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Sample records for ps general chemistry

  1. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  2. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  3. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  4. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  5. PS-Modules over Ore Extensions and Skew Generalized Power Series Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat M. Salem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A right R-module MR is called a PS-module if its socle, SocMR, is projective. We investigate PS-modules over Ore extension and skew generalized power series extension. Let R be an associative ring with identity, MR a unitary right R-module, O=Rx;α,δ Ore extension, MxO a right O-module, S,≤ a strictly ordered additive monoid, ω:S→EndR a monoid homomorphism, A=RS,≤,ω the skew generalized power series ring, and BA=MS,≤RS,≤, ω the skew generalized power series module. Then, under some certain conditions, we prove the following: (1 If MR is a right PS-module, then MxO is a right PS-module. (2 If MR is a right PS-module, then BA is a right PS-module.

  6. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  7. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  8. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  9. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  10. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    -conjugation strategy, we designed a straightforward scheme to synthesize a suite of dialdehyde reagents. The dialdehyde molecules were used for applications in cell-surface engineering and for tailoring surfaces for material science applications. We anticipate the broad utility of the general dialdehyde click chemistry to primary amines in all areas of chemical research, ranging from polymers and bioconjugation to material science and nanoscience.

  11. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  12. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  13. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  14. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  15. Student Attitudes toward Flipping the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The idea of ''flipping the classroom'' to make class time more engaging and student-centred has gained ground in recent years. The lecture portion of General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II courses were pushed outside the classroom using pre-recording technology and streaming delivery of content, in order to make in-class time more…

  16. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  17. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  18. On the Terminological Mistake in the Biography of the Astrakhan Cossack Regiment Commander, Major General P.S. Popov

    OpenAIRE

    Astafyev Evgeniy V.

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of authentic documents of the late 18th – early 19th centuries, stored in federal and regional archives of Russia, as well as published materials, the article analyzes the reasons of the terminological mistake made in the biography of commander of Astrakhan’s Cossack regiment, major general P.S. Popov, which had been reproduced in the scientific works for longer than 100 years. So well known person in the Lower Volga region, P.S. Popov was purposefully chosen as an object of hist...

  19. Computer assisted instruction in the general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jerry C.

    This dissertation examines current applications concerning the use of computer technology to enhance instruction in the general chemistry laboratory. The dissertation critiques widely-used educational software, and explores examples of multimedia presentations such as those used in beginning chemistry laboratory courses at undergraduate and community colleges. The dissertation describes a prototype compact disc (CD) used to (a) introduce the general chemistry laboratory, (b) familiarize students with using chemistry laboratory equipment, (c) introduce laboratory safety practices, and (d) provide approved techniques for maintaining a laboratory notebook. Upon completing the CD portion of the pre-lab, students are linked to individual self-help (WebCT) quizzes covering the information provided on the CD. The CD is designed to improve student understanding of basic concepts, techniques, and procedures used in the general chemistry laboratory.

  20. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  1. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  2. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  3. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  4. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  5. SPECIAL ISSUE DEDICATED TO THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe DUCA

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 2006, CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. General, Industrial and Ecological Chemistry was founded by the Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova and Moldova State University. Chemistry Journal of Moldova is an open access, international indexed and peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers of high quality containing original results in the areas of Chemical Sciences, such as analytical chemistry, ecological chemistry, food chemistry, industrial chem...

  6. On the Terminological Mistake in the Biography of the Astrakhan Cossack Regiment Commander, Major General P.S. Popov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafyev Evgeniy V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of authentic documents of the late 18th – early 19th centuries, stored in federal and regional archives of Russia, as well as published materials, the article analyzes the reasons of the terminological mistake made in the biography of commander of Astrakhan’s Cossack regiment, major general P.S. Popov, which had been reproduced in the scientific works for longer than 100 years. So well known person in the Lower Volga region, P.S. Popov was purposefully chosen as an object of historical research. His biography is not typical for the people of provincial hereditary Russian nobility of this period, Astrakhan and Saratov’s nobility in this case, where, although rather conventionally, he was linked for a long time in the historical literature. Thanks to the current research, it was determined that P.S. Popov was born in Walachia, evidently not very rich noble family. For a long time he served in Bug Cossack regiment, where got promoted from Arnaut captain to officer rank. He took part in many campaigns of Russian-Turkish war, was repeatedly injured, and distinguished himself during the capture of the fortresses Ochakov and Ismail. P.S. Popov was awarded the order of St. John of Jerusalem, and golden mark for capture of Ismail. P.S. Popov was married to a daughter of Astrakhan priest, and had seven sons and daughters in this spousal. Already serving in Astrakhan province, he purchased a seigneury for himself and descendants in Tsaritsyn district of the Saratov province. His descendants settled in the Lower Volga region, kept the seigneury in possession, served in military and civil services.

  7. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  8. A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ryswyk, Hal

    1997-07-01

    An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin. A single sophisticated instrument can be incorporated into the laboratory given sufficient attention to the use of sampling accessories and software macros. Synthetic experiments coupled with modern instrumental techniques can be used in the general chemistry laboratory to illustrate the concepts of synthesis, structure, bonding, and spectroscopy.

  9. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  10. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  11. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  12. Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge

    1997-11-01

    We have developed a general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment can be carried out in about 45 minutes with students working in groups of two. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.

  13. Attitude Counts: Self-Concept and Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.; Shaw, Janet L.; Heitz, Judith O.; Webster, Gail H.

    2009-06-01

    General chemistry is a required first step for students who wish to pursue a career in science or health professions. The course often has low rates of student success and as a result serves as a gateway limiting access to science fields. This study seeks to better understand factors that are related to student success in general chemistry by focusing on the affective domain, in this case students' self-concept, or self-evaluation of ability as it pertains to a specific field of study. First, a profile of students' self-concept in the general chemistry setting is created. Next, the relationship between self-concept and success in the course is investigated, including examining the role of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure (SAT scores). This study is unique in that evidence is found for the impact of self-concept after taking into account a cognitive measure. Finally, the effect of a semester-long, inquiry-oriented learning environment on students' self-concept is described. Suggested interventions to improve student self-concept are also discussed.

  14. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  15. The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…

  16. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  17. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  18. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  19. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  20. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  1. Effects of Students' Pre- and Post-Laboratory Concept Maps on Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Laboratory in University General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ziya; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scientific discussions based on student-constructed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps on students' attitudes toward chemistry laboratory in the university general chemistry. As part of instruction, during the first four laboratory sessions, students were taught how to construct and…

  2. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  3. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  4. Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…

  5. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  6. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.

