere in complex 1 includes three thione donors from the ligand Ttixyl and one oxygen donor from the perchlorate coligand in ideally tetrahedral arrangement around the zinc center. The average Zn(1–S(thione bond length is 2.344 Å, and the Zn(1–O(1 bond length is 1.917 Å.

  17. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. II. Spin-spin effects (United States)

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.


    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at quadratic order in the spins to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, entering at four-and-a-half PN order. Our calculation includes the backreaction from finite-size spin effects, which is presented for the first time. The computation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning extended objects. At this order, nonconservative effects in the spin-spin sector are independent of the spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone. We find that, in contrast to the spin-orbit contributions (reported in a companion paper), the radiation reaction affects the evolution of the spin vectors once spin-spin effects are incorporated.

  18. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction - II. Initial catalyst optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR


    Full Text Available -Zn-A1 catalyst. During the controlled passivation Table 2 Crystalline phase of alloys B, C and D and their product Raney copper catalysts before and after reaction Alloy Precursor alloy phases Cat. phases before reaction a Cat. phases after reaction a... L; dry gas composition=10% CO/90% N2; CO : H20=I : 22.5; catalyst volume=2i0.1 ml): (O)=Cat. A Cu(69.3)Zn(6.9)Al( 19.5); (~)=cat. B Cu(73.6)Zn(10.9)AI(14.8); (W1)=cat. C Cu(72.4)Zn(13.3)Al(12.9); ({))=cat. D Cu(61.5)Zn(15.1)AI(19.1). It can...

  19. On the ultrafast kinetics of the energy and electron transfer reactions in photosystem I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavov, Chavdar Lyubomirov


    The subject of the current work is one of the main participants in the light-dependent phase of oxygenic photosynthesis, Photosystem I (PS I). This complex carries an immense number of cofactors: chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, quinones, etc, which together with the protein entity exhibit several exceptional properties. First, PS I has an ultrafast light energy trapping kinetics with a nearly 100% quantum efficiency. Secondly, both of the electron transfer branches in the reaction center are suggested to be active. Thirdly, there are some so called 'red' Chls in the antenna system of PS I, absorbing light with longer wavelengths than the reaction center. These 'red' Chls significantly modify the trapping kinetics of PS I. The purpose of this thesis is to obtain better understanding of the above-mentioned, specific features of PS I. This will not merely cast more light on the mechanisms of energy and electron transfer in the complex, but also will contribute to the future developments of optimized artificial light-harvesting systems. In the current work, a number of PS I complexes isolated from different organisms (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Arabidopsis thaliana) and possessing distinctive features (different macroorganisation, monomers, trimers, monomers with a semibelt of peripheral antenna attached; presence of 'red' Chls) is investigated. The studies are primarily focused on the electron transfer kinetics in each of the cofactor branches in the PS I reaction center, as well as on the effect of the antenna size and the presence of 'red' Chls on the trapping kinetics of PS I. These aspects are explored with the help of several ultrafast optical spectroscopy methods: (i) time-resolved fluorescence ? single photon counting and synchroscan streak camera; and (ii) ultrafast transient absorption. Physically meaningful information about the molecular mechanisms of the energy trapping in PS I is

  20. Kinetics of reaction between O 2 and Mn(II) species in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Morgan, James J.


    The objective of this research is to assess critically the experimental rate data for O 2 oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) species at 25°C and to interpret the rates in terms of the solution species of Mn(II) in natural waters. A species kinetic rate expression for parallel paths expresses the total rate of Mn(II) oxidation as Σk i a ij, where k i is the rate constant of species i and a ij is the species concentration fraction in solution j. Among the species considered in the rate expression are Mn(II) hydrolysis products, carbonate complexes, ammonia complexes, and halide and sulfate complexes, in addition to the free aqueous ion. Experiments in three different laboratory buffers and in seawater yield an apparent rate constant for Mn(II) disappearance, k app,j ranging from 8.6 × 10 -5 to 2.5 × 10 -2 (M -1s -1), between pH 8.03 and 9.30, respectively. Observed values of k app exceed predictions based on Marcus outer-sphere electron transfer theory by more than four orders of magnitude, lending strong support to the proposal that Mn(II) + O 2 electron transfer follows an inner-sphere path. A multiple linear regression analysis fit of the observed rates to the species kinetic rate expression yields the following oxidation rate constants (M -1s -1) for the most reactive species: MnOH +, 1.66 × 10 -2; Mn(OH) 2, 2.09 × 10 1; and Mn(CO 3) 22-, 8.13 × 10 -2. The species kinetic rate expression accounts for the influence of pH and carbonate on oxidation rates of Mn(II), through complex formation and acid-base equilibria of both reactive and unreactive species. At pH ˜8, the greater fraction of the total rate is carried by MnOH +. At pH greater than ˜8.4, the species Mn(OH) 2 and Mn(CO 3) 22- make the greater contributions to the total rate.

  1. Palladium(II) Acetate Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones; A Practical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Reek, Joost N. H.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)(2) or Pd(TFA)(2)-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones is described using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Hunigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol% of Pd(OAc)(2) is sufficient to afford good yields using

  2. Cyclo dehydration reaction of polyhydrazides. II. Kinetic parameters obtained from isothermal thermogravimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, B.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.


    The kinetics of the thermal conversion reaction of poly-(1,3-phenyl-1,4-phenyl)-hydrazide into poly-(1,3-phenyl-1,4-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole have been studied with isothermal thermogravimetry in continuation of a study with nonisothermal thermogravimetry described in a previous paper. Although the

  3. Organometallic copper I, II or III species in an intramolecular dechlorination reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert


    The present paper gives insight into an intramolecular dechlorination reaction involving Copper (I) and an ArCH2Cl moiety. The discussion of the presence of a CuIII organometallic intermediate becomes a challenge, and because of the lack of clear experimental detection of this proposed intermediate, and due to the computational evidence that it is less stable than other isomeric species, it can be ruled out for the complex studied here. Our calculations are completely consistent with the key hypothesis of Karlin et al. that TMPA-CuI is the substrate of intramolecular dechlorination reactions as well as the source to generate organometallic species. However the organometallic character of some intermediates has been refused because computationally these species are less stable than other isomers. Thus this study constitutes an additional piece towards the full understanding of a class of reaction of biological relevance. Further, the lack of high energy barriers and deep energy wells along the reaction pathway explains the experimental difficulties to trap other intermediates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  4. Palladium(II) acetate catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of enones: a practical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannathan, S.; Raoufmoghaddam, S.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.


    A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)​2 or Pd(TFA)​2-​catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and α,​β-​unsatd. ketones is described using N,​N-​diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Huenigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol % of Pd(OAc)​2 is sufficient to afford good yields using

  5. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.


    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was felt that the use of methyl halides in the first instance will simplify the situation and serve as a starting point in the analysis of solvent influences. The reaction between aniline and methyl iodide proceeded under homo- geneous conditions in both acetone and ethyl alcohol but in nitrobenzene and carbon tetrachloride ...

  7. A One-Pot Self-Assembly Reaction to Prepare a Supramolecular Palladium(II) Cyclometalated Complex: An Undergraduate Organometallic Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto; Lopez-Torres, Margarita; Fernandez, Jesus J.; Vazquez-Garcia, Digna; Vila, Jose M.


    A laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare palladium(II) cyclometalated complexes. A terdentate [C,N,O] Schiff base ligand is doubly deprotonated upon reaction with palladium(II) acetate in a self-assembly process to give a palladacycle with a characteristic tetranuclear structure. This…

  8. Detection of Maillard reaction products by a coupled HPLC-Fraction collector technique and FTIR characterization of Cu(II)-complexation with the isolated species (United States)

    Ioannou, Aristos; Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos


    The isolation of reaction products of asparagine with reducing sugars at alkaline pH and high temperature has been probed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a Fraction Collector. The UV-vis and FTIR spectra of the isolated Maillard reaction products showed structure-sensitive changes as depicted by deamination events and formation of asparagine-saccharide conjugates. The initial reaction species of the Asn-Gluc reaction were also characterized by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. Evidence for Cu (II) metal ion complexation with the Maillard reaction products is supported by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy.

  9. Characterization of crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads in SBR matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon-Jong; Choe, Soonja [Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)


    Monodisperse sized crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads were prepared by a reaction of semibatch emulsion polymerization with styrene monomer, divinylbenzene(DVB) crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate(K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}) initiator in the absence of emulsifier. The glass transition temperature(T{sub g}) and the mean diameter of the beads were increased from 100{degrees}C to 135{degrees}C and from 402 nm to 532 nm, respectively, for an incorporation of 2 to 10 mol% DVB. Crosslinking density was also linearly increased with DVB content. SEM microphotographs of SBR composite filled with various contents of PS beads revealed that PS beads are relatively well dispersed without changing the spherical shape of the beads in all range of compositions. In stress-strain analysis, elongation at break and tensile strength of SBR composite were increased with the bead content. Applicability of the PS beads as a filler in SBR matrix is tested by plotting Mooney-Rivlin or Guth-Smallwood equations. However, mechanical properties of the composite with the beads were not so excellent as those of the composite with carbon black. Crosslinked PS beads are still tentative as a white color reinforcing filler on SBR matrix.

  10. Enantioselective Cu-II-Catalyzed Diels-Alder and Michael Addition Reactions in Water Using Bio-Inspired Triazacyclophane-Based Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H. Bauke; Rosati, Fiora; Coquiere, David; Roelfes, Gerard; Liskamp, Rob M. J.

    A triazacyclophane (TAC) scaffold decorated with three histidine amino acid residues was used as a tridentate ligand in asymmetric copper(II)-catalysed Diels-Alder and Michael addition reactions in water. Enantiomeric excesses up to 55% were obtained in Diels-Alder reactions using ligands in which

  11. Heterogeneous versus homogeneous copper(II) catalysis in enantioselective conjugate-addition reactions of boron in water. (United States)

    Kitanosono, Taku; Xu, Pengyu; Kobayashi, Shū


    We have developed Cu(II)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate-addition reactions of boron to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water. In contrast to the previously reported Cu(I) catalysis that required organic solvents, chiral Cu(II) catalysis was found to proceed efficiently in water. Three catalyst systems have been exploited: cat. 1: Cu(OH)2 with chiral ligand L1; cat. 2: Cu(OH)2 and acetic acid with ligand L1; and cat. 3: Cu(OAc)2 with ligand L1. Whereas cat. 1 is a heterogeneous system, cat. 2 and cat. 3 are homogeneous systems. We tested 27 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and an α,β-unsaturated nitrile compound, including acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones, acyclic and cyclic β,β-disubstituted enones, acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated esters (including their β,β-disubstituted forms), and acyclic α,β-unsaturated amides (including their β,β-disubstituted forms). We found that cat. 2 and cat. 3 showed high yields and enantioselectivities for almost all substrates. Notably, no catalysts that can tolerate all of these substrates with high yields and high enantioselectivities have been reported for the conjugate addition of boron. Heterogeneous cat. 1 also gave high yields and enantioselectivities with some substrates and also gave the highest TOF (43,200 h(-1) ) for an asymmetric conjugate-addition reaction of boron. In addition, the catalyst systems were also applicable to the conjugate addition of boron to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, although such reactions have previously been very limited in the literature, even in organic solvents. 1,4-Addition products were obtained in high yields and enantioselectivities in the reactions of acyclic α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with diboron 2 by using cat. 1, cat. 2, or cat. 3. On the other hand, in the reactions of cyclic α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with compound 2, whereas 1,4-addition products

  12. The reaction 26Mg(p,γ)27Al : (II). Spins of 27Al levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppard, D.M.; Leun, C. van der


    Measurements of double and triple angular correlations and gamma-ray polarizations at twenty resonances in the reaction 26Mg(p, γ)27Al, lead to the unambiguous spin and panty assignments J[pi]=7+/2,5+/2, 3+/2,9+/2 and 5/2 to the bound states of 27Al at 2 21, 2.73, 2.98, 3.00 and 4.81 MeV,

  13. Electron and ligand transfer reactions between cyclometallated platinum(II) compounds and thallium(III) carboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der; Vrieze, K.


    Reaction of trans-[(2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}{2}Pt}I{}I{] with Tl}I{}I{}I{(O{2}CR){3} (R = Me, i-Pr) gave direct elimination of Tl}I{(O{2}CR) and formation of the oxidative addition product [(2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}){2}Pt}I{}V{ (O{2}CR){2}], in two isomeric forms. A structure with the carbon ligands in

  14. Ruthenium(II) pincer complexes with oxazoline arms for efficient transfer hydrogenation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao


    Well-defined P NN CN pincer ruthenium complexes bearing both strong phosphine and weak oxazoline donors were developed. These easily accessible complexes exhibit significantly better catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation of ketones compared to their PN 3P analogs. These reactions proceed under mild and base-free conditions via protonation- deprotonation of the \\'NH\\' group in the aromatization-dearomatization process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex: An efficient catalyst for the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol with amines (United States)

    Anbarasu, G.; Malathy, M.; Karthikeyan, P.; Rajavel, R.


    Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex via the one pot reaction of silica functionalized 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with acetyl acetone and copper acetate has been reported. The synthesized material was well characterized by analytical techniques such as FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, SEM-EDX, HR-TEM, EPR, ICP-AES and BET analysis. The characterization results confirmed the grafting of Cu(II) Schiff base complex on the silica surface. The catalytic activity of synthesized silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex was evaluated through the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol to imine.

  16. An ONIOM study of the spin density distribution of the QA site plastosemiquinone in the photosystem II reaction center. (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jen; O'Malley, Patrick J


    ONIOM (QM/MM) calculations are used to calculate the spin density distribution for the plastosemiquinone anion radical in the Q(A) binding site of photosystem II. A number of models are examined that explore the effect of iron depletion on the Q(A) site semiquinone spin density distribution and resultant hyperfine couplings. For a model system with a divalent metal ion in the nonheme site the calculated spin density in the Q(A) site model suggests that differential hydrogen-bonding strength to the O1 and O4 oxygen atoms of the radical results in an asymmetric spin density distribution in the semiquinone anion free radical form. The hydrogen bond to the proximal O1 atom is significantly stronger. This is similar to the situation shown to exist previously in the bacterial reaction center of Rba sphaeroides. Various models of depleted nonheme site metal show the profound effect that the presence of a divalent ion in this site has on the spin density distribution of the Q(A) site semiquinone. The variation in calculated spin density distribution of the Q(A) site plastosemiquinone as a function of the occupancy of the nonheme site needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of experimental paramagnetic resonance data. For Type II reaction centers a major role for Fe(2+) in the nonheme site may be the raising of the redox potential of the Q(A)/Q(A)(-) couple to ensure that electron transfer from the (bacterio)pheophytin anion free radical occurs at a sufficient rate to compete with wasteful back-reactions.

  17. A single-arm Phase II validation study of preventing oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions by dexamethasone: the AVOID trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Y


    Full Text Available Yoichiro Yoshida,1 Keiji Hirata,2 Hiroshi Matsuoka,3 Shigeyoshi Iwamoto,4 Masahito Kotaka,5 Hideto Fujita,6 Naoya Aisu,1 Seiichiro Hoshino,1 Takeo Kosaka,6 Kotaro Maeda,3 Fumiaki Kiyomi,7 Yuichi Yamashita1 1Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Surgery, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; 4Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 5Gastrointestinal Cancer Center, Sano Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 6Department of Surgical Oncology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Japan; 7Academia, Industry and Government Collaborative Research Institute of Translational Medicine for Life Innovation, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan Background: Patients with colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin are at risk of hypersensitivity reactions, with the incidence estimated to be 12%–20%. Coinfusion of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin could potentially reduce the incidence of these reactions, but oxaliplatin is reported to be incompatible with alkaline compounds in solution. However, in a previous retrospective study we found that the pH of a solution of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin was less than 7.4, and that hypersensitivity to oxaliplatin could have been prevented by coinfusion of dexamethasone. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of coinfusion of dexamethasone and oxaliplatin to prevent oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reactions.Patients and methods: The AVOID trial was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase II trial conducted from January to September 2013. The study included 73 patients who received capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX or XELOX plus bevacizumab therapy for colorectal cancer. In all patients, oxaliplatin was administered in combination with dexamethasone. The primary outcome measure was the presence of

  18. Bis[N,N'-diisopropylbenzamidinato(-)]silicon(II): Lewis acid/base reactions with triorganylboranes. (United States)

    Junold, Konstantin; Baus, Johannes A; Burschka, Christian; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Tacke, Reinhold


    Reaction of the donor-stabilized silylene 1 (which is three-coordinate in the solid state and four-coordinate in solution) with BEt3 and BPh3 leads to the formation of the Lewis acid/base complexes 2 and 3, respectively, which are the first five-coordinate silicon compounds with an SiB bond. These compounds were structurally characterized by crystal structure analyses and by multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies in the solid state and in solution. Additionally, the bonding situation in 2 and 3 was analyzed by quantum chemical studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of labile Fe(II) species complexed with seawater extractable organic matter under seawater conditions based on the kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions with ferrozine. (United States)

    Iwai, Hisanori; Fukushima, Masami; Yamamoto, Mitsuo


    A fertilizer, comprised of a mixture of steel slag and compost, was used to restore seaweed beds in barren coastal areas. Complex Fe(II) species, supplied by steel slag, play a significant role in supplying Fe(II) to coastal areas and stimulating seaweed growth. Seawater extractable organic matter (SWEOM) from compost is generally assumed to serve as a chelator of Fe(II) in the fertilizer. It is considered that the bioavailability of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes is higher in the dissociable (labile) species. In the present study, a method for determining labile species of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes in seawater (pH 8.0, I = 0.7) was developed. The method is based on a ligand-exchange reaction between SWEOM and ferrozine (FZ). Because Fe(II) is readily oxidized to Fe(III) under normal seawater conditions, ascorbic acid was added as an antioxidant. The coloring for the Fe-FZ complex in the presence of SWEOM was retarded. This retarding can be attributed to a ligand-exchange reaction between FZ and labile Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes. Conditional binding constants for the labile Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes and binding capacities of labile sites in SWEOM to Fe(II) were evaluated for a variety of total Fe(II) concentrations.

  20. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Document Server


    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  1. Study of 11Be on 9Be one neutron transfer reactions at TRIUMF ISAC-II (United States)

    Braid, Ryan; Sarazin, Fred; Tigress Collaboration; (PCB)2 Collaboration


    The structure of neutron-rich Beryllium isotopes displays interesting properties arising from the interplay of alpha clustering and valence neutrons, leading in some cases to halo states. In this presentation, we will present the results of the 11Be on 9Be reaction at 55 MeV and 30.14 MeV, leading to two interesting exit channels. The first channel allows for the study of 12Be, while the second enables the study of 10Be. The emphasis of this paper will be on the latter, namely the analysis of the 9Be(11Be, 10Be) 10Be channel. This transfer reaction using a heavier-than-usual target has advantages over the traditional (d , p) methods, since the reactants are both equal in mass, they both scatter in the Printed Circuit Board-Based Charged Particle (PCB2) detector setup. The addition of TIGRESS allows precise tagging of the 10Be excited states. Some challenges in analysis include the 10Be degeneracy, 11Be breakup, and multiple particle excitation. The data and ongoing analysis will be presented. This work is partially supported by the US Department of Energy through Grant/Contract No. DE-FG03-93ER40789 (Colorado School of Mines).

  2. Formation of photosystem II reaction centers that work as energy sinks in lichen symbiotic Trebouxiophyceae microalgae. (United States)

    Guéra, Alfredo; Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva


    Lichens are poikilohydric symbiotic organisms that can survive in the absence of water. Photosynthesis must be highly regulated in these organisms, which live under continuous desiccation-rehydration cycles, to avoid photooxidative damage. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curves in the lichen microalgae of the Trebouxiophyceae Asterochloris erici and in Trebouxia jamesii (TR1) and Trebouxia sp. (TR9) phycobionts, isolated from the lichen Ramalina farinacea, shows differences with higher plants. In the presence of the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor DCMU, the kinetics of Q(A) reduction is related to variable fluorescence by a sigmoidal function that approaches a horizontal asymptote. An excellent fit to these curves was obtained by applying a model based on the following assumptions: (1) after closure, the reaction centers (RCs) can be converted into "energy sink" centers (sRCs); (2) the probability of energy leaving the sRCs is very low or zero and (3) energy is not transferred from the antenna of PSII units with sRCs to other PSII units. The formation of sRCs units is also induced by repetitive light saturating pulses or at the transition from dark to light and probably requires the accumulation of reduced Q(A), as well as structural changes in the reaction centers of PSII. This type of energy sink would provide a very efficient way to protect symbiotic microalgae against abrupt changes in light intensity.

  3. A search for glueballs in the central region in the reaction pp /r arrow/ p/sub f/(X/sup 0/)ps at 300 GeV/c using the CERN. cap omega. spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T. A.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Caponero, M.; Carney, J. N.; Childs, R.; French, B. R.; Ghidini, B.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; and others


    The aim of this experiment is to search for gluonic mesons in the reaction pp /r arrow/ pf(X/sup 0/)p/sub s/ at 300 GeV//ital c/ incident momentum, where the X/sup 0/ system is a centrally produced meson. Preliminary results are presented on the two-body (..pi../sup +//pi/minus//, K/sup +/K/sup /minus//, K/sup 0//sub S/K/sup 0//sub S/, p/bar p/), three body (K/sup 0//sub S/K/sup +-//pi/plus minus//) and four-body (2..pi../sup +/2..pi../sup /minus//) decays of the X/sup 0/ system.

  4. The use of unburned propellant powder for shooting-distance determination. Part II: Diphenylamine reaction. (United States)

    Hofer, Rolf; Wyss, Philipp


    Shooting samples were produced on standard textile pats of six different ammunition types: four ammunitions with exclusively infrared luminescent propellant powder particles, one containing a mixture of luminescent and non-luminescent particles and one with only non-luminescent particles. Unburned propellant powder particles in the gunshot residue (GSR) on the textile of each sample were transferred onto TLC-plates with the aid of an organic solvent. The patterns of the partially and the all-luminescent propellant powder residue on the TLC-plates were visualized in the near infrared wavelength range by the aid of an IR-sensitive camera. The transfer TLC-plates of all six ammunition types were sprayed with a diphenylamine solution, which reacts with the nitrate groups of the nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine and produces deep blue dots thereof. A series of samples with different shooting distances produced with one of the ammunition types was used for the shooting distance determination study. Transfer on TLC-plates was performed and pictures of the plates were taken before and after the chemical reaction. An imaging software was used to measure the density of the particles on the transfer TLC-plate pictures within a defined area around the bullet hole. Curves were drawn with the particle density data vs. the shooting distance. It has been shown, that the transfer of the particles onto a TLC-plate and the chemical reaction eliminate the limitations of the IR-method presented in Part I. Therefore, this method allows shooting distance determination at any textile and for any ammunition type as soon as unburned propellant powder particles are left on the target tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Science spin: iPS cell research in the news. (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Rachul, C


    Big scientific developments have always been spun to meet particular social agendas. We have seen it in the context of global warming, nuclear power, and genetically modified organisms. But few stories illustrate the phenomenon of spin as well as the reaction, and concomitant media coverage, that surrounded the November 2007 announcement regarding the reprogramming of skin cells to produce cells with qualities comparable to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  6. Sonication-assisted synthesis of polystyrene (PS)/organoclay nanocomposites: influence of clay content (United States)

    Suresh, Kelothu; Kumar, R. Vinoth; Kumar, Manish; Jeyapriya, M.; Anbarasan, R.; Pugazhenthi, G.


    This article presents the synthesis of a series of polystyrene (PS)/organoclay nanocomposite films consisting of different contents of clay (1-7 wt%) by sonication-coupled solvent-blending technique. The prepared PS nanocomposite films were characterized using various techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD and TEM results revealed the formation of exfoliated nanocomposites at lower loading of organoclay (<5 wt%). The presence of various functional groups in the organoclay and PS/organoclay nanocomposite was verified by FTIR spectra. The thermal stability of PS nanocomposites was significantly improved as compared to pristine PS, which is evident from TGA analysis. When 10% mass loss was chosen as a point of reference, the thermal degradation temperature of PS nanocomposite holding 7 wt% of organoclay was found to be 30 °C more over pristine PS. The thermal kinetic parameters such as activation energy ( E a), pre-exponential factor ( A), and the order of reaction ( n) were determined by employing the Coats-Redfern model. Thermal degradation reaction mechanism of PS nanocomposites was also investigated.

  7. A study of fundamental reaction pathways for transition metal alkyl complexes. I. The reaction of a nickel methyl complex with alkynes. Ii. The mechanism of aldehyde formation in the reaction of a molybdenum hydride with molybdenum alkyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, John Mitchell [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl-acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO)3H (1a) with CpMo(CO)3R (2, R= CH3, C2H5) at 50°C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO)3]2 (3a) and [CpMo(CO)2]2 (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand

  8. Mechanism of crosslinking of proteins by glutaraldehyde II. Reaction with monomeric and polymeric collagen. (United States)

    Cheung, D T; Nimni, M E


    Collagen in three different states, i.e. native soluble molecules, denatured molecules and reconstituted fibers, was exposed to various concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The degree of intramolecular and intermolecular crosslink formation was evaluated by measuring collagen solubility, beta and gamma chain formation, resistance towards cleavage by CNBr or collagenase digestion. Modification of lysyl residues was measured by amino acid analysis. When dilute collagen solutions were reacted with low concentrations of glutaraldehyde, intramolecular crosslinks were observed as the predominant crosslinks. When the glutaraldehyde concentration was increased, the collagen became more insoluble, indicating the formation of intermolecular crosslinks. When reconstituted collagen fibers were reacted with low concentrations of glutaraldehyde, intermolecular crosslinks were formed, which prevented the material from being solubilized by CNBr. However, these materials could still be solubilized by collagenase. When the glutaraldehyde concentration was increased, the materials became resistant to collagenase, while there was only a small increase in the number of lysyl residues modified. This reflects an increase in the molecular length of the glutaraldehyde polymers extending from the initial glutaraldehyde and lysyl residue reaction sites rather than an increase in the actual number of crosslinking sites.

  9. Novel Interecting Blends Based on Amino Terminited Oligoimides by Using Michael Addition Reaction-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Patel


    Full Text Available New amino terminated oligoimides (AOIs were prepared by the Michael addition reaction of various bismaleimide (1, namely, 1-(4-((4-((2, 5-dioxocyclopent-3 enylamino methyl cyclohexyl methyl cyclohexyl-1, 6-dihydropyridine-2, 5-dione with excess of various diamines (2a-c. These AOIs were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectral studies and number average molecular weight estimated by non-aqueous conductometric titrations. AOIs were then treated with acrylol chloride and resultant acryl terminated oligoimides (AcOIs samples were also characterized thermogravimetrically. Each of these AcOI was then combined with the N-phenyl maleimide (PM in THF solvent. The resultant suspensions were then heated in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator. The AcOI and PM polymerized through double bond simultaneously and form interacting blends, which were analyzed thermogravimetrically. The glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by using the suspensions of the AcOI and PM. The composites of Interacting blends were analyzed for their mechanical, chemical and electrical properties.

  10. Substitution reactions of cis-dichloro(2,2′-biquinolinepalladium(II with amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukarram H. Zaghal


    Full Text Available The substitution reactions of the 2,2′-biquinoline (biq complex cis-[Pd(biqCl2] with different amino acids, namely, glycine (glyH, l-serine (serH, l-tyrosine (tyrH, l-phenylalanine (pheH and l-alanine (alaH have been investigated. The new complexes [Pd(biq(gly]Cl, [Pd(biq(ser]PF6·0.5H2O, [Pd(biq(tyr2], [Pd(biq(tyr]PF6·H2O, [Pd(biq(phe2]·2.5H2O, [Pd(biq(phe]PF6·H2O and [Pd(biq(ala]Cl.1·5H2O have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, electronic absorption and 1H and 13C NMR spectra. Based on these data all amino acid anions are found to act as bidentates except tyrosinate and phenylalanilate which behave also as monodentates.

  11. Electrostatics of proteins in dielectric solvent continua. II. Hamiltonian reaction field dynamics. (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Tavan, Paul; Mathias, Gerald


    In Paper I of this work [S. Bauer, G. Mathias, and P. Tavan, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104102 (2014)] we have presented a reaction field (RF) method, which accurately solves the Poisson equation for proteins embedded in dielectric solvent continua at a computational effort comparable to that of polarizable molecular mechanics (MM) force fields. Building upon these results, here we suggest a method for linearly scaling Hamiltonian RF/MM molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which we call "Hamiltonian dielectric solvent" (HADES). First, we derive analytical expressions for the RF forces acting on the solute atoms. These forces properly account for all those conditions, which have to be self-consistently fulfilled by RF quantities introduced in Paper I. Next we provide details on the implementation, i.e., we show how our RF approach is combined with a fast multipole method and how the self-consistency iterations are accelerated by the use of the so-called direct inversion in the iterative subspace. Finally we demonstrate that the method and its implementation enable Hamiltonian, i.e., energy and momentum conserving HADES-MD, and compare in a sample application on Ac-Ala-NHMe the HADES-MD free energy landscape at 300 K with that obtained in Paper I by scanning of configurations and with one obtained from an explicit solvent simulation.

  12. Models for cytochrome P450 prosthetic heme alkylation. Reaction of diazoacetophenone with (tetraphenylporphyrinato)iron(II) chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komives, E.A.; Tew, D.; Olmstead, M.M.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.


    The reaction of diazoacetophenone with (tetraphenylporphyrinato)iron(II) yields (N-(2-phenyl-2-oxoethyl)tetraphenylporphyrinato)iron(II) chloride. The structure of this product has been established by spectroscopic methods and by x-ray crystallography. The crystal structure shows that the first carbon of the N-alkyl group is 2.94 /angstrom/ from the iron atom and that the oxygen of the N-alkyl group points away from the iron. No evidence is seen for the Fe-C-N product expected from insertion of the diazo carbon into the metalloporphyrin iron-nitrogen bond or for intermediates in which the oxygen of the N-(2-phenyl-2-oxoethyl) group is coordinated to the iron. These results suggest it is unlikely that carbene-insertion or oxygen-coordinated intermediates will be detected during the N-alkylation of cytochrome P450 by diazo ketones. The results also rationalize the failure to detect iron-chelated enol species during N-alkylation of the prosthetic group of cytochrome P450 by catalytically activated phenylacetylene. 43 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Reaction Rate Benchmark Experiments with Miniature Fission Chambers at the Slovenian TRIGA Mark II Reactor (United States)

    Štancar, Žiga; Kaiba, Tanja; Snoj, Luka; Barbot, Loïc; Destouches, Christophe; Fourmentel, Damien; Villard, Jean-François AD(; )


    A series of fission rate profile measurements with miniature fission chambers, developed by the Commisariat á l'énergie atomique et auxénergies alternatives, were performed at the Jožef Stefan Institute's TRIGA research reactor. Two types of fission chambers with different fissionable coating (235U and 238U) were used to perform axial fission rate profile measurements at various radial positions and several control rod configurations. The experimental campaign was supported by an extensive set of computations, based on a validated Monte Carlo computational model of the TRIGA reactor. The computing effort included neutron transport calculations to support the planning and design of the experiments as well as calculations to aid the evaluation of experimental and computational uncertainties and major biases. The evaluation of uncertainties was performed by employing various types of sensitivity analyses such as experimental parameter perturbation and core reaction rate gradient calculations. It has been found that the experimental uncertainty of the measurements is sufficiently low, i.e. the total relative fission rate uncertainty being approximately 5 %, in order for the experiments to serve as benchmark experiments for validation of fission rate profiles. The effect of the neutron flux redistribution due to the control rod movement was studied by performing measurements and calculations of fission rates and fission chamber responses in different axial and radial positions at different control rod configurations. It was confirmed that the control rod movement affects the position of the maximum in the axial fission rate distribution, as well as the height of the local maxima. The optimal detector position, in which the redistributions would have minimum effect on its signal, was determined.

  14. Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Swann, A R; Deller, A; Gribakin, G F


    Predicted twenty years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A new scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer-reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for Ps charge transfer in collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.

  15. [Photosystem II characteristics of nine Gramineae species in southern Taklamakan Desert]. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Xiang-yi; Lin, Li-sha; Wang, Ying-ju; Xue, Wei


    Taking the Gramineae species Elytrigia intermedia, Avena sativa, Bromus inermis, Elymus sibiricus, Leymus tianschanicus, Elymus dahuricus, Festuca elata, Agropyron cristatum, and Puccinellia distans at the edge of Cele Oasis in southern Taklimakan Desert as test objects, this paper monitored their fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics after 20 minutes adaptation in darkness, compared their photosystem II (PS II) characteristics, and analyzed their adaptability to the local environment. Among the nine Gramineae species, L. tianschanicus and E. dahuricus had markedly higher values of maximum fluorescence yield (F(m)), maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)), and active reaction centers per cross-section (RC/CS0), but lower values of minimum fluorescence yield (F0), absorption flux per reaction center (ABC/RC), maximal trapping flux per reaction center (TR0/RC), flux of dissipated excitation energy per reaction center (DI0/RC), and initial slope of fluorescence intensity (M0), as compared to F. elata, A. cristatum, and P. distans, whereas E. intermedia, A. sativa, B. inermis, and E. sibiricus had a medium level of the values. These results suggested that all the test pasture species were suffered from the severe environmental conditions of Cele Oasis to some extent, as indicated by the inactivation of PS II reaction center and the depression of electron transport chain. L. tianschanicus and E. dahuricus were least impacted, while F. elata, A. cristatum, and P. distans were most impacted.

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Hexakis(imidazole nickel (II O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate [Ni(Im6](Ph2O2PS22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Jiao


    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of [Ni(Im6](dtp2 (Im = imidazole, dtp = O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate have been determined by X-ray crystallography. It crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group Pī, with cell parameters a = 9.375 (2, b = 12.324(3, c = 13.285(3 Å, α = 107.86(3, β = 102.28(3, γ = 109.24(3, and Z = 1. The crystal structure of the title compound is built up of discrete monomeric molecules of [Ni(Im6](dtp2. The nickel (II ion is hexacoordinated by six imidazole molecules and the coordination environment of Ni (II is of octahedral geometry. In the solid state, a network of N-H···S intermolecular hydrogen bonds connect the Ni(Im6 moieties and O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate molecules, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  17. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server. (United States)

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun


    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20-24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to 'open' secondary structure around small RNA's target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at

  18. The directed differentiation of human iPS cells into kidney podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Song

    Full Text Available The loss of glomerular podocytes is a key event in the progression of chronic kidney disease resulting in proteinuria and declining function. Podocytes are slow cycling cells that are considered terminally differentiated. Here we provide the first report of the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate kidney cells with podocyte features. The iPS-derived podocytes share a morphological phenotype analogous with cultured human podocytes. Following 10 days of directed differentiation, iPS podocytes had an up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein localization for podocyte markers including synaptopodin, nephrin and Wilm's tumour protein (WT1, combined with a down-regulation of the stem cell marker OCT3/4. In contrast to human podocytes that become quiescent in culture, iPS-derived cells maintain a proliferative capacity suggestive of a more immature phenotype. The transduction of iPS podocytes with fluorescent labeled-talin that were immunostained with podocin showed a cytoplasmic contractile response to angiotensin II (AII. A permeability assay provided functional evidence of albumin uptake in the cytoplasm of iPS podocytes comparable to human podocytes. Moreover, labeled iPS-derived podocytes were found to integrate into reaggregated metanephric kidney explants where they incorporated into developing glomeruli and co-expressed WT1. This study establishes the differentiation of iPS cells to kidney podocytes that will be useful for screening new treatments, understanding podocyte pathogenesis, and offering possibilities for regenerative medicine.

  19. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I


    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  20. Enhanced personal protection at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier Genoud


    Pictures 03, 06, 07 08 : Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system.Pictures 10, 12 ,13 : View of Building 271, the future control centre of the new PS complex safety system.

  1. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server


    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  2. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh


    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  3. Mechanistic studies on the reaction between cob(II)alamin and peroxynitrite: evidence for a dual role for cob(II)alamin as a scavenger of peroxynitrous acid and nitrogen dioxide. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Riya; Brasch, Nicola E


    Peroxynitrite/peroxynitrous acid (ONOO(-)/ONOOH; pK(a(ONOOH)) =6.8) is implicated in multiple chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Both mammalian B(12)-dependent enzymes are inactivated under oxidative stress conditions. We report studies on the kinetics of the reaction between peroxynitrite/peroxynitrous acid and a major intracellular vitamin B(12) form, cob(II)alamin (Cbl(II)), using stopped-flow spectroscopy. The pH dependence of the reaction is consistent with peroxynitrous acid reacting directly with Cbl(II) to give cob(III)alamin (Cbl(III)) and (.)NO(2) , followed by a subsequent rapid reaction between (.)NO(2) and a second molecule of Cbl(II) to primarily form nitrocobalamin. In support of this mechanism, a Cbl(II)/ONOO(H) stoichiometry of 2:1 is observed at pH 7.35 and 12.0. The final major Cbl(III) product observed (nitrocobalamin or hydroxycobalamin) depends on the solution pH. Analysis of the reaction products in the presence of tyrosine-a well-established (.)NO(2) scavenger-reveals that Cbl(II) reacts with (.)NO(2) at least an order of magnitude faster than tyrosine itself. Given that protein-bound Cbl is accessible to small molecules, it is likely that enzyme-bound and free intracellular Cbl(II) molecules are rapidly oxidized to inactive Cbl(III) upon exposure to peroxynitrite or (.)NO(2). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oscillatory reactions in the acetone-glucose-sodium bromate-sulfuric acid system with a tetraazamacrocyclic copper (II complex as a catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lin


    Full Text Available The behavior of glycolysis concerning the biochemical reaction was thought to be similar to the oscillatory reaction with glucose being the substrate. The objective of this research is to find a new oscillatory system and study its relevant properties, so new Cu (II-catalyzed oscillating reaction involved glucose and acetone as the double substrates was investigated systematically. As a function of reaction temperature and concentration of glucose, bromate, and acetone, the features in this novel oscillation system was studied. The results showed that the activation energy reached up to 90.839 KJ/mol and the oxidized product of the double substrates provided the impetus in the course of the new oscillating reaction. A tentative mechanism was considered on the basis of FNK.

  5. Analysis of subthreshold anti-proton production at KEK-PS and anti-proton potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, T. [Nihon Univ., College of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Using the RBUU approach we calculate the subthreshold production of antiprotons in the p- and d-nucleus reactions done by the KEK-ps collaboration. Then we attempt to determine the depth of the anti-proton potential at the normal nuclear density from experimental data of these reactions, by introducing the (author)

  6. A routine method to determine the chlorophyll a, pheophytin a and B-carotene contents of isolated photosystem II reaction center complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijckelhoff, C.; Dekker, J.P.


    The most simple way in which the stoichiometry of chlorophyll a, pheophytin a and ̄-carotene in isolated Photosystem II reaction center complexes can be determined is by analysis of the spectrum of the extracted pigments in 80% acetone. We present two different calculation methods using the

  7. Mixing of exciton and charge-transfer states in Photosystem II reaction centers: Modeling of stark spectra with modified redfield theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novoderezhkin, V.I.; Dekker, J.P.; van Grondelle, R.


    We propose an exciton model for the Photosystem II reaction center (RC) based on a quantitative simultaneous fit of the absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism, steady-state fluorescence, triplet-minus-singlet, and Stark spectra together with the spectra of pheophytin-modified RCs, and

  8. Enzyme immunoassay of serum beta-2-microglobulin levels in various histological forms of leprosy with special reference to its elevation in type I and type II lepra reactions. (United States)

    Saha, K; Bhatnagar, A; Sharma, V K; Chakrabarty, A K


    The mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum (3,362 +/- 2,494 micrograms/liter) for 76 leprosy patients, including 9 borderline-tuberculoid, 8 borderline-borderline, 9 borderline-lepromatous, and 16 lepromatous-lepromatous patients and 34 patients with type I or type II lepra reactions, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than that (2,122 +/- 1,844 micrograms/liter) for 35 normal subjects. It decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) as the disease glided down from borderline tuberculoid (3,173 +/- 899 micrograms/liter) to the lepromatous end (1,813 +/- 1,391 micrograms/liter). At the onset of type I or type II reaction, the mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum increased (4,447 +/- 2,863 micrograms/liter), and it remained unchanged (4,433 +/- 2,623 micrograms/liter) after clinical remission. The beta-2-microglobulin level in serum decreased in 55.5% of the patients tested after subsidence of reaction. The level was significantly higher in patients with type II reactions (5,433 +/- 3,299 micrograms/liter) than in patients with type I reactions (3,558 +/- 2,171 micrograms/liter).

  9. Non-noble metal graphene oxide-copper (II) ions hybrid electrodes for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Muralikrishna, S.


    Non-noble metal and inexpensive graphene oxide-copper (II) ions (GO-Cu2+) hybrid catalysts have been explored for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We were able to tune the binding abilities of GO toward the Cu2+ ions and hence their catalytic properties by altering the pH. We have utilized the oxygen functional moieties such as carboxylate, epoxide, and hydroxyl groups on the edge and basal planes of the GO for binding the Cu2+ ions through dative bonds. The GO-Cu2+ hybrid materials were characterized by cyclic voltammetry in sodium acetate buffer solution. The morphology of the hybrid GO-Cu2+ was characterized by atomic force microscopy. The GO-Cu2+ hybrid electrodes show good electrocatalytic activity for HER with low overpotential in acidic solution. The Tafel slope for the GO-Cu2+ hybrid electrode implies that the primary discharge step is the rate determining step and HER proceed with Volmer step. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  10. The nitroxide Tempo inhibits hydroxyl radical production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Shi, Fengqiang; Zhang, Peifeng; Mao, Yujia; Wang, Can; Zheng, Meiqing; Zhao, Zhongwei


    In vivo physiological ligand citrate can bind iron(II) ions to form the iron(II)-citrate complex. Inhibition of hydroxyl radical (OH) production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with H2O2 is biologically important, as this reaction may account for one of the mechanisms of the labile iron pool in vivo to induce oxidative stress and pathological conditions. Nitroxides have promising potentials as therapeutic antioxidants. However, there are controversial findings indicating that they not only act as antioxidants but also as pro-oxidants when engaged in Fenton reactions. Although the underlying mechanisms are proposed to be the inhibition or enhancement of the OH production by nitroxides, the proposed elucidations are only based on assessing biological damages and not demonstrated directly by measuring the OH production in the presence of nitroxides. In this study, therefore, we employed EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies to show direct evidence that nitroxide 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (Tempo) inhibited OH production from the Fenton-like reaction of iron(II)-citrate with H2O2 by up to 90%. We also demonstrated spectrophotometrically, for the first time, that this inhibition was due to oxidation of the iron(II)-citrate by Tempo with a stoichiometry of Tempo:Iron(III)-citrate = 1.1:1.0. A scheme was proposed to illustrate the roles of nitroxides engaged in Fenton/Fenton-like reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the crystallization behavior of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers, atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends, and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Liana, E-mail: [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Monasse, Bernard, E-mail: [Mines-ParisTech, CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7635, Sophia Antipolis (France); Rizzo, Paola; Guerra, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università degli studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Duc, Michel [Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy, Zone Industrielle Feluy C, B-7181 Seneffe (Belgium); Carpentier, Jean-François, E-mail: [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)


    Crystallization and morphological features of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers (sPS-b-aPS), atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends (aPS/sPS), and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS, with different compositions in aPS and sPS, have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) techniques. For comparative purposes, the properties of parent pristine sPS samples were also studied. WAXRD analyses revealed for all the samples, independently from their composition (aPS/sPS ratio) and structure (blends, block copolymers, blends modified with block copolymers), the same polymorphic β form of sPS. The molecular weight of aPS and sPS showed opposite effects on the crystallization of 50:50 aPS/sPS blends: the lower the molecular weight of aPS, the slower the crystallization while the lower the molecular weight of sPS, the faster the crystallization. DSC studies performed under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, independently confirmed by POM studies, led to a clear trend for the crystallization rate at a given sPS/aPS ratio (ca. 50:50 and 20:80): sPS homopolymers > sPS-b-aPS block copolymers ∼sPS/aPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS copolymers > sPS/aPS blends. Interestingly, sPS-b-aPS block copolymers not only crystallized faster than blends, but also affected positively the crystallization behavior of blends. At 50:50 sPS/aPS ratio, blends (Blend-2), block copolymers (Cop-1) and blends modified with block copolymers (Blend-2-mod) crystallized via spherulitic crystalline growth controlled by an interfacial process. In all cases, an instantaneous nucleation was observed. The density of nuclei in block copolymers (160,000−190,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}) was always higher than that in blends and modified blends (30,000−60,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}), even for quite different sPS/aPS ratio. At 20:80 sPS/aPS ratio, the block copolymers

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations. (United States)

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim


    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  13. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski


    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  14. Yasp for LEIR to PS injection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A; Jacquet, D; Nicosia, D; Pasinelli, S; Wenninger, J


    The steering program YASP was introduced in the LEIRinjection as well as the extraction lines in 2016 to correctthe trajectories with well-known model based correctionalgorithms such as MICADO or SVD. In addition a YASPconfiguration was prepared to correct the extraction linetogether with the first turn of the PS. In this way the injectionoscillations can be corrected while keeping the trajectoryreasonable in the PS injection line.

  15. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see the PS magnet string awaiting the replacement no. 6 magnet.

  16. Arsenic(III) and iron(II) co-oxidation by oxygen and hydrogen peroxide: divergent reactions in the presence of organic ligands. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Bush, Richard T; Liu, Jianshe


    Iron-catalyzed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) can be highly effective for toxic arsenic removal via Fenton reaction and Fe(II) oxygenation. However, the contribution of ubiquitous organic ligands is poorly understood, despite its significant role in redox chemistry of arsenic in natural and engineered systems. In this work, selected naturally occurring organic ligands and synthetic ligands in co-oxidation of Fe(II) and As(III) were examined as a function of pH, Fe(II), H2O2, and radical scavengers (methanol and 2-propanol) concentration. As(III) was not measurably oxidised in the presence of excess ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (i.e. Fe(II):EDTAoxidation of Fe(II) by O2 and H2O2 at neutral pH under the same conditions. However, partial oxidation of As(III) was observed at a 2:1 ratio of Fe(II):EDTA. Rapid Fe(II) oxidation in the presence of organic ligands did not necessarily result in the coupled As(III) oxidation. Organic ligands act as both iron speciation regulators and radicals scavengers. Further quenching experiments suggested both hydroxyl radicals and high-valent Fe species contributed to As(III) oxidation. The present findings are significant for the better understanding of aquatic redox chemistry of iron and arsenic in the environment and for optimization of iron-catalyzed arsenic remediation technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of thiocyanate by extraction as bisthiocyanatobisquinolinemercury(II) complex and its ligand substitution reaction with dithizone. (United States)

    Einaga, H; Ishii, H; Iwasaki, I


    Thiocyanate forms with mercury(II) in the presence of quinoline a mixed-ligand mercury(II) complex, bisthiocyanatobisquinolinemercury(II), and is extracted into chloroform. This mixed-ligand complex is treated with dithizone and forms the bisdithizonatomercury(II) complex. Maximum and constant absorbance of the dithizone complex is obtained when thiocyanate is extracted at pH 5.1-6.5, and Beer's law is obeyed at 498 nm, where the difference in absorbance between the dithizone complex and dithizone is largest. Chloride, bromide, iodide, cyanide and large amounts of ammonium and copper(II) ions interfere.

  18. Molecular operation of metals into the function and state of photosystem II. (United States)

    Gaziyev, Arif; Aliyeva, Samira; Kurbanova, Inna; Ganiyeva, Rena; Bayramova, Sona; Gasanov, Ralphreed


    Action sites of different metals in the electron transport reactions of Photosystem II (PS II) evaluated by delayed fluorescence in the ms range (ms DF) and pigment-pigment, pigment-protein and protein-protein interaction states by electrophoretic measurements are presented. The main targets for the metals action were shown to be:(i) Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+)-Y(z) or CaMn(4)-cluster on the donor site with dependence on pH;(ii) Ni(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+), Mn(2+) between Q(A) and Q(B) on the acceptor site; effect of Al(3+) and Mn(2+) is observed only in acidic pH. Investigated metals bring about monomerization of oligomeric and dimeric chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPC) and destabilization of protein-protein interactions. Molecular mechanisms of metals interference with the structure of PS II are discussed.

  19. Construction of new biopolymer (chitosan)-based pincer-type Pd(II) complex and its catalytic application in Suzuki cross coupling reactions (United States)

    Baran, Talat; Menteş, Ayfer


    In this paper we described the fabrication, characterization and application of a new biopolymer (chitosan)-based pincer-type Pd(II) catalyst in Suzuki cross coupling reactions using a non-toxic, cheap, eco-friendly and practical method. The catalytic activity tests showed remarkable product yields as well as TON (19800) and TOF (330000) values with a small catalyst loading. In addition, the catalyst indicated good recyclability in the Suzuki C-C reaction. This biopolymer supported catalyst can be used with various catalyst systems due to its unique properties, such as being inert, green in nature, low cost and chemically durable.

  20. Functionalization of Azacalixaromatics by Cu(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cross-Coupling Reaction between the Arene C-H Bond and Boronic Acids. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Long, Chao; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Mei-Xiang


    Catalyzed by Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O under mild aerobic conditions using air as the oxidant, azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines underwent a highly efficient oxidative cross-coupling reaction with a large number of aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkylboronic acids to afford diverse functionalized macrocycles. Stoichiometric reactions of an arylboronic acid with isolated and structurally well-defined high valent organocopper compounds indicated the involvement of arylcopper(II) rather than arylcopper(III) species as an organometallic intermediate in catalysis.

  1. Low energy o-Ps-o-Ps elastic scattering using a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanshu, Sharma [Veer Kunwar Singh Univ., Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Kiran, Kumari [R N College, P. G. Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Sumana, Chakraborty [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Dept. of Theoretical Physics (India)


    A simple model is employed to investigate o-Ps-o-Ps (positronium-positronium) scattering at low energies. This model contains the effect of exchange explicitly and a model long range potential in the framework of static-exchange model. These two physical features are of key importance in Ps-Ps (atom-atom) scattering system. S-wave triplet-triplet and singlet-singlet scattering lengths and corresponding phase shifts up to the incident momentum k = 0.5 a.u. are in excellent agreement with those yielded by most elaborate and theoretically sound predictions. (authors)

  2. Reaction dynamics during pulsed light activation of ATX-S10 Na(II)-sensitized cell cultures: analysis based on fluorescence-oxygen diagram (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Makoto


    To elucidate the mechanism of photosensitization with pulsed light excitation, we previously introduced fluorescence-oxygen diagram that shows the correlation between photochemical oxygen consumption and photobleaching during a treatment (Kawauchi et al., Photochem. Photobiol., 80, 216-223, 2004). In pulsed photodynamic treatment of A549 cells with ATX-S10"Na(II), the diagrams for treatments at relatively high repetition rates of 10 and 30 Hz showed the complex behaviors of photochemical reaction; photobleaching initially occurred with oxygen consumption but it was switched to oxygen-independent photobleaching, which was followed by a secondary oxygen-consuming regime. In this study, fluorescence microscopy revealed that for treatments at 10 and 30 Hz, subcellular fluorescence distribution of ATX-S10×Na(II) changed drastically from the high-intensity spotty patterns showing lysosomal accumulation to the diffusive patterns within the cytosol during certain ranges of total light dose. These ranges were found to coincide with those in which oxygen-independent reaction appeared. These findings suggest that the sensitizer started to be redistributed from lysosomes to the cytosol during the oxygen-independent reaction regime. On the other hand, at 5 Hz, such reaction switching was not clearly seen during whole irradiation period in the diagram; this was consistent with the observation that sensitizer redistribution efficiently occurred even in the early phase of irradiation. The appearance of oxygen-independent reaction at the higher repetition rates may be caused by high local concentration of the sensitizer and the resultant low concentration of oxygen in the reaction sites due to the shorter pulse-to-pulse time intervals. In pulsed photodynamic treatment, pulse frequency is an important parameter that affects the intracellular kinetics of the sensitizer and hence the photochemical reaction dynamics.

  3. Photosystem II electron flow as a measure for phytoplankton gross primary production = [Fotosysteem II elektronentransport als een maat voor de bruto primaire produktie van fytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, C.


    Saturating pulse fluorescence measurements, well known from studies of higher plants for determination of photosystem II (PS II) characteristics, were applied to cultures of the green alga Dunaliella teitiolecta (Chapter 2). The actual efficiency of PS IIPS

  4. Ultrafast Primary Reactions in the Photosystems of Oxygen-Evolving Organisms (United States)

    Holzwarth, A. R.

    In oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms (plants, green algae, cyanobacteria), the primary steps of photosynthesis occur in two membrane-bound protein supercomplexes, Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II), located in the thylakoid membrane (c.f. Fig. 7.1) along with two other important protein complexes, the cytochrome b6/f complex and the ATP-synthase [1]. Each of the photosystems consists of a reaction center (RC) where the photoinduced early electron transfer processes occur, of a so-called core antenna consisting of chlorophyll (Chl) protein complexes responsible for light absorption and ultrafast energy transfer to the RC pigments, and additional peripheral antenna complexes of various kinds that increase the absorption cross-section. The peripheral complexes are Chl a/b-protein complexes in higher plants and green algae (LHC I or LHC II for PS I or PS II, respectively) and so-called phycobilisomes in cyanobacteria and red algae [2-4]. The structures and light-harvesting functions of these antenna systems have been extensively reviewed [2, 5-9]. Recently, X-ray structures of both PS I and PS II antenna/RC complexes have been determined, some to atomic resolution. Although many details of the pigment content and organization of the RCs and antenna systems of PS I and PS II have been known before, the high resolution structures of the integral complexes allow us for the first time to try to understand structure/function relationships in detail. This article covers our present understanding of the ultrafast energy transfer and early electron transfer processes occurring in the photosystems of oxygen-evolving organisms. The main emphasis will be on the electron transfer processes. However, in both photosystems the kinetics of the energy transfer processes in the core antennae is intimately interwoven with the kinetics of the electron transfer steps. Since both types of processes occur on a similar time scale, their kinetics cannot be considered

  5. The Effects of Mixing, Reaction Rates, and Stoichiometry on Yield for Mixing Sensitive Reactions—Part II: Design Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran A. Shah


    Full Text Available Competitive-consecutive and competitive-parallel reactions are both mixing sensitive reactions where the yield of desired product depends on how fast the reactants are brought together. Recent experimental results have suggested that the magnitude of the mixing effect may depend strongly on the stoichiometry of the reactions. To investigate this, a 1D, dimensionless, reaction-diffusion model was developed at the micromixing scale, yielding a single general Damköhler number. Dimensionless reaction rate ratios were derived for both reaction schemes. A detailed investigation of the effects of initial mixing condition (striation thickness, dimensionless reaction rate ratio, and reaction stoichiometry on the yield of desired product showed that the stoichiometry has a considerable effect on yield. All three variables were found to interact strongly. Model results for 12 stoichiometries are used to determine the mixing scale and relative rate ratio needed to achieve a specified yield for each reaction scheme. The results show that all three variables need to be considered when specifying reactors for mixing sensitive reactions.

  6. Characterization of the thrombospondin (TSP)-II gene in Penaeus monodon and a novel role of TSP-like proteins in an induction of shrimp sperm acrosome reaction. (United States)

    Magerd, Sirilug; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana


    We have recently shown that water-soluble materials from the egg extracellular cortical rods (wsCRs) exert the ability to induce the sperm acrosome reaction in Penaeus monodon. In this study, we further demonstrated that the thrombospondin protein family (TSP) existed in wsCRs, and that their mRNA transcripts were detected in developing oocytes as early as stage I. Full sequence analysis revealed that our pmTSP sequence was considerably different from the recently reported pmTSP in the 5' nonconserved region and in many TSP signature domains, hence, the name pmTSP-II was given to our variant. The transcripts of pmTSP-II were detected only in early developing oocytes (stage-I and -II) while TSP-like proteins were detected in all developing oocytes, particularly at the outer rim of cortical rods situated in the extracellular crypts of the mature, stage-IV oocytes. In addition, wsCRs contained anti-TSP-reactive proteins, suggesting that TSP-like proteins are dissolved in and are part of the egg water during spawning. The functional importance of TSP-like proteins was evident by the interference of a wsCR-induced acrosome reaction response with anti-TSP in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, we found that pmTSP-II transcripts were present in the developing oocytes and pmTSP-II protein accumulated in cortical rods, which are partly secreted and thus solubilized to produce dissolved TSP-like proteins that participate in induction of the sperm acrosome reaction-a novel reproductive role for TSP protein family. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Site Energies of Active and Inactive Pheophytins in the Reaction Center of Photosystem II from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, K.; Neupane, B.; Zazubovich, V.; Sayre, R. T.; Picorel, R.; Seibert, M.; Jankowiak, R.


    It is widely accepted that the primary electron acceptor in various Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC) preparations is pheophytin {alpha} (Pheo {alpha}) within the D1 protein (Pheo{sub D1}), while Pheo{sub D2} (within the D2 protein) is photochemically inactive. The Pheo site energies, however, have remained elusive, due to inherent spectral congestion. While most researchers over the past two decades placed the Q{sub y}-states of Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} bands near 678-684 and 668-672 nm, respectively, recent modeling [Raszewski et al. Biophys. J. 2005, 88, 986-998; Cox et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 12364-12374] of the electronic structure of the PSII RC reversed the assignment of the active and inactive Pheos, suggesting that the mean site energy of Pheo{sub D1} is near 672 nm, whereas Pheo{sub D2} ({approx}677.5 nm) and Chl{sub D1} ({approx}680 nm) have the lowest energies (i.e., the Pheo{sub D2}-dominated exciton is the lowest excited state). In contrast, chemical pigment exchange experiments on isolated RCs suggested that both pheophytins have their Q{sub y} absorption maxima at 676-680 nm [Germano et al. Biochemistry 2001, 40, 11472-11482; Germano et al. Biophys. J. 2004, 86, 1664-1672]. To provide more insight into the site energies of both Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} (including the corresponding Q{sub x} transitions, which are often claimed to be degenerate at 543 nm) and to attest that the above two assignments are most likely incorrect, we studied a large number of isolated RC preparations from spinach and wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (at different levels of intactness) as well as the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (D2-L209H), in which the active branch Pheo{sub D1} is genetically replaced with chlorophyll {alpha} (Chl {alpha}). We show that the Q{sub x}-/Q{sub y}-region site energies of Pheo{sub D1} and Pheo{sub D2} are {approx}545/680 nm and {approx}541.5/670 nm, respectively, in good agreement with our previous assignment

  8. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer


    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  9. Reactions of the donor-stabilized silylene bis[N,N'-diisopropyl-benzamidinato(-)]silicon(II) with Brønsted acids. (United States)

    Junold, Konstantin; Sinner, Katharina; Baus, Johannes A; Burschka, Christian; Fonseca Guerra, Célia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Tacke, Reinhold


    Reaction of the donor-stabilized silylene 1 (which is three-coordinate in the solid state and four-coordinate in solution) with [HMCp(CO)3 ] (M=Mo, W; Cp=cyclopentadienyl) leads to the cationic five-coordinate silicon(IV) complexes 2 and 3, respectively, and reaction of 1 with CH3 COOH yields the neutral six-coordinate silicon(IV) complex 4. Compounds 2-4 were structurally characterized by crystal structure analyses and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies in the solid state and in solution. The formation of 2-4 can be formally described in terms of a Brønsted acid/base reaction, coupled with a redox process (Si(II) →Si(IV) , H(+) →H(-) ). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Measurement of the $^{232}$Th (n, $\\gamma$ )/$^{58}$Ni (n, p) reaction rate ratio in the leakage neutron field of CFBR-II fast burst reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Wang; Zihui, Ai; Chun, Zheng; Jian, Gong


    A ThO$_{2}$ sample with a nickel activation foil attached was irradiated in the leakage neutron field of CFBR-II reactor. The activities of the active products were measured after irradiation to obtain the reaction rates. The normalized reaction rates were also calculated based on the ENDF/B-VII.1, CENDL-3.1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases. The experimental reaction rate ratio is 4.37 with an uncertainty of 3.9\\% which is coincident with the ratios calculated based on the ENDFB-VII. 1, JENDL-4.0, BROND-2.2 databases, but is 11.2\\% larger than that based on CENDL-3.1 database.

  11. IgG antibody subclasses, tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma levels in patients with type II lepra reaction on thalidomide treatment. (United States)

    Partida-Sanchez, S; Favila-Castillo, L; Pedraza-Sanchez, S; Gomez-Melgar, M; Saul, A; Estrada-Parra, S; Estrada-Garcia, I


    A group of 9 Mexican lepromatous leprosy patients was studied at the beginning of a type II reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL) and after 1 or 2 months of thalidomide treatment. ENL patients at the onset of the reaction had slightly higher amounts of anti-Mycobacterium leprae IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, compared to similar lepromatous patients that did not develop ENL. Neither these antibody levels nor IgM and the other IgG subclasses were importantly modified after thalidomide treatment. Serum TNF was significantly higher in the patients that developed ENL compared to those that did not develop the reaction. TNF levels were slightly decreased after 1 month of thalidomide treatment and significantly decreased after 2 months of treatment. Serum IFN-gamma was significantly lower in patients at the onset of ENL and was increased after 1 and 2 months of thalidomide treatment.

  12. Organometallic Catalysis in Diene and Cyclo-olefin Polymerisation Processes. II. The Metathesis Reaction in Polymer Chemistry (United States)

    Dolgoplosk, B. A.; Korshak, Yu V.


    The development of ideas concerning the mechanism of the metathesis reaction and its employment in polymer chemistry are examined. The possible applications of the metathesis reaction in the synthesis of polymers by the polymerisation of cycloolefins and cyclodienes with ring opening and via the degradation of high-molecular-weight rubbers and their modification are discussed. The bibliography includes 160 references.

  13. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. These pictures show one of the magnets (no. 19) on the PS locomotive brought back into service for the removal and replacement operations.

  14. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice. (United States)

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K F; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun


    Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD.

  15. Cu (II-Catalyzed Asymmetric Henry Reaction with a Novel C1-Symmetric Aminopinane-Derived Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Filippova


    Full Text Available A novel C1-symmetric dinitrogen ligand was synthesized in high yield from commercially available (1R,2R,3R,5S-(−-isopinocampheylamine and 1-methyl-2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde. In combination with Cu(OAc2H2O, this new ligand promote the reaction between nitromethane and aliphatic aldehydes with high yields (up to 97% and moderate enantioselectivities (up to 67% ee. The reactions with benzaldehyde required prolonged reaction time that resulted in diminished yields, but accompanied with ee-values in the 55%–76% range.

  16. A recoil detector for the Internal Target Facility of AmPS (NIKHEF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sambeek, M.J.M.; Blok, H.P.


    A recoil detector has been built for internal target experiments with the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher and storage ring, AmPS, of NIKHEF. The detector was designed to detect low-energy (1-20 MeV/nucleon) and low-mass (A ≤ 4) recoiling nuclei emerging from electron-induced reactions. The detector

  17. A recoil detector for the internal target facility of AmPS (NIKHEF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sambeek, M.J.M.; Blok, H.P.; Dodge, G.E.; Heimberg, P.C.; Steenbakkers, M.F.M.


    A recoil detector has been built for internal target experiments with the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher and storage ring, AmPS, of NIKHEF. The detector was designed to detect low-energy (1-20 MeV/nucleon) and low-mass (A ≤ 4) recoiling nuclei emerging from electron-induced reactions. The detector

  18. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of β-carotene (United States)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich


    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q A in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of β-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of β-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680 - or Car + in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q A reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680 * and Car is oxidized by P680 + with consequent recombination of Car + and Chl-680 - (or Pheo

  19. Photochemical reactions in dehydrated photosynthetic organisms, leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles: reversible reduction of pheophytin and chlorophyll and oxidation of {beta}-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A.; Heber, Ulrich


    Photoreactions of dehydrated leaves, isolated broken chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were studied at different air humidities and compared with photoreactions of dry fronds of a fern, Polypodium vulgare, and a dry lichen, Parmelia sulcata, which in contrast to spinach are insensitive to photoinactivation in the dry state. Even in very dry air, P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I of dry leaves was oxidized, and the primary quinone acceptor Q{sub A} in the reaction center of photosystem II was photoreduced by low light. These reactions were only very slowly reversed in the dark and saturated under low light intensity. Light-minus-dark difference absorption spectra of the dry leaves, isolated chloroplasts and PSII membrane fragments measured at higher light intensities revealed absorbance changes of {beta}-carotene at 500 nm (light-dependent bleaching) and 980 nm (light-dependent band formation) and bleaching of chlorophyll at 436 and 680 nm with appearance of bands at 450 and 800 nm. Decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence upon strong illumination indicated photoaccumulation of a quencher. All these changes were kinetically related and readily reversible. They are interpreted to show light-induced oxidation of {beta}-carotene (Car) and reduction of chlorophyll-680 (Chl-680) in the reaction center of photosystem II of the dried leaves, chloroplasts and photosystem II particles. The fluorescence quencher was suggested to be Chl-680{sup -} or Car{sup +} in close proximity to P680, the primary electron donor. Appreciable photoaccumulation of reduced pheophytin was only observed in dry leaves after Q{sub A} reduction had been lost during heat treatment of hydrated leaves prior to dehydration. The observations are interpreted to show light-dependent cyclic electron flow within the reaction center of photosystem II in which Chl-680 (or Pheo) is reduced by P680* and Car is oxidized by P680{sup +} with consequent recombination of

  20. Study of Auditory, Visual Reaction Time and Glycemic Control (HBA1C) in Chronic Type II Diabetes Mellitus


    M, Muhil; Sembian, Umapathy; Babitha,; N, Ethiya; K, Muthuselvi


    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiencyleads to micro and macro vascular disorder. Neuropathy is one of the major complication of chronic uncontrolled Diabetes affecting the Reaction time.

  1. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments from the Skagerrak (Denmark): II. Reaction-transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, A.W.; Regnier, P.; Knab, N.J.