  7. Design and Evaluation of a One-Semester General Chemistry Course for Undergraduate Life Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Carly; Towns, Marcy H.; Chmielewski, Jean; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry curriculum for undergraduate life science majors at Purdue University has been transformed to better meet the needs of this student population and prepare them for future success. The curriculum, called the 1-2-1 curriculum, includes four consecutive and integrated semesters of instruction in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and…

  8. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  9. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  10. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  11. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  12. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  13. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  14. Modular metal chalcogenide chemistry: secondary building blocks as a basis of the silicate-type framework structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhausen, Christine; Rocker, Frank; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The novel uranium thiophosphate CsLiU(PS_4)_2 has been synthesized by reacting uranium metal, Cs_2S, Li_2S, S, and P_2S_5 at 700 C in an evacuated silica tube. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. CsLiU(PS_4)_2 crystallizes in the rhombohedral space group R anti 3c (a = 15.2797(7) Aa; c = 28.778(2) Aa, V = 5818.7(5) Aa"3, Z = 18). The structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2 is a unique three-dimensional U(PS_4)_2"2"- framework with large tunnels with an approximate diameter of 6.6 Aa running parallel to the crystallographic c axis. The tunnels are filled with Cs"+ cations. The smaller Li"+ cations are located at tetrahedral sites at the periphery of the channels. In the structure of CsLiU(PS_4)_2 the uranium atoms are coordinated by thiophosphate groups in a pseudotetrahedral fashion, and the PS_4 groups act as linear connectors. Topologically, CsLiU(PS_4)_2 may be regarded a chalcogenide analogue of silicate frameworks, with the uranium atoms and PS_4 groups replacing silicon and oxygen atoms. Alternatively, CsLiU(PS_4)_2 may be viewed as a coordination polymer, which is formed in salt melts by the solid state equivalent of the ''self-assembly'' reactions in solution. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated Curie-Weiss-type behavior between 4 K and 300 K. The μ_e_f_f of 2.83 μ_B at 300 K is in agreement with an f"2 configuration of U"4"+. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Symmetry of dipositronium Ps2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We work out the complete symmetry and spin problem for diatomic positronium Ps 2 for the ground and singly excited states of zero orbital angular momentum. The general form of the wave function for each state is given, with due regard to charge conjugation parity. Annihilation rates are discussed, and correlations to dissociation products are deduced. We indicate how the approach is extensible to larger aggregates: i.e., PsPs n , n>2

  16. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  17. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  18. Student Conceptions about Energy Transformations: Progression from General Chemistry to Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Rowland, Susan L.; Lawrie, Gwendolyn A.; Wright, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Students commencing studies in biochemistry must transfer and build on concepts they learned in chemistry and biology classes. It is well established, however, that students have difficulties in transferring critical concepts from general chemistry courses; one key concept is "energy." Most previous work on students' conception of energy…

  19. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  20. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  1. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  2. Improving General Chemistry Course Performance through Online Homework-Based Metacognitive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Brock L.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    In a first-semester general chemistry course, metacognitive training was implemented as part of an online homework system. Students completed weekly quizzes and multiple practice tests to regularly assess their abilities on the chemistry principles. Before taking these assessments, students predicted their score, receiving feedback after…

  3. Past, Present and Future of General Chemistry in the PUC-Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Percio A. M.; Goulart, Mauricio S.; de Mello, Paulo Correa

    This manuscript describes the role of chemistry as a vehicle for understanding many other basic sciences and engineering based on the experience acquired in the General Chemistry course at the "Center Technical-Scientific" at the Pontific Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (CTC-PUC-Rio). A description of the history of the General…

  4. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  5. Chemistry for DUMMIES: how to popularize and introduce chemistry to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To mark the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry, each week in 2011 I posted a two-minute film demonstrating and explaining a simple and safe experiment to be carried out at home using everyday household products on the site www.chimie.ch/nuls.

  6. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  7. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  8. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  10. Suggestions for Modifications in the Teaching of General Chemistry to Accommodate Learning Disabled Students: Alternative Techniques for Teaching General Chemistry to Learning Disabled Students in the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, H. S.

    A professor involved with the HELDS project (Higher Education for Learning Disabled Students) describes modifications in a general chemistry course. A syllabus lists program objectives for eight text chapters, evaluation components, and course rules. Two units are described in detail, with information presented on modifications made for LD…

  11. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  12. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  13. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  14. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed

  15. The Influence of Modern Instrumentation on the Analytical and General Chemistry Curriculum at Bates College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2001-09-01

    The availability of state-of-the-art instruments such as high performance liquid chromatograph, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, capillary electrophoresis system, and ion chromatograph obtained through four Instructional Laboratory Improvement and one Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement grants from the National Science Foundation has led to a profound change in the structure of the analytical and general chemistry courses at Bates College. Students in both sets of courses now undertake ambitious, semester-long, small-group projects. The general chemistry course, which fulfills the prerequisite requirement for all upper-level chemistry courses, focuses on the connection between chemistry and the study of the environment. The projects provide students with an opportunity to conduct a real scientific investigation. The projects emphasize problem solving, team work, and communication, while still fostering the development of important laboratory skills. Cooperative learning is also used extensively in the classroom portion of these courses.

  16. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  17. Investigations of nitrogen oxide plasmas: Fundamental chemistry and surface reactivity and monitoring student perceptions in a general chemistry recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    unparalleled insight into the chemistry of these plasma systems. Part II of this work is focused on understanding the efficacy of a general chemistry recitation program. Such programs can be an valuable tool for improving students' problem solving skills and understanding using methods that are difficult to implement in large lecture settings. Here, general chemistry students at Colorado State University participated in a variety of recitation activities throughout the first semester of a 2-semester general chemistry sequence, including peer-led exercises, games, and scaffolded worksheets. Through weekly surveys, students were asked to evaluate and assess recitation activities for both interest and effectiveness as part of their course homework. Also included in these survey assignments were content questions relevant to the weekly themes, providing a measure of student learning of recitation topics. Student opinions were correlated with content retention, and these data were compared against student responses to a pre-survey administered before the first recitation session. This analysis allows for monitoring students' expectations of recitation courses and how well those expectations are met through the various types of activities employed. Ultimately, this work has found that students have positive feeling with respect to individual assignments, but that perspectives on chemistry and the course in general decrease dramatically from the beginning to the end of the semester. Thus, this work can serve as a significant starting points for future efforts to monitor and record student perceptions in the general chemistry recitation classroom, leading to further investigation into the source of changing attitudes and the role that week-to-week activities have on global course attitudes.