    A steady-state reaction-transport model is applied to sediments retrieved by gravity core from two stations (S10 and S13) in the Skagerrak to determine the main kinetic and thermodynamic controls on anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The model considers an extended biomass-implicit reaction...... network for organic carbon degradation, which includes extracellular hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter, fermentation, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, AOM, acetogenesis and acetotrophy. Catabolic reaction rates are determined using a modified Monod rate expression that explicitly accounts...... at both sites because of high hydrogen concentrations ( 3-6 nM). The model results imply there is no straightforward relationship between pore water concentrations and the minimum catabolic energy needed to support life because of the highly coupled nature of the reaction network. Best model fits...

  2. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  3. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.


    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  4. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.


    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional…

  5. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    CERN Multimedia



    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  6. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia


    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  7. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: II. Effects on the cathodic and anodic half-cell reactions. (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi


    The oxidative dissolution of pyrite is an important process in the redox recycling of iron (Fe) and is well-known for its role in the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is considered as the most serious and widespread problem after the closure of mines and mineral processing operations. Because this process requires the movement of electrons, common metal oxides in nature that have either semiconducting (e.g., hematite) or insulating (e.g., alumina) properties may have strong effects on it. In this study, changes in the electrochemical behavior of pyrite in the presence of hematite and alumina were investigated. Results showed that the formation of surface-bound species directly influenced the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions as well as the transfer of electrons between these sites. Pyrite pretreated in the air became anodically more reactive than that pretreated in oxygenated water, but the type of oxidizing media had little effect on the cathodic half-cell reaction. The presence of hematite and alumina during pretreatment also had strong effects on the electrochemical properties of pyrite. Chronoamperometry measurements suggest that hematite and alumina enhanced the anodic half-cell reaction but suppressed the cathodic half-cell reaction of pyrite oxidation. Increased anodic half-cell reaction in the presence of hematite could be attributed to electron "bridging" and catalytic effects of this mineral. In contrast, the effects of alumina on the anodic half-cell reaction were indirect and could be explained by the formation of Fe3+-oxyhydroxide surface species during pretreatment. Suppression of the cathodic half-cell reaction by both minerals was attributed to their "protective" effect on cathodic sites. Our results also point to the cathodic half-cell reaction as the rate determining-step of the overall oxidative dissolution process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cryptochrome Gene PsCRY2 in Tree Peony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxia REN


    Full Text Available Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. Investigations of the structure and functions of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on herbaceous plants. However, few data on the function of CRY2 are available in woody plants. In this study, a cryptochrome 2 (CRY2 gene was isolated from Paeonia suffruticosa by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Sequence alignment and motif analysis showed that the deduced amino acids contained a PHR domain near the amino terminus and a CCT domain near the carboxy terminus. PsCRY2 showed high identity with AtCRY2 of Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to Citrus sinensis. Gene expression analysis revealed that the highest expression levels of PsCRY2 occurred in the bud and seed embryo of P. suffruticosa, followed by the roots, stems, and leaves. PsCRY2 was upregulated during the entire process of bud differentiation, whereas this was downregulated during the early stage of bud development and upregulated in the middle and late stages. The highest level of PsCRY2 expression was observed in the big bell-like flower buds. These results suggested that PsCRY2 plays an important role in both bud differentiation and bud development. The expression patterns of PsCRY2 in the buds of ‘Luoyanghong’ and ‘Qiufa 1’ were similar, whereas that in the buds of ‘Qiufa 1’ was significantly higher than in the buds of ‘Luoyanghong’. The buds of plants subjected to different photoperiod treatments exhibited variations in PsCRY2 expression patterns. The expression of PsCRY2 decreased during bud sprouting and in the small bell-like flower buds that were subjected to short-day photoperiod compared to that observed under long-day photoperiod.

  9. A chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave/pulsed uniform flow spectrometer. II. Performance and applications for reaction dynamics (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Park, G. Barratt; Joalland, Baptiste; Oldham, James M.; Prozument, Kirill; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Sims, Ian R.; Field, Robert W.; Suits, Arthur G.


    This second paper in a series of two reports on the performance of a new instrument for studying chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics at low temperatures. Our approach employs chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to probe photolysis and bimolecular reaction products that are thermalized in pulsed uniform flows. Here we detail the development and testing of a new Ka-band CP-FTMW spectrometer in combination with the pulsed flow system described in Paper I [J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. B. Park, R. W. Field, and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202 (2014)]. This combination delivers broadband spectra with MHz resolution and allows monitoring, on the μs timescale, of the appearance of transient reaction products. Two benchmark reactive systems are used to illustrate and characterize the performance of this new apparatus: the photodissociation of SO2 at 193 nm, for which the vibrational populations of the SO product are monitored, and the reaction between CN and C2H2, for which the HCCCN product is detected in its vibrational ground state. The results show that the combination of these two well-matched techniques, which we refer to as chirped-pulse in uniform flow, also provides insight into the vibrational and rotational relaxation kinetics of the nascent reaction products. Future directions are discussed, with an emphasis on exploring the low temperature chemistry of complex polyatomic systems.

  10. Chloro({2-[mesityl(quinolin-8-yl-κNboryl]-3,5-dimethyl-phenyl}methyl-κCpalladium(II as a Catalyst for Heck Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sem Raj Tamang


    Full Text Available We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitriledichloropalladium(II. The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron pz orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an η4-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II, as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0 complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states.

  11. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection. (United States)

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank


    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world's attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg(2+) ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species.

  12. Update: An efficient synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-supported iron(II) porphyrin using a click reaction and its application for the catalytic olefination of aldehydes

    KAUST Repository

    Chinnusamy, Tamilselvi R.


    The facile synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-immobilized iron(II) porphyrin using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition "click" reaction is reported. The prepared complex 5 (PEG-C 51H 39FeN 7O) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the selective olefination of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate in the presence of triphenylphosphine, and afforded excellent olefin yields with high (E) selectivities. The PEG-supported catalyst 5 was readily recovered by precipitation and filtration, and was recycled through ten runs without significant activity loss. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Outer-sphere 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} transfer reactions of ruthenium(II)-amine and ruthenium(IV)-amido complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaneo, Mauricio [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); INQUINOA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina); Ryken, Scott A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); Mayer, James M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington (United States); Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520 (United States)


    A diverse set of 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} reactions are described that interconvert [Ru{sup II}(bpy)(en*){sub 2}]{sup 2+} and [Ru{sup IV}(bpy)(en-H*){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, en*=H{sub 2}NCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}NH{sub 2}, en*-H=H{sub 2}NCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}NH{sup -}), forming or cleaving different O-H, N-H, S-H, and C-H bonds. The reactions involve quinones, hydrazines, thiols, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. These proton-coupled electron transfer reactions occur without substrate binding to the ruthenium center, but instead with precursor complex formation by hydrogen bonding. The free energies of the reactions vary over more than 90 kcal mol{sup -1}, but the rates are more dependent on the type of X-H bond involved than the associated ΔG . There is a kinetic preference for substrates that have the transferring hydrogen atoms in close proximity, such as ortho-tetrachlorobenzoquinone over its para-isomer and 1,3-cyclohexadiene over its 1,4-isomer, perhaps hinting at the potential for concerted 2 e{sup -}/2 H{sup +} transfers. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A multi-pathway model for Photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Yi, X X


    Charge separation in light-harvesting complexes occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine (QHE). Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by Photosystem {\\rm II} reaction center (PS{\\rm II} RC) to describe the charge separation. Our model mainly considers two charge-separation pathways more than that in the published literature. The two pathways can interfere via cross-couplings and work together to enhance the charge-separation yields. We explore how these cross-couplings increase the current and voltage of the charge separation and discuss the advantages of multiple pathways in terms of current and power. The robustness of the BQHE against the charge recombination in natural PS{\\rm II} RC and dephasing induced by environments is also explored, and extension ...

  15. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II – gas phase reactions of organic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Atkinson


    Full Text Available This article, the second in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data evaluated by the IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. It covers the gas phase and photochemical reactions of Organic species, which were last published in 1999, and were updated on the IUPAC website in late 2002, and subsequently during the preparation of this article. The article consists of a summary table of the recommended rate coefficients, containing the recommended kinetic parameters for the evaluated reactions, and eight appendices containing the data sheets, which provide information upon which the recommendations are made.

  16. Inhibitory effects of nitrite on the reactions of bovine carbonic anhydrase II with CO2 and bicarbonate consistent with zinc-bound nitrite. (United States)

    Nielsen, Per M; Fago, Angela


    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc enzyme that catalyzes hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dehydration of bicarbonate in red blood cells, thus facilitating CO2 transport and excretion. Bovine CA II may also react with nitrite to generate nitric oxide, although nitrite is a known inhibitor of the CO2 hydration reaction. To address the potential in vivo interference of these reactions and the nature of nitrite binding to the enzyme, we here investigate the inhibitory effect of 10-30 mM nitrite on Michaelis-Menten kinetics of CO2 hydration and bicarbonate dehydration by stopped-flow spectroscopy. Our data show that nitrite significantly affects the apparent dissociation constant KM for CO2 (11 mM) and bicarbonate (221 mM), and the turnover number kcat for the CO2 hydration (1.467 × 10(6) s(-1)) but not for the bicarbonate dehydration (7.927 × 10(5) s(-1)). These effects demonstrate mixed and competitive inhibition for the reaction with CO2 and bicarbonate, respectively, and are consistent with nitrite binding to the active site zinc. The high apparent dissociation constant found here for CO2, bicarbonate and nitrite (16-120 mM) are all overall consistent with published data and reveal a large capacity of free enzyme available for binding each of the three substrates at their in vivo levels, with little or no significant interference among reactions. The low affinity of the enzyme for nitrite suggests that the in vivo interaction between red blood cell CA II and nitrite requires compartmentalization at the anion exchanger protein of the red cell membrane to be physiologically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for simulating biomolecular diffusion-reaction processes II: size effects on ionic distributions and diffusion-reaction rates. (United States)

    Lu, Benzhuo; Zhou, Y C


    The effects of finite particle size on electrostatics, density profiles, and diffusion have been a long existing topic in the study of ionic solution. The previous size-modified Poisson-Boltzmann and Poisson-Nernst-Planck models are revisited in this article. In contrast to many previous works that can only treat particle species with a single uniform size or two sizes, we generalize the Borukhov model to obtain a size-modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (SMPNP) model that is able to treat nonuniform particle sizes. The numerical tractability of the model is demonstrated as well. The main contributions of this study are as follows. 1), We show that an (arbitrarily) size-modified PB model is indeed implied by the SMPNP equations under certain boundary/interface conditions, and can be reproduced through numerical solutions of the SMPNP. 2), The size effects in the SMPNP effectively reduce the densities of highly concentrated counterions around the biomolecule. 3), The SMPNP is applied to the diffusion-reaction process for the first time, to our knowledge. In the case of low substrate density near the enzyme reactive site, it is observed that the rate coefficients predicted by SMPNP model are considerably larger than those by the PNP model, suggesting both ions and substrates are subject to finite size effects. 4), An accurate finite element method and a convergent Gummel iteration are developed for the numerical solution of the completely coupled nonlinear system of SMPNP equations. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reações tegumentares adversas relacionadas aos agentes antineoplásicos: parte II Adverse mucocutaneous reactions related to chemotherapeutic agents: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado


    Full Text Available Os eventos e reações envolvendo quimioterapia são frequentes na prática oncológica. Agentes quimioterápicos são uma modalidade de tratamento amplamente utilizada. Efeitos colaterais podem variar de frequência e também ser confundidos com outras manifestações tegumentares do tratamento oncológico. Este artigo objetiva expor as informações sobre reações cutâneas à quimioterapia, em especial, aqueles para os quais o dermatologista é requisitado a emitir parecer e a comentar sobre a segurança e a viabilidade da readministração de uma droga específica. Os autores descrevem os aspectos associados a esses eventos, fazendo uma análise detalhada de cada um deles.Events and reactions involving chemotherapy are common in clinical oncology. Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used in therapy. Side effects range from the common to the rare and may be confused with other mucocutaneous manifestations resulting from the oncological treatment. The objective of this paper was to present data on skin reactions to chemotherapy, particularly those cases in which the dermatologist is requested to issue a report and asked to comment on the safety and viability of readministration of a specific drug. The authors describe aspects associated with these events, presenting a detailed analysis of each one of them.

  19. Synthesis of novel chelating benzimidazole-based carbenes and their nickel(II) complexes: activity in the Kumada coupling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berding, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.


    Nickel(II) halide complexes of novel chelating bidentate benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbenes have been prepared from Ni(OAc)2 and bisbenzimidazolium salts. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination on four complexes revealed a cis-geometry on a square-planar nickel center. The complexes

  20. Complexation facilitated reduction of aromatic N-oxides by aqueous Fe(II)-tiron complex: reaction kinetics and mechanisms. (United States)

    Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Huichun


    Rapid reduction of carbadox (CDX), olaquindox and several other aromatic N-oxides were investigated in aqueous solution containing Fe(II) and tiron. Consistent with previous work, the 1:2 Fe(II)-tiron complex, FeL2(6-), is the dominant reactive species as its concentration linearly correlates with the observed rate constant kobs under various conditions. The N-oxides without any side chains were much less reactive, suggesting direct reduction of the N-oxides is slow. UV-vis spectra suggest FeL2(6-) likely forms 5- or 7-membered rings with CDX and olaquindox through the N and O atoms on the side chain. The formed inner-sphere complexes significantly facilitated electron transfer from FeL2(6-) to the N-oxides. Reduction products of the N-oxides were identified by HPLC/QToF-MS to be the deoxygenated analogs. QSAR analysis indicated neither the first electron transfer nor N-O bond cleavage is the rate-limiting step. Calculations of the atomic spin densities of the anionic N-oxides confirmed the extensive delocalization between the aromatic ring and the side chain, suggesting complex formation can significantly affect the reduction kinetics. Our results suggest the complexation facilitated N-oxide reduction by Fe(II)-tiron involves a free radical mechanism, and the subsequent deoxygenation might also benefit from the weak complexation of Fe(II) with the N-oxide O atom.

  1. Effective ascorbate-free and photolatent click reactions in water using a photoreducible copper(II-ethylenediamine precatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Beniazza


    Full Text Available The search for copper catalysts able to perform effectively click reactions in water in the absence of sodium ascorbate is an active area of current research with strong potential for applications in bioconjugation. The water-soluble and photoreducible copper(II–EDA (EDA = ethylenediamine complex 1, which has two 4-benzoylbenzoates acting as both counterion and photosensitizer, has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction. Highly efficient photoreduction was demonstrated when solutions of 1 in hydrogen atom donating solvents, such as THF or MeOH, were exposed to UVA radiation (350–400 nm provided by a low pressure mercury lamp (type TLC = thin-layer chromatography, 365 nm, or by a 23 W fluorescent bulb, or by ambient/sunlight. In water, a much poorer hydrogen atom donating solvent, the photoreduction of 1 proved inefficient. Interestingly, EPR studies revealed that complex 1 could nonetheless be effectively photoreduced in water when alkynes were present in solution. The catalytic activity of 1 for click reactions involving a range of water-soluble alkynes and azides, in particular saccharides, was tested under various illumination conditions. Complex 1 was found to exhibit a photolatent character, the photogenerated copper(I being very reactive. On irradiating aqueous reaction mixtures containing 1 mol % of 1 at 365 nm (TLC lamp for 1 h, click reactions were shown to proceed to full conversion.

  2. Bone reactions adjacent to titanium implants with different surface characteristics subjected to static load. A study in the dog (II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J


    The purpose of the present study was to compare bone reactions adjacent to titanium implants with either a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) or a machined surface subjected to lateral static loading induced by an expansion force. In 3 labrador dogs, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were...

  3. Heterogeneous electron transfer and oxygen reduction reaction at nanostructured iron(II) phthalocyanine and its MWCNTs nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA


    Full Text Available species within the porous layers of MWCNTs. Electron transfer process is much easier at the EPPGE-MWCNT and EPPGE-MWCNT-nanoFePc compared to the other electrodes. The best response for oxygen reduction reaction was at the EPPGE-MWCNTnanoFePc, yielding a 4...

  4. The biological response to orthopedic implants for joint replacement. II: Polyethylene, ceramics, PMMA, and the foreign body reaction. (United States)

    Gibon, Emmanuel; Córdova, Luis A; Lu, Laura; Lin, Tzu-Hua; Yao, Zhenyu; Hamadouche, Moussa; Goodman, Stuart B


    Novel evidence-based prosthetic designs and biomaterials facilitate the performance of highly successful joint replacement (JR) procedures. To achieve this goal, constructs must be durable, biomechanically sound, and avoid adverse local tissue reactions. Different biomaterials such as metals and their alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites are currently used for JR implants. This review focuses on (1) the biological response to the different biomaterials used for TJR and (2) the chronic inflammatory and foreign-body response induced by byproducts of these biomaterials. A homeostatic state of bone and surrounding soft tissue with current biomaterials for JR can be achieved with mechanically stable, infection free and intact (as opposed to the release of particulate or ionic byproducts) implants. Adverse local tissue reactions (an acute/chronic inflammatory reaction, periprosthetic osteolysis, loosening and subsequent mechanical failure) may evolve when the latter conditions are not met. This article (Part 2 of 2) summarizes the biological response to the non-metallic materials commonly used for joint replacement including polyethylene, ceramics, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), as well as the foreign body reaction to byproducts of these materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1685-1691, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Arterial ammonia with Blood Ammonia Checker II and with indophenol reaction to assess presence of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, [No Value; vanDam, GM; Gips, CH


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with elevated arterial ammonia levels. The relationship is variable, in part due to ammonia methodology. One method, based on the indophenol reaction (IPh), is interfered with a number of amino acids including all aromatic amino acids. We have determined

  6. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Two magnets (no.'s 6 and 19)and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Pictured here are members of the PS team with the replacement no. 6 magnet. From left to right: In the back row, Frédéric Roussel (Transport DBS), Yves Bernard (Transport DBS), Luc Moreno (Cegelec), Thierry Battimanza (Transport DBS), Raymond Brown (AB/ABP), Thomas Zickler (AT/MEL); at the front, Steven Southern (AT/VAC), Thierry Gaidon (Brun & Sorensen), Philippe Vidales (Cegelec), Daniel Aubert (Cegelec), Jerome Cachet (Transport DBS), Jose Manual Gomes de Faria (AT/MEL), Eric Page (AT/VAC).

  7. Poli (metil azoteto de glicidila - GAP. II: mecanismo de reação Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP. II: reaction mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro P. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available O poli (metil azoteto de glicidila - GAP - é um material energético que pode ser utilizado como aglutinante (binder e como plastificante energético em compostos explosivos e propulsores de foguetes. O GAP de baixo peso molecular pode ser obtido pela conversão direta da epicloridrina (ECH a GAP. Neste trabalho, é proposto um possível mecanismo para esta conversão direta, fundamentado em análises de infravermelho de espécies intermediárias.GAP is an energetic material that can be used as binder or plasticizing agent in propellants and explosive mixtures. The glycidyl azide polymer (GAP can be synthesized by direct conversion of epichlorohydrin. Here, a mechanism is proposed for the reaction used, based on an analysis of infrared spectra of intermediate species.

  8. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time,

  9. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators´ spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 19) being prepared.

  10. The PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia


    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks.

  11. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  12. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  13. Memories of the PS and of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, Jack


    The CERN PS, which started in 1959, and the Brookhaven AGS in 1960, represented an advance by a factor of more than five in the energy of proton accelerators, from the 5 GeV of the Berkeley Bevatron to about 30 GeV. These accelerators made possible the large progress in our understanding of particles and their interactions over the next two decades, culminating in the electroweak and QCD gauge theories.

  14. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 6) being prepared.

  15. Development and characterization of sub-100 ps photomultiplier tubes. (United States)

    Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Herrmann, H W; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedilleo, T J; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Milnes, J S; Howorth, J; Davis, B; O'Gara, P M; Garza, I; Miller, E K; Stoeffl, W; Ali, Z


    We describe the evaluation of a microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT), incorporating a 3 μm pore MCP and constant voltage anode and cathode gaps. The use of the small pore size results in PMTs with response functions of the order of 85 ps full-width-half-maximum, while the constant electric field across the anode and cathode gaps produces a uniform response function over the entire operating range of the device. The PMT was characterized on a number of facilities and employed on gas Cherenkov detectors fielded on various deuterium tritium fuel (DT) implosions on the Omega Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. The Cherenkov detectors are part of diagnostic development to measure Gamma ray reaction history for DT implosions on the National Ignition Facility.

  16. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  17. Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a broth-based culture system ESP II. (United States)

    Kim, Sung G; Kim, Eun H; Lafferty, Caroline J; Miller, Loretta J; Koo, Hye J; Stehman, Susan M; Shin, Sang J


    The ESP II Culture System (ESP II), a broth-based culture system, has been modified and optimized for culturing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in animal feces since 2000. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the IS900 sequence were performed as confirmatory tests for M. paratuberculosis in ESP II liquid culture medium. There were no differences between test results of conventional and real-time PCR assays. During the 5-week incubation period, if acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in ESP culture-positive samples, IS900 PCR assays were performed to confirm whether those AFB were M. paratuberculosis. At the end of the 5-week incubation, AF staining was performed on all ESP II-negative cultures to screen any false-negative cultures; IS900 PCR assays were performed on AFB-positive cultures. During a period of 1 year, of a total of 18,499 ESP II cultures, 2,814 (15.2%) PCR confirmation assays were performed. Of those, 2,259 (80%) were both ESP and PCR positive; 104 (4%) were ESP positive and PCR negative; 423 (15%) were ESP negative and PCR positive; 28 (1%) were both ESP and PCR negative. The AF-staining step after the 5-week incubation produced 423 (15%) more PCR-positive cultures. Of a total of 2,814 AFB-positive cultures, 132 (5%) were not confirmed as M. paratuberculosis. Further studies are needed for speciation of non-M. paratuberculosis isolates.

  18. Synthesis of cis - and trans-diisothiocyanato-bis(NHC) complexes of nickel(II) and applications in the Kumada-Corriu reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Jothibasu, Ramasamy


    Metathetical reaction of AgSCN with a series of trans-dihalido-bis(carbene) nickel(II) complexes in CH3CN readily afforded the novel diisothiocyanato-bis(carbene) complexes [Ni(NCS)2(NHC)2] (trans-2a, NHC = 1,3-diisopropylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2b, NHC = 1,3-diisobutylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2c, NHC = 1,3- dibenzylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2d, NHC = 1,3-di(2-propenyl) benzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2e, NHC = 1-propyl-3-methylbenzimidazolin-2- ylidene) as greenish-yellow powders in moderate to good yields. While dihalido-bis(carbene) Ni(II) complexes exclusively form trans-complexes, a trans-cis isomerization occurs upon halido-isothiocyanato exchange with complexes bearing less bulky carbene ligands, i.e., cis-2d/e. DFT calculations indicated that this isomerization can be attributed to a reduced energy difference between trans- and cis-isomers of diisothiocyanato complexes. All complexes have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A catalytic study revealed that cis-complexes generally exhibit greater activities in the Kumada-Corriu coupling reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Polystyrene-supported cu(II)-R-Box as recyclable catalyst in asymmetric Friedel–Crafts reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Desyatkin, V. G.


    The complex of copper(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate with chiral isopropyl bis(oxazoline) ligand (i-Pr-Box) was immobilized on accessible and inexpensive Merrifield resin according to a “click” procedure. The resulting catalyst showed high efficiency and recyclability in the asymmetric Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indole and its derivatives. The catalyst can be recycled five times without appreciable loss in activity and enantioselectivity.

  20. Pyrazolate-based cobalt(II)-containing metal-organic frameworks in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation reactions: elucidating the role of entatic states for biomimetic oxidation processes. (United States)

    Tonigold, Markus; Lu, Ying; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Puls, Angela; Staudt, Reiner; Möllmer, Jens; Sauer, Joachim; Volkmer, Dirk


    Crystal structures of two metal-organic frameworks (MFU-1 and MFU-2) are presented, both of which contain redox-active Co(II) centres coordinated by linear 1,4-bis[(3,5-dimethyl)pyrazol-4-yl] ligands. In contrast to many MOFs reported previously, these compounds show excellent stability against hydrolytic decomposition. Catalytic turnover is achieved in oxidation reactions by employing tert-butyl hydroperoxide and the solid catalysts are easily recovered from the reaction mixture. Whereas heterogeneous catalysis is unambiguously demonstrated for MFU-1, MFU-2 shows catalytic activity due to slow metal leaching, emphasising the need for a deeper understanding of structure-reactivity relationships in the future design of redox-active metal-organic frameworks. Mechanistic details for oxidation reactions employing tert-butyl hydroperoxide are studied by UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy and XRPD measurements. The catalytic process accompanying changes of redox states and structural changes were investigated by means of cobalt K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To probe the putative binding modes of molecular oxygen, the isosteric heats of adsorption of O(2) were determined and compared with models from DFT calculations. The stabilities of the frameworks in an oxygen atmosphere as a reactive gas were examined by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Solution impregnation of MFU-1 with a co-catalyst (N-hydroxyphthalimide) led to NHPI@MFU-1, which oxidised a range of organic substrates under ambient conditions by employing molecular oxygen from air. The catalytic reaction involved a biomimetic reaction cascade based on free radicals. The concept of an entatic state of the cobalt centres is proposed and its relevance for sustained catalytic activity is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. PS16dtm: A Tidal Disruption Event in a Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy (United States)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Guillochon, J.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Alexander, K. D.; Leja, J.; Drout, M. R.


    We present observations of PS16dtm (also known as SN 2016ezh), a luminous transient that occurred at the nucleus of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy hosting a 106 M ⊙ black hole. The light curve shows that PS16dtm exhibited a plateau phase for ˜100 days, during which it showed no color evolution, maintained a blackbody temperature of ˜ 1.7× {10}4 K, and radiated at approximately the Eddington luminosity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The spectra exhibit multicomponent hydrogen emission lines and strong Fe II emission, show little time evolution, and closely resemble the spectra of NLS1s while being distinct from those of Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn). Moreover, PS16dtm is undetected in the X-rays to a limit an order of magnitude below an archival X-ray detection of its host galaxy. These observations strongly link PS16dtm to activity associated with the SMBH and are difficult to reconcile with an SN origin or known forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. Therefore, we argue that PS16dtm is a tidal disruption event (TDE) in which the accretion of the stellar debris powers the rise in the continuum and excitation of the preexisting broad-line region, while obscuring the X-ray-emitting region of the preexisting AGN disk. We predict that PS16dtm will remain bright for years and that the X-ray emission will reappear on a similar timescale as the accretion rate declines. Placing PS16dtm in the context of other TDEs, we find that TDEs in AGN galaxies are more efficient and reach Eddington luminosities, likely due to interaction of the stellar debris with the preexisting accretion disk.

  2. Experimental determination of equilibrium constant for the complexing reaction of nitric oxide with hexamminecobalt(II) in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Mao, Yan-Peng; Chen, Hua; Long, Xiang-Li; Xiao, Wen-de; Li, Wei; Yuan, Wei-Kang


    Ammonia solution can be used to scrub NO from the flue gases by adding soluble cobalt(II) salts into the aqueous ammonia solutions. The hexamminecobalt(II), Co(NH3)6(2+), formed by ammonia binding with Co2+ is the active constituent of eliminating NO from the flue gas streams. The hexamminecobalt(II) can combine with NO to form a complex. For the development of this process, the data of the equilibrium constants for the coordination between NO and Co(NH3)6(2+)over a range of temperature is very important. Therefore, a series of experiments were performed in a bubble column to investigate the chemical equilibrium. The equilibrium constant was determined in the temperature range of 30.0-80.0 degrees C under atmospheric pressure at pH 9.14. All experimental data fit the following equation well: [see text] where the enthalpy and entropy are DeltaH degrees = - (44.559 +/- 2.329)kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS degrees = - (109.50 +/- 7.126) J K(-1)mol(-1), respectively.

  3. A Porous Cobalt (II Metal–Organic Framework with Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Activity for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Meng


    Full Text Available A 3D porous framework ([Co1.5(tib(dcpna]·6H2O (1 with a Wei topology has been synthesized by solvothermal reaction of 1,3,5-tris(1-imidazolyl-benzene (tib, 5-(3′,5′-dicarboxylphenylnicotinic acid (H3dcpna and cobalt nitrate. The electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation of 1 has been investigated in alkaline solution. Compound 1 exhibits good oxygen evolution reaction (OER activities in alkaline solution, exhibiting 10 mA·cm−2 at η = 360 mV with a Tafel slope of 89 mV·dec−1. The high OER activity can be ascribe to 1D open channels along b axis of 1, which expose more activity sites and facilitate the electrolyte penetration.

  4. Preventability of drug-related harms - part II: proposed criteria, based on frameworks that classify adverse drug reactions. (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Ferner, Robin E


    'Preventability' is a crucial concept in the literature on adverse drug effects. However, a systematic review of the definitions of preventability of adverse drug effects has suggested that none fits all circumstances. Furthermore, when the reliability of these definitions has been examined they have been found to be imperfect. To propose and outline a method for determining the theoretical preventability of an adverse drug effect, based on frameworks for classifying adverse drug reactions - the EIDOS and DoTS methods. EIDOS is based on the mechanism of action of the drug. It observes that a drug (an Extrinsic species) causes an adverse effect by interacting with an Intrinsic species that is its target when the two are Distributed together, and that the resulting pathophysiological Outcome (the adverse effect) causes the Sequela (the adverse reaction). DoTS observes that the Dose-relatedness of the adverse effect compared with the beneficial effect is relevant (determining toxic, collateral, or hypersusceptibility effects), that adverse effects have Time-courses (varying from immediate to delayed), and that there are individual Susceptibility factors. We have elicited many published examples that show that each of these factors in the causation of an adverse drug effect can be adduced to assess its preventability. We have constructed a flowchart that illustrates how the processes can be logically analysed. This approach suggests methods for devising prospective preventive strategies and for deciding retrospectively whether an adverse reaction in an individual should have been prevented.

  5. Sensitization to reactive diluents and hardeners in epoxy resin systems. IVDK data 2002-2011. Part II: concomitant reactions. (United States)

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Hillen, Uwe; Skudlik, Christoph; Jappe, Uta


    Beside the basic resins, reactive diluents and hardeners are important sensitizers in epoxy resin systems (ERSs). Because of chemical similarities, immunological cross-reactivity may occur. To analyse concomitant reactivity among reactive diluents and hardeners in the patients concerned, as one integral part of a research project on the sensitizing capacity of ERSs (FP-0324). A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 2002-2011, was performed. There was close concomitant reactivity to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE), and to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and cresyl glycidyl ether (CGE), whereas reactions to p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether occurred more independently from those to PGE and CGE. Concomitant reactions to butyl glycidyl ether and 1,4-BDDGE may point to a common allergenic compound derived from the metabolism of 1,4-BDDGE. Among the structurally more diverse group of hardeners, there was no evidence of immunological cross-reactions. More detailed knowledge of cross-reactivity among ERS components facilitates the interpretation of patch test results and will allow safer ERSs to be composed in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of novel copper(II) complexes obtained by reactions of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with tripodal ligands. (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Fan, Jian; Song, You; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Taka-aki; Sun, Wei-Yin; Ueyama, Norikazu


    Three novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Cu(1)SO4].H2O (4), [Cu2(2)2(SO4)2].4H2O (5) and [Cu(3)(H2O)]SO4.5.5H2O (6), were obtained by hydrothermal reactions of CuSO4.5H2O with the corresponding ligands, which have different flexibility. The structures of the synthesized complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 4 has a 2D network structure with two types of metallacycles. Complex 5 also has a 2D network structure in which each independent 2D sheet contains two sub-layers bridged by oxygen atoms of the sulfate anions. Complex 6 has a 2D puckered structure in which the sulfate anions serve as counter anions, which are different from those in complexes 4 (terminators) and 5 (bridges). The different structures of complexes 4, 5 and 6 indicate that the nature of organic ligands affected the structures of the assemblies greatly. The magnetic behavior of complex 5 and anion-exchange properties of complex 6 were investigated.

  7. Glycation of a food allergen by the Maillard reaction enhances its T-cell immunogenicity: role of macrophage scavenger receptor class A type I and II. (United States)

    Ilchmann, Anne; Burgdorf, Sven; Scheurer, Stephan; Waibler, Zoe; Nagai, Ryoji; Wellner, Anne; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Henle, Thomas; Kurts, Christian; Kalinke, Ulrich; Vieths, Stefan; Toda, Masako


    The Maillard reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins during thermal processing of foods. It produces chemically glycated proteins termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation structures of AGEs are suggested to function as pathogenesis-related immune epitopes in food allergy. This study aimed at defining the T-cell immunogenicity of food AGEs by using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. AGE-OVA was prepared by means of thermal processing of OVA in the presence of glucose. Activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was evaluated in cocultures with bone marrow-derived murine myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as antigen-presenting cells. The uptake mechanisms of mDCs for AGE-OVA were investigated by using inhibitors of putative cell-surface receptors for AGEs, as well as mDCs deficient for these receptors. Compared with the controls (native OVA and OVA thermally processed without glucose), AGE-OVA enhanced the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells on coculture with mDCs, indicating that the glycation of OVA enhanced the T-cell immunogenicity of the allergen. The mDC uptake of AGE-OVA was significantly higher than that of the controls. We identified scavenger receptor class A type I and II (SR-AI/II) as a mediator of the AGE-OVA uptake, whereas the receptor for AGEs and galectin-3 were not responsible. Importantly, the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was attenuated on coculture with SR-AI/II-deficient mDCs. SR-AI/II targets AGE-OVA to the MHC class II loading pathway in mDCs, leading to an enhanced CD4(+) T-cell activation. The Maillard reaction might thus play an important role in the T-cell immunogenicity of food allergens. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA-binding, catalytic oxidation, C—C coupling reactions and antibacterial activities of binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Manimaran


    Full Text Available New hexa-coordinated binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes of the type {[(B(EPh3(COClRu]2L} (where, E = P or As; B = PPh3 or AsPh3 or pyridine; L = mononucleating NS donor of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–vis and 31P{1H} NMR cyclic voltammetric studies. The DNA-binding studies of Ru(II complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA were investigated by UV–vis, viscosity measurements, gel-electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new complexes have been used as catalysts in C—C coupling reaction and in the oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds by using NMO as co-oxidant and molecular oxygen (O2 atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new binucleating thiosemicarbazone ligands and their Ru(II complexes were also screened for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sp., Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. From this study, it was found out that the activity of the complexes almost reaches the effectiveness of the conventional bacteriocide.

  9. A study of the coordination shell of aluminum(III) and magnesium(II) in model protein environments: thermodynamics of the complex formation and metal exchange reactions. (United States)

    Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M


    Al(III) toxicity in living organisms is based on competition with other metal cations. Mg(II) is one of the most affected cations, since the size similarity dominates over the charge identity. The slow ligand exchange rates for Al(III) render the ion useless as a metal ion at the active sites of enzymes and provide a mechanism by which Al(III) inhibits Mg(II) dependent biochemical processes. Al(III) cation interactions with relevant bioligands have been studied in a protein-model environment in gas and aqueous phases using density functional theory methods. The protein model consists of the metal cation bound to two chosen bioligands (functional groups of the amino acid side chains, one of them being always an acetate) and water molecules interacting with the cation to complete its first coordination shell. Analogous Mg(II) complexes are calculated and compared with the Al(III) ones. Formation energies of the complexes are calculated in both phases and magnesium/aluminum exchange energies evaluated. The effect of different dielectric media is also analyzed. The presence of an acetate ligand in the binding site is found to promote both, complex formation and metal exchange reactions. In addition, buried binding sites (with low dielectric constant) of the protein favor metal exchange, whereas fully solvated environments of high dielectric constant require the presence of two anionic ligands for metal exchange to occur.

  10. Palladium(ii-Acetylacetonato Complexes with Mesoionic Carbenes: Synthesis, Structures and Their Application in the Suzuki-Miyaura Cross Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Hettmanczyk


    Full Text Available A series of novel palladium(ii acetylacetonato complexes bearing mesoionic carbenes (MICs have been synthesized and characterized. The synthesis of the complexes of type (MICPd(acacI (MIC = 1-mesityl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (1, 1,4-(2,4,6-methyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (2, 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (3; acac = acetylacetonato via direct metalation starting from the corresponding triazolium iodides and palladium(ii acetylacetonate is described herein. All complexes were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, two of the complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography confirming a square-planar coordination geometry of the palladium(ii center. A delocalized bonding situation was observed within the triazolylidene rings as well as for the acac ligand respectively. Complex 2 was found to be an efficient pre-catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction between aryl-bromides or -chlorides with phenylboronic acid.

  11. Clathrochelates meet phosphorus. New thio- and phosphorylation reactions of an iron(II) dichloroclathrochelate precursor and preparation of its first phosphorus(III)-containing macrobicyclic derivative. (United States)

    Artyushin, Oleg I; Matveeva, Ekaterina V; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Voloshin, Yan Z


    Phosphorylation reactions of an iron(II) dichloroclathrochelate FeBd2(Cl2Gm)(BF)2 (where Bd(2-) and Cl2Gm(2-) are α-benzildioxime and dichloroglyoxime dianions, respectively) with diphenylphosphine oxide and diethyl thiophosphite were performed under phase-transfer conditions. In the case of diethyl thiophosphite as a P-nucleophile, the best yields were obtained in the dichloromethane-50% NaOH aqueous solution-5 mol% triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBAC) system. The use of different molar ratios of a macrobicycle precursor and this thiophosphorylating agent allowed us to obtain both the mono- and the diphosphorylated cage complexes. Nucleophilic substitution with diphenylphosphine oxide was performed in the K2CO3-acetonitrile-5 mol% TEBAC system, giving only the corresponding monophosphorylated iron(II) complex in high yield even in the presence of an excess of this P-nucleophile. The phosphorus(v)-containing clathrochelate product was reduced with an excess of silicoform to give an iron(II) macrobicycle with an inherent diphenylphosphine group in an almost quantitative yield, which was then characterized by (31)P{(1)H} NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction; it easily undergoes re-oxidation to the initial clathrochelate. The synthesized phosphorus(v)-containing cage complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H, (11)B, (13)C{(1)H}, (19)F{(1)H} and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectra, and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  12. Intracellular kinetics of ATX-S10·Na(II) and its correlation with photochemical reaction dynamics during a pulsed photosensitization process: effect of pulse repetition rate (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Morimoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Makoto


    Although photodynamic therapy with pulsed light excitation has interesting characteristics, its photosensitization mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that the intracellular kinetics of ATX-S10.Na(II), a lysosomal sensitizer, was closely related to photochemical reaction dynamics during photodynamic treatment of A549 cells with nanosecond pulsed light. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that at high frequencies of 10 and 30 Hz the sensitizer initially localized mainly in lysosomes but that it started to be redistributed to the cytosol in certain ranges of radiant exposures. These ranges were found to coincide with a regime of fluorescence degradation with limited oxygen consumption. On the other hand, at 5 Hz, there was no such a discontinuous behavior in the sensitizer redistribution characteristics throughout the period of irradiation; this was consistent with the fact that no reaction switching was observed. Two possible reasons for the appearance of the regime with limited oxygen consumption are discussed: participation of an oxygen-independent reaction and change in the microenvironment for the sensitizer caused by lysosomal photodamage. The pulse frequency-dependent intracellular kinetics of the sensitizer also explains our previous results showing higher cytotoxicity at 5 Hz than at 10 and 30 Hz.

  13. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  14. Synthesis of Biologically Active Indenoisoquinoline Derivatives via a One-Pot Copper(II)-Catalyzed Tandem Reaction. (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Yu; Kavala, Veerababurao; Kuo, Chun-Wei; Konala, Ashok; Yang, Tang-Hao; Yao, Ching-Fa


    A concise route for the synthesis of indenoisoquinoline derivatives from 2-iodobenzamide and 1,3-indanedione derivatives in the presence of copper(II) chloride and cesium carbonate in acetonitrile solvent is reported. A wide variety of 2-iodobenzamide derivatives and indandiones could be used to synthesize indenoisoquinoline derivatives and other fused indenoisoquinoline in moderate to good yields. This methodology was adapted for the one-step synthesis of a series of clinically active topoisomerase I inhibitors such as NSC 314622, LMP-400, LMP-776.

  15. iQ-Check Salmonella II: real-time polymerase chain reaction test kit. Performance Tested Method 010803. (United States)

    Lauer, Wendy F; Sidi, Caroline D; Tourniaire, Jean-Philippe


    iQ-Check Salmonella II is a real-time PCR kit for detection of Salmonella in foods. Specific oligonucleotide probes are used to detect target DNA during the amplification, by hybridizing to the amplicons. These probes are linked to a fluorophore, which fluoresces only when hybridized to the target sequence. As part of an Emergency Response Validation due to a massive outbreak and subsequent recall, peanut butter was tested to compare the performance of iQ-Check Salmonella II to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) reference method for detection of Salmonella. A single enrichment in buffered peptone water was used for a reduced enrichment time of 21 +/- 1 h over the 48 h reference method. There was no significant difference in the performance of the iQ-Check kit when compared to the FDA-BAM method, as determined by Chi-square analysis. All samples identified as positive by iQ-Check were confirmed by reference method protocol.

  16. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip osteoarthr......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip...

  17. Study of 12Be using the 11Be(9Be,8Be) transfer reaction at TRIUMF ISAC-II (United States)

    Braid, Ryan; Sarazin, Fred; TIGRESS Collaboration; (PCB)2 Collaboration


    Recent results at TRIUMF and NSCL have called into question the structure of 12Be, therefore another look at this nucleus is desirable. The structure is important information for theoretical models, since it constrains the mechanism that produces parity inversion in 11Be. The 12Be structure was probed in July 2014 using the (PCB)2 array (Printed Circuit Board Based Charged Particle) inside TIGRESS (TRIUMF - ISAC Gamma Ray Escape Suppressed Spectrometer) at TRIUMF using the 11Be(9Be,8Be)12Be reaction at 55 MeV in inverse kinematics. A second set of data at 30 MeV was collected. This reaction has numerous advantages over the traditional (d,p) method, foremost of which is the 8Be --> 2 α breakup since it allows for very clean identification and tagging. Additionally, TIGRESS will allow precise γ-tagging for the excited states. The initial data and analysis will be presented in this talk. This work is partially supported by the US Department of Energy through Grant/Contract No. DE-FG03-93ER40789 (Colorado School of Mines).

  18. The influence of the quencher concentration on the rate of simple bimolecular reaction: molecular dynamics study. II. (United States)

    Litniewski, Marek


    In this paper new results of the simulations [M. Litniewski, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124506 (2005)] on the influence of the quencher concentration on the reaction A+B-->C+B for the identical soft sphere system are presented. The problem is generalized by considering also the case when the spheres are immersed in the Brownian medium. A significant difference between simple deterministic systems and the Brownian ones is found: the excess in the rate coefficient for the Brownian system is constant and positive, except for very short times. The reaction has been simulated for a very long time, but any tendency to decrease the excess has not been noted. It is also shown that the relative excess in the surviving probability is a universal quadratic function of the quencher concentration for the range of time much longer than the result from the previous simulations. A very strong correlation between the excess in the relative value of spatial correlations between the reagents and the excess in the rate coefficient is shown. It is also shown that the A-A and A-C interactions have some influence on the excess values. A simple model for this effect is presented.

  19. Evolving science enhanced with iPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Dear friends, Greetings from all in the team. With the stage set for online submissions and the review-response-revision-resubmission process standardized, we have come with the first regular issue and from now there will be quarterly issues of the journal. Since the starting of the JSRM in a short span there have been a lot of developments, which we would rather say as "evolutions" keeping in mind, the recent iPS! This evolution we would like you to see from a background of the various developments in the art and science of medicine throughout in the past three centuries. We have come across the era of investigative tools such as bamboo made laryngoscopes to era of vaccines and antibiotics followed by the era of revolutionary non-invasive procedures and recently the nano technology based drugs and now the iPS! Macro to Micro, but still more to go. All through the influence of the society, religions, philosophies have been playing a very important role in every step the science of biology moves ahead. Starting with the contraception, assisted reproduction then the gene modified plants....and now the embryonic stem cells! With the advent of the iPS, though the issues of oncogenes, teratoma yet to be ruled out, we have found there is a way which can bypass the ES cells! Hats off to those scientists who have burnt their midnight oil to have found this way out! The lesson we learn is to explore things with an open mind and continue to proceed further without spending much time fingers crossed. Yours sincerely,The Editorial team.

  20. Femtosecond spectroscopy of the dithiolate Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes. (United States)

    Plyusnin, Victor F; Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Grivin, Vjacheslav P; Solovyev, Aleksey I; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Larionov, Stanislav V


    Femtosecond spectroscopy was applied to study the ultrafast dynamics for the excited states of dithiolate Cu(ii) and Ni(ii) complexes. The detailed information on the initial steps after the absorption of a photon by the metal complexes is of fundamental importance to understand the mechanism of photochemical reactions. The fast processes for the dithiolate complexes have hardly been studied. In this review the spectra of transients and their lifetimes will be presented. For example, the xanthogenate Ni(S2COEt)2 complex in acetonitrile and CCl4 after the pulse of the second harmonic (100 fs, 400 nm) of a Ti:S laser moves to the excited (1)LMCT state which decays in 0.76 ps to the excited (3)LF state. In 6.8 ps the (3)LF state undergoes vibrational cooling and then it slowly decays in 550 ps to the ground state. However, for many dithiolate complexes the kinetic curves can be well treated in a two-exponential approximation. A short time (less than 1 ps) may include several processes (relaxation of the Franck-Condon state, redistribution of vibrational energy (IVR), internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC)). A long time (a few picoseconds) usually reflects the vibrational cooling of the ground state. The quantum yields of the dithiolate and dithiolene complex disappearance in halogen containing solvents have a strong dependence on the wavelength of irradiation. It is very likely that electron transfer to the acceptor becomes effective when the electron in the excited complex moves to antibonding ligand orbitals localized at the periphery of the complex close to the acceptor molecule (halogenated solvent).

  1. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  2. Space charge studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Asvesta, F; Damerau, H; Huschauer, A; Papaphilippou, Y; Serluca, M; Sterbini, G; Zisopoulos, P


    In this paper the results of Machine Development (MD)studies conducted at the CERN Proton Sychrotron (PS) arepresented. The main focus was the investigation of newworking points in an effort to characterize and potentiallyimprove the brightness for LHC-type beams in view of theLHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU). Various working points werecompared in terms of losses and emittance evolution. Sincespace charge and the resonances it excites are the main causefor emittance blow-up and losses, tunes close to excitedresonances were carefully studied. Mitigation techniques,such as bunch flattening using a double harmonic RF system,were also tested.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic silica-supported Mn(II)-substituted polyoxophosphotungstate as catalyst in sulfoxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi-Shoeili, Zeinab, E-mail: [University of Guilan, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Maryam [Golpayegan University of Technology, Department of Basic Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Polyoxometalate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–MnPOW) were successfully synthesized via covalent anchoring of Mn(II)-substituted phosphotungstate on ammonium-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The complete characterization of nanoparticles has been carried out by scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and elemental analysis. The resulting nanocomposites were efficient catalysts for the selective oxidation of sulfides with different green oxidants in good to excellent yields and also high selectivity. Leaching and recycling tests showed that the nanocatalyst can be reused several times without significant loss of efficiency.Graphical Abstract.

  4. Interfacial reaction in the synergistic extraction rate of Ni(II) with dithizone and 1,10-phenanthroline. (United States)

    Watarai, H; Sasaki, K; Takahashi, K; Murakami, J


    The kinetic synergistic effect of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) on the extraction rate of Ni(II) with dithizone (HDz) into chloroform was studied by means of a high-speed stirring method combined with photodiode-array spectrophotometry. The initial extraction rate of the adduct complex NiDz(2)phen depended upon the concentrations of both HDz and phen, suggesting the formation of NiDzphen(+) as the rate-controlling step. When [HDz] < [phen], the initial extraction of NiDz(2)phen competed with the formation of an intermediate complex, which was adsorbed at the interface and assigned most probably to NiDzphen(+)(2). The intermediate complex was gradually converted to NiDz(2)phen at a later stage of the extraction. The rate constants for the formation and consumption of the intermediate were determined, and the kinetic mechanism in the synergistic extraction was discussed.

  5. Elastic strain relaxation in interfacial dislocation patterns: II. From long- and short-range interactions to local reactions (United States)

    Vattré, A.


    The long- and short-range interactions as well as planar reactions between two infinitely periodic sets of crossing dislocations are investigated using anisotropic elasticity theory in face- (fcc) and body- (bcc) centered cubic materials. Two preliminary cases are proposed to examine the substantial changes in the elastic stress states and the corresponding strain energies due to a slight rearrangement in the internal dislocation geometries and characters. In general, significant differences and discrepancies resulting from the considered cubic crystal structure and the approximation of isotropic elasticity are exhibited. In a third scenario, special attention is paid to connecting specific internal dislocation structures from the previous cases with non-equilibrium configurations predicted by the quantized Frank-Bilby equation for the (111) fcc and (110) bcc twist grain boundaries. The present solutions lead to the formation of energetically favorable dislocation junctions with non-randomly strain-relaxed configurations of lower energy. In particular, the local dislocation interactions and reactions form equilibrium hexagonal-shaped patterns with planar three-fold dislocation nodes without producing spurious far-field stresses.Numerical application results are presented from a selection of cubic metals including aluminum, copper, tantalum, and niobium. In contrast to the fcc materials, asymmetric dislocation nodes occur in the anisotropic bcc cases, within which the minimum-energy paths for predicting the fully strain-relaxed dislocation patterns depend on the Zener anisotropic factor with respect to unity. The associated changes in the dislocation structures as well as the removal of the elastic strain energy upon relaxations are quantified and also discussed.

  6. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup (United States)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li


    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  7. Chemotherapy and quality of life in NSCLC PS 2 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Strøm, Hans H; Sundstrøm, Stein H


    INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40% of patients with advanced NSCLC are in performance status (PS) 2. These patients have a shorter life expectancy than PS 0/1 patients and they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Data on how platinum-based combination chemotherapy affects Health Related Quality of Life...... (HRQOL) of patients with PS 2 are scarce and the treatment of this important group of patients is controversial. METHODS: A national multicenter phase III study on platinum based chemotherapy to 432 advanced NSCLC patients included 123 patients with PS 2. To explore the treatment impact on HRQOL......: Whereas the demographic data at baseline were well balanced between the groups, the PS 2 patients had significantly worse function and more severe symptoms than the PS 0/1 patients. In response to combination chemotherapy, the PS 2 patients had a more profound improvement of global QOL, cognitive function...

  8. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U


    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  9. Sofrimento psíquico e trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rosa Salles Vieira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo aprofunda questões clínico-téoricas relacionadas especificamente ao trabalho docente e ao sofrimento psíquico a ele relacionado a partir da observação clínica e vivência grupal nos atendimentos terapêuticos ocupacionais realizados no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" (HSPE-FMO. Partindo dos estudos acerca da Psicopatologia do Trabalho de Christophe Dejours, do trabalho docente e do relato de um caso clínico, caracteriza a problemática do sofrimento no trabalho, os sistemas de defesa contra este sofrimento, a ameaça à subjetividade do próprio trabalhador, as representações e conflitos vivenciados no trabalho docente, bem como a relação aditiva estabelecida como uma estratégia inconsciente de sobrevivência psíquica.

  10. Tracking reactive intermediates by FTIR monitoring of reactions in low-temperature sublimed solids: nitric oxide disproportionation mediated by ruthenium(II) carbonyl porphyrin Ru(TPP)(CO). (United States)

    Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Martirosyan, Garik G; Ford, Peter C


    Interaction of NO ((15)NO) with amorphous layers of Ru(II) carbonyl porphyrin (Ru(TPP)(CO), TPP(2-) = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion) was monitored by FTIR spectroscopy from 80 K to room temperature. An intermediate spectrally characterized at very low temperatures (110 K) with ν(CO) at 2001 cm(-1) and ν(NO) at 1810 cm(-1) (1777 cm(-1) for (15)NO isotopomer) was readily assigned to the mixed carbonyl-nitrosyl complex Ru(TPP)(CO)(NO), which is the logical precursor to CO labilization. Remarkably, Ru(TPP)-mediated disproportionation of NO is seen even at 110 K, an indication of how facile this reaction is. By varying the quantity of supplied NO, it was also demonstrated that the key intermediate responsible for NO disproportionation is the dinitrosyl complex Ru(TPP)(NO)2, supporting the conclusion previously made from solution experiments.

  11. Experimental studies on the chemiluminescence reaction mechanism of carbonate/bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt(II). (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Xia; Zhang, Bo-Tao; Lin, Jin-Ming


    Chemiluminescence (CL) phenomena of carbonates or bicarbonates of potassium, sodium, or ammonium with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt sulfate were reported. After cobalt(II) solution was injected into the mixture of carbonate/bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide, a CL signal was given out briefly. The CL conditions of these systems were optimized. The CL reaction mechanisms were studied experimentally by examining the spectrum emitted by the CL system and the effect of various free radical scavengers on CL emission intensity. The results showed that the maximal emission wavelengths of the CO32--H2O2-Co2+ and HCO3--H2O2-Co2+ systems were 440 and 490 nm, respectively. As a result, a radical scavenger of ascorbic acid, thiourea, and superoxide dismutase exhibited different effects on these CL systems. The different CL mechanisms involving the carbon dioxide dimer and the oxygen dimer were revealed, respectively.

  12. Characterization of Two Distinct Adducts in the Reaction of a Nonheme Diiron(II) Complex with O2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.; Vu, V; Martinho, M; Munck, E; Que, Jr., L


    Two (Fe{sup II}{sub 2}(N-EtHPTB)({mu}-O{sub 2}X)){sup 2+} complexes, where N-EtHPTB is the anion of N,N,N'N'-tetrakis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-diaminopropane and O{sub 2}X is O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} (1{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}) or O{sub 2}AsMe{sub 2} (1{center_dot}O{sub 2}AsMe{sub 2}), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures both show interiron distances of 3.54 {angstrom} that arise from a ({mu}-alkoxo)diiron(II) core supported by an O{sub 2}X bridge. These diiron(II) complexes react with O{sub 2} at low temperatures in MeCN (-40 C) and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (-60 C) to form long-lived O{sub 2} adducts that are best described as ({mu}-?{sup 1}:?{sup 1}-peroxo)diiron(III) species (2{center_dot}O{sub 2}X) with ?{sub O-O} {approx} 850 cm{sup -1}. Upon warming to -30 C, 2{center_dot}O2PPh2 converts irreversibly to a second ({mu}-?{sup 1}:?{sup 1}-peroxo)diiron(III) intermediate (3{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}) with ?O-O 900 cm{sup -1}, a value which matches that reported for (Fe{sub 2}(N-EtHPTB)(O{sub 2})(O{sub 2}CPh)){sup 2+} (3{center_dot}O2CPh). Mssbauer spectra of 2{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} and 3{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} indicate that the iron centers within each species are antiferromagnetically coupled with J 60 cm{sup -1}, while extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis reveals interiron distances of 3.25 and 3.47 {angstrom} for 2{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} and 3{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}, respectively. A similarly short interiron distance (3.27 {angstrom}) is found for 2{center_dot}O{sub 2}AsMe{sub 2}. The shorter interiron distance associated with 2{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} and 2{center_dot}O{sub 2}AsMe{sub 2} is proposed to derive from a triply bridged diiron(III) species with alkoxo (from N-EtHPTB), 1,2-peroxo, and 1,3-O{sub 2}X bridges, while the longer distance associated with 3{center_dot}O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} results from the shift of the O{sub 2}PPh{sub 2} bridge to a terminal position on one iron


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri


    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  14. Maxadilan Prevents Apoptosis in iPS Cells and Shows No Effects on the Pluripotent State or Karyotype (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyi; Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Jiayin; Liu, Xiaofei; Tan, Meihua; Li, HongYang; Chen, Jiansu


    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1). Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC). After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype. PMID:22457805

  15. Spur Reaction Model of Positronium Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.


    A new model of positronium (Ps) formation is proposed. Positronium is assumed to be formed by a reaction between a positron and an electron in the positron spur. Ps formation must compete with electron‐ion recombination and electron or positron reactions with solvent molecules and scavenger...... impurities. It is also influenced by electron and positron solvation. The model correlates the measured Ps formation probabilities with the spur electron properties determined in radiation chemistry. The predictions of the model are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results for liquids...

  16. Synthesis of a "Masked" Terminal Nickel(II) Sulfide by Reductive Deprotection and its Reaction with Nitrous Oxide. (United States)

    Hartmann, Nathaniel J; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W


    The addition of 1 equiv of KSCPh3 to [L(R)NiCl] (L(R) = {(2,6-iPr2C6H3)NC(R)}2CH; R = Me, tBu) in C6H6 results in the formation of [L(R)Ni(SCPh3)] (1: R = Me; 2: R = tBu) in good yields. Subsequent reduction of 1 and 2 with 2 equiv of KC8 in cold (-25 °C) Et2O in the presence of 2 equiv of 18-crown-6 results in the formation of "masked" terminal Ni(II) sulfides, [K(18-crown-6)][L(R)Ni(S)] (3: R = Me; 4: R = tBu), also in good yields. An X-ray crystallographic analysis of these complexes suggests that they feature partial multiple-bond character in their Ni-S linkages. Addition of N2O to a toluene solution of 4 provides [K(18-crown-6)][L(tBu)Ni(SN=NO)], which features the first example of a thiohyponitrite (κ(2)-[SN=NO](2-)) ligand. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.


    The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular

  18. Influence of pH on the speciation of copper(II) in reactions with the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid (United States)

    Pirker, Katharina F.; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Basosi, Riccardo; Goodman, Bernard A.


    Changes in speciation of copper(II) in reactions with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA) as a function of pH have been investigated by multifrequency (X- and S-band) EPR spectroscopy in the fluid and frozen states. The EPR spectra show the formation of three distinct mononuclear species with each of the polyphenols, and these are interpreted in terms of one mono- and two bis-complexes. However, di- or polymeric complexes dominate the Cu(II) speciation in the pH range 4–8, and it is only at alkaline pH values that these mononuclear complexes make appreciable contributions to the metal speciation. Each mononuclear complex displays linewidth anisotropy in fluid solution as a consequence of incomplete averaging of the spin Hamiltonian parameters through molecular motion. Rotational correlation times for the individual complexes have been estimated by analysing the lineshape anisotropy of the fluid solution spectra using parameters determined by simulation of the rigid limit spectra. These show that the molecular masses increase with increasing pH, indicating either coordination of increasing numbers of polyphenol molecules as ligands to the copper or the increasing involvement of polyphenol dimers as ligands in the copper coordination sphere. PMID:22542590

  19. Influences of temperature, power ultrasound and reaction time on the morphological properties of two new mercury(II) coordination supramolecular compounds. (United States)

    Hayati, Payam; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Morsali, Ali; Retailleau, Pascal; García-Granda, S


    Nanoparticles of two new coordination compounds, [Hg2(L)2(Br)4]n (1) and [Hg(L')(SCN)2] (2), (L=2-amino-4-methylpyridine, L'=2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid), have been synthesized by use of a sonochemical process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The single crystal X-ray data of compounds 1 and 2 imply that the Hg(II) ions are four and five coordinated, respectively. Topological analysis shows that 1D and 0D coordination networks of 1 and 2 can be classified as underlying nets of topological types 2C1 and 1,3M4-1, respectively. The thermal stability of compounds has been studied by thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The role of temperature, reaction time and ultrasound irradiation power on the size and morphology of "nano-structures" 1 and 2, has been investigated. Results claim that an increase of temperature, sonication power and decrease in reaction time leads to a decrease of particle size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and effects of temperature, power ultrasound and reaction time on the morphological properties of two new nanostructured mercury(II) coordination supramolecule compounds. (United States)

    Hayati, Payam; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Morsali, Ali; Molina, Daniel Ruiz; Geravand, Samira; Suarez-Garcia, Salvio; Villaecija, Miguel Angel Moreno; García-Granda, S; Mendoza-Meroño, Rafael; Retailleau, Pascal


    Two new mercury(II) coordination supramolecular compounds (CSCs) (1D and 0D), [Hg(L)(I)2]n (1) and [Hg2(L')2(SCN)2]·2H2O (2) (L=2-amino-4-methylpyridine and L'=2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid), have been synthesized under different experimental conditions. Micrometric crystals (bulk) or nano-sized materials have been obtained depending on using the branch tube method or sonochemical irradiation. All materials have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray analyses on compounds 1 and 2 show that Hg(2+) ions are 4-coordinated and 5-coordinated, respectively. Topological analysis shows that the compound 1 and 2 have 2C1, sql net. The thermal stability of compounds 1 and 2 in bulk and nano-size has been studied by thermal gravimetric (TG), differential thermal analyses (DTA) for 1 and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for 2, respectively. Also, by changing counter ions were obtained various structures 1 and 2 (1D and 0D, respectively). The role of different parameters like power of ultrasound irradiation, reaction time and temperature on the growth and morphology of the nano-structures are studied. Results suggest that increasing power ultrasound irradiation and temperature together with reducing reaction time and concentration of initial reagents leads to a decrease in particle size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of temperature, reaction time and ultrasound irradiation power on sonochemical synthesis of two new nanostructured lead(II) coordination supramolecule compounds. (United States)

    Hayati, Payam; Rezvani, AliReza; Morsali, Ali; Retailleau, Pascal; Centore, Roberto


    Nanoparticles of two new 0D, lead(II) coordination supramolecular compounds, [Pb(L)2(I)2] (1) and [Pb(L)(L(/))(H2O)]·3H2O (2), (L=1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate, L(/)=2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid), have been synthesized by a sonochemical process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The single crystal X-ray data of compounds show that the Pb ion is six coordinated in both 1 and 2. The thermal stability of compound 1 and 2 has been studied by thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The role of temperature, reaction time and ultrasound irradiation power on the size and morphology of the nano-structured compound obtained from 1 and 2, have been investigated. Results indicate that an increase of temperature and sonication power and a decrease in time reaction led to a decrease of particle size. Topological analysis shows that the compound 1 and 2 are new topology for net: 1,4M5-1 and nch, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dinaciclib potently suppresses MCL-1 and selectively induces the cell death in human iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac tissue. (United States)

    Alsayegh, Khaled; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great potential for being a major source of cells for regenerative medicine. One major issue that hinders their advancement to clinic is the persistence of undifferentiated iPS cells in iPS-derived tissue. In this report, we show that the CDKs inhibitor, Dinaciclib, selectively eliminates iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac cells. We found that low nanomolar concentration of dinaciclib increased DNA damage and p53 protein levels in iPSCs. This was accompanied by negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1. Gene knockdown experiments revealed that p53 downregulation only increased the threshold of dinaciclib induced apoptosis in iPS cells. Dinaciclib also inhibited the phosphorylation of Serine 2 of the C-terminal domain of RNA Polyemrase II through CDK9 inhibition. This resulted in the inhibition of transcription of MCL-1 and the pluripotency genes, NANOG and c-MYC. Even though dinaciclib caused a slight downregulation of MCL-1 in iPS-derived cardiac cells, the viability of the cells was not significantly affected, and beating iPS-derived cardiac cell sheet could still be fabricated. These findings suggest a difference in tolerance of MCL-1 downregulation between iPSCs and iPS-derived cardiac cells which could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues.

  3. Calcium and strontium isotope fractionation during precipitation from aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and reaction rate; II. Aragonite (United States)

    AlKhatib, Mahmoud; Eisenhauer, Anton


    In order to study Strontium (Sr) partitioning and isotope fractionation of Sr and Calcium (Ca) in aragonite we performed precipitation experiments decoupling temperature and precipitation rates (R∗, μmol/m2 h) in the interval of about 2.3-4.5 μmol/m2 h. Aragonite is the only pure solid phase precipitated from a stirred solutions exposed to an atmosphere of NH3 and CO2 gases throughout the spontaneous decomposition of (NH4)2CO3. The order of reaction with respect to Ca ions is one and independent of temperature. However, the order of reaction with respect to the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is temperature dependent and decreases from three via two to one as temperature increases from 12.5 and 25.0 to 37.5 °C, respectively. Strontium distribution coefficient (DSr) increases with decreasing temperature. However, R∗ responds differently depending on the initial Sr/Ca concentration and temperature: at 37.5 °C DSr increase as a function of increasing R∗ but decrease for 12.5 and 25 °C. Not seen at 12.5 and 37.5 °C but at 25 °C the DSr-R∗ gradient is also changing sign depending on the initial Sr/Ca ratio. Magnesium (Mg) adsorption coefficient between aragonite and aqueous solution (DMg) decreases with temperature but increases with R∗ in the range of 2.4-3.8 μmol/m2 h. Strontium isotope fractionation (Δ88/86Sraragonite-aq) follows the kinetic type of fractionation and become increasingly negative as a function of R∗ for all temperatures. In contrast Ca isotope fractionation (Δ44/40Caaragonite-aq) shows a different behavior than the Sr isotopes. At low temperatures (12.5 and 25 °C) Ca isotope fractionation (Δ44/40Caaragonite-aq) becomes positive as a function of R∗. In contrast, at 37.5 °C and as a function of increasing R∗ the Δ44/40Caaragonite-aq show a Sr type like behavior and becomes increasingly negative. Concerning both the discrepant behavior of DSr as a function of temperature as well as for the Ca isotope fractionation as a

  4. Co(II)-Ni(II) heteropolynuclear coordination compound obtained through the reaction of 1,2-propanediol with metallic nitrates as precursor for mixed oxide of spinel type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculescu, M., E-mail: [University ' Politehnica' of Timisoara, Faculty for Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Piata Victoriei 2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Birzescu, M.; Dumitru, Raluca [University ' Politehnica' of Timisoara, Faculty for Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Piata Victoriei 2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Sisu, E. [Chemistry Institute of Romanian Academy, Bdul Mihai Viteazul 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); University of Medicine and Pharmacy ' Victor Babes' , Pta Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 Timisoara (Romania); Budrugeac, P. [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE, CA, Splaiul Unirii 313, 030138 Bucharest (Romania)


    In this paper the authors present the experimental results of the thermal analysis of heteropolynuclear coordination compound [Co{sub 2}NiL{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}, where L is lactate anion, obtained by a new method, through the reaction of 1,2-propanediol with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O (M: Co, Ni). The reaction between 1,2-propanediol and M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O (M: Co, Ni) occurs with the oxidation of 1,2-propanediol to the lactate anion (L), coordinated to M(II). The thermal properties of the synthesized polynuclear coordination compound, [Co{sub 2}NiL{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}, have been investigated by TG, DTG and DTA. The mixed oxide of spinel type, NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}, impurified with NiO, obtained by thermal decomposition of heteropolynuclear coordination compound was characterized by IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis.