  18. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  19. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  20. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of General Chemistry Lab Experiments Performed in the Virtual World of Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds are a potential medium for teaching college-level chemistry laboratory courses. To determine the feasibility of conducting chemistry experiments in such an environment, undergraduate students performed two experiments in the immersive virtual world of Second Life (SL) as part of their regular General Chemistry 2 laboratory course.…

  1. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  2. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  3. Effects of Implementing a Hybrid Wet Lab and Online Module Lab Curriculum into a General Chemistry Course: Impacts on Student Performance and Engagement with the Chemistry Triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Stefan M.; Borda, Emily J.; Haupt, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe the implementation a hybrid general chemistry teaching laboratory curriculum that replaces a portion of a course's traditional "wet lab" experiences with online virtual lab modules. These modules intentionally utilize representations on all three levels of the chemistry triplet-macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic.…

  4. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistrygeneral circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  5. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  6. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  7. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  8. Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.; Crawford, R.

    1978-01-01

    This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel

  9. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  10. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  11. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  12. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  13. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  14. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which…

  15. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  16. Team-Based Learning Reduces Attrition in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeford, Lorrie

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an instructional method that has been shown to reduce attrition and increase student learning in a number of disciplines. TBL was implemented in a first-semester general chemistry course, and its effect on attrition was assessed. Attrition from sections before implementing TBL (fall 2008 to fall 2009) was compared with…

  17. Can They Succeed? Exploring At-Risk Students' Study Habits in College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Shuniak, Constantine; Oueini, Razanne; Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A well-established literature base identifies a portion of students enrolled in post-secondary General Chemistry as at-risk of failing the course based on incoming metrics. Learning about the experiences and factors that lead to this higher failure rate is essential toward improving retention in this course. This study examines the relationship…

  18. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  19. Improving the Success of First Term General Chemistry Students at a Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kari L.; Shaner, Sarah E.; Fendrick, Carol M.

    2018-01-01

    General Chemistry is a high impact course at Benedictine University where a large enrollment of ~250 students each year, coupled with low pass rates of a particularly vulnerable student population from a retention point of view (i.e., first-year college students), make it a strategic course on which to focus innovative pedagogical development.…

  20. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  1. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  2. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Sarah; Sutphin, Kathy; Gierasch, Tiffany; Hamilton, Pauline; Lilly, Kathleen; Miller, Kristine; Newlin, Donald; Pires, Richard; Sherer, Maureen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional…

  3. The Evaluation of Students' Written Reflection on the Learning of General Chemistry Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ng Sook; Li, Ho Ket; Sin, Lee Choy; Sin, Keng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence on the effect of reflective writing interventions on the learning of general chemistry lab experiment supports the examination of this concept. The central goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate the students' written…

  4. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  5. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  6. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  7. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  8. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid low-skilled…

  9. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  10. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  11. Implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry as an Instructional Model in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…

  12. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  13. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book explains chemical equilibrium with nature and characteristic of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action and direction of chemical equilibrium, acid-base equilibrium with principle of acid and base and amino acid, solubility and precipitation equilibrium with equilibrium of solubility, complex ion and solubility, electrochemistry on oxidation-reduction reaction, battery and fuel cell, decay and electrolysis, chemical reaction speed and nuclear reaction with Michaelis-Menten mechanism safety of nuclear, transition elements and coordination compound with introduction, name, structure and ligand EDTA and solid structure with categorization of solid and unit cell.

  14. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  15. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  16. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  17. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  18. Engaging Participation and Promoting Active Learning through Student Usage of the Internet to Create Notes for General Chemistry in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Renee Monica

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is a study of an interactive component to General Chemistry I and General Chemistry II where a new pedagogy for taking notes in class was developed. These notes, called key word created class notes, prompted students to locate information using the Internet guided by a key word. Reference Web sites were added to a next generation of…

  19. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  20. A general method for the inclusion of radiation chemistry in astrochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N; Herbst, Eric

    2018-02-21

    In this paper, we propose a general formalism that allows for the estimation of radiolysis decomposition pathways and rate coefficients suitable for use in astrochemical models, with a focus on solid phase chemistry. Such a theory can help increase the connection between laboratory astrophysics experiments and astrochemical models by providing a means for modelers to incorporate radiation chemistry into chemical networks. The general method proposed here is targeted particularly at the majority of species now included in chemical networks for which little radiochemical data exist; however, the method can also be used as a starting point for considering better studied species. We here apply our theory to the irradiation of H 2 O ice and compare the results with previous experimental data.

  1. Effect of Formative Quizzes on Teacher Candidates’ Learning in General Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Yalaki, Yalcin; Bayram, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is one of the most emphasized educational innovations around the world. Two of the common strategies that could be used in formative assessment are use of summative tests for formative purposes and comment only marking. We utilized these strategies in the form of formative quizzes in a general chemistry course and measured its effect on students’ learning. The results of our weak-experimental design, which was conducted with 124 pre-service elem...

  2. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  3. First two-reagent vitamin D assay for general clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Padilla-Chee, Mario; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid-soluble molecule that plays key physiological roles in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Recent studies show that deficiency in vitamin D is linked to cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. As a result, regular monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) is becoming essential. Current 25-OH vitamin D testing methodologies are cumbersome (too many reagents, long incubation times, phase separation) and are not compatible with general clinical chemistry platforms. Here, we report on a novel method to detect 25-OH vitamin D that is fast (results in 10 min or less), simple (two reagents) and compatible with virtually all general clinical chemistry analyzers. An immunoturbidimetric assay for 25-OH vitamin D (the Diazyme EZ Vitamin D Assay) has been developed using nanoparticles and vitamin D-specific antibodies. The performance of the assay kit, which consists of two reagents and five calibrators, was tested on the Beckman AU680 analyzer (AU680). The new assay was precise, sensitive (LOD = 7.2 nmol/L), linear (up to 390.1 nmol/L) and correlated strongly (R 2  > 0.95) with major commercial 25-OH vitamin D assays. Additionally, the assay was found to be the fastest to date, with the first results obtained within 10 min. Throughput on the AU680 was estimated at over 300 tests per hour. The newly developed 25-OH vitamin D assay is fast, precise and accurate. It can be run on most general chemistry analyzers. This assay aims at providing vitamin D-testing capabilities to all clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. Marine aquaria and their life support systems feature many chemical processes. A life support system consists of the entire recirculation system, as well as the habitat tank and all ancillary…

  5. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  6. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  7. General Chemistry Exercises Focused on the Professional Profile on Nuclear Careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau-González, Maritza; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises; Corona-Hernández, José Ángel; Santamaría-Arbona, María Teresa; Abreu-Díaz, Aidamary

    2016-01-01

    The subject General Chemistry is part of the base curriculum of the nuclear profile careers: Radiochemistry Careers and Engineering on Nuclear Technologies and Energetics. It has as main objectives the complementing, the deep analysis and integration of the basic principles of chemistry as a science, and due to its content, it constitutes an excellent platform to settle inter-subject relationships with those of the nuclear specialties. The aim of this paper is presenting linking examples among the subjects, through exercises that are supported in the Moodle Platform, conceived for the independent work of students, which besides facilitating the consolidation of the received knowledge in high school, and those ones in the first year of the career, allow them to be familiar with the future of their profession. (author)

  8. Based on a True Story: Using Movies as Source Material for General Chemistry Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark A.; Mikasen, Marjorie L.