  5. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  6. Synthesis of [Sb2W20Fe2II(H2O)6O70](10-) with iron powder under mild conditions and its applications in both catalytic Fenton reaction and electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid. (United States)

    Sun, Minghui; Li, Fengyan; Yu, Longjiao; Wang, Ya; Xu, Lin


    The first Krebs-type tungstoantimonate containing ferrous ions Na2H4[C3H5N2]4[Sb2W20Fe2(II)(H2O)6O70]·12H2O (1) was prepared by a new route of synthesis under mild reaction conditions. The facile synthesis route represented a favourable tactic for the successful synthesis of Fe(II)-based polyoxometalate. Its applications in both catalytic Fenton reaction and electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid were also investigated primarily.

  7. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients. (United States)

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter


    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures.

  8. Enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains of APP/PS1 transgenic mice (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyang; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Cuntai; Zheng, Miao; Liang, Huifang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jie; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Kai


    The aim of this study was to investigate the repair function of exogenous Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for brain microvascular damage of the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study used a density-gradient centrifugation method to isolate mononuclear cells (MNCs) from mouse bone marrow, which were subsequently seeded and cultured. Cells were characterized by morphology and detection of the surface markers CD34 and CD133 at different time points by immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry (FCM). Then, EPCs were transfected with GFP adenoviral vectors (GFP-EPCs). Wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 transgenic mice both received GFP-EPCs injection through the tail vein, and using a PBS buffer injection as the control. Seven days later, the animals’ brain tissue was isolated. Expression of GFP was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western-blot (WB), while the fluorescence of GFP within the brains of mice was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Higher mRNA and protein expression of GFP, accompanied with increased green fluorescence, were detected in the brain of GFP-EPCs-injected APP/PS1 mice, as compared with GFP-EPCs-injected WT mice. The results show that the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD exhibited enhanced penetration of exogenous EPCs into brains than the WT mice. PMID:27186272

  9. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shetty


    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  10. PS: A nonprocedural language with data types and modules (United States)

    Gokhale, M. B.


    The Problem Specification (PS) nonprocedural language is a very high level language for algorithm specification. PS is suitable for nonprogrammers, who can specify a problem using mathematically-oriented equations; for expert programmers, who can prototype different versions of a software system for evaluation; and for those who wish to use specifications for portions (if not all) of a program. PS has data types and modules similar to Modula-2. The compiler generates C code. PS is first shown by example, and then efficiency issues in scheduling and code generation are discussed.

  11. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency. (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi


    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  12. Nuclear multifragmentation experiment at the KEK 12 GeV PS. The first results of the KEK-PS E337 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Yamanoi, Y. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Haseno, M. [and others


    A KEK-PS experiment E337 `Angular correlation of intermediate mass fragments emitted from the target multifragmentation reactions with 12 GeV protons` is an extension of the E288 performed a few years ago. The E288 revealed that the proton-induced target multifragmentation reactions at 12 GeV showed quite interesting phenomena such as 70 degree peaking angular distributions for intermediate mass fragments. In December, 1955, the test experiment with 12 GeV protons was started at KEK using this newly constructed counter array of 37 Bragg Curve Counters. The main production experiment was performed in April and May in 1996 after debugging the new counter system and DAQ system, as well as EP1-B beam line. Data with Au, Tm, Sm and Ag targets were successfully accumulated. The data are in the analysis stage, and several interesting features of high energy nuclear reactions have already been seen. (G.K.)

  13. A new synthesis of enantiomerically pure syn-(S)-β-hydroxy-α-amino acids via asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a homochiral Ni(II)-glycine/(S)-BPB Schiff base complex


    Belokon, Yuri N.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.; Ikonnikov, Nikolai S.; Strelkova, Tatiana V.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Saghiyan, Ashot S.


    syn-(S)-β-Hydroxy-α-amino acids were synthesised stereoselectively via elaboration of the asymmetric aldol reactions of aldehydes with a chiral Ni(II)-(S)-BPB/glycine Schiff base complex in the presence of equimolar NaH in THF. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was studied as a function of time, the reaction conditions, the nature of the carbonyl compounds and the base used. The synthetic potential of this asymmetric method was demonstrated in the preparation of syn-(S)-β-hydroxyleucine o...

  14. Ultrafast infrared observation of exciton equilibration from oriented single crystals of photosystem II (United States)

    Kaucikas, Marius; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, Jim; Renger, Thomas; van Thor, Jasper J.


    In oxygenic photosynthesis, two photosystems work in series. Each of them contains a reaction centre that is surrounded by light-harvesting antennae, which absorb the light and transfer the excitation energy to the reaction centre where electron transfer reactions are driven. Here we report a critical test for two contrasting models of light harvesting by photosystem II cores, known as the trap-limited and the transfer-to-the trap-limited model. Oriented single crystals of photosystem II core complexes of Synechococcus elongatus are excited by polarized visible light and the transient absorption is probed with polarized light in the infrared. The dichroic amplitudes resulting from photoselection are maintained on the 60 ps timescale that corresponds to the dominant energy transfer process providing compelling evidence for the transfer-to-the-trap limitation of the overall light-harvesting process. This finding has functional implications for the quenching of excited states allowing plants to survive under high light intensities.

  15. (ABA)-simulating photosystem II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Nov 14, 2011 ... Leaf photosynthetic activity limited by summer heat stress represents large constraint to production process of fruit trees. To cope with this problem, we tested photosystem II (PS II) thermostability in clonal apple tree rootstocks with different growth intensity - semi-vigorous-MM106 and dwarfing-J-TE-F.

  16. Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI). (United States)

    Rodriguez, S; Vasquez, L; Costa, D; Romero, A; Santos, A


    Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)


    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  18. CuSO4-glucose for in situ generation of controlled Cu(I)-Cu(II) bicatalysts: Multicomponent reaction of heterocyclic azine and aldehyde with alkyne, and cycloisomerization toward synthesis of N-fused imidazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guchhait, Sankar K.; Chandgude, Ajay L.; Priyadarshani, Garima


    The catalytic efficiency of mixed Cu(I)-Cu(II) system in situ generated by partial reduction of CuSO4 with glucose in ethanol (nonanhydrous) under open air has been explored. With this catalysis, the multicomponent cascade reaction of A3-coupling of heterocyclic amidine with aldehyde and alkyne,

  19. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex. (United States)

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others


    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    BACKGROUND: We have modified a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-aided transcript titration assay (1) in order to allow quantitation of low amounts of DNA topoisomerase II alpha mRNA in small RNA samples. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The titration assay was used to quantitate the amount of DNA topoisomerase

  1. From dihydrated iron(III) phosphate to monohydrated ammonium-iron(II) phosphate: Solvothermal reaction mediated by acetone-urea mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, Belen F., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Trobajo, Camino [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pique, Carmen [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Jose R. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco, Jesus A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, s/n 33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    By reaction between synthetic phosphosiderite FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, urea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO, and acetone (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, we report a novel solvothermal synthesis of polycrystalline NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O. The preparation of other two individual phases, NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is also described. The obtained product is a function of the reaction time and the N/P molar ratio in the reagent mixture, and the existence of structural memory in the dissolution-precipitation processes is discussed. Below 25 K, NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O behaves magnetically in a complex way, because both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic signals are superimposed, suggesting the existence of a canting of iron(II) magnetic moments. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal synthesis of polycrystalline NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O is presented. The preparation of other two individual phases, NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as a function of the N/P molar ratio in the reagent mixture and the reaction time, is also described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvothermal synthesis of NH{sub 4}FePO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O from an Fe(III) phosphate: reduction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of two intermediate metastable phases: phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition in two steps: mass loss of both water and ammonia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic behaviour: AF+constant spontaneous magnetization.

  2. The HARP detector at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gößling, C; Mass, M; Bunyatov, S; Chukanov, A; Klimov, O; Krasin, I; Krasnoperov, A; Kustov, D; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereshchenko, V; Carassiti, V; Di Capua, E; Evangelisti, F; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Brocard, R; Decreuse, G; Friend, B; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, p; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Legrand, J C; Kayis-Topaksu,A; Panman, P; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; van der Vlugt, R; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Ferri, F; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Postoev, V; Bagulya A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Barichello, G; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Laveder, M; Menegolli, A; Mezzetto M; Pepato, Adriano; Dumarchez, J; Troquereau, S; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Iaciofano, A; Lobello, M; Marinilli, F; Orestano, D; Panayotov, D; Pasquali, M; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Bogomilovw, M; Burin, K; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Petev, P; Rusinov, I; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A


    HARP is a high-statistics, large solid angle experiment to measure hadron production using proton and pion beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c impinging on many different solid and liquid targets from low to high Z. The experiment, located in the T9 beam of the CERN PS, took data in 2001 and 2002. For the measurement of momenta of produced particles and for the identification of particle types, the experiment includes a large-angle spectrometer, based on a Time Projection Chamber and a system of Resistive Plate Chambers, and a forward spectrometer equipped with a set of large drift chambers, a threshold Cherenkov detector, a time-of-flight wall and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The large angle system uses a solenoidal magnet, while the forward spectrometer is based on a dipole magnet. Redundancy in particle identification has been sought, to enable the cross-calibration of efficiencies and to obtain a few percent overall accuracy in the cross-section measurements. Detector construction, operation an...

  3. Modelling IRF8 Deficient Human Hematopoiesis and Dendritic Cell Development with Engineered iPS Cells. (United States)

    Sontag, Stephanie; Förster, Malrun; Qin, Jie; Wanek, Paul; Mitzka, Saskia; Schüler, Herdit M; Koschmieder, Steffen; Rose-John, Stefan; Seré, Kristin; Zenke, Martin


    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing. Upon induction of hematopoietic differentiation, we demonstrate that IRF8 is dispensable for iPS cell and ES cell differentiation into hemogenic endothelium and for endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition, and thus development of hematopoietic progenitors. We differentiated iPS cell and ES cell derived progenitors into CD141+ cross-presenting cDC1 and CD1c+ classical cDC2 and CD303+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC). We found that IRF8 deficiency compromised cDC1 and pDC development, while cDC2 development was largely unaffected. Additionally, in an unrestricted differentiation regimen, IRF8-/- iPS cells and ES cells exhibited a clear bias toward granulocytes at the expense of monocytes. IRF8-/- DC showed reduced MHC class II expression and were impaired in cytokine responses, migration, and antigen presentation. Taken together, we engineered a human IRF8 knockout model that allows studying molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiencies in vitro, including the pathophysiology of IRF8 deficient DC. Stem Cells 2017;35:898-908. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  4. Comparative study of the water oxidizing reactions and the millisecond delayed chlorophyll fluorescence in photosystem II at different pH. (United States)

    Gasanov, Ralphreed; Aliyeva, Samira; Arao, Sachiko; Ismailova, Aygun; Katsuta, Nobuhiro; Kitade, Hidetoshi; Yamada, Shuji; Kawamori, Asako; Mamedov, Fikret


    Water splitting activity, the multiline EPR signal associated with S(2)-state of the CaMn(4)-cluster and the fast and slow phases of the induction curve of the millisecond delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from photosystem II (PSII) in the pH range of 4.5-8.5 were studied in the thylakoid membranes and purified PSII particles. It has been found that O(2) evolution and the multiline EPR signal were inhibited at acidic (pK approximately 5.3) and alkaline (pK approximately 8.1) pH values, and were maximal at pH 6.0-7.0. Our results indicate that the loss of O(2) evolution and the S(2)-state multiline EPR signal associated with the decrease of the millisecond delayed chlorophyll fluorescence only in alkaline region (pH 7.0-8.5). Possible correlations of the millisecond delayed chlorophyll fluorescence components with the donor side reactions in PSII are discussed.

  5. Interleaving of beam lines inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia


    View against the direction of the proton beams. The PS ring (section 26) is on the left. The injection tunnel for LEAR leaving from here has increased the trafic in this already busy area where the two Linacs and the transfer tunnel leading to the SPS, ISR and AA join the PS ring (cf. photo 7802260, 7802261, Annual Report 1981, p. 89, fig. 12).

  6. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16chs with SOAR/Goodman (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.


    We report the classification of PS16chs from spectroscopic observation with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 08 UT. We classify PS16chs as a SN Ia near maximum light at z = 0.19.

  7. Motor-Generator powering the PS (Proton Synchrotron) main magnets

    CERN Multimedia


    This motor-generator,30 MW peak, 1500 r.p.m.,pulsed power supply for the PS main magnet replaced in 1968 the initial 3000 r.p.m. motor-generator-flywheel set which had served from the PS start-up in 1959 until end 1967. See also photo 8302337 and its abstract.

  8. Transfer line TT70 (electrons from PS to SPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    As injectors for LEP, PS and SPS had to be converted to the acceleration of electrons and positrons. So far, only positively charged particles had been transferred from the PS to the SPS, for the negatively charged electrons a new transfer line, TT70, had to be built. Due to the difference in level of the two machines, the transfer line slopes and tilts.

  9. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi


    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  10. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids. (United States)

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim


    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of the Rubidium Thiophosphate Rb 6 (PS 5 )(P 2 S 10 ) and the Rubidium Silver Thiophosphates Rb 2 AgPS 4 , RbAg 5 (PS 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 Ag 9 (PS 4 ) 4

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.


    The metal thiophosphates Rb2AgPS4 (2), RbAg5(PS4)2 (3), and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4 (4) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions, whereas Rb6(PS5)(P2S10) (1) was prepared with excess amount of sulfur. The compounds crystallize as follows: 1 monoclinic, P21/c (no. 14), a = 17.0123(7) Å, b = 6.9102(2) Å, c = 23.179(1) Å, β = 94.399(4)°; 2 triclinic, P ¯ (no. 2), a = 6.600(1) Å, b = 6.856(1) Å, c = 10.943(3) Å, α = 95.150(2)°, β = 107.338(2)°, γ = 111.383(2)°; 3 orthorhombic, Pbca (no. 61), a = 12.607(1) Å, b = 12.612(1) Å, c = 17.759(2) Å; 4 orthorhombic, Pbcm (no. 57), a = 6.3481(2) Å, b = 12.5782(4) Å, c = 35.975(1) Å. The crystal structures contain discrete units, chains, and 3D polyanionic frameworks composed of PS4 tetrahedral units arranged and connected in different manner. Compounds 1-3 melt congruently, whereas incongruent melting behavior was observed for compound 4. 1-4 are semiconductors with bandgaps between 2.3 and 2.6 eV and thermally stable up to 450 °C in an inert atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Immunogenesity of spesific protein molecular weight 16 KDa (PS16 leaf of siam citrus infected by citrus vein phloem degeneration (CVPD disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sritamin


    Full Text Available Citrus Vein Phloem degeneration (CVPD is an important citrus disese, which damaged citrus plantation and causing decrease of citrus production. In Indonesia, the CVPD disease caused by Liberobacter asiaticum bactery and the disease spread out by vectir insect Diaphorina citri and using infected bud in wood grafting. In infected citrus plant, two specific protein molecules with molecular weigt 16 kDa and 66 kDa are found. These protein molecules are not found in healthy citrus plant. The immunogenicity of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected by CVPD is known yet. The research material were leaves of citrus plant infected CVPD, leaves of healthy citrus plant and reagent used these research are for isolation of the total protein leaf of citrus plant, SDS-PAGE electroforesis, electroelution of PS16, ELISA Methods, Dot-Blot Method, anti-PS16 as aprimery antibody and secondary antibody is anti-Rabbit IgG Conjugated AP. The result of the research showed that of PS16 accumulated on leaf of citrus plant infected CVPD has immunogenic character. It is indicated by increase of the titer anti-PS16 after first immunization ang 2nd booster by indirect ELISA method and can be used to induce antibody (anti-PS16 and so showed that positive reaction between PS16 with anti-PS16. It is indicated by purples dark blue on cellulose membrane by Dot Blot method.

  13. The origin of split EPR signals in the Ca2+-depleted photosystem II. (United States)

    Mino, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Shigeru


    A light-driven reaction model for the Ca2+-depleted Photosystem (PS) II is proposed to explain the split signal observed in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra based on a comparison of EPR assignments with recent x-ray structural data. The split signal has a splitting linewidth of 160 G at around g = 2 and is seen upon illumination of the Ca2+-depleted PS II in the S2 state associated with complete or partial disappearance of the S2 state multiline signal. Another g=2 broad ESR signal with a 110 G linewidth was produced by 245 K illumination for a short period in the Ca2+-depleted PS II in S1 state. At the same time a normal YZ . radical signal was also efficiently trapped. The g=2 broad signal is attributed to an intermediate S1X. state in equilibrium with the trapped YZ . radical. Comparison with x-ray structural data suggests that one of the split signals (doublet signal) is attributable to interaction between His 190 and the YZ . radical, and other signals is attributable to interaction between His 337 and the manganese cluster, providing further clues as to the mechanism of water oxidation in photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

  14. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD


    Full Text Available Successful online learning – the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK Key learning points • An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. • Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. • Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagement–and learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. • Online learning poses a challenging experience for learners–and they need support to cope with it. • A key goal to achieve Praxis – being able to put learning into practice. Many of you will be familiar with the three (or more Ps of marketing and even if not, as trainers or teachers you are likely to have used mnemonics as an aid to retention and recall. Mnemonics are especially useful when you need to get the key points to ‘stick’ in the minds of your audience. With this in mind I offer you the 5 Ps of online learning: Presentation, Pedagogy, Promotion, Preparation and Props. What I offer is not new; in fact much of it results from the eleven years of online teaching and learning at The Open University, the £22 million it has spent on research and evaluation 1, and the worldwide community that have been sharing experience in recent years. You can therefore consider these 5 Ps to be a convenient re-packing of the information and experience that can be found in abundance on the Internet. Presentation Good graphic design appeals to the subtle process by which the brain processes information and, as a result, we decide if we like the ‘look and feel’ of a visual environment. Part of liking this ‘look and feel’ is the way the text and pictorial layout can appear inviting and encouraging–a vital aspect of any online learning environment. Another aspect of presentation is how the text reads in terms of engaging the learner and introducing the story to be told–as well as being written in clear and concise English When browsing through books

  15. Edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets as durable metal-free catalysts for iodine reduction reaction in dye-sensitized solar cells


    Ju, Myung Jong; Jeon, In-Yup; Kim, Hong Mo; Choi, Ji Il; Jung, Sun-Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Choi, In Taek; Kang, Sung?Ho; Kim, Han Seul; Noh, Min Jong; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Baek, Jong-Beom


    Metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are sufficiently active in Co(II)/Co(III) electrolytes but are not satisfactory in the most commonly used iodide/triiodide (I?/I3 ?) electrolytes. Thus, developing active and stable metal-free electrocatalysts in both electrolytes is one of the most important issues in DSSC research. We report the synthesis of edge-selenated graphene nanoplatelets (SeGnPs) prepared by a simple mechanochemical reaction between grap...

  16. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite. (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S


    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  18. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells. (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin


    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  19. Distribution of manganese species in an oxidative dimerization reaction of a bis-terpyridine mononuclear manganese (II) complex and their heterogeneous water oxidation activities. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kosuke; Sato, Taisei; Yamazaki, Hirosato; Yagi, Masayuki


    Heterogeneous water oxidation catalyses were studied as a synthetic model of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in photosynthesis using mica adsorbing various manganese species. Distribution of manganese species formed in the oxidative dimerization reaction of [Mn(II)(terpy)2](2+) (terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) (1') with various oxidants in water was revealed. 1' was stoichiometrically oxidized to form di-μ-oxo dinuclear manganese complex, [(OH2)(terpy)Mn(III)(μ-O)2Mn(IV)(terpy)(OH2)](3+) (1) by KMnO4 as an oxidant. When Oxone and Ce(IV) oxidants were used, the further oxidation of 1 to [(OH2)(terpy)Mn(IV)(μ-O)2Mn(IV)(terpy)(OH2)](4+) (2) was observed after the oxidative dimerization reaction of 1'. The mica adsorbates with various composition of 1', 1 and 2 were prepared by adding mica suspension to the various oxidant-treated solutions followed by filtration. The heterogeneous water oxidation catalysis by the mica adsorbates was examined using a Ce(IV) oxidant. The observed catalytic activity of the mica adsorbates corresponded to a content of 1 (1ads) adsorbed on mica for KMnO4- and Oxone-treated systems, indicating that 1' (1'ads) and 2 (2ads) adsorbed on mica do not work for the catalysis. The kinetic analysis suggested that 1ads works for the catalysis through cooperation with adjacent 1ads or 2ads, meaning that 2ads assists the cooperative catalysis by 1ads though 2ads is not able to work for the catalysis alone. For the Ce(IV)-treated system, O2 evolution was hardly observed although the sufficient amount of 1ads was contained in the mica adsorbates. This was explained by the impeded penetration of Ce(IV) ions (as an oxidant for water oxidation) into mica by Ce(3+) cations (generated in oxidative dimerization of 1') co-adsorbed with 1ads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A.; Miyazawa, M.; Azuma, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Overview of the Moral Status of iPS Cells. (United States)

    Martinho, Andreia Martins


    The production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka was a major breakthrough in stem cell research. IPS cells technology holds great promise for cell therapy, disease modelling, and drug testing, but it poses ethical questions concerning the moral status of somatic cells, which can re-gain pluripotency (iPS cells). This article provides an overview of the arguments that substantiate the debate on the moral assessment of iPS cells: potentiality argument; relational properties/standard view; and genetic basis for moral status.

  2. cis-Bis[2-(diphenylphosphinobenzenethiolato-κ2P,S]palladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Hernández-Ortega


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd(C18H14PS2], was synthesized by the reaction of (Ph2PC6H4SH with [PdCl2(NCC6H52] in a 2:1 molar ratio in the presence of a slight excess of NEt3 as base in dichloromethane. The compound crystallizes with the Pd(II atom on a twofold rotation axis. The palladium center has a slightly distorted square-planar environment, with the two P—S chelating ligands adopting a cis configuration. The present structure is a pseudo-polymorph of [Pd(C18H14PS2]·CH2Cl2.

  3. Prediction of interindividual differences in hepatic functions and drug sensitivity by using human iPS-derived hepatocytes. (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuo; Morisaki, Yuta; Kuno, Shuichi; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Harada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Norihisa; Ohtaka, Manami; Nishimura, Ken; Imagawa, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Sumazaki, Ryo; Noguchi, Emiko; Nakanishi, Mahito; Hirata, Kazumasa; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki


    Interindividual differences in hepatic metabolism, which are mainly due to genetic polymorphism in its gene, have a large influence on individual drug efficacy and adverse reaction. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the potential to predict interindividual differences in drug metabolism capacity and drug response. However, it remains uncertain whether human iPSC-derived HLCs can reproduce the interindividual difference in hepatic metabolism and drug response. We found that cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism capacity and drug responsiveness of the primary human hepatocytes (PHH)-iPS-HLCs were highly correlated with those of PHHs, suggesting that the PHH-iPS-HLCs retained donor-specific CYP metabolism capacity and drug responsiveness. We also demonstrated that the interindividual differences, which are due to the diversity of individual SNPs in the CYP gene, could also be reproduced in PHH-iPS-HLCs. We succeeded in establishing, to our knowledge, the first PHH-iPS-HLC panel that reflects the interindividual differences of hepatic drug-metabolizing capacity and drug responsiveness.

  4. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor. (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej


    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemic inflammatory reaction after pneumococcal vaccine: a case series. (United States)

    von Elten, Kelley A; Duran, Laurie L; Banks, Taylor A; Banks, Taylor A; Collins, Limone C; Collins, Limone C


    Fever, leukocytosis, and large local reactions following the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PS23) have been described only in isolated case reports in the adult literature. Such atypical reactions can pose difficulty to providers when determining management. Patients experiencing this noninfectious reaction may receive unnecessary treatment if the diagnosis of robust inflammatory response to the PS23 vaccine is not considered. This is a clinical case series of 5 adult patients who received the influenza and PS23 vaccines and experienced a cellulitis-like reaction, fever, and leukocytosis in the days following vaccination. Four of the five patients received the influenza and PS23 vaccines in the same arm. The patient who received the vaccines in opposite arms had the local findings in the arm that received the PS23 vaccine. All 5 patients sought care and 4 were admitted to the hospital for observation or treatment with intravenous antibiotics. This case series highlights potential side effects of the PS23 vaccine that are not well described in the adult literature. Antibiotics were not helpful in treating these patients' local and systemic symptoms. Patients with histories consistent with that highlighted in this case series may avoid antibiotics and hospitalization if their providers recognize these symptoms as a noninfectious reaction to the PS23 vaccine.

  6. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  7. New safety training for access to the PS complex areas

    CERN Multimedia


    Since 10/08/2012, a new course dedicated to the specific radiological risks in the accelerators of the PS complex has been available on SIR ( This course complements the general classroom-based Radiation Safety training. Successful completion of the course will be obligatory and verified by the access system as from 01/11/2012 for access to the following accelerator areas: LINAC2, BOOSTER, PS and TT2. Information and reminder e-mails will be sent to all persons currently authorized to access the accelerators of the PS complex. For questions please contact the HSE unit and in particular, the Radiation Protection Group (+41227672504 or

  8. Study of Value Co-Creation in CoPS


    Mingli Zhang; Jianhua Ye


    Value co-creation is associated with specific investment in the context of CoPS. The feature of CoPS decides that the study of co-creation cannot execute without regarding asset specificity. This study considers that value co-creation will be associated with specific value, which is outcome of relationship value and asset specificity. Supplier and customer have a close relation, which conducts to specific investment and then it turns to obstacle for competitors. Trust, commitment and satisfac...

  9. Motor-generator set of the PS main supply

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab


    Already in 1964, the PS improvement programme included a new main magnet supply with more power for the longer cycles needed for slow extraction at the full energy of 26 GeV. This motor-generator set was installed in 1967 and took up service at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern electronic regulation, it pulses the PS to this day.

  10. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software


    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre


    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  11. bFGF and Activin A function to promote survival and proliferation of single iPS cells in conditioned half-exchange mTeSR1 medium. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoling; Lian, Ruiling; Guo, Yonglong; Liu, Qing; Ji, Qingshan; Chen, Jiansu


    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be well maintained by clonal growth. The pluripotent growth of single iPS cells is limited by low survival. To facilitate robust single iPS cells cultured in vitro, half-exchange mTeSR1 medium (HM), whole-exchange medium (WM) and iPS cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) culture were used. The effects of bFGF and Activin A on the growth of single iPS cells were explored. The dissociation and propagation of single iPS cells also included Accutase enzymatic isolation, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 protection and high-density single-cell seeding (1 × 10(6) cells/well). CCK-8 assays demonstrated that the viability of clonal iPS cells in mTeSR1 medium and single iPS cells in HM, iPS-CM or WM supplemented with 100 ng/ml bFGF and 10 ng/ml Activin A was significantly higher than that in WM. Annexin v and propidium iodide (PI) assay, Calcein AM and EthD-III double staining also confirmed the similar results. ELISA assays showed that the levels of bFGF and Activin A of single iPS cells in HM and iPS-CM were higher than single iPS cells in WM. Meanwhile, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), Western Blotting (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF) and karyotype analysis revealed that HM culture was able to maintain undifferentiated markers of Nanog, Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. Undifferentiated single iPS cells in HM displayed homogenized growth. These findings demonstrate that bFGF and Activin A are important for the survival and growth of single iPS cells. HM culture system combined Accutase, Y27632 and high-density single-cell seeding can facilitate short-term growth of single iPS cells in vitro.

  12. The new heart of the PS is beating strongly

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio


    The PS has resumed operation with a brand new electrical power system called POPS; this enormous system comprising power electronics and capacitors is crucial because if it broke down practically no particles would be able to circulate at CERN. As soon as it started, POPS passed all the tests with flying colours and is now pulsing at full power.   The new PS power system is made up of 6 containers, each with 60 tonnes of capacitors and 8 power converters. The date 11/02/11 will always be remembered with affection by the engineers in the Electrical Power Converters Group. At 11:11 in the morning (no joke), the first beams powered by the new system began to circulate in the PS. The cutely-named POPS (POwer for PS) took over from the old rotating machine that had been working since 1968. From now on it will be POPS that supplies the PS main magnets with the electrical pulses needed to accelerate the beams for the LHC and all CERN's other facilities. The system is crucial as the PS is one of the lyn...

  13. The PS will soon be back in operation

    CERN Multimedia


    The PS's power supply system is undergoing repairs for the accelerator to restart on 26 June. The AB Department's Power Converter Group is working flat out with Siemens to return the PS's power supply system to working order. A problem appeared on the insulation of the power cables of the rotor of the rotating machine (photo) which supplies power to the PS magnets. To prevent more significant damage to the rotating machine, the AB Department, with the approval of the CERN Management, decided to shut down the PS which had started running on 15 May. Everything is being done to restart the accelerator on 26 June. The PS's rotating machine comprises a motor coupled to a generator. The generator's rotor acts like a flywheel, supplying high-power pulses of 40 to 50 megawatts to the PS magnets. The 6 megawatt motor drives the installation at 1000 revolutions per minute and compensates only for variations in speed. It is an essential interface since it would be hard to imagine connecting such an electrical charge, p...

  14. Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and photosystem II complexes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Spinacia oleracea. (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Ohta, H; Enami, I


    Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and Photosystem II (PS II) from a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and a higher plant,Spinacia oleracea, was performed to clarify the differences of binding properties of the extrinsic proteins between these two species of organisms. (1) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the other extrinsic proteins but not to spinach PS II. (2) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to the functional sites of Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the origins of PsbO, while spinach PsbP and PsbQ only bound to non-functional sites on Chlamydomonas PS II. (3) Both Chlamydomonas PsbP and spinach PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbO. (4) While Chlamydomonas PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO, spinach PsbP bound loosely to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO with no concomitant restoration of oxygen evolution. (5) Chlamydomonas PsbQ bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbO or spinach PsbO but not to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbP and Chlamydomonas PsbO or spinach PsbO. (6) Spinach PsbQ did not bind to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO and PsbP. On the basis of these results, we showed a simplified scheme for binding patterns of the green algal and higher plant extrinsic proteins with respective PS II.

  15. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces damages to freezing temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSU


    Full Text Available Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN, on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers.Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyllImpact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation and their effects overnight at 0, -1 or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A

  16. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  17. Tetradentate-arm Schiff base derived from the condensation reaction of 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidine, glyoxal/diacetyl and 2-aminophenol: Designing, structural elucidation and properties of their binuclear metal(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akila


    Full Text Available The novel binuclear Schiff base complexes were prepared by the reaction of 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidine, glyoxal/diacetyl and 2-aminophenol in 1:2:2 M ratio. The binucleating Schiff base ligand and its complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II and VO(II ions were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, 1H NMR, infrared, electronic spectra, cyclic voltammetry, thermal, magnetic and EPR studies. The low molar conductance values of the complexes support the non-electrolytic in nature. In IR spectra, the comparison of shift in frequency of the complexes with the ligand reveals the coordination of donor atom to the metal atom. The binuclear nature of the complexes is assessed from their magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and EPR spectra of the metal complexes provide information about the geometry of the complexes and are in good agreement with the proposed square planar geometry for Cu(II, Ni(II and square pyramidal for VO(II complexes. Molecular modeling has been used to suggest the structure of the complexes. The DNA cleavage ability of the complexes was monitored by gel electrophoresis using supercoiled pUC18 DNA. The metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis. The activity data show that the metal complexes are more potent activity than the parent Schiff base ligand against microorganisms.

  18. Simulation of a wide area survey for NEOs with Pan-STARRS PS1 & PS2 Telescopes (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Dukes, Martin Todd; Wainscoat, Richard J.


    We have performed a new survey simulation for a wide area survey with PS1 & PS2 as part of our quest to optimize the discovery rate of Near Earth Objects with the full Pan-STARRS system. The survey is intended to be as unbiased and as complete as possible given the available sky visibility and the anticipated performance of the PS1 and PS2 telescopes working together. The simulation includes a complete model of both telescopes, camera and slew overhead, sky visibility, moon phase, galactic plane exclusion, and weather. The performance of the resulting survey strategy is then evaluated using the method of Lilly et. al. 2017. This uses the Greenstreet et al. 2012 model with 50 million NEOs with absolute magnitudes 13 < H < 29 and the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS, Denneau et al. 2013) for linkages. The results are compared with other possible strategies.

  19. Trolox, a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol, photoprotects the surface-exposed regions of the photosystem II reaction center in vitro. Is this physiologically relevant? (United States)

    Arellano, Juan B; Li, Heng; González-Pérez, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Melø, Thor Bernt; Vacha, Frantisek; Naqvi, K Razi


    Can Trolox, a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol and a scavenger of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), provide photoprotection, under high irradiance, to the isolated photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC)? To answer the question, we studied the endogenous production of (1)O(2) in preparations of the five-chlorophyll PSII RC (RC5) containing only one β-carotene molecule. The temporal profile of (1)O(2) emission at 1270 nm photogenerated by RC5 in D(2)O followed the expected biexponential behavior, with a rise time, unaffected by Trolox, of 13 ± 1 μs and decay times of 54 ± 2 μs (without Trolox) and 38 ± 2 μs (in the presence of 25 μM Trolox). The ratio between the total (k(t)) and chemical (k(r)) bimolecular rate constants for the scavenging of (1)O(2) by Trolox in aqueous buffer was calculated to be ~1.3, with a k(t) of (2.4 ± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) and a k(r) of (1.8 ± 0.2) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), indicating that most of the (1)O(2) photosensitized by methylene blue chemically reacts with Trolox in the assay buffer. The photoinduced oxygen consumption in the oxygen electrode, when RC5 and Trolox were mixed, revealed that Trolox was a better (1)O(2) scavenger than histidine and furfuryl alcohol at low concentrations (i.e., Trolox was able to photoprotect the surface-exposed regions of the D1-D2 heterodimer, but not the RC5 pigments, which were oxidized, together with the membrane region of the protein matrix of the PSII RC, by (1)O(2). These results are discussed and compared with those of studies dealing with the physiological role of tocopherol molecules as a (1)O(2) scavenger in thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic organisms.

  20. Comparison of the accuracy of Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction in detecting clinically important cervical dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Luu, Hung N; Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; VonVille, Helena M; Scheurer, Michael E


    The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy. PMID:23930214

  1. A kinetics and mechanistic study on the role of the structural rigidity of the linker on the substitution reactions of chelated dinuclear Pt(II) complexes. (United States)

    Mambanda, Allen; Jaganyi, Deogratius


    Substitution reactions of platinum complexes bearing cyclohexylamine/diamine moieties viz., [Pt(H(2)O)(N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)cyclohexylamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(2), bpcHna; [{Pt(H(2)O)}(2)(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-trans-1,4-cyclohexyldiamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(4), cHn and [{Pt(H(2)O)}(2)(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-4,4'-dicyclohexylmethanediamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(4), dcHnm and phenylamine/diamine moieties viz., ([Pt(H(2)O)N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)phenylamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(2), bpPha; [{Pt(H(2)O)}(2)(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-phenyldiamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(4), mPh; [{Pt(H(2)O)}(2)(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4-phenyldiamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(4), pPh and [{Pt(H(2)O)}(2)(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-4,4'-diphenylmethanediamine)](CF(3)SO(3))(4)), dPhm with thiourea nucleophiles were studied in acidified 0.01 M LiCF(3)SO(3) aqueous medium under pseudo-first-order conditions using stopped-flow and UV-visible spectrophotometric techniques. The rate of substitution follows a similar trend in the two sets of complexes and decreases in the order: bpcHna > dcHnm > cHn and bpPha > dPhm ≈ pPh ≈ mPh), respectively. The result of this study has shown that the rigidity and/or the planarity of a diamine bridge linking the two (2-pyridylmethyl)amine-chelated Pt(II) centres, influences the reactivity of the metal centres by protracting similar symmetry elements within the complexes, which determines the amount of steric influences felt on the coordination square-plane. Hence, the order of reactivity is controlled by both the steric hindrance and the magnitude of the trans σ-inductive effect originating from the linker towards the metal centre. These two factors also impact on the acidity of the complexes. The high negative entropies and low positive enthalpies support an associative mode of activation.

  2. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium. (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng


    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.



  4. Low-molecular-weight model study of peroxide cross-linking of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry: II. Addition and combination reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; van Duin, M.; Tonoli, D.; Kwakkenbos, G.; Mengerink, Y.; van Benthem, R.A.T.M.; de Koster, C.G.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; van der Wal, S.


    The dicumyl-peroxide-initiated addition and combination reactions of mixtures of alkanes (n-octane, n-decane) and alkenes [5,6-dihydrodicyclopentadiene (DCPDH), 5-ethylidene-2-norbornane (ENBH) and 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH)] were studied to mimic the peroxide cross-linking reactions of

  5. Copper (II) Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of histidine and 2, 4 - pentandione. The reaction of methanolic solution of N – histidyl – 2, 4 – pentanedione Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride gave diaquo bis( N – histidyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) ...

  6. The PS complex produces the nominal LHC beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Borburgh, J; Cappi, R; Chanel, M; Chohan, V; Cyvoct, G; Garoby, R; Grier, D G; Gruber, J; Hancock, S; Hill, C E; Jensen, E; Krusche, A; Lindroos, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Metzmacher, K D; Olsfors, J; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Riunaud, J P; Royer, J P; Sassowsky, M; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schönauer, Horst Otto; Thivent, M; Ullrich, H M; Völker, F V; Vretenar, Maurizio; Barnes, M; Blackmore, E W; Cifarelli, F; Clark, G; Jones, F; Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Mammarella, F; Mitra, A; Poirier, R; Reiniger, K W; Ries, T C


    The LHC [1] will be supplied, via the SPS, with protons from the pre-injector chain comprising Linac2, PS Booster (PSB) and PS. These accelerators have under-gone a major upgrading programme [2] during the last five years so as to meet the stringent requirements of the LHC. These imply that many high-intensity bunches of small emittance and tight spacing (25 ns) be available at the PS extraction energy (25 GeV). The upgrading project involved an increase of Linac2 current, new RF systems in the PSB and the PS, raising the PSB energy from 1 to 1.4 GeV, two-batch filling of the PS and the installation of high-resolution beam profile measurement devices. With the project entering its final phase and most of the newly installed hardware now being operational, the emphasis switches to producing the nominal LHC beam and tackling the associated beam physics problems. While a beam with transverse characteristics better than nominal has been obtained, the longitudinal density still needs to be increased. An alternativ...

  7. Pressure Monitoring Using Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS (United States)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Danehy, Paul M.


    We investigate the feasibility of gas-phase pressure measurements at kHz-rates using fs/ps rotational CARS. Femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is then probed by a high-energy 6-ps pulse introduced at a time delay from the Raman preparation. Rotational CARS spectra were recorded in N2 contained in a room-temperature gas cell for pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm and probe delays ranging from 10-330 ps. Using published self-broadened collisional linewidth data for N2, both the spectrally integrated coherence decay rate and the spectrally resolved decay were investigated as means for detecting pressure. Shot-averaged and single-laser-shot spectra were interrogated for pressure and the accuracy and precision as a function of probe delay and cell pressure are discussed. Single-shot measurement accuracies were within 0.1 to 6.5% when compared to a transducer values, while the precision was generally between 1% and 6% of measured pressure for probe delays of 200 ps or more, and better than 2% as the delay approached 300 ps. A byproduct of the pressure measurement is an independent but simultaneous measurement of the gas temperature.

  8. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer. (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Yu-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Skillman, Ashley; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Pronost, Stéphane; Zhang, Yan


    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of Labile Fe(II) Species Complexed with Seawater Extractable Organic Matter Under Seawater Conditions Based on the Kinetics of Ligand-exchange Reactions with Ferrozine


    Iwai, Hisanori; Fukushima, Masami; Yamamoto, Mitsuo


    A fertilizer, comprised of a mixture of steel slag and compost, was used to restore seaweed beds in barren coastal areas. Complex Fe(I) species, supplied by steel slag, play a significant role in supplying Fe(II) to coastal areas and stimulating seaweed growth. Seawater extractable organic matter (SWEOM) from compost is generally assumed to serve as a chelator of Fe(II) in the fertilizer. It is considered that the bioavailability of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes is higher in the dissociable (labile)...

  10. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes. (United States)

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Yang, Jeng-Je; Chuang, Wen-I; Sheu, Fuu


    Bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum mainly include polysaccharides (PS-G) and immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8). These components may have diverse regulatory functions in the immune system. However, the PS-G preparations from different procedures still contained partial LZ-8 residue, indicating that the specific target and regulating function of PS-G and LZ-8 were not fully understood. In the present study, PS-G was subjected to 15% TCA for removing proteins and the LZ-8 detection using anti-LZ-8 monoclonal antibodies showed a remarkable 89.7% protein reduction of the deproteinized PS-G (dpPS-G). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expressed recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) without glycosylation was generated and then compared with dpPS-G in the induction toward murine primary macrophage and T lymphocytic cells. The peritoneal macrophages from TLR4-deficient and wild type mice revealed that TLR4 was a putative receptor of dpPS-G, mediating the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 cytokine production and CD86, MHC II expression on macrophages, while rLZ-8 enhanced the production of IL-1beta, IL-12p70, CD86, and MHC II expression by another obscure route. rLZ-8-treated macrophages enhanced the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, whereas dpPS-G treatment did not enhance the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2. Furthermore, although the direct rLZ-8-treatment conduced dramatic CD154, CD44 expression on CD3(+) T cells and increased IL-2, IFN-gamma secretion on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the dpPS-G was incapable of priming CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells unitarily. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity.

  11. Pretreatment of shale gas drilling flowback fluid (SGDF) by the microscale Fe(0)/persulfate/O3 process (mFe(0)/PS/O3). (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Xiong, Zhaokun; Ji, Fangzhou; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping


    Shale gas drilling flowback fluid (SGDF) generated during shale gas extraction is of great concern due to its high total dissolved solid, radioactive elements and organic matter. To remove the toxic and refractory pollutants in SGDF and improve its biodegradability, a microsacle Fe(0)/Persulfate/O3 process (mFe(0)/PS/O3) was developed to pretreat this wastewater obtained from a shale gas well in southwestern China. First, effects of mFe(0) dosage, O3 flow rate, PS dosage, pH values on the treatment efficiency of mFe(0)/PS/O3 process were investigated through single-factor experiments. Afterward, the optimal conditions (i.e., pH = 6.7, mFe(0) dosage = 6.74 g/L, PS = 16.89 mmol/L, O3 flow rate = 0.73 L/min) were obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimal conditions, high COD removal (75.3%) and BOD5/COD ratio (0.49) were obtained after 120 min treatment. Moreover, compared with control experiments (i.e., mFe(0), O3, PS, mFe(0)/O3, mFe(0)/PS, O3/PS), mFe(0)/PS/O3 system exerted better performance for pollutants removal in SGDF due to strong synergistic effect between mFe(0), PS and O3. In addition, the decomposition or transformation of the organic pollutants in SGDF was analyzed by using GC-MS. Finally, the reaction mechanism of the mFe(0)/PS/O3 process was proposed according to the analysis results of SEM-EDS and XRD. It can be concluded that high-efficient mFe(0)/PS/O3 process was mainly resulted from the combination effect of direct oxidation by ozone and persulfate, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic oxidation, Fenton-like reaction and adsorption. Therefore, mFe(0)/PS/O3 process was proven to be an effective method for pretreatment of SGDF prior to biological treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chiral Zn(II)-bisamidine complex as a Lewis-Brønsted combined acid catalyst: application to asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions of α-ketoesters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gotoh, Ryo; Yamanaka, Masahiro


    Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II...

  13. Chiral Zn(II)-Bisamidine Complex as a Lewis-Br?nsted Combined Acid Catalyst: Application to Asymmetric Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions of [alpha]-Ketoesters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryo Gotoh; Masahiro Yamanaka


      Focusing on the steric and electronic properties of the resonance-stabilized amidine framework, a cationic metal-bisamidine complex was designed as a conjugated combined Lewis-Brønsted acid catalyst. The chiral Zn(II...

  14. Final Results on the CERN PS Electrostatic Septa Consolidation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, Jan; Bobbio, Piero; Carlier, Etienne; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Müller, Tania; Prost, Antoine; Crescenti, Massimo


    The CERN PS electrostatic septum consolidation program is coming to completion after almost 4 years of development. The program was started to fulfil the increased requirements on vacuum performance and the need to reduce the time necessary for maintenance interventions. The new design of septum 31, used for the so-called 'continuous transfer' 5-turn extraction, and the related construction issues will be presented together with the operational experience gained during the PS 2002 run. In addition, the experience of two years of operation with the new generation septum 23, used for a resonant slow extraction, will be briefly discussed. The continued development undertaken since its installation in the PS ring in 2001 will also be described.

  15. A&T Sector Note on the PS transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Marcel; Blas, Alfred; Sterbini, Guido; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In a particle accelerator, several contributions can degrade the beam quality and particularly the beam transverse emittance. In this document we will describe a system used in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to cope with the injection steering errors and the transverse instabilities: the PS transverse feedback (PS TFB). As time progresses, this system is also being used for other purpose, to increase in a controlled way the beam transverse emittance and to excite the beam for the Multi-Turn-Extraction (MTE). In 2016, it has been successfully used on some operational beams to damp injection oscillations. This allowed to test the reliability of the system for its operational deployment. A piquet service is available in case of problem.


    CERN Document Server

    G. Daems


    The PS accelerators will soon stop for several months. Work will take place in controlled areas in the PS and will involve many people who are not always aware of the risks associated with the work sites. To guarentee the safety of these workers, the following two measures will be applied: everyone working in a controlled zone - Linacs, PSB, and PS machines tunnels, and transfer lines - must wear, visibly, his CERN access card and his film badge. the CERN access card and the film badge will only be issued after following a basic safety course. Regular checks will be carried out during the shutdown. Anyone without these two items on their person will be obliged to leave the area immediately.

  17. Electrophysical properties of PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skulski


    Full Text Available We present the technology of obtaining and the electrophysical properties of a multicomponent material 0.61PMN-0.20PT-0.09PS-0.1PFN:Li (PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li. The addition of PFN into PMN-PT decreases the temperature of final sintering which is very important during technological process (addition of Li decreases electric conductivity of PFN. Addition of PS i.e., PbSnO3 (which is unstable in ceramic form permits to shift the temperature of the maximum of dielectric permittivity. One-step method of obtaining ceramic samples from oxides and carbonates has been used. XRD, microstructure, scanning calorimetry measurements and the main dielectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical properties have been investigated for the obtained samples.

  18. Expression of neuropeptide receptor mRNA during osteoblastic differentiation of mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Nagao, Satomi; Goto, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Joujima, Takaaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Maki, Kenshi


    Various studies have shown a relationship between nerves and bones. Recent evidence suggests that both sensory and sympathetic nerves affect bone metabolism; however, little is known about how neuropeptides are involved in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into osteoblastic (OB) cells. To evaluate the putative effects of neuropeptides during the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into calcified tissue-forming OB cells, we investigated the expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors at each differentiation stage. Mouse iPS cells were seeded onto feeder cells and then transferred to low-attachment culture dishes to form embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs were cultured for 4 weeks in osteoblastic differentiation medium. The expression of α1-adrenergic receptor (AR), α2-AR, β2-AR, neuropeptide Y1 receptor (NPY1-R), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2-R), calcitonin gene-related protein receptor (CGRP-R), and neurokinin 1-R (NK1-R) was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Among these neuropeptide receptors, CGRP-R and β2-AR were expressed at all stages of cell differentiation, including the iPS cell stage, with peak expression occurring at the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. Another sensory nervous system receptor, NK1-R, was expressed mainly in the late osteoblastic differentiation stage. Furthermore, CGRP-R mRNA showed an additional small peak corresponding to EBs cultured for 3 days, suggesting that EBs may be affected by serum CGRP. These data suggest that the sensory nervous system receptor CGRP-R and the sympathetic nervous system receptor β2-AR may be involved in the differentiation of iPS cells into the osteoblastic lineage. It follows from these findings that CGRP and β2-AR may regulate cell differentiation in the iPS and EB stages, and that each neuropeptide has an optimal period of influence during the differentiation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Effect of interfaces on the melting of PEO confined in triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers. (United States)

    Beaudoin, E; Phan, T N T; Robinet, M; Denoyel, R; Davidson, P; Bertin, D; Bouchet, R


    Block copolymers form nanostructures that have interesting physical properties because they combine, for a single compound, the complementary features brought by each block. However, in order to fully exploit these properties, the physical state of each kind of domain must be precisely controlled. In this work, triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers consisting of a central poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block covalently bonded to polystyrene (PS) blocks were synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Their morphology was investigated by X-ray scattering and TEM experiments whereas their thermodynamic behavior was characterized by DSC. A strong decrease of both the melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PEO, due to its confinement between the PS domains, was observed and analyzed with a modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, following the approaches used for fluids confined in porous media. The existence of an amorphous bound layer, a few nanometers thick, at the PEO/PS interface, that does not undergo any phase transition in the temperature range investigated, accounts for both the melting temperature depression and the decrease of crystallinity upon confinement. This interfacial layer may significantly affect the mechanical and transport properties of these block copolymers that find applications as solid polymer electrolytes in batteries for example. Moreover, the value obtained for the solid PEO/liquid PEO surface tension is lower than those previously published but is thermodynamically consistent with the surface tensions of polymers at the solid/vapor and liquid/vapor interfaces.

  20. Diastereoselective Three-Component Reactions of Chiral Nickel(II Glycinate for Convenient Synthesis of Novel α-Amino-β-Substituted-γ,γ-Disubstituted Butyric Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou


    Full Text Available The convenient, high yielding and diastereoselective synthesis of α-amino-β-substituted-γ,γ-disubstituted butyric acid derivatives was carried out by a three-component tandem reaction of a chiral equivalent of nucleophilic glycine. The reaction was performed smoothly under mild conditions and enabled the construction of two or three adjacent chiral centers in one step, thus affording a novel and convenient route to α-amino-β-substituted-γ,γ-disubstituted butyric acid derivatives.

  1. Consistent optical potential for incident and emitted low-energy α particles. II. α emission in fast-neutron-induced reactions on Zr isotopes (United States)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.


    Background: Challenging questions of the α -particle optical-model potential (OMP) are still pointed out by recent high-precision measurements of α -induced reaction data below the Coulomb barrier. Moreover, the reliability of a previous OMP for α particles on nuclei within the mass number range 45 ≤A ≤209 has been recently proved for emitted α particles as well, but only in the case of proton-induced reactions on Zn isotopes [Phys. Rev. C 91, 064611 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.064611 (Paper I)]. Purpose: Analysis of most recent (α ,γ ) reaction data for Ge and Zr isotopes, which provides an additional validation of the above-mentioned potential, is related to a further account of α -particle emission in neutron-induced reactions on Zr isotopes, at the same time with a suitable description of all competitive processes. Methods: A consistent parameter set, established or validated by independent analysis of recent various data, particularly γ -ray strength functions, has been involved within model calculation of the (α ,γ ) as well as (n ,α ) reaction cross sections. The latter are part of the whole analysis of the neutron activation of Zr isotopes, in order to avoid any error compensation or latent ambiguity. Results: The aforesaid potential provides a consistent description of recent α -induced reaction data with no empirical rescaling factors of the γ and/or nucleon widths. On the other hand, its use leads to underestimated predictions of the pre-equilibrium emission and statistical models for the (n ,α ) reaction cross sections. Conclusions: An optical potential with a volume imaginary component seems to be needed to describe the low-energy α -particle evaporation, while only surface absorption occurs in α -induced reactions at similar energies.

  2. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation/C-C and C-O Bond Formation Reaction Cascade: Direct Synthesis of Coumestans. (United States)

    Neog, Kashmiri; Borah, Ashwini; Gogoi, Pranjal


    A palladium catalyzed cascade reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarins and in situ generated arynes has been developed for the direct synthesis of coumestans. This cascade strategy proceeds via C-H bond activation/C-O and C-C bond formations in a single reaction vessel. This methodology affords moderate to good yields of coumestans and is tolerant of a variety of functional groups including halide. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of natural product flemichapparin C.

  3. Inauguration of POPS: the new power system of the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Pictures 03 and 04 : The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Pictures 01, 06 and 07 : Magid-Michel Saikaly, energy and infrastructure director at Converteam, receives a prize from Steve Myers, Director of Accelerators at CERN, for the development and fabrication of the new electrical power system for the PS, called POPS.

  4. The Septa for LEIR Extraction and PS Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Masson, T; Prost, A


    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is part of the CERN LHC injector chain for ions. The LEIR extraction uses a pulsed magnetic septum, clamped around a metallic vacuum chamber. Apart from separating the ultra high vacuum in the LEIR ring from the less good vacuum in the transfer line to the PS this chamber also serves as magnetic screen and retains the septum conductor in place. The PS ion injection septum consists of a pulsed laminated magnet under vacuum, featuring a single-turn water cooled coil and a remote positioning system. The design, the construction and the commissioning of both septa are described.

  5. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte


    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  6. Negative ion-gas reaction studies using ion guides and accelerator mass spectrometry II: S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2 and N2O (United States)

    Eliades, J. A.; Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.; Kieser, W. E.


    Currently analysis of 36Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires large facilities for separation of the isobar 36S. Previously, it has been shown possible to suppress S- by >6 orders of magnitude at low energies in a prototype radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) instrument by ion reactions in NO2 gas in the injection line of an AMS system. Reaction products for the negative ions S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2, and S- with N2O, have been surveyed in order to understand isobar attenuation plateaus and the losses of analyte ions. Ion energies were at eV levels, but had a large initial energy spread of at least several eV. Under these conditions, the aggregate total S- and SO- cross sections in NO2 were estimated to be 6.6 × 10-15 cm2 and 7.1 × 10-15 cm2 respectively and the major reaction channel observed was electron transfer producing NO2-. Other reaction products observed for S- were SO-, SO2-, NS-, and NSO2-. On the other hand, S-, SO- and NS- were found to be largely unreactive with N2O despite the existence of some highly exothermic reaction channels. When Cl- was injected into NO2, reaction products such as ClO- and NO2- were observed only at low levels suggesting that larger Cl- transmissions should be possible with some RFQ design modifications. The ClO- reaction product had only a small attenuation under the experimental conditions, despite having near resonant electron affinity with NO2.

  7. Te(II)/Te(IV) Mediated C-N Bond Formation on 2,5-Diphenyltellurophene and a Reassignment of the Product from the Reaction of PhI(OAc)2 with 2 TMS-OTf. (United States)

    Aprile, Antonino; Iversen, Kalon J; Wilson, David J D; Dutton, Jason L


    We report a novel C-H to C-N bond metathesis at the 3-position of 1,2-diphenyltellurophene via oxidation of the Te(II) center to Te(IV) using the I(III) oxidant [PhI(4-DMAP)2](2+). Spontaneous reduction of a transient Te(IV) coordination compound to Te(II) generates an electrophilic equivalent of 4-DMAP that substitutes at a C-H bond at the 3-position of the tellurophene. Theoretical and synthetic reaction pathway studies confirm that a Te(IV) coordination complex with 4-DMAP is an intermediate. In the course of these pathway studies, it was also found that the identity of the I(III) oxidant generated from PhI(OAc)2 and 2 TMS-OTf is PhI(OAc)(OTf) and not PhI(OTf)2, as had been previously thought.

  8. Silica Aerogel-supported Hydrozincite and Carbonate-intercalated Hydrotalcite for High-efficiency Removal of Pb(II) Ions by Precipitation Transformation Reactions (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianfa; Feng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yusen


    In this work, hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite supported on silica aerogel were prepared via a simple and economical process and used as adsorbents for Pb(II) removal. The supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite possess ultra-thin thickness, high surface area, and weak crystallinity. In the batch Pb(II) adsorption experiments, the adsorbents with higher Zn(II) contents showed higher Pb(II) adsorption capacities, and the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating a mechanism of surface chemisorption. The adsorption capacities calculated based Langmuir isotherm model are 684.9 mg/g and 555.6 mg/g for the supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite, respectively, higher than the adsorption capacities of other hydrotalcite-based adsorbents and most of other inorganic adsorbents reported previously. The XRD diffraction peaks of hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite disappeared after the adsorption, and the Pb(II) species were uniformly dispersed in the adsorbents in form of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 proven by TEM, EDS mapping and XRD analysis, demonstrating the nature of the adsorption is the precipitation conversion of hydrozincite or Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite into Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2. These results demonstrate the synergic Pb(II) removal effect of the CO3 2- and OH- derived from hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3 2- hydrotalcite together with their ultra-thin thickness and high surface area contribute the excellent properties of the adsorbents.

  9. Silica Aerogel-supported Hydrozincite and Carbonate-intercalated Hydrotalcite for High-efficiency Removal of Pb(II) Ions by Precipitation Transformation Reactions. (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianfa; Feng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yusen


    In this work, hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite supported on silica aerogel were prepared via a simple and economical process and used as adsorbents for Pb(II) removal. The supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite possess ultra-thin thickness, high surface area, and weak crystallinity. In the batch Pb(II) adsorption experiments, the adsorbents with higher Zn(II) contents showed higher Pb(II) adsorption capacities, and the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating a mechanism of surface chemisorption. The adsorption capacities calculated based Langmuir isotherm model are 684.9 mg/g and 555.6 mg/g for the supported hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite, respectively, higher than the adsorption capacities of other hydrotalcite-based adsorbents and most of other inorganic adsorbents reported previously. The XRD diffraction peaks of hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite disappeared after the adsorption, and the Pb(II) species were uniformly dispersed in the adsorbents in form of Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2 proven by TEM, EDS mapping and XRD analysis, demonstrating the nature of the adsorption is the precipitation conversion of hydrozincite or Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite into Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2. These results demonstrate the synergic Pb(II) removal effect of the CO3(2-) and OH(-) derived from hydrozincite and Zn/Al-CO3(2-) hydrotalcite together with their ultra-thin thickness and high surface area contribute the excellent properties of the adsorbents.

  10. Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of an estuarine shrimp pond located along the south east coast of India. During the investigation, a total of 28 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and examined for their protease activity. Among them, one strain PS-18A which was tentatively identified as ...

  11. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating? (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey


    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  12. Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Isolation Agar Medium in duplicate Petri plates. To minimize ... on the Petri plates were counted from 5th day onwards, up to 28th .... After the dialysis, the volume was measured and analyzed for proteins and stored in deep freezer. Taxonomic investigation. The genus level identification was made for the strain PS-18A using ...

  13. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.


    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  14. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  15. The Swelling Behaviour of Polystyrene (PS)/ Polyvinylacetate (Pvac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the variation of the type of solvent responsible for the differences in the swelling kinetics of Polystyrene (PS) and Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) blends was studied. The results showed that the nature of solvent control or affects the degree of swelling. Also, 1-V characteristics at temperature range of 323-363K shows ...

  16. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation. (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun


    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fe(II/Et3N-Relay-catalyzed domino reaction of isoxazoles with imidazolium salts in the synthesis of methyl 4-imidazolylpyrrole-2-carboxylates, its ylide and betaine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Galenko


    Full Text Available A simple approach was developed for the synthesis of methyl 4-imidazolylpyrrole-2-carboxylates from easily available compounds, 5-methoxyisoxazoles and phenacylimidazolium salts under hybrid Fe(II/Et3N relay catalysis. The products were easily transformed into the corresponding 3-(5-methoxycarbonyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-3-ylpyrrol-1-ides, which in turn can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions into the corresponding betaines. A carbene tautomeric form of the 4-methoxycarbonyl-substituted imidazolylpyrrolides was trapped by reaction with sulfur affording the corresponding imidazolethiones under very mild conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Fırıncı


    Full Text Available A series of N-butyl substituted imidazolium salts, (1a-c and their pyridine enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (PEPPSI themed palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes (2a-c were synthesized and characterized. Pd-NHC complexes were fully determined by elemental analysis and spectroscopic. The synthesized complexes were tested in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of phenylboronic acid with aryl bromides.

  19. Cu(II)-catalyzed acylation by thiol esters under neutral conditions: tandem acylation-wittig reaction leading to a one-pot synthesis of butenolides. (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazumasa; Shindo, Mitsuru


    The first catalytic acylation of alcohols with a thiol ester present in Wittig reagents under neutral conditions catalyzed by the Cu(II) salt through a push-pull mechanism is reported. Furthermore, a new methodology for the one-pot lactonization of acyloins by a copper catalyst is developed. The synthetic utility of this method for the synthesis of natural products is shown.

  20. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II: An Overview of Structural Studies and Their Importance for Structure-Based Drug Design and Deciphering the Reaction Mechanism of the Enzyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jiří; Ptáček, Jakub; Bařinka, Cyril


    Roč. 19, č. 9 (2012), s. 1300-1309 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Glutamate carboxypeptidase II * prostate-specific membrane antigen * metallopeptidase * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.070, year: 2012

  1. PI3K-AKT pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis of epilepsy induced by type II focal cortical dysplasia. (United States)

    Lin, Y X; Lin, K; Liu, X X; Kang, D Z; Ye, Z X; Wang, X F; Zheng, S F; Yu, L H; Lin, Z Y


    The aims of this study were to observe the differential expression of PI3K-AKT pathway-related genes in seizure-inducing brain lesions in type II focal cortical dysplasia, and to explore the relationship between gene expression and histological changes in dysplastic foci and their epileptogenic mechanism. Typical lesions in brain tissue from three patients with epilepsy induced by type II focal cortical dysplasia were selected for analysis, along with normal brain tissue from two control group individuals. Following quantitative expression analysis using the RT2 Profiler(TM) PI3K-AKT PCR Array, differential expression of the pathway related genes was detected in the focal brain tissue lesions, and gene function queries were performed. Compared with the control group, thirteen related genes appeared to exhibit marked differences in expression in epileptic lesions from patients with type II focal cortical dysplasia; those genes were found to be involved in regulation of cell size, morphology, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis, and in immunity, inflammation, and many other domains. The differential expression of multiple genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in type II focal cortical dysplasia may be an important molecular mechanism underlying histological changes and recurrent seizures.

  2. Mid-infrared Flare of TDE Candidate PS16dtm: Dust Echo and Implications for the Spectral Evolution (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Tinggui; Yan, Lin; Xiao, Ting; Yang, Chenwei; Dou, Liming; Wang, Huiyuan; Cutri, Roc; Mainzer, Amy


    PS16dtm was classified as a candidate tidal disruption event in a dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy with a low-mass black hole (∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ ) and has presented various intriguing photometric and spectra characteristics. Using the archival Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the newly released NEOWISE data, we found that PS16dtm is experiencing a mid-infrared (MIR) flare that started ∼11 days before the first optical detection. Interpreting the MIR flare as a dust echo requires close pre-existing dust with a high covering factor and suggests that the optical flare may have brightened slowly for some time before it became bright detectable from the ground. More evidence is given at the later epochs. At the peak of the optical light curve, the new inner radius of the dust torus has grown to a much larger size (i.e., a factor of seven of the initial radius) due to the strong radiation field. At ∼150 days after the first optical detection, the dust temperature has dropped well below the sublimation temperature. Other peculiar spectral features shown by PS16dtm are the transient, prominent Fe ii emission lines and outflows indicated by broad absorption lines detected during the optical flare. Our model explains the enhanced Fe ii emission from iron that is newly released from the evaporated dust. The observed broad absorption line outflow could be explained by accelerated gas in the dust torus due to the radiation pressure.

  3. Mechanism of Reaction in NaAlCl4 Molten Salt Batteries with Nickel Felt Cathodes and Aluminum Anodes. Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison with Model Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, B.C.; Berg, Rolf W.; Hjuler, Hans Aage


    and cyclability can be obtained with systems containing dissolved chalcogen compared with the chalcogen-free system. Exchange of chalcogen between cathode and electrolyte during cycling was confirmed by performing gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy of the electrolytes. Cathode reactions were studied...

  4. Modelling of simultaneous mass and heat transfer with chemical reaction using the Maxwell-Stefan theory II. Non-isothermal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Krishna, R.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    In Part I a general applicable model has been developed which calculates mass and heat transfer fluxes through a vapour/gas-liquid interface in case a reversible chemical reaction with associated heat effect takes place in the liquid phase. In this model the Maxwell-Stefan theory has been used to

  5. Kinetics, mechanism, and spectroscopy of the reversible binding of nitric oxide to aquated iron(II). An undergraduate text book reaction revisited. (United States)

    Wanat, Alicja; Schneppensieper, Thorsten; Stochel, Grazyna; van Eldik, Rudi; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl


    A detailed kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the classical "brown-ring" reaction of [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](2+) with NO was performed using stopped-flow and laser flash photolysis techniques at ambient and high pressure. The kinetic parameters for the "on" and "off" reactions at 25 degrees C were found to be k(on) = 1.42 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), DeltaH(++)(on) = 37.1 +/- 0.5 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(++)(on) = -3 +/- 2 J K(-1) mol(-1), DeltaV(++)(on) = +6.1 +/- 0.4 cm(3) mol(-1), and k(off) = 3240 +/- 750 s(-1), DeltaH(++)(off) = 48.4 +/- 1.4 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(++)(off) = -15 +/- 5 J K(-1) mol(-1), DeltaV(++)(off) = +1.3 +/- 0.2 cm(3) mol(-1). These parameters suggest that both reactions follow an interchange dissociative (I(d)) ligand substitution mechanism, which correlates well with the suggested mechanism for the water exchange reaction on [Fe(H(2)O)(6)](2+). In addition, Mössbauer spectroscopy and EPR measurements were performed on the reaction product [Fe(H(2)O)(5)(NO)](2+). The Mössbauer and EPR parameters closely resemble those of the [FeNO](7) units in any of the other well-characterized nitrosyl complexes. It is concluded that its electronic structure is best described by the presence of high-spin Fe(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to NO(-) (S = 1) yielding the observed spin quartet ground state (S = (3)/(2)), i.e., [Fe(III)(H(2)O)(5)(NO(-))](2+), and not [Fe(I)(H(2)O)(5)(NO(+))](2+) as usually quoted in undergraduate text books.