    2005-10-01

    Research for chemical reports and case study analysis of chemical topics are two commonly used learning activities to engage and enrich student understanding of the content in introductory chemistry courses. Even though movies are excellent vehicles for exploring the human dimension of events, they have been used only sparingly as source material in introductory science courses. One reason for this sparing use has been the lack of a list of suitable movies. To fill this void, a list of one dozen highly rated movies is presented. The focus of these movies is either a scientist's chemical research or the societal impact of some chemical compound. The method by which two of these movies were used as source material for a written report in a general chemistry course is described. The student response to the exercise was enthusiastic.

  9. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  10. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  11. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  12. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  13. Student participation in World Wide Web-based curriculum development of general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William John Forbes

    1998-12-01

    This thesis describes an action research investigation of improvements to instruction in General Chemistry at Purdue University. Specifically, the study was conducted to guide continuous reform of curriculum materials delivered via the World Wide Web by involving students, instructors, and curriculum designers. The theoretical framework for this study was based upon constructivist learning theory and knowledge claims were developed using an inductive analysis procedure. This results of this study are assertions made in three domains: learning chemistry content via the World Wide Web, learning about learning via the World Wide Web, and learning about participation in an action research project. In the chemistry content domain, students were able to learn chemical concepts that utilized 3-dimensional visualizations, but not textual and graphical information delivered via the Web. In the learning via the Web domain, the use of feedback, the placement of supplementary aids, navigation, and the perception of conceptual novelty were all important to students' use of the Web. In the participation in action research domain, students learned about the complexity of curriculum. development, and valued their empowerment as part of the process.

  14. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  15. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  16. PS Booster - Festive colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    A festive colloquium will be held to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the PS Booster on Friday, 28 September at 2 p.m. in the CERN council chamber. The meeting will be open to everybody. Read more on the PS Booster in the CERN Bulletin and in the CERN Courier.

  17. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  18. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  19. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  20. A report on workshops: General circulation model study of climate- chemistry interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Chyung, Wang; Isaksen, I.S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussion on General Circulation Model Study of Climate-Chemistry Interaction from two workshops, the first held 19--21 August 1992 at Oslo, Norway and the second 26--27 May 1993 at Albany, New York, USA. The workshops are the IAMAP activities under the Trace Constituent Working Group. The main objective of the two workshops was to recommend specific general circulation model (GCM) studies of the ozone distribution and the climatic effect of its changes. The workshops also discussed the climatic implications of increasing sulfate aerosols because of its importance to regional climate. The workshops were organized into four working groups: observation of atmospheric O 3 ; modeling of atmospheric chemical composition; modeling of sulfate aerosols; and aspects of climate modeling

  1. Beyond "Inert" Ideas to Teaching General Chemistry from Rich Contexts: Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Peter G.; Holme, Thomas A.; Martin-Visscher, Leah; Martin, Brian E.; Versprille, Ashley; Kirchhoff, Mary; McKenzie, Lallie; Town, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    As one approach to moving beyond transmitting "inert" ideas to chemistry students, we use the term "teaching from rich contexts" to describe implementations of case studies or context-based learning based on systems thinking that provide deep and rich opportunities for learning crosscutting concepts through contexts. This…

  2. Investigations of Nitrogen Oxide Plasmas: Fundamental Chemistry and Surface Reactivity and Monitoring Student Perceptions in a General Chemistry Recitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechle, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Part I of this dissertation focuses on investigations of nitrogen oxide plasma systems. With increasing concerns over the environmental presence of NxOy species, there is growing interest in utilizing plasma-assisted conversion techniques. Advances, however, have been limited because of the lack of knowledge regarding the fundamental chemistry of…

  3. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  4. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  5. Pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry components - merging of studies from Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål

    2018-05-28

    Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.

  6. Awareness, Analysis, and Action: Curricular Alignment for Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ways that a shared faculty experience across five partner institutions led to a deep awareness of the curriculum and pedagogy of general chemistry coursework, and ultimately, to a collaborative action plan for student success. The team identified key differences and similarities in course content and instructional experiences. The comparative analysis yielded many more similarities than differences, and therefore, the team shifted its focus from “gap analysis” to an exploration of common curricular challenges. To address these challenges, the team developed content for targeted instructional resources that promoted the success of all STEM students across institutions. This article contextualizes the interinstitutional collaboration and closely examines the interactive components (awareness, analysis, and action), critical tools, and productive attitudes that undergirded the curricular alignment process of the STEM Transfer Student Success Initiative (t-STEM). PMID:29657334

  7. Comparative analysis of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and selected traditional textbooks used in Texas community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Steven Walter

    The purpose of this study was to analyze questions within the chapters of a nontraditional general chemistry textbook and the four general chemistry textbooks most widely used by Texas community colleges in order to determine if the questions require higher- or lower-order thinking according to Bloom's taxonomy. The study employed quantitative methods. Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) was utilized as the main instrument in the study. Additional tools were used to help classify the questions into the proper category of the taxonomy (McBeath, 1992; Metfessel, Michael, & Kirsner, 1969). The top four general chemistry textbooks used in Texas community colleges and Chemistry: A Project of the American Chemical Society (Bell et al., 2005) were analyzed during the fall semester of 2010 in order to categorize the questions within the chapters into one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Two coders were used to assess reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The descriptive method involved calculation of the frequencies and percentages of coded questions from the books as belonging to the six categories of the taxonomy. Questions were dichotomized into higher- and lower-order thinking questions. The inferential methods involved chi-square tests of association to determine if there were statistically significant differences among the four traditional college general chemistry textbooks in the proportions of higher- and lower-order questions and if there were statistically significant differences between the nontraditional chemistry textbook and the four traditional general chemistry textbooks. Findings indicated statistically significant differences among the four textbooks frequently used in Texas community colleges in the number of higher- and lower-level questions. Statistically significant differences were also found among the four textbooks and the nontraditional textbook. After the analysis of

  8. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF IPAD IN TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB TO FRESHMEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EID

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the use of iPad enhances students’ engagement in the classroom. However, assessing the benefits of using iPad in teaching laboratory sessions have seen less attention, due to the hands-on nature of these courses. To do this assessment, iPad was applied in teaching two pilot sessions of the General Chemistry Lab, and students’ evaluation was compared to that of other students in sections taught by conventional teaching techniques. The evaluation was based on the students’ assessment of their achievements in meeting the main course outcomes, which indicated that the students in the classes taught using iPad showed more satisfaction with the course, and believed that they have better achieved the outcomes of the course compared to the conventional classes. Furthermore, the comparison process included the overall students’ quantitative performance, which showed insignificant difference between the two classes, with slightly better performance of students in normal classes in quizzes, whereas final exam marks were almost the same for both the iPad piloted students and conventional class students. The differences in quizzes results were attributed to the normal variation in the students’ academic merits. In addition, the piloted students were asked about their experience of using iPad in class and their satisfaction by using different iPad Apps. The feedback was collected and analysed, and the results showed that the students generally enjoyed using iPad in the class and appreciated all Apps.