  6. The role of a conserved membrane proximal cysteine in altering αPS2CβPS integrin diffusion (United States)

    Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Bunch, Thomas A.; Smith, Emily A.


    Cysteine residues (Cys) in the membrane proximal region are common post-translational modification (PTM) sites in transmembrane proteins. Herein, the effects of a highly conserved membrane proximal α-subunit Cys1368 on the diffusion properties of αPS2CβPS integrins are reported. Sequence alignment shows that this cysteine is palmitoylated in human α3 and α6 integrin subunits. Replacing Cys1368 in wild-type integrins with valine (Val1368) putatively blocks a PTM site and alters integrins’ ligand binding and diffusion characteristics. Both fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT) diffusion measurements show Val1368 integrins are more mobile compared to wild-type integrins. Approximately 33% and 8% more Val1368 integrins are mobile as measured by FRAP and SPT, respectively. The mobile Val1368 integrins also exhibit less time-dependent diffusion, as measured by FRAP. Tandem mass spectrometry data suggest that Cys1368 contains a redox or palmitoylation PTM in αPS2CβPS integrins. This membrane proximal Cys may play an important role in the diffusion of other alpha subunits that contain this conserved residue.

  7. Analysis of transcriptional isoforms of collagen types IX, II, and I in the developing avian cornea by competitive polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Fitch, J M; Gordon, M K; Gibney, E P; Linsenmayer, T F


    The genes for the alpha 1(IX), alpha 1(II), and alpha 2(I) collagen chains can give rise to different isoforms of mRNA, generated by alternative promotor usage [for alpha 1(IX) and alpha 2(I)] or alternative splicing [for alpha 1(II)]. In this study, we employed competitive reverse transcriptase PCR to quantitate the amounts of transcriptional isoforms for these genes in the embryonic avian cornea from its inception (about 3 1/2 days of development) to 11 days. In order to compare values at different time points, the results were normalized to those obtained for the "housekeeping" enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). These values were compared to those obtained from other tissues (anterior optic cup and cartilage) that synthesize different combinations of the collagen isoforms. We found that, in the cornea, transcripts from the upstream promotor of alpha 1(IX) collagen (termed "long IX") were predominant at stage 18-20 (about 3 1/2 days), but then fell rapidly, and remained at a low level. By 5 days (just before stromal swelling) the major mRNA isoform of alpha 1(IX) was from the downstream promoter (termed "short IX"). The relative amount of transcript for the short form of type IX collagen rose to a peak at about 6 days of development, and then declined. Throughout this period, the predominant transcriptional isoform of the collagen type II gene was IIA (i.e., containing the alternatively spliced exon 2). This indicates that the molecules of type II collagen that are assembled into heterotypic fibrils with type I collagen possess, at least transiently, an amino-terminal globular domain similar to that found in collagen types I, III, and V. For type I, the "bone/tendon" mRNA isoform of the alpha 2(I) collagen gene was predominant; transcripts from the downstream promotor were at basal levels. In other tissues expressing collagen types IX and II, long IX was expressed predominantly with the IIA form in the anterior optic cup at stage 22/23; in 14 1

  8. psíquico de um caps em florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotéa Loes Ribas


    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se realizó una investigación cualitativa cuyo objetivo fue reflexionar, con el individuo en sufrimiento psíquico, sus experiencias vividas en el cotidiano, identificando los significados de estas experiencias. El estudio fue realizado con dos clientes de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial (CAPS II, en la ciudad de Florianópolis. La recolección de los datos fue hecha a partir de la implantación del proceso de cuidado, según la Teoría de Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. En el análisis de los datos fueron identificados los siguientes significados: conviviendo con los recuerdos de la infancia; la co-constitución de la enfermedad psiquiátrica; el trabajo penetrando el proceso salud-enfermedad; transcendiendo en salud, ciudadanía y calidad de vida; iluminados por la Reforma de la Asistencia Psiquiátrica. De esa forma, la teoría “Volverse Humano”, con sus conceptos, principios y presupuestos le permitió al individuo en sufrimiento psíquico vislumbrar una nueva manera de vivir, relacionada con la propuesta de la Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileña.

  9. AβPP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Show Sex Differences in the Cerebellum Associated with Aging. (United States)

    Ordoñez-Gutierrez, Lara; Fernandez-Perez, Ivan; Herrera, Jose Luis; Anton, Marta; Benito-Cuesta, Irene; Wandosell, Francisco


    Cerebellar pathology has been related to presenilin 1 mutations in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease. However, cerebellum tissue has not been intensively analyzed in transgenic models of mutant presenilins. Furthermore, the effect of the sex of the mice was not systematically analyzed, despite the fact that important gender differences in the evolution of the disease in the human population have been described. We analyzed whether the progression of amyloidosis in a double transgenic mouse, AβPP/PS1, is susceptible to aging and differentially affects males and females. The accumulation of amyloid in the cerebellum differentially affects males and females of the AβPP/PS1 transgenic line, which was found to be ten-fold higher in 15-month-old females. Amyloid-β accumulation was more evident in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, but glia reaction was only observed in the granular layer of the older mice. The sex divergence was also observed in other neuronal, survival, and autophagic markers. The cerebellum plays an important role in the evolution of the pathology in this transgenic mouse model. Sex differences could be crucial for a complete understanding of this disease. We propose that the human population could be studied in this way. Sex-specific treatment strategies in human populations could show a differential response to the therapeutic approach.

  10. Hesperidin ameliorates behavioral impairments and neuropathology of transgenic APP/PS1 mice. (United States)

    Li, Chaoyun; Zug, Caroline; Qu, Hongchun; Schluesener, Hermann; Zhang, Zhiyuan


    In addition to cognitive impairments, deficits in non-cognitive behaviors are also common neurological sequelae in Alzheimer's disease and its animal models. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits, was orally given (100 mg/kg body weight) to 5-month-old transgenic APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis for Alzheimer's disease. After a relatively short-term treatment of 10 days, hesperidin significantly restored deficits in non-cognitive nesting ability and social interaction. Further immunohistochemical analysis showed significantly attenuated β-amyloid deposition, plaque associated APP expression, microglial activation and TGF-β immunoreactivity in brains of APP/PS1 mice, which suggests that ameliorated behavioral impairments might be attributable to reduced Aβ deposition and attenuated neuro-inflammatory reaction. Additionally, efficient anti-inflammatory effects of hesperidin were confirmed in vitro. Our findings suggest that hesperidin might be a potential candidate for the treatment of AD or even other neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayo


    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  12. A transmissão psíquica geracional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Oliveira dos Santos

    Full Text Available O artigo seguinte refere-se a um estudo sobre como ocorre a transmissão psíquica entre as gerações e qual sua importância na constituição psíquica do sujeito. É também objetivo deste artigo explicar o que são as transmissões intergeracional e transgeracional. Para buscar respostas para essas questões, fez-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a transmissão psíquica, pelo viés psicanalítico, principalmente a partir da teoria lacaniana e com conceitos oriundos da linguística saussuriana. Será a partir de uma determinada ordem simbólica, constituída pela linguagem que precede o sujeito, nomeado por Lacan como o Outro, que a transmissão psíquica entre gerações ganhará o seu caráter unívoco, sempre se tendo em mente a importância fundamental do recalcamento e de seus efeitos, bem como do retorno do recalcado nas diferentes gerações. A transmissão psíquica é necessária e concomitante à constituição do sujeito, e ocorre através da linguagem, dos significantes que irão determinar uma ordem simbólica para o ser que nasce através dos diferentes discursos que perpassam as gerações nas figuras dos pais desse novo ser. Essa ordem simbólica continuará a se fazer presente nesse novo sujeito pelo restante de sua existência. Este artigo busca dar nova luz ao aspecto da transmissão psíquica transgeracional, diferenciando-se da recalque s abordagens psicanalíticas contemporâneas por ser uma leitura lacaniana. Serão usados dois exemplos: um de como a transmissão aparece na cultura, outro, na subjetividade do sujeito através da arte.

  13. Synthesis of Dichlorophosphinenickel(II) Compounds and Their Catalytic Activity in Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: A Simple Air-Free Experiment for Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Thananatthanachon, Todsapon; Lecklider, Michelle R.


    In this experiment, students perform an air-free synthesis of three dichlorophosphinenickel(II) compounds, NiCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2], NiCl[subscript 2](PCy[subscript 3])[subscript 2], and NiCl[subscript 2](DPPE), using NiCl[subscript 2]·6H[subscript 2]O and the appropriate phosphine as the precursors. These colorful nickel…

  14. Low-molecular-weight model study of peroxide cross-linking of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry II. Addition and combination reactions. (United States)

    Peters, R; van Duin, M; Tonoli, D; Kwakkenbos, G; Mengerink, Y; van Benthem, R A T M; de Koster, C G; Schoenmakers, P J; van der Wal, Sj


    The dicumyl-peroxide-initiated addition and combination reactions of mixtures of alkanes (n-octane, n-decane) and alkenes [5,6-dihydrodicyclopentadiene (DCPDH), 5-ethylidene-2-norbornane (ENBH) and 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH)] were studied to mimic the peroxide cross-linking reactions of terpolymerised ethylene, propylene and a diene monomer (EPDM). The reaction products of the mixtures were separated by both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The separated compounds were identified from their mass spectra and their GC and GCxGC elution pattern. Quantification of the various alkyl/alkyl, alkyl/allyl and allyl/allyl combination products shows that allylic-radicals comprise approximately 60% of the substrate radicals formed. The total concentration of the products formed by combination is found to be independent of the concentration and the type of alkene. The total concentration of the products formed by addition to the alkene increases with increasing concentration of alkene. In addition, the total concentration of the formed addition products depends strongly on the type of the alkene used, viz. VNBH>ENBH approximately DCPDH, which is a consequence of differences in steric hindrance of the unsaturation. The peroxide curing efficiency, defined as the number of moles of cross-linked products formed per mol of peroxide, is 173% using 9% (w/w) 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH). This indicates that the addition reaction is recurrent. All these findings are consistent with experimental studies on peroxide curing of EPDM rubber. In addition, the present results provide more-detailed structural information, increasing the understanding of the mechanism of peroxide curing of EPDM. The described approach to use low-molecular-weight model compounds followed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and GCxGC-MS analysis is proven to be a very powerful tool to study the cross-linking of EPDM.

  15. Light-Induced Copper(II) Coordination by a Bicyclic Tetraaza Chelator through a Ligand-to-Metal Charge-Transfer Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Jacob Rørdam; Jensen, Mikael; Bjerrum, Morten J.


    To enable utilization of the broad potential of copper isotopes in nuclear medicine, rapid and robust chelation of the copper is required. Bowl adamanzanes (bicyclic tetraaza ligands) can form kinetically stable copper complexes, but they are usually formed at low rates unless high pH values and ...... inhibition from acido ligands capable of acting as electron donors in LMCT reactions. Dissolved O2 was also found to result in photoredox inhibition....

  16. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance (United States)

    Dolores Linde; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Victor Guallar; Kenneth E. Hammel; Rebecca Pogni; Angel T. Martínez


    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus...

  17. Transfer line from the PSB to the PS (recombination)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    After sequential ejection of 5 bunches from each of the 4 rings of the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), the 4 batches are brought to the same vertical level, so as to form a string of 20 bunches, filling the circumference of the PS. This vertical "recombination" is performed in the transfer line, using vertical bending magnets, septa and kickers. Here we see the section where the beam from ring 4 (the top one) is brought down to the level of ring 3, and the beam from ring 1 up to the level of ring 2. Further downstream (to the right, outside this picture), level 2 is brought up to level 3, identical to that of the PS. After this original recombination scheme, other ways of combining the 4 beams, vertically and/or longitudinally, were developed and used in operation.

  18. O Trabalho Psíquico da Intersubjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Assumpção Fernandes


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura refletir sobre o trabalho psíquico da intersubjetividade nos grupos. Trata-se de pensá-lo na relação com a ruptura de investimentos durante o processo de Transformação x Criação, em primeiro lugar. A partir desse ponto, discutiremos a relação entre Transformação, Trabalho e Dispositivo. Neste caso pensamos nas possibilidades de intervenção, refletindo sobre a intervenção inpidual e a intervenção grupal. A questão da Transmissão Psíquica entre gerações será focalizada, fundamentalmente, no que se refere aos tempos lógicos do recalque.

  19. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander


    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  20. Magnetoelectric MnPS3 as a candidate for ferrotoroidicity (United States)

    Ressouche, E.; Loire, M.; Simonet, V.; Ballou, R.; Stunault, A.; Wildes, A.


    We have revisited the magnetic structure of manganese phosphorus trisulfide MnPS3 using neutron diffraction and polarimetry. MnPS3 undergoes a transition toward a collinear antiferromagnetic order at 78 K. The resulting magnetic point-group breaks both the time reversal and the space inversion thus allowing a linear magnetoelectric coupling. Neutron polarimetry was subsequently used to prove that this coupling provides a way to manipulate the antiferromagnetic domains simply by cooling the sample under crossed magnetic and electrical fields, in agreement with the nondiagonal form of the magnetoelectric tensor. In addition, this tensor has, in principle, an antisymmetric part that results in a toroidic moment and provides with a pure ferrotoroidic compound.

  1. PS Dreyer: Bakens op die pad van die wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Antonites


    Full Text Available PS Dreyer: Beacons on the path of science Professor PS Dreyer is an academic who has shown insight and vision into several problems of the human sciences since 1951. He has identified problems, but also contributed solutions to them. In this respect his philosophy on causality and freedom is of utmost importance. The same applies to his investigations into the relationship history-Christianity as well as the unity of sciences and how the concepts scientific, unscientic and nonscientific are related to one another. His contribution to the understanding of Greek philosophy should be of significance for time to come. Two milestones could be distinguished: Dreyer's particular solution to the problem of the criterion on truth, viz meaningfulness and his notion of the knowledge of values in ethics by valuation in contradistinction to knowledge through feeling, reason and will.

  2. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander


    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  3. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H


    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  4. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  5. Consolidation of the 45-Year Old PS Main Magnet System

    CERN Document Server

    Zickler, Thomas; Kalbreier, Wilhelm; Mess, Karl Hubert; Newborough, Antony


    After a major coil insulation breakdown on two of the 47-year-old CERN PS main magnets in 2003, an extensive magnet consolidation program has been launched. This article reviews the analysis of the magnet state be-fore the repair and the applied major improvements. An overview is given of the production of the new compo-nents, the actual refurbishment and the commissioning of the main magnet system after 18 months shutdown.

  6. Specification of the Beam Position Measurement in the PS Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Chanel, M; Ludwig, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Scrivens, R; Steerenberg, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    This specification, drawn up by the instrumentation specification board 2, describes the requirements concerning orbit and trajectory measurements in the PS machine. The orbit measurement and the trajectory measurement are both indispensable in order to be able to guarantee the correct beam quality for beams like LHC, the future Grand Sasso beam, the nTOF beam and surely the combined operation of the nTOF beam and the East Area beam.

  7. Physics at the AD/PS/SPS (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Lecture 1: The CERN injector complex and beams for non-LHC physics. The various machines and beam lines in the CERN injector complex are presented, from the linacs to the SPS. Special emphasis is given to the beam lines at the PS and SPS machines: AD, North and East Areas, nTOF and CNGS and HiRadMad as well as the ion beams. A short outlook is given to possible future upgrades and projects.

  8. Ps18.pdf | sep2002 | jess | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; jess; sep2002; Ps18.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Associates – 2017. Posted on 17 July 2017. Click here to see the list · 28th Mid Year Meeting. Posted on 26 May ...

  9. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J


    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  10. LS1 Report: PS Booster prepares for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    With Linac2 already up and running, the countdown to beam in the LHC has begun! The next in line is the PS Booster, which will close up shop to engineers early next week. The injector will be handed over to the Operations Group who are tasked with getting it ready for active duty.   Taken as we approach the end of LS1 activities, this image shows where protons will soon be injected from Linac2 into the four PS Booster rings. Over the coming two months, the Operations Group will be putting the Booster's new elements through their paces. "Because of the wide range of upgrades and repairs carried out in the Booster, we have a very full schedule of tests planned for the machine," says Bettina Mikulec, PS Booster Engineer in Charge. "We will begin with cold checks; these are a wide range of tests carried out without beam, including system tests with power on/off and with varying settings, as well as verification of the controls system and timings." Amon...

  11. Reaction Automata


    Okubo, Fumiya; Kobayashi, Satoshi; YOKOMORI, Takashi


    Reaction systems are a formal model that has been introduced to investigate the interactive behaviors of biochemical reactions. Based on the formal framework of reaction systems, we propose new computing models called reaction automata that feature (string) language acceptors with multiset manipulation as a computing mechanism, and show that reaction automata are computationally Turing universal. Further, some subclasses of reaction automata with space complexity are investigated and their la...

  12. Cu (II), Zn (II) andMn (II) complexes of poly (methyl vinyl ether-alt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MVE-alt-MA)) with Zn(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were synthesized from the reaction of the aqueous solution of copolymer and metal(II) chlorides at different temperatures ranging from 25° to 40°C. Elemental analysis of themetal-polymer complexes ...

  13. The time course of photoinactivation of photosystem II in leaves revisited. (United States)

    Kou, Jiancun; Oguchi, Riichi; Fan, Da-Yong; Chow, Wah Soon


    Since photosystem II (PS II) performs the demanding function of water oxidation using light energy, it is susceptible to photoinactivation during photosynthesis. The time course of photoinactivation of PS II yields useful information about the process. Depending on how PS II function is assayed, however, the time course seems to differ. Here, we revisit this problem by using two additional assays: (1) the quantum yield of oxygen evolution in limiting, continuous light and (2) the flash-induced cumulative delivery of PS II electrons to the oxidized primary donor (P700(+)) in PS I measured as a 'P700 kinetics area'. The P700 kinetics area is based on the fact that the two photosystems function in series: when P700 is completely photo-oxidized by a flash added to continuous far-red light, electrons delivered from PS II to PS I by the flash tend to re-reduce P700(+) transiently to an extent depending on the PS II functionality, while the far-red light photo-oxidizes P700 back to the steady-state concentration. The quantum yield of oxygen evolution in limiting, continuous light indeed decreased in a way that deviated from a single-negative exponential. However, measurement of the quantum yield of oxygen in limiting light may be complicated by changes in mitochondrial respiration between darkness and limiting light. Similarly, an assay based on chlorophyll fluorescence may be complicated by the varying depth in leaf tissue from which the signal is detected after progressive photoinactivation of PS II. On the other hand, the P700 kinetics area appears to be a reasonable assay, which is a measure of functional PS II in the whole leaf tissue and independent of changes in mitochondrial respiration. The P700 kinetics area decreased in a single-negative exponential fashion during progressive photoinactivation of PS II in a number of plant species, at least at functional PS II contents ≥6 % of the initial value, in agreement with the conclusion of Sarvikas et al. (Photosynth

  14. Impact of substituents and nonplanarity on nickel and copper porphyrin electrochemistry: first observation of a Cu(II)/Cu(III) reaction in nonaqueous media. (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Senge, Mathias O; Van Caemelbecke, Eric; Smith, Kevin M; Medforth, Craig J; Zhang, Min; Kadish, Karl M


    Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of dodecasubstituted and highly nonplanar nickel porphyrins in a noncoordinating solvent have previously revealed the first nickel(III) porphyrin dication. Herein, we investigate if these nonplanar porphyrins can also be used to detect the so far unobserved copper(III) porphyrin dication. Electrochemical studies of the oxidation of (DPP)Cu and (OETPP)Cu show three processes, the first two of which are macrocycle-centered to give the porphyrin dication followed by a Cu(II)/Cu(III) process at more positive potential. Support for the assignment of the Cu(II)/Cu(III) process comes from the linear relationships observed between E1/2 and the third ionization potential of the central metal ions for iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper complexes of (DPP)M and (OETPP)M. In addition, the oxidation behavior of additional nonplanar nickel porphyrins is investigated in a noncoordinating solvent, with nickel meso-tetraalkylporphyrins also being found to form nickel(III) porphyrin dications. Finally, examination of the nickel meso-tetraalkylporphyrins in a coordinating solvent (pyridine) reveals that the first oxidation becomes metal-centered under these conditions, as was previously noted for a range of nominally planar porphyrins.

  15. Kultuur isiksuse psühholoogiat ei mõjuta / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-


    Psühholoogia uuemate andmete kohaselt ei sõltu indiviidi seadumus kultuurist, soost, vanusest, haridusest. Eesti psühholoogide Jüri Alliku ja Ann Realo osalusel ajakirjas "Journal Personality and Social Psychology" ilmunud artiklist

  16. Kultuur isiksuse psühholoogiat ei mõjuta / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-


    Psühholoogia uuemate andmete kohaselt ei sõltu indiviidi seadumus kultuurist, soost, vanusest, haridusest. Eesti psühholoogide Jüri Alliku ja Anu Realo osalusel ajakirjas "Journal Personality and Social Psychology" ilmunud artiklist

  17. Palladium(II/Cationic 2,2’-Bipyridyl System as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yu Tsai


    Full Text Available A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH32Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction was conducted at 140 °C in a sealed tube in air with a catalyst loading as low as 0.0001 mol % for the coupling of activated aryl iodides with butyl and ethyl acrylates, providing the corresponding products in good to excellent yields with very high turnover numbers. In the case of styrene, Mizoroki-Heck coupling products were obtained in good to high yields by using a greater catalyst loading (1 mol % and TBAB as a phase-transfer agent. After extraction, the residual aqueous solution could be reused several times with only a slight decrease in its activity, making the Mizoroki-Heck reaction “greener”.

  18. The reaction ensemble method for the computer simulation of chemical and phase equilibria. II. The Br2+Cl2+BrCl system (United States)

    Lísal, Martin; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R.


    The reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (REMC) method [W. R. Smith and B. Třı´ska, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3019 (1994)] is used to study combined reaction and vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Br2+Cl2+BrCl system. The substances are modeled as nonpolar and dipolar two-site Lennard-Jones molecules with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for unlike atoms. No parameters were fitted to any mixture properties in our calculations. The simulated data are compared with experimental results, and with previous simulation data for the mixture obtained by an indirect semigrand ensemble approach. The REMC method efficiently calculates the complete phase compositions, whereas only a limited subset is available experimentally. The agreement of the simulations with experiment is good. In the course of this work, we used the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo method (which may be regarded as a special case of the REMC method) to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of pure BrCl; since this compound is chemically unstable, such data is experimentally inaccessible.

  19. Comparative, validity and responsiveness of the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS to the WOMAC physical function subscale in total joint replacement for osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS) in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee (TKR) replacement....... Construct validity and responsiveness were compared to the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Likert 3.0 physical function (PF) subscale and the PF excluding the items in the short measures (PF-exclusions). METHODS: Participants completed the full HOOS or KOOS, measures...... of fatigue, anxiety, depression and the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) pre-surgery and the HOOS or KOOS 6 months post-surgery. Internal consistency for the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, it was hypothesized that correlations between the HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS and PF...

  20. [Responses of primary photochemical reactions in apple fruit peel to the changes of incident PFD and air temperature in sunny days]. (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Zhang, Li-Tao; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Shu, Huai-Rui; Wang, Lai-Ping


    Taking Malus domestica Borkh as test object, this paper studied the primary photochemical reactions and xanthophyll cycle in its fruit peel in response to the diurnal changes of incident photon flux density (PFD) and air temperature in sunny days. With the increase of PFD and air temperature in a daily cycle, a severe photo-inhibition of the primary photochemical reactions in M. domestica fruit peel occurred from 12:00 to 14:00. The relative variable fluorescence at 300 micros of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (Wk) did not change significantly through the day, which indicated that the activity of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) was not damaged by strong light and high temperature. However, the efficiency that a trapped exciton moved an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA(-) (Psio) was reduced from 12:00 to 14:00, indicating that the acceptor side of PS II in apple fruit peel was damaged. Strong light decreased the density of PS II reaction centers per excited cross-section (RC/CS), which induced the increase of the energy absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC). However, the excited energy was not able to be efficiently used via photochemical reaction (TRo/RC), resulting in an increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation per active reaction center (DIo/RC). Along with the appearance of photo-inhibition, the de-epoxidation level of xanthophyll pigment pool (PRI) increased markedly, showing that the xanthophyll cycle in fruit peel was enhanced by strong light to dissipate excess excitation energy to prevent photosynthetic apparatus from further damage. Both strong light and high temperature enhanced the photo-inhibition in apple fruit peel, and the effect of strong light was significantly more prominent than that of high temperature during a day.

  1. Analüütilised voolud psühholoogias ja nende rakendamine pedagoogikas / Aleksander Elango

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elango, Aleksander, 1902-2004


    Analüütise psühholoogia kolm koolkonda - S.Freudì koolkond e. päris-psühhoanalüüs, A.Adlerì koolkond e. individuaalpsühholoogia ja C.G.Jungì psühhoanalüüsi ja individuaalpsühholoogia sünteesi luua püüdev koolkond. Analüütise psühholoogia koolkondade ja pedagoogika suhetest

  2. A simple solvent blending coupled sonication technique for synthesis of polystyrene (PS/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT nanocomposites: Effect of modified MWCNT content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sen


    Full Text Available The influence of carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs content on the properties of polystyrene (PS nanocomposite (NC films was investigated. The NC films were produced by a simple sonication assisted solvent blending technique. The interaction between the matrix (PS and well dispersed filler (cMWCNT was evaluated by different techniques involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Morphological images of the NCs were collected from Transmission electron microscopy. The thermal characteristics of the PS were found to be improved by the incorporation of the cMWCNTs, which was evident from the Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA data. The thermal degradation activation energy evaluated by Coats-Redfern method and integral procedural decomposition temperature determined by Doyle's method supported the thermal stability proposed by TGA of the NCs. The reaction mechanism of thermal degradation of neat PS and respective NCs was successfully predicted using Criado method. The rheological properties and hardness were found to be upgraded by the inclusion of nanotubes to the PS matrix.

  3. Cu(I)/Rh(II)-Catalyzed Tandem Convergent Multicomponent Reaction for the Regio- and Stereocontrolled Synthesis of γ-Oxo-β-amino Esters. (United States)

    Jung, Da Jung; Jeon, Hyun Ji; Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Sang-gi


    The first example of a highly regio- and stereoselective catalytic method for the three-component one-pot synthesis of highly functionalized α-vinylated γ-oxo-β-amino esters is disclosed. In this catalytic triad, the Cu(I)-catalyst selectively catalyzes the cycloaddition of the 1-alkyne and sulfonyl azide first resulting in the corresponding 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazole. An α-imino Rh(II)-carbene is generated from an open-chain α-imino diazo of the triazole, and this species reacts with γ-hydroxy α,β-unsaturated esters to form allylic (Z)-amino vinyl ethers. Rapid deconjugative [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement affords the α-vinyl γ-oxo-β-amino esters in high yields with high levels of diastereoselectivity.

  4. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX317576,S...077,SRX317607 ...

  5. File list: His.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX977417,SR...RX127376,SRX146530,SRX146522,SRX146547,SRX333561,SRX035985,SRX1090869 ...

  6. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX088...16,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  7. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX110016,S...315,SRX381309 ...

  8. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX088...27,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  9. File list: His.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX110015,S...079,SRX317585 ...

  10. File list: Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX977434,SRX027462 ...

  11. File list: ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX753...00,SRX189399,SRX317607 ...

  12. File list: Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX977434,SRX027462 ...

  13. File list: ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9774...30,SRX146524,SRX146522,SRX146547 ...

  14. File list: Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...RX146524 ...

  15. File list: Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX977434,SRX027462 ...

  16. File list: DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX135563,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  17. File list: DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX135563,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  18. File list: Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX027462,SRX977434 ...

  19. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX753...09,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  20. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX977417,SR...RX127372,SRX1090869,SRX127376,SRX035977,SRX146530,SRX146547,SRX146522 ...

  1. File list: Oth.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...RX146524 ...

  2. File list: DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX135563,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  3. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX127389,SR...RX127372,SRX127373,SRX1090869,SRX127376,SRX146530,SRX146522,SRX146547 ...

  4. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Ray, Chelsea; Wang, Xin; Shamis, Yulia; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Li, Xiajun


    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression of the Snrpn and Zim1 imprinted genes was also lost in these iPS clones. This loss of parental genomic imprinting in iPS cells was likely caused by the reprogramming process during iPS cell derivation because extended culture of iPS cells did not lead to significant increase in the loss of genomic imprinting. Intriguingly, one to several paternal chromosomes appeared to have acquired de novo methylation at the Snrpn and Zac1 imprinted regions in a high percentage of iPS clones. These results might have some implications for future therapeutic applications of iPS cells. Since DNA methylation imprint can be completely erased in some iPS clones at multiple imprinted regions, iPS cell reprogramming may also be employed to dissect the underlying mechanisms of erasure, reacquisition and maintenance of genomic imprinting in mammals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. File list: Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 ...

  6. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX977417,SR...RX127374,SRX127373,SRX1090869,SRX333561,SRX146530,SRX146522,SRX146547 ...

  7. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9774...30,SRX146524,SRX146547,SRX146522 ...

  8. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9773...1,SRX035985,SRX1090869 ...

  9. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9773...30,SRX146522,SRX146547 ...

  10. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX110015,S...315,SRX381309 ...

  11. File list: Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 ...

  12. File list: DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX135563,SRX040376,SRX040377,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 ...

  13. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCA by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata is initiated by a phase I (O-demethylation)-phase II (O-conjugation) reactions system: implications for the chlorine cycle. (United States)

    Campoy, Sonia; Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Recio, Eliseo; Rumbero, Angel; Coque, Juan-José R


    Thirteen species of white-rot fungi tested have been shown to efficiently biodegrade 1 mM 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in liquid cultures. The maximum biodegradation rate (94.5% in 10-day incubations) was exhibited by a Phlebia radiata strain. The enzymes of the ligninolytic complex, laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP) were not able to transform 2,4,6-TCA in in vitro reactions, indicating that the ligninolytic complex was not involved in the initial attack to 2,4,6-TCA. Instead, the first biodegradative steps were carried out by a phase I and phase II reactions system. Phase I reaction consisted on a O-demethylation catalysed by a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase to produce 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). Later, in a phase II reaction catalysed by a microsomal UDP-glucosyltransferase, 2,4,6-TCP was detoxified by O-conjugation with D-glucose to produce 2,4,6-TCP-1-O-d-glucoside (TCPG). This compound accumulated in culture supernatants, reaching its maximum concentration between 48 and 72 h of growth. TCPG levels decreased constantly by the end of fermentation, indicating that it was subsequently metabolized. A catalase activity was able to break in vitro the glycosidic link to produce 2,4,6-TCP, whereas ligninolytic enzymes did not have a significant effect on the biotransformation of that compound. Once formed, 2,4,6-TCP was further degraded as detected by a concomitant release of 2.6 mol of chloride ions by 1 mol of initial 2,4,6-TCA, indicating that this compound underwent almost a complete dehalogenation and biodegradation. It was concluded that P. radiata combines two different degradative mechanisms in order to biodegrade 2,4,6-TCA. The significance of the capability of white-rot fungi to O-demethylate chloroanisoles for the global chlorine cycle is discussed.

  14. Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256 and pS269-mediated aquaporin-2 apical translocation. (United States)

    Yui, Naofumi; Ando, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi


    Vasopressin catalyzes aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at several serine sites in the C-terminal region. Compared with Ser-256 and Ser-269 phosphorylation, the role of Ser-261 phospho-regulation on vasopressin-regulated AQP2 apical translocation is largely unknown. In addition, recent discovery of transcytotic apical delivery of AQP2 made the concept of its intracellular trafficking even more complicated. In this study, we evaluated how intact phospho-AQP2 signals fit with the transcytosis trafficking model in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. PS256 and pS269 signals were intracellularly detectable in wild-type AQP2 at the beginning of forskolin stimulation (1 min). These phospho-signals were detectable in basolateral membranes even after 10 min of stimulation. AQP2 stably inserted in the apical membrane increased pS269 and decreased pS261 signals. In an NDI-causing mutant P262L-AQP2, in which Ser-261 phospho-regulation is impaired, the pS256 and pS269 signals were detectable in the basolateral membranes with increased pS261 signals after forskolin stimulation. These results suggest that Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256- and pS269-mediated AQP2 apical translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reações cutâneas graves adversas a drogas: aspectos relevantes ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento - Parte II Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions: relevant aspects to diagnosis and treatment - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado


    Full Text Available As reações cutâneas graves adversas à droga são as que geralmente necessitam de internação hospitalar, por vezes em unidade de terapia intensiva ou de queimados, com observação minuciosa dos sinais vitais e da função de órgãos internos. O objetivo é descrever estas reações facilitando o seu reconhecimento e tratamento. Fazem parte deste grupo a Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade à Droga (SHD, a Pustulose Exantemática Generalizada Aguda (PEGA, a Necrose Cutânea induzida por Anticoagulante, as Vasculites de Pequenos Vasos (VPV, a Vasculite de Hipersensibilidade ao Propiltiouracil (VHP e as Reações tipo Doença do Soro (RDS. A SHD tem-se tornado de elevada relevância clínica devido ao uso amplo dos anticonvulsivantes aromáticos e da dapsona, utilizada no tratamento de doenças como a acne e a hanseníase. A PEGA é determinada principalmente pelos derivados beta-lactâmicos e tem como principal diagnóstico diferencial a psoríase pustulosa generalizada. As VPV tegumentares podem refletir uma doença multissistêmica subjacente, com danos graves em órgãos nobres, como os rins, pulmões e sistema hematológico, com morbidade elevada e possível letalidade. Abordamos as características clínicas e o tratamento destas reações adversas à droga.Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions generally require hospitalization, sometimes in intensive care or burns units, for observation of the vital signs and the visceral function. The objective was to describe these reactions in order to facilitate recognition and treatment. This group of drug reactions includes drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, anticoagulant-induced skin necrosis, small-vessel vasculitis (SVV, propylthiouracil hypersensitivity vasculitis and serum sickness disease. DHS has been most relevant due to universal prescription of aromatic anticonvulsant drugs and dapsone use in the treatment of some diseases such as acne

  16. Effects of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis on amyloidosis and microvascular pathology in APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Gyeong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that rheumatoid arthritis (RA may enhance or reduce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study was performed to directly explore the effects of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA on amyloid plaque formation, microglial activation, and microvascular pathology in the cortex and hippocampus of the double transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model for AD. Wild-type or APP/PS1 mice that received type II collagen (CII in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA at 2 months of age revealed characteristics of RA, such as joint swelling, synovitis, and cartilage and bone degradation 4 months later. Joint pathology was accompanied by sustained induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma over 4 weeks after administration of CII in CFA. Results CIA reduced levels of soluble and insoluble amyloid beta (Aβ peptides and amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, which correlated with increased blood brain barrier disruption, Iba-1-positive microglia, and CD45-positive microglia/macrophages. In contrast, CIA reduced vessel density and length with features of microvascular pathology, including vascular segments, thinner vessels, and atrophic string vessels. Conclusions The present findings suggest that RA may exert beneficial effects against Aβ burden and harmful effects on microvascular pathology in AD.