  9. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  10. Simulations of physics and chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds with a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, J.

    2005-04-20

    A polar stratospheric cloud submodel has been developed and incorporated in a general circulation model including atmospheric chemistry (ECHAM5/MESSy). The formation and sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles can thus be simulated as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions that take place on the PSC particles. For solid PSC particle sedimentation, the need for a tailor-made algorithm has been elucidated. A sedimentation scheme based on first order approximations of vertical mixing ratio profiles has been developed. It produces relatively little numerical diffusion and can deal well with divergent or convergent sedimentation velocity fields. For the determination of solid PSC particle sizes, an efficient algorithm has been adapted. It assumes a monodisperse radii distribution and thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas phase and the solid particle phase. This scheme, though relatively simple, is shown to produce particle number densities and radii within the observed range. The combined effects of the representations of sedimentation and solid PSC particles on vertical H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} redistribution are investigated in a series of tests. The formation of solid PSC particles, especially of those consisting of nitric acid trihydrate, has been discussed extensively in recent years. Three particle formation schemes in accordance with the most widely used approaches have been identified and implemented. For the evaluation of PSC occurrence a new data set with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage was available. A quantitative method for the comparison of simulation results and observations is developed and applied. It reveals that the relative PSC sighting frequency can be reproduced well with the PSC submodel whereas the detailed modelling of PSC events is beyond the scope of coarse global scale models. In addition to the development and evaluation of new PSC submodel components, parts of existing simulation programs have been

  11. An elementary presentation of the PS ''beam control'' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1973-01-01

    The PS synchrotron control system is explained in general terms, covering the topics of frequency control, beam transfer, damping, stability, conservation of longitudinal emittance, and second order problems

  12. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  13. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  14. Development and evaluation of a thermochemistry concept inventory for college-level general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, David A.

    The research presented in this dissertation culminated in a 10-item Thermochemistry Concept Inventory (TCI). The development of the TCI can be divided into two main phases: qualitative studies and quantitative studies. Both phases focused on the primary stakeholders of the TCI, college-level general chemistry instructors and students. Each phase was designed to collect evidence for the validity of the interpretations and uses of TCI testing data. A central use of TCI testing data is to identify student conceptual misunderstandings, which are represented as incorrect options of multiple-choice TCI items. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative studies focused heavily on collecting evidence at the item-level, where important interpretations may be made by TCI users. Qualitative studies included student interviews (N = 28) and online expert surveys (N = 30). Think-aloud student interviews (N = 12) were used to identify conceptual misunderstandings used by students. Novice response process validity interviews (N = 16) helped provide information on how students interpreted and answered TCI items and were the basis of item revisions. Practicing general chemistry instructors (N = 18), or experts, defined boundaries of thermochemistry content included on the TCI. Once TCI items were in the later stages of development, an online version of the TCI was used in expert response process validity survey (N = 12), to provide expert feedback on item content, format and consensus of the correct answer for each item. Quantitative studies included three phases: beta testing of TCI items (N = 280), pilot testing of the a 12-item TCI (N = 485), and a large data collection using a 10-item TCI ( N = 1331). In addition to traditional classical test theory analysis, Rasch model analysis was also used for evaluation of testing data at the test and item level. The TCI was administered in both formative assessment (beta and pilot testing) and summative assessment (large data collection), with

  15. Student Learning through Journal Writing in a General Education Chemistry Course for Pre-Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…

  16. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  17. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  18. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  19. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  20. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  1. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  2. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  3. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  4. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  5. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  6. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  7. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  8. Customized Videos on a YouTube Channel: A beyond the Classroom Teaching and Learning Platform for General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Jayashree S.

    2017-01-01

    Videos are an integral part of online courses. In this study, customized YouTube videos were explored as teaching and learning materials in place of face-to-face discussion sessions in General Chemistry courses. The videos were created using a budget-friendly and interactive app on an iPad. The customized YouTube videos were available to students…

  9. Assessing the Relation between Language Comprehension and Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have focused specifically on the role that language plays in learning chemistry. We report here an investigation into the ability of language comprehension measures to predict performance in university introductory chemistry courses. This work is informed by theories of language comprehension, which posit that high-skilled…

  10. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions [ru

  11. The PS booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    The PS booster which accelerates protons from the linac at an energy of 50 MeV to an energy of 800 MeV before injecting them into the main magnet ring of the synchrotron. The booster consists of four superposed rings. In the photograph can be seen the input beam line from the linac and the output beam lines, where beams from the four booster levels have been combined into two beams before final recombination.

  12. Química geral experimental: uma nova abordagem didática Experimental general chemistry: a new teaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Eduardo da Luz Júnior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes a new didactic approach, in according with the national curriculum guidelines for chemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil, employed during the one-semester course "Experimental General Chemistry" for chemistry undergraduate students at the Federal University of Piauí. The new approach has positively helped student's training by improving their reading skills and their understanding of scientific reports, by developing the use of electronic tools to search and to recover the required knowledge for their learning activities, and by improving their skills of understanding published texts and dealing with digital sources. At the same time the students are strongly stimulated to enter the research program for undergraduate students available at the University.

  13. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  14. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  15. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  16. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  17. Beyond metric gravity: Progress on PS-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Nieto, M.M.; Schauer, M.M.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A.; Hoibraaten, S.; Midzor, M.M.; Parry, S.P.; Ristenen, R.A.; Witteborn, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    The reconciliation of quantum mechanics and gravity on varying distance scales requires changes to General Relativity that may be testable implications. We briefly review the status of tests with matter of the inverse square law and the principle of equivalence, then report on progress on the drift-tube measurement section of PS- 200, the experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons

  18. Coordinated Implementation and Evaluation of Flipped Classes and Peer-Led Team Learning in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott E.; Oueini, Razanne; Mapugay, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The research-based pedagogical strategy of flipped classes has been shown to be effective for increasing student achievement and retention in postsecondary chemistry classes. The purpose of flipped classes is to move content delivery (e.g., lecture) outside of the classroom, freeing more face-to-face time for active learning strategies. The…

  19. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  20. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…

  1. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  2. Textbook-Bundled Metacognitive Tools: A Study of LearnSmart's Efficacy in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    College textbook publishers increasingly bundle sophisticated technology-based study tools with their texts. These tools appear promising, but empirical work on their efficacy is needed. We examined whether LearnSmart, a study tool bundled with McGraw-Hill's textbook "Chemistry" (Chang & Goldsby, 2013), improved learning in an…

  3. Pre-Assessment and Peer Tutoring as Measures to Improve Performance in Gateway General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenbaugh, R. J.; Herrera, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining student readiness for gateway chemistry courses and providing underprepared students effective remediation are important as student bodies are growing increasingly diverse in their precollege preparation. The effectiveness of the ACT Mathematics Test and the Whimbey Analytical Skills Inventory (WASI) in predicting student success in…

  4. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  5. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  6. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  7. PS proton source

    CERN Multimedia

    1959-01-01

    The first proton source used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) which started operation in 1959. This is CERN's oldest accelerator still functioning today (2018). It is part of the accelerator chain that supplies proton beams to the Large Hadron Collider. The source is a Thonemann type. In order to extract and accelerate the protons at high energy, a high frequency electrical field is used (140Mhz). The field is transmitted by a coil around a discharge tube in order to maintain the gas hydrogen in an ionised state. An electrical field pulse, in the order of 15kV, is then applied via an impulse transformer between anode and cathode of the discharge tube. The electrons and protons of the plasma formed in the ionised gas in the tube, are then separated. Currents in the order of 200mA during 100 microseconds have benn obtained with this type of source.

  8. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. General chemistry: expanding the learning outcomes and promoting interdisciplinary connections through the use of a semester-long project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The laboratory component of a first-semester general chemistry course for science majors is described. The laboratory involves a semester-long project undertaken in a small-group format. Students are asked to examine whether plants grown in soil contaminated with lead take up more lead than those grown in uncontaminated soil. They are also asked to examine whether the acidity of the rainwater affects the amount of lead taken up by the plants. Groups are then given considerable independence in the design and implementation of the experiment. Once the seeds are planted, which takes about 4 wk into the term, several shorter experiments are integrated in before it is time to harvest and analyze the plants. The use of a project and small working groups allows for the development of a broader range of learning outcomes than occurs in a "traditional" general chemistry laboratory. The nature of these outcomes and some of the student responses to the laboratory experience are described. This particular project also works well at demonstrating the connections among chemistry, biology, geology, and environmental studies.

  10. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  11. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    This document publishes the oral contributions and the 66 posters presented during a colloquium on physics and chemistry of interstellar medium. The following themes have been addressed: New views on the interstellar medium with Herschel, Planck and Alma, Cycle of interstellar dusts, Physics and Dynamics of the interstellar medium, Molecular complexifying and the link towards pre-biotic chemistry. More precisely, the oral contributions addressed the following topics: Interstellar medium with Herschel and Planck; The anomalous microwave emission: a new window on the physics of small grains; Sub-millimetre spectroscopy of complex molecules and of radicals for ALMA and Herschel missions; Analysing observations of molecules in the ISM: theoretical and experimental studies of energy transfer; Unravelling the labyrinth of star formation with Herschel; Star formation regions with Herschel and Alma: astro-chemistry in the Netherlands; Physical structure of gas and dust in photo-dissociation regions observed with Herschel; Photo-desorption of analogues of interstellar ices; Formation of structures in the interstellar medium: theoretical and numerical aspects; Towards a 3D mapping of the galactic ISM by inversion of absorption individual measurements; Low velocity shocks as signatures of turbulent dissipation in diffuse irradiated gas; Early phases of solar system formation: 3D physical and chemical modelling of the collapse of pre-stellar dense core; Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds; Protostellar shocks in the time of Herschel; A new PDR model of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas; Molecular spectroscopy in the ALMA era and laboratory Astrophysics in Spain; Which molecules to be searched for in the interstellar medium; Physics and chemistry of UV illuminated neutral gas: the Horsehead case; Nitrogen fractionation in dark clouds; Molecular spectral surveys from millimetre range to far infrared; Mechanisms and synthesis at the surface of cold grains

  12. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  13. General aspects of research in inorganic and solid-state recoil chemistry - a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1986-01-01

    Following a condensed review of the main features of hot-atom chemistry in inorganic solids a fictitious investigation is examined for some shortcomings which appear in the literature. Popper's basic concepts of scientific research are recommended to guide future work. Using Rossler's 'ligand abstraction model' as an example, it has been shown that (1) new correlations may be found between experimental parameters even if very good correlations already exist: (2) existing experimental facts may not be sufficient to falsify one of the correlations; and (3) new experiments can be suggested, the results of which may make one of the models more probable than the other or even falsify one of them. (author)

  14. SPS and PS Experiments Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    OPEN SESSION: 09:00 Status report of NA58 / COMPASS: A. Magnon 09:40 Status report of PS212 / DIRAC: L. Tausher 10:10 PS212 / DIRAC Addendum: L. Nemenov CLOSED SESSION on Tuesday, 27 April 2004 after the open session, Main Building, 6th floor conference room

  15. Syntheses, crystal structure, and electronic properties of the five ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesbah, Adel [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); ICSM, UMR 5257 CEA / CNRS / UM / ENSCM, Site de Marcoule-Bâtiment 426, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Rocca, Dario; Lebègue, Sébastien [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique, et Modélisations CRM2 (UMR UHP-CNRS 7036), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Beard, Jessica C.; Lewis, Benjamin A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Ibers, James A., E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Five new compounds belonging to the ABaMQ{sub 4} family were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. The compounds RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} are isostructural and have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. They crystallize in space group D{sup 16}{sub 2h} – Pnma of the orthorhombic system. Their structure consists isolated MQ{sub 4} tetrahedra separated by A and Ba atoms to form a salt-like structure. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structures with the use of the HSE functional suggest that the compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps of 3.3 eV (RbBaPS{sub 4}), 3.4 eV (CsBaPS{sub 4}), 2.3 eV (CsBaVS{sub 4}), and 1.6 eV (RbBaVSe{sub 4}). - Graphical abstract: General view of the ABaMQ{sub 4} structure down the a axis. - Highlights: • Five new ABaMQ{sub 4} compounds were synthesized by solid-state chemistry at 1123 K. • RbBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaPS{sub 4}, CsBaVS{sub 4}, RbBaVSe{sub 4}, and CsBaVSe{sub 4} have the TlEuPS{sub 4} structure type. • The compounds are semiconductors with calculated band gaps ranging from 1.6 to 3.4 eV.

  16. XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry. Abstract book in 4 volumes. Volume 4. Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials. Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis. Chemical education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index [ru

  17. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  18. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  19. Quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP) using mass spectrometry: general characteristics and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).