  17. Cross-neutralization study of seven California group (Bunyaviridae) strains in homoiothermous (PS) and poikilothermous (XTC-2) vertebrate cells. (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Chanas, A C; Johnson, B K; Simpson, D I


    Antigenic relationships among seven California group strains were studied by a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Cross-reactions occurred in most cases but three subgroups were noted: (1) the major serogroup contained the viruses of California encephalitis, LaCrosse, Snowshoe Hare and Trahyna (including the Lumbo strain) whereas (2) Jamestown Canyon and (3) Trivittatus viruses were distinct. There was no significant difference between the PRNT results in mammalian (PS) cells incubated at 37 degrees C and amphibian (XTC-2) cells incubated at 28 degrees C. Trivittatus virus failed to produce plaques in XTC-2 cells.

  18. PETMA-g-PETMA-b-PS 'palm tree' graft copolymer: A new polymeric architecture obtained via RAFT and ROP process;Copolimero PETMA-PS-G-P(PSMA) do tipo 'palma': nova arquitetura polimerica obtida via processo RAFT e ROP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Paula P.; Silva, Eduardo de O. da; Petzhold, Cesar L., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica. Lab. de Sintese e Polimeros


    Block copolymer with pendant thiirane moiety PETMA-b-PS is the base for a new class of 'palm tree' graft copolymers, which can show interesting properties. ETMA can be polymerized through ring opening polymerization with Lewis bases as initiator, e.g., Br- and tertiary amines. We used this reaction as a way to graft a copolymer PETMA-b-PS possessing 5% of ETMA unities, with chains having poly(propylene sulfide), obtained by graft from method. Produced materials were characterized through H1 NMR, SEC and DSC. (author)

  19. Create and Publish a Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS) (United States)

    Fernique, P.; Boch, T.; Pineau, F.; Oberto, A.


    Since 2009, the CDS promotes a method for visualizing based on the HEALPix sky tessellation. This method, called “Hierarchical Progressive Survey" or HiPS, allows one to display a survey progressively. It is particularly suited for all-sky surveys or deep fields. This visualization method is now integrated in several applications, notably Aladin, the SiTools/MIZAR CNES framework, and the recent HTML5 “Aladin Lite". Also, more than one hundred surveys are already available in this view mode. In this article, we will present the progress concerning this method and its recent adaptation to the astronomical catalogs such as the GAIA simulation.

  20. Electrostatic septum for "Continuous Transfer" from PS to SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    For "Continuous Transfer" to the SPS, the PS beam, after acceleration, is peeled off in 5 turns. To minimize losses, the magnetic septa are preceded by an electrostatic septum in straight section 31. We see the inner part of it, on a lab-bench. The first part consists of W-wires, the second part is a Mo-foil. The circulating beam passes through the opening, the ejected beam at the outside (above the wires, in this picture). This assembly is the anode-part, the cathode is not shown.

  1. Beam Quality Preservation in the CERN PS-SPS Complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Arduini, Gianluigi


    The LHC will require beams of unprecedented transverse and longitudinal brightness. Their production imposes tight constraints on the emittance growth in each element of the LHC injector chain, namely the PS-SPS Accelerator Complex. The problems encountered at the different stages of the acceleration in the complex span a wide range of topics, such as injection matching, RF gymnastics, space charge, transverse and longitudinal single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, and electron cloud effects. The measurement techniques developed and applied to identify and study the various sources of emittance dilution to the high precision required for the LHC beams and the solutions found to control such phenomena are illustrated.

  2. Lo irreductible social y lo irreductible psíquico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaulejac, de


    Full Text Available Con base en la reconstrucción de las polaridades explicativas -lo irreductible social y lo irreductible psíquico-que atraviesan a las ciencias sociales, este texto propone trascender los modelos antagónicos y excluyentes. El objetivo es instaurar en el centro de la reflexión la idea de la dialktica existencial que restituye al sujeto tanto el contexto socio-histórico en el cual está localizado como el deseo y la singularidad que lo constituyen en productor de la afirmación de su individualidad y su historicidad.

  3. PS potential performance with a higher injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S; Borburgh, J; Bodart, D; Chiggiato, P; Damerau, H; Hancock, S; Metral, G; Pittet, S; Rossi, C; Rumolo, G; Steerenberg, R; Widorski, M


    In the context of the LHC Injectors upgrade project, the PS has to be brought up to − and to operate reliably at − the level of performance required by the HL-LHC until the end of the LHC lifetime. The study has started on the potential benefits of increasing the injection energy. An overview of the impact of this upgrade will be presented, with a preliminary estimate of the beam characteristics at the SPS entrance and the remaining performance limitations. The necessary hardware modifications will be described, highlighting the critical systems and the risks. The program for the 2011 machine studies and hardware interventions for refining these plans will be presented.

  4. Injection and transfer lines of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service


    In the foreground is the vacuum chamber for the 50 MeV proton beam coming from the Linac. The tank held by white frames houses the "Vertical Distributor", which deflects the Linac beam to the levels of the Booster's 4 superposed rings. After acceleration in the Booster, originally to 800 MeV, today to 1.4 GeV, the beams from the 4 rings are combined in the vertical plane and transfered to the 26 GeV PS. The "Recombination Line", intersecting the injection line, crosses the picture from left to right.

  5. Search for Decays of Heavy Neutrinos with the PS Beam

    CERN Multimedia


    The experiment searches for neutrino decay, primarily into the e|+e|-@n^e and @g@g@n^e modes. Neutrino masses in the region between 1 and 400~MeV will be explored. The beam used is the neutrino PS beam used for the oscillation experiments. The apparatus consists of a decay volume @=30~m long and a calorimeter @=8~radiation lengths thick and @=20~m|2 in surface. The detectors are flash-tube modules of the type developed at Saclay for the proton-stability experiment. Scintillator hodoscopes give the timing information necessary for the trigger logic and background rejection.

  6. Reliability and maintenance analysis of the CERN PS booster

    CERN Document Server

    Staff, P S B


    The PS Booster Synchrotron being a complex accelerator with four superposed rings and substantial additional equipment for beam splitting and recombination, doubts were expressed at the time of project authorization as to its likely operational reliability. For 1975 and 1976, the average down time was 3.2% (at least one ring off) or 1.5% (all four rings off). The items analysed are: operational record, design features, maintenance, spare parts policy, operating temperature, effects of thunderstorms, fault diagnostics, role of operations staff and action by experts. (15 refs).

  7. Viscometric characterization of PS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites


    Bianchi, Otávio; Repenning, Gustavo B.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Ricardo V. B.; Canto, Leonardo B.


    Nanocompósitos híbridos de poliestireno (PS) e poliedros oligoméricos silsesquioxanos (POSS) com diferentes composições e graus de hibridização foram obtidos por processamento reativo no estado fundido utilizando-se peróxido de dicumila (DCP) como iniciador, na presença ou não de estireno como agente de transferência de radical. Os materiais foram caracterizados viscosimetricamente por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC) usando detecção tripla por espalhamento de luz, viscosimetria e índi...

  8. A multiturn measurement system for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena


    Multiturn beam position measurements on one or more pickups provide very important information needed to derive machine optics parameters. A variety of analyses is possible, such as determination of phase advance, detuning with amplitude, and most important, the exploration of phase space. In this paper we present a new multiturn acquisition system for the CERN proton synchrotron (CERN PS) based on a compact PCI fast digitiser and a new general object-oriented visualisation and analysis tool for the acquired multiturn data. (11 refs).

  9. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay for detection of equine arteritis virus in equine semen and tissue samples using the POCKIT™ system. (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Nam, Bora; Skillman, Ashley; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R


    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses. Most importantly, EAV induces abortion in pregnant mares and can establish persistent infection in up to 10-70% of the infected stallions, which will continue to shed the virus in their semen. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) for the detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples. The newly developed assay had a limit of detection of 10 RNA copies and a 10-fold higher sensitivity than a previously described real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Evaluation of 125 semen samples revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 98.46% and 100.00%, respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 100.00% and 98.33%, respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. Both assays had the same accuracy (99.2%, k=0.98) compared to virus isolation. Corresponding values derived from testing various tissue samples (n=122) collected from aborted fetuses, foals, and EAV carrier stallions are as follows: relative sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.14%, 96.83%, and 92.62% (k=0.85), respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 98.31%, 92.06%, and 95.08% (k=0.90), respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. These results indicate that RT-iiPCR is a sensitive, specific, and a robust test enabling detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples with very considerable accuracy. Even though the RT-qPCR assay showed a sensitivity and specificity equal to virus isolation for semen samples, its diagnostic performance was somewhat limited for tissue samples. Thus, this new RT-iiPCR could be considered as an alternative tool in the implementation of EAV control and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photosystem II and photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feikema, Willem Onno


    Plants harvest light energy and convert it into chemical energy. Light absorption by photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) results in charge separations in their reaction centers (RCs), initiating a chain of redox reactions with PSI generating the reducing power for CO2 assimilation into sugars, and

  11. A comparative study of nitrite reduction by synthetic and biogenic Fe(II-III) hydroxysalts green rusts: Evidence for hydroxyl-nitrite green rust formation as an intermediate reaction product. (United States)

    Ona-Nguema, G.; Guerbois, D.; Morin, G.; Zhang, Y.; Noel, V.; Brest, J.


    -GR(Cl) led to the reduction of nitrite ions to ammonium, and that the production of ammonium depended on their Fe(II) content. XRD patterns indicated that both synthetic green rusts were fully oxidized into magnetite during the reaction with nitrite. For biogenic green rusts, the study revealed that both bio-GR(CO3)F and bio-GR(CO3)L were capable of reducing nitrite ions without ammonium production, suggesting the conversion of nitrite ions to nitrogen gas. Moreover, we provided evidence for the first time that the interactions of bio-GR(CO3)F with nitrite led to the formation of an hydroxy-nitrite green rust as a result of the incorporation of nitrite in the interlayer region of bio-GR(CO3)F; such an intercalation of nitrite ions was not observed in experiments with bio-GR(CO3)L. XRD analysis indicated that GR(NO2) was formed as an intermediate reaction product prior to the fully oxidation of GR to ferric oxyhydroxides. [1] Philips S., Laanbroek H. J. and Verstraete W. (2002). Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 1, 115-141.

  12. Reaction landscape of a pentadentate N5-ligated Mn(II) complex with O2˙- and H2O2 includes conversion of a peroxomanganese(III) adduct to a bis(μ-oxo)dimanganese(III,IV) species. (United States)

    Leto, Domenick F; Chattopadhyay, Swarup; Day, Victor W; Jackson, Timothy A


    Herein we describe the chemical reactivity of the mononuclear [Mn(II)(N4py)(OTf)](OTf) (1) complex with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. Treatment of 1 with one equivalent superoxide at -40 °C in MeCN formed the peroxomanganese(III) adduct, [Mn(III)(O2)(N4py)](+) (2) in ~30% yield. Complex 2 decayed over time and the formation of the bis(μ-oxo)dimanganese(III,IV) complex, [Mn(III)Mn(IV)(μ-O)2(N4py)2](3+) (3) was observed. When 2 was formed in higher yields (~60%) using excess superoxide, the [Mn(III)(O2)(N4py)](+) species thermally decayed to Mn(II) species and 3 was formed in no greater than 10% yield. Treatment of [Mn(III)(O2)(N4py)](+) with 1 resulted in the formation of 3 in ~90% yield, relative to the concentration of [Mn(III)(O2)(N4py)](+). This reaction mimics the observed chemistry of Mn-ribonucleotide reductase, as it features the conversion of two Mn(II) species to an oxo-bridged Mn(III)Mn(IV) compound using O2(-) as oxidant. Complex 3 was independently prepared through treatment of 1 with H2O2 and base at -40 °C. The geometric and electronic structures of 3 were probed using electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH-MCD), and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Complex 3 was structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which revealed the N4py ligand bound in an unusual tetradentate fashion.

  13. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo


    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  14. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo


    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  15. [Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell - issues for clinical application - ]. (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by introducing small sets of transcription factors. iPS cells demonstrate pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. In addition, iPS cells can be generated from donor individuals with particular characteristics. Based on these features, iPS cells are expected to be applicable in drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and cell therapy. From a technical point of view, "diversity" is the key word. At present, iPS cells can be derived using various techniques, resulting in diversity in the quality of iPS cells generated. Therefore, optimization of the derivation technology is one of the most important issues. Another "diversity" is in the propensities amongst iPS cell lines derived using similar techniques. Thus, strategies for selecting good quality lines remain to be established. Considering such technical hurdles, establishment of an iPS cell bank consisting of high quality and versatile iPS lines is a promising idea because of the merits of cost and quality control. Now, we are exploring relevant parameters for the quality control of banked cells. The challenges facing clinical application of iPS cells are new but not unprecedented. To realize clinical applications of iPS cells, we need to make these challenges clear and overcome them through partnership not only with industry, governments and universities, but also patients and society at large.

  16. Methods for iPS cell generation for basic research and clinical applications. (United States)

    Mochiduki, Yuji; Okita, Keisuke


    The induction of pluripotency can be achieved by forced expression of defined factors in somatic cells. The established cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have pluripotency and an infinite capacity for self-renewal in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Patient-specific iPS cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies; however, the original method for iPS cell generation had several issues that were obstacles to their clinical application. Recent studies have brought about various improvements for iPS cell generation and uncovered several characteristics of iPS cells. Here we summarize the current status of iPS cell studies, with a focus on the improved methods that can be used to generate iPS cells, and also refer to the future challenges. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric


    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  18. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.


    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  19. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut


    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  20. Preparations for Upgrading the RF Systems of the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Simon; Shaposhnikova, Elena


    The accelerators of the LHC injector chain need to be upgraded to provide the HL-LHC beams. The PS Booster, the first synchrotron in the LHC injection chain, uses three different RF systems (first, second and up to tenth harmonic) in each of its four rings. As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade the current ferrite RF systems will be replaced with broadband Finemet cavities, increasing the flexibility of the RF system. A Finemet test cavity has been installed in Ring 4 to investigate its effect on machine performance, especially beam stability, during extensive experimental studies. Due to large space charge impedance Landau damping is lost through most of the cycle in single harmonic operation, but is recovered when using the second harmonic and controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up. This paper compares beam parameters during acceleration with and without the Finemet test cavity. Comparisons were made using beam measurements and simulations with the BLonD code based on a full PS Booster impedance model. Thi...

  1. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells. (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  2. Prognostic significance of tumour burden in Hodgkin's disease PS I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I


    of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes), while the other 47 had been treated with mantle field irradiation plus 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy (MOPP or an equivalent regimen). Of the patients treated with radiotherapy alone, 13 relapsed whereas only 1 of the patients treated with radiotherapy plus combination...... chemotherapy relapsed. The initial tumour burden of each patient was estimated, combining tumour size of each involved area and number of sites involved. For patients treated with radiotherapy alone, a large tumour burden singled out the patients destined to relapse more accurately than other prognostic...

  3. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium. (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching


    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  4. Description of nuclear systems with a self-consistent configuration-mixing approach. II. Application to structure and reactions in even-even s d -shell nuclei (United States)

    Robin, C.; Pillet, N.; Dupuis, M.; Le Bloas, J.; Peña Arteaga, D.; Berger, J.-F.


    Background: The variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach to nuclei has been proposed about a decade ago. While the first applications followed rapidly, the implementation of the full formalism of this method has only been recently completed and applied in C. Robin, N. Pillet, D. Peña Arteaga, and J.-F. Berger, [Phys. Rev. C 93, 024302 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.024302 to 12C as a test-case. Purpose: The main objective of the present paper is to carry on the study that was initiated in that reference, in order to put the variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method to more stringent tests. To that aim we perform a systematic study of even-even s d -shell nuclei. Method: The wave function of these nuclei is taken as a configuration mixing built on orbitals of the s d -shell, and both the mixing coefficients of the nuclear state and the single-particle wave functions are determined consistently from the same variational principle. As in the previous works, the calculations are done using the D1S Gogny force. Results: Various ground-state properties are analyzed. In particular, the correlation content and composition of the wave function as well as the single-particle orbitals and energies are examined. Binding energies and charge radii are also calculated and compared to experiment. The description of the first excited state is also examined and the corresponding transition densities are used as input for the calculation of reaction processes such as inelastic electron and proton scattering. Special attention is paid to the effect of the optimization of the single-particle states consistently with the correlations of the system. Conclusions: The variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach is systematically applied to the description of even-even s d -shell nuclei. Globally, the results are satisfying and encouraging. In particular, charge radii and excitation energies are nicely reproduced. However

  5. Mechanism of light induced water splitting in Photosystem II of oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms. (United States)

    Renger, Gernot


    The reactions of light induced oxidative water splitting were analyzed within the framework of the empirical rate constant-distance relationship of non-adiabatic electron transfer in biological systems (C. C. Page, C. C. Moser, X. Chen , P. L. Dutton, Nature 402 (1999) 47-52) on the basis of structure information on Photosystem II (PS II) (A. Guskov, A. Gabdulkhakov, M. Broser, C. Glöckner, J. Hellmich, J. Kern, J. Frank, W. Saenger, A. Zouni, Chem. Phys. Chem. 11 (2010) 1160-1171, Y. Umena, K. Kawakami, J-R Shen, N. Kamiya, Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9Å. Nature 47 (2011) 55-60). Comparison of these results with experimental data leads to the following conclusions: 1) The oxidation of tyrosine Y(z) by the cation radical P680(+·) in systems with an intact water oxidizing complex (WOC) is kinetically limited by the non-adiabatic electron transfer step and the extent of this reaction is thermodynamically determined by relaxation processes in the environment including rearrangements of hydrogen bond network(s). In marked contrast, all Y(z)(ox) induced oxidation steps in the WOC up to redox state S(3) are kinetically limited by trigger reactions which are slower by orders of magnitude than the rates calculated for non-adiabatic electron transfer. 3) The overall rate of the triggered reaction sequence of Y(z)(ox) reduction by the WOC in redox state S(3) eventually leading to formation and release of O(2) is kinetically limited by an uphill electron transfer step. Alternative models are discussed for this reaction. The protein matrix of the WOC and bound water molecules provide an optimized dynamic landscape of hydrogen bonded protons for catalyzing oxidative water splitting energetically driven by light induced formation of the cation radical P680(+·). In this way the PS II core acts as a molecular machine formed during a long evolutionary process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research

  6. Drug Reactions (United States)

    ... or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is interactions, which may occur between ... more serious. Drug allergies are another type of reaction. They can be mild or life-threatening. Skin ...

  7. Induction of reprogramming of human amniotic epithelial cells into iPS cells by overexpression of Yap, Oct4, and Sox2 through the activation of the Hippo-Yap pathway. (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhui; Fei, Xinfeng; Guo, Jianming; Zou, Gang; Pan, Weidong; Zhang, Jingju; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei


    The present study has reported a novel method for producing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Primary human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) were isolated from the amniotic membranes of pregnant women who received Cesarean sections. These cells were infected with retroviruses carrying octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Yes-associated protein (Yap) (OSY). Following in vitro culture for ~14 days, epithelial-like HuAECs exhibited several iPS clone-like cell colonies (OSY-iPS). These cell clones presented positive alkaline phosphatase features and expressed high levels of embryonic stem cell-like markers (Nanog homeobox, Sox2, Oct4, reduced expression protein 1, and SSES3/4). Additionally, epigenetic analysis results indicated that the methylation of CpG islands on endogenous Oct4 and Sox2 promoters was reduced in OSY-iPS cells. Furthermore, the majority of the histone H3 at lysine 9 sites that interacted with the Oct4 and Sox2 promoters were acetylated, suggesting that the transcription activities of the above two transcription factors significantly increased. In vivo and in vitro induced differentiation experiments demonstrated that OSY-iPS could develop into embryoid bodies in vitro, and express numerous cellular markers in the three germ layers. Furthermore, OSY-iPS could form teratomas in immunodeficient mice. The pathological detection results suggest that these teratomas contain numerous types of cells from the three germ layers. However, the results from the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses suggest that the Hippo-Yap signaling pathway was significantly activated in OSY-iPS cells. In conclusion, a novel method for iPS induction was established in the present study. HuAECs were successfully induced to reprogram iPS cells through the introduction of OSY to activate the Hippo-Yap signaling pathway.

  8. Hypersensitivity reaction to human papillomavirus vaccine due to polysorbate 80. (United States)

    Badiu, Iuliana; Geuna, Massimo; Heffler, Enrico; Rolla, Giovanni


    A 17-year-old girl reported generalised urticaria, eyelid angioedema, rhino-conjunctivitis, dyspnoea and wheezing 1 h after third intramuscular administration of quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine (Gardasil). She was treated with antihistamine, and corticosteroids with prompt relief of rhinitis and dyspnoea, while urticaria and angioedema lasted 24 h. Intradermal test with Gardasil, which contains polysorbate 80 (PS80), resulted positive, while skin tests with the bivalent vaccine were negative. Prick test performed with PS80 resulted positive in the patient and negative in ten healthy controls. The CD203 basophil activation test result was negative for PS80 at all the tested dilutions and specific IgE was not found. As flu vaccine was recommended, the authors skin tested two flu vaccine, one containing PS80 (Fluarix, GSK), which resulted positive and another flu vaccine with no adjuvant or preservative (Vaxigrip, Sanofi Pasteur MSD), which gave negative results. The patient then received Vaxigrip without adverse reactions.

  9. Comparison of implosion core metrics: A 10 ps dilation X-ray imager vs a 100 ps gated microchannel plate (United States)

    Nagel, S. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.


    The dilation x-ray imager (DIXI) [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010); S. R. Nagel et al., ibid. 83, 10E116 (2012); S. R. Nagel et al., ibid. 85, 11E504 (2014)] is a high-speed x-ray framing camera that uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps. This is a 10 × improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) (100 ps resolution), and otherwise only achievable with 1D streaked imaging. A side effect of the dramatically reduced gate width is the comparatively lower detected signal level. Therefore we implement a Poisson noise reduction with non-local principal component analysis method [J. Salmon et al., J. Math. Imaging Vision 48, 279294 (2014)] to improve the robustness of the DIXI data analysis. Here we present results on ignition-relevant experiments at the NIF using DIXI. In particular we focus on establishing that/when DIXI gives reliable shape metrics (P0, P2, and P4 Legendre modes, and their temporal evolution/swings).

  10. Role of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion. (United States)

    Mainali, Dipak; Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A


    Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane receptors with adhesion and signaling properties. The influence of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion was studied using single particle tracking in S2 cells before and after reducing the insulin receptor expression or insulin stimulation. Insulin signaling was monitored by Western blotting for phospho-Akt expression. The expression of the insulin receptor was reduced using RNA interference (RNAi). After insulin receptor RNAi, four significant changes were measured in integrin diffusion properties: (1) there was a 24% increase in the mobile integrin population, (2) 14% of the increase was represented by integrins with Brownian diffusion, (3) for integrins that reside in confined zones of diffusion, there was a 45% increase in the diameter of the confined zone, and (4) there was a 29% increase in the duration integrins spend in confined zones of diffusion. In contrast to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, which alters integrin diffusion properties, insulin stimulation alone or insulin stimulation under conditions of reduced insulin receptor expression have minimal effects on altering the measured integrin diffusion properties. The differences in integrin diffusion measured after insulin receptor RNAi in the presence or absence of insulin stimulation may be the result of other insulin signaling pathways that are activated at reduced insulin receptor conditions. No change in the average integrin diffusion coefficient was measured for any conditions included in this study.

  11. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs. (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Bossmann, Stefan H; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping


    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcat(app)/Km(app) = (1.7 × 10(7)) m(-1) s(-1)) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp(220) and Arg(327) are found necessary for compound I formation, His(312) is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His(312) and Arg(327) has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°') of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°' to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs* (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping


    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcatapp/Kmapp = (1.7 × 107) m−1 s−1) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp220 and Arg327 are found necessary for compound I formation, His312 is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His312 and Arg327 has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°′) of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°′ to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. PMID:26205819

  13. Hydrogen sulfide down-regulates BACE1 and PS1 via activating PI3K/Akt pathway in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse. (United States)

    He, Xuan-Li; Yan, Ning; Chen, Xiao-Shan; Qi, Yun-Wen; Yan, Yong; Cai, Zhiyou


    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may have multiple physiological functions in brain. Our previous study showed that H2S improved spatial memory impairment and decreased the production of Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. However, many of the underlying mechanisms are not still being elucidated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of H2S involving in the activity of β-secretase (BACE1), γ-secretase (PS1) and α-secretase (ADAM17). Morris water maze was used to measure the behavior change. The levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were quantified using colorimetric ELISA kits and immunohistochemical analysis. The levels of BACE1, PS1, ADAM17, pAkt, pp38MAPK, pERK and pJNK were tested by Western blot analysis in normal mice, APP/PS1 transgenic mice and 50μmol/kg-NaHS-treated transgenic mice. On the basis of exogenous H2S treatment, LY294002 (inhibitors of PI3K/Akt) or PD98059 (inhibitors of MAPK/ERK) was injected into lateral cerebral ventricle. The levels of BACE1, PS1 and pp38MAPK were increased and ADAM17 were decreased in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. After intraperitoneal administration of an H2S donor (NaHS) into APP/PS1 mice, the levels of BACE1, PS1 and pp38MAPK were reduced and ADAM17 increased. The level of pp38 MAPKs, pAkt and pERK1/2 was increased in APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared with normal mice (ptransgenic mice and normal mice (p>0.05). These results demonstrated that LY294002 inhibited the effect of H2S on decreasing the BACE1 and PS1, reducing the level of Aβ and improving memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. PD98059 had no influence on the expression of BACE1 and PS1. H2S inhibits the expression of BACE1 and PS1 by activating PI3K/Akt pathway in AD. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental pH and the requirement for the extrinsic proteins of Photosystem II in the function of cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaz N Morris


    Full Text Available In one of the final stages of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II assembly, binding of up to four extrinsic proteins to PS II stabilizes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC. Growth of cyanobacterial mutants deficient in certain combinations of these thylakoid-lumen-associated polypeptides is sensitive to changes in environmental pH, despite the physical separation of the membrane-embedded PS II complex from the external environment. In this perspective, we discuss the effect of environmental pH on OEC function and photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacteria, with reference to pH-sensitive PS II mutants lacking extrinsic proteins. We consider the possibilities that, compared to pH 10.0, pH 7.5 increases susceptibility to PS II-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS, causing photoinhibition and reducing PS II assembly in some mutants and that perturbations to channels in the lumenal regions of PS II might alter the accessibility of water to the active site, and egress of oxygen and protons to the thylakoid lumen. Reduced levels of PS II in these mutants and reduced OEC activity arising from the disruption of substrate/product channels could reduce the trans-thylakoid pH gradient (ΔpH, leading to the impairement of photosynthesis. Growth of some PS II mutants at pH 7.5 can be rescued by elevating CO2 levels, suggesting that the pH-sensitive phenotype might primarily be an indirect result of back-pressure in the electron transport chain that results in heightened production of ROS by the impaired photosystem.

  15. An Antiproton Decelerator in the CERN PS Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Riunaud, J P; Baird, S A; Boillot, J; Bosser, Jacques; Brouet, M; Caspers, Friedhelm; Chanel, M; Chohan, V; Eriksson, T; Garoby, R; Giannini, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Gruber, J; Hémery, J Y; Koziol, Heribert; MacCaferri, R; Maury, S; Metzmacher, K D; Möhl, D; Mulder, H; Pedersen, F; Perriollat, F; Poncet, Alain; Riunaud, J P; Serre, C; Simon, Daniel Jean; Tranquille, G; Tuyn, Jan Willem Nicolaas; Williams, B; Williams, D J


    The present CERN PS low-energy antiproton complex involves 4 machines to collect, cool, decelerate and supply experiments with up to 1010 antiprotons per pulse and per hour of momenta ranging from 0.1 to 2 GeV/c. In view of a possible future physics programme requiring low energy antiprotons, mainly to carry out studies on antihydrogen, a simplified scheme providing at low cost antiprotons at 100 MeV/c has been studied. It requires only one machine, the present Antiproton Collector (AC) converted into a cooler and decelerator (Antiproton Decelerator, AD) and delivering beam to experiments in the hall of the present Antiproton Accumulator Complex (AAC) [1]. This paper describes the feasibility study of such a scheme [2].

  16. MD on Head-Tail Instability in the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Mikulec, B; Aumon, S; Rumolo, G


    Machine study experiments on the coherent instabilities appearing along the magnetic ramp have been performed at the CERN PS Booster synchrotron in the week of June 11-15, 2012. The space- and time structure of the head-tail instabilities was recorded by the triggered pick-up signals due to reproducibility of the occurrence time in the shot-by-shot sense. The intensity thresholds, the absolute growth rates and the mode structure have been compared for the bunches in the single-rf and in three types of the double-rf operation. The growth rates are compared to the instantaneous synchrotron frequencies, in the cases of the large corresponding ratio the head-tail mode structure is deformed by the driving impedance. Bunch parameters measurements indicate that the PSB bunches are in the regime of very strong transverse space-charge all along the magnetic ramp.

  17. Migrating the CERN PS control system to IBM workstations

    CERN Document Server

    De Metz-Noblat, N


    The workstations used within the control system of the CERN PS accelerator complex are not produced any more. We had therefore to review the software primary used as user interface and we achieved a port to IBM workstations. We are also preparing the maintenance of this code for the next ten years with minimal staff. This implies a clear separation between general computing facilities, control system developments, and operation. In order to share our experience, we will try to summarize various aspects of this migration: - system installation principles used to speed-up error recovery time and long-term maintenance costs, - problems correlated with the coexistence of two different platforms during migration, - software problems due to the platform and operating system changes, - hidden dependencies from a specific manufacturer.

  18. Multipole Stack for the 800 MeV PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia


    The 800 MeV PS Booster had seen first beam in its 4 superposed rings in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. In the strive for ever higher beam intensities, the need for additional multipole lenses became evident. After detailed studies, the manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974. Each stack consists of 4 superposed multipoles and each multipole has 4 concentric shells. From the innermost to the outermost shell, Type A contains octupole, skew-octupole, sextupole, skew-sextupole. Type B contains skew-octupole, skew-sextupole, vertical dipole, horizontal dipole. Completion of installation in 1976 opened the way to higher beam intensities. M. Battiaz is seen here with a multipole stack and its many electrical connections.

  19. First PS magnet unit, with members of the Magnet Group.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Members of the Magnet Group, sitting atop the first unit of the PS combined-function magnet. The picture was taken at the Institute of Physics of Geneva University, as CERN was still a muddy construction site at that time. All these people have now retired, but all of the magnets are still pulsing away. Front row (left to right): R.Tinguely, C.Germain, G.Plass, D.Neet, Raad, M.Cavallaro, K.H.Reich, G.Kuhn, J.Nilsson, C.A.Ramm, Paillard. Second row: L.Resegotti, M.Niklaus, C.J.Zilverschoon, R.Bertolotto, Marcellin, G.Brianti, P.Collet. Standing behind: B.Kuiper.

  20. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.


    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which...... by use of peak shape analysis of the X-ray Photoelectron Spectra via the Tougaard Method. The amount of dimethylsiloxane in the uppermost part of the films was quantified as a function of annealing time and temperature. For annealing above the PS glass transition temperature, surface segregation...... of the dimethylsiloxane chain-ends occurs for all the studied PS–PDMS diblock copolymers. At room temperature, surface segregation takes place only when the amount of dimethylsiloxane in the diblock copolymers is small....