  20. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2017-01-01

    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  1. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  2. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998–2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy

  3. Picture this: The value of multiple visual representations for student learning of quantum concepts in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Emily Christine

    Mental models for scientific learning are often defined as, "cognitive tools situated between experiments and theories" (Duschl & Grandy, 2012). In learning, these cognitive tools are used to not only take in new information, but to help problem solve in new contexts. Nancy Nersessian (2008) describes a mental model as being "[loosely] characterized as a representation of a system with interactive parts with representations of those interactions. Models can be qualitative, quantitative, and/or simulative (mental, physical, computational)" (p. 63). If conceptual parts used by the students in science education are inaccurate, then the resulting model will not be useful. Students in college general chemistry courses are presented with multiple abstract topics and often struggle to fit these parts into complete models. This is especially true for topics that are founded on quantum concepts, such as atomic structure and molecular bonding taught in college general chemistry. The objectives of this study were focused on how students use visual tools introduced during instruction to reason with atomic and molecular structure, what misconceptions may be associated with these visual tools, and how visual modeling skills may be taught to support students' use of visual tools for reasoning. The research questions for this study follow from Gilbert's (2008) theory that experts use multiple representations when reasoning and modeling a system, and Kozma and Russell's (2005) theory of representational competence levels. This study finds that as students developed greater command of their understanding of abstract quantum concepts, they spontaneously provided additional representations to describe their more sophisticated models of atomic and molecular structure during interviews. This suggests that when visual modeling with multiple representations is taught, along with the limitations of the representations, it can assist students in the development of models for reasoning about

  4. PS2004 Light-harvesting Systems Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue of the international scientific research journal Photosynthesis Research consists of 25 original peer-reviewed contributions from participants in the PS 2004 Lisht-Harvesting Systems Workshop. This workshop was held from 26-29, 2004 at Hotel Le Chantecler, Sainte-Adele, Quebec, Canada. The workshop was a satellite meeting of the XIII International Congress on Photosynthesis held August 29-September 3, 2004 in Montreal, Canada. The workshope dealt with all types of photosynthetic antenna systems and types of organisms, including anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants, as well as in vitro studies of isolated pigments. This collection of papers is a good representation of the highly interdisciplinary nature of modern research on photosynthetic antenna complexes, utilizing techniques of advanced spectroscopy, biochemistry, molecular biology, synthetic chemistry and structural determination to understand these diverse and elegant molecular complexes.

  5. Lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA): a novel and general methodology for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Mark; Lieberman, Harvey; Tserlin, Elina; Rocnik, Jennifer; Ge, Jie; Fitzgerald, Maria; Patel, Vinod; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel and general method, lead optimization attrition analysis (LOAA), to benchmark two distinct small-molecule lead series using a relatively unbiased, simple technique and commercially available software. We illustrate this approach with data collected during lead optimization of two independent oncology programs as a case study. Easily generated graphics and attrition curves enabled us to calibrate progress and support go/no go decisions on each program. We believe that this data-driven technique could be used broadly by medicinal chemists and management to guide strategic decisions during drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. submitter Measurement of intrinsic rise times for various L(Y)SO and LuAG scintillators with a general study of prompt photons to achieve 10 ps in TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, Stefan; Pauwels, Kristof; Lecoq, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) of scintillator based detectors commonly used in positron emission tomography is well known to be dependent on the scintillation decay time (${{\\tau}_{d}}$ ) and the number of photons detected (${{n}^{\\prime}}$ ), i.e. $CTR\\propto \\sqrt{{{\\tau}_{d}}/{{n}^{\\prime}}}$ . However, it is still an open question to what extent the scintillation rise time (${{\\tau}_{r}}$ ) and other fast or prompt photons, e.g. Cherenkov photons, at the beginning of the scintillation process influence the CTR. This paper presents measurements of the scintillation emission rate for different LSO type crystals, i.e. LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LSO:Ce codoped Ca and LGSO:Ce. For the various LSO-type samples measured we find an average value of 70 ps for the scintillation rise time, although some crystals like LSO:Ce codoped Ca seem to have a much faster rise time in the order of 20 ps. Additional measurements for LuAG:Ce and LuAG:Pr show a rise time of 535 ps and 251 ps, respectively. For these crystals, promp...

  7. The effect of restructuring student writing in the general chemistry laboratory on student understanding of chemistry and on students' approach to the laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James Andrew, II

    Many students encounter difficulties engaging with laboratory-based instruction, and reviews of research have indicated that the value of such instruction is not clearly evident. Traditional forms of writing associated with laboratory activities are commonly in a style used by professional scientists to communicate developed explanations. Students probably lack the interpretative skills of a professional, and writing in this style may not support students in learning how to develop scientific explanations. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach to laboratory instruction designed in part to promote student ability in developing such explanations. However, there is not a convincing body of evidence for the superiority of inquiry-based laboratory instruction in chemistry. In a series of studies, the performance of students using the SWH student template in place of the standard laboratory report format was compared to the performance of students using the standard format. The standard reports had Title, Purpose, Procedure, Data & Observations, Calculations & Graphs, and Discussion sections. The SWH reports had Beginning Questions & Ideas, Tests & Procedures, Observations, Claims, Evidence, and Reflection sections. The pilot study produced evidence that using the SWH improved the quality of laboratory reports, improved student performance on a laboratory exam, and improved student approach to laboratory work. A main study found that SWH students statistically exhibited a better understanding of physical equilibrium when written explanations and equations were analyzed on a lecture exam and performed descriptively better on a physical equilibrium practical exam task. In another main study, the activities covering the general equilibrium concept were restructured as an additional change, and it was found that SWH students exhibited a better understanding of chemical equilibrium as shown by statistically greater success in overcoming the common

  8. Adsorbate-induced lifting of substrate relaxation is a general mechanism governing titania surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, David; Kowalski, Piotr M; Traeger, Franziska; Buchholz, Maria; Bebensee, Fabian; Meyer, Bernd; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-30

    Under ambient conditions, almost all metals are coated by an oxide. These coatings, the result of a chemical reaction, are not passive. Many of them bind, activate and modify adsorbed molecules, processes that are exploited, for example, in heterogeneous catalysis and photochemistry. Here we report an effect of general importance that governs the bonding, structure formation and dissociation of molecules on oxidic substrates. For a specific example, methanol adsorbed on the rutile TiO 2 (110) single crystal surface, we demonstrate by using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques that strongly bonding adsorbates can lift surface relaxations beyond their adsorption site, which leads to a significant substrate-mediated interaction between adsorbates. The result is a complex superstructure consisting of pairs of methanol molecules and unoccupied adsorption sites. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that the paired methanol molecules remain intact and do not deprotonate on the defect-free terraces of the rutile TiO 2 (110) surface.

  9. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  10. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  11. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  12. Beyond the Point Ps Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Sergey V.; Zvezhinskiy, Dmitry S.; Byakov, Vsevolod M.

    2012-01-01

    In application to positron annihilation spectroscopy, Ps atom is considered not as a point particle, but as a finite size e+ e- pair localized in a bubble-state in a medium. Variation of the internal Coulombic e+ -e- attraction vs. the bubble radius is estimated.

  13. The PS Booster hits 40

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Many accelerators’ "round" birthdays are being celebrated at CERN these days – the PS turned 50 in 2009, the SPS was 35 in 2011, and this year it's the turn of the PS Booster to mark its 40th anniversary. Originally designed to accelerate 1013 protons to 800 MeV, it has far exceeded its initial design performance over the years.   The PS Booster in the 1970s. Imagine the scene: a group of accelerator physicists staring expectantly at a monitor, when suddenly a shout of joy goes up as a signal flickers across the screen. Does that sound familiar? Well, turn the clock back 40 years (longer hair, wider trouser legs) and you have the situation at the PS Booster on 26 May 1972. On that day, beam was injected into the Booster for the first time. “It was a real buzz,” says Heribert Koziol, then Chairman of the Running-in Committee. “We were very happy – and also a little relieved – when the beam finally...

  14. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  15. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  16. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  17. New safety training for access to the PS complex areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Since 10/08/2012, a new course dedicated to the specific radiological risks in the accelerators of the PS complex has been available on SIR (https://sir.cern.ch/). This course complements the general classroom-based Radiation Safety training. Successful completion of the course will be obligatory and verified by the access system as from 01/11/2012 for access to the following accelerator areas: LINAC2, BOOSTER, PS and TT2. Information and reminder e-mails will be sent to all persons currently authorized to access the accelerators of the PS complex. For questions please contact the HSE unit and in particular, the Radiation Protection Group (+41227672504 or safety-rp-ps-complex@cern.ch).

  18. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  19. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  20. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  1. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  2. 15. Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry. Obninsk symposium. Radiological problems in nuclear energetics and industry conversion. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Ecological aspects of nuclear-fuel engineering cycle and radiochemical technologies, radioactive waste processing and water purification, accidents at NPP and their consequences, ecological problems of industry conversion were discussed at the 15th Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry

  3. 15. Mendeleev's meeting on general and applied chemistry. Obninsk Symposium. Radioecological problems in nuclear energetics and in industry conversion. Abstracts. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Works devoted to the problems of radioecology, radiochemistry, ecological monitoring, human health in zones subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident, were presented at the 15. Mendeleev congress of general and applied chemistry which took place in Obninsk in 1993

  4. "Greening" a Familiar General Chemistry Experiment: Coffee Cup Calorimetry to Determine the Enthalpy of Neutralization of an Acid-Base Reaction and the Specific Heat Capacity of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.; Perera, K. Nishanthi R.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee cup calorimetry, performed with calorimeters made with styrofoam coffee cups, is a familiar experiment in the general chemistry laboratory. These calorimeters are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide good insulation for most thermodynamics experiments. This paper presents the successful substitution of paper coffee cups for styrofoam cups…

  5. Yielding Unexpected Results: Precipitation of Ba[subscript3](PO[subscript4])[subscript2] and Implications for Teaching Solubility Principles in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Jeffery L.; Cleary, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation of barium phosphate from aqueous solutions of a barium salt and a phosphate salt forms the basis for a number of conclusions drawn in general chemistry. For example, the formation of a solid white precipitate is offered as evidence that barium phosphate is insoluble. Furthermore, analysis of the supernatant is used to illustrate the…

  6. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  7. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  8. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  9. Introducing NMR to a General Chemistry Audience: A Structural-Based Instrumental Laboratory Relating Lewis Structures, Molecular Models, and [superscript 13]C NMR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Curtis R.; Pfeiffer, William F.; Thomas, Alyssa C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a first-year general chemistry laboratory that uses NMR spectroscopy and model building to emphasize molecular shape and structure. It is appropriate for either a traditional or an atoms-first curriculum. Students learn the basis of structure and the use of NMR data through a cooperative learning hands-on laboratory…

  10. Two-Year Community: Tools for Success--A Study of the Resources and Study Habits of General Chemistry I Students at Two Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Laura B.; Bruck, Aaron D.

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment and retention in the sciences is both difficult and crucial, especially in the community college setting. In this study, the resources used by General Chemistry I students at two different public, predominantly two-year colleges in two states were studied via surveys for a semester. Data were analyzed with respect to student attitudes…

  11. Structure and Evaluation of a Flipped General Chemistry Course as a Model for Small and Large Gateway Science Courses at an Urban Public Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Melissa A.; Mills, Pamela; McGregor, Donna

    2018-01-01

    A flipped classroom is one where students are first introduced to content outside of the classroom. This frees up class time for more active learning strategies and has been shown to enhance student learning in high school and college classrooms. However, many studies in General Chemistry, a college gateway science course, were conducted in small…

  12. Analyzing General Chemistry Texts' Treatment of Rates of Change Concepts in Reaction Kinetics Reveals Missing Conceptual Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Sherry; Czworkowski, John; Wynn, Lynda

    2018-01-01

    Change over time is a crosscutting theme in the sciences that is pivotal to reaction kinetics, an anchoring concept in undergraduate chemistry, and students' struggles with rates of change are well-documented. Informed by the education scholarship in chemistry, physics, and mathematics, a research team with members from complementary disciplinary…

  13. Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, and Ecotoxicity: A Research-Based Set of Laboratory Experiments for a General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaris, Zoe N.; Freitas, Daniel N.; Mac, Karen; Gerner, Kyle T.; Nameth, Catherine; Wheeler, Korin E.

    2017-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were developed to introduce first-year chemistry students to nanoscience through a green chemistry approach. Students made and characterized the stability of silver nanoparticles using two different methods: UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. They then assessed the ecotoxicity of silver…

  14. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of PS300: A New Self-Lubricating High Temperature Composite Coating for Use to 800 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, C.; Edmonds, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces PS300, a plasma sprayed, self-lubricating composite coating for use in sliding contacts at temperatures to 800 C. PS300 is a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with silver and BaF2/CaF2 eutectic solid lubricant additives. PS300 is similar to PS200, a chromium carbide based coating, which is currently being investigated for a variety of tribological applications. In pin-on-disk testing up to 650 C, PS300 exhibited comparable friction and wear properties to PS200. The PS300 matrix, which is predominantly chromium oxide rather than chromium carbide, does not require diamond grinding and polishes readily with silicon carbide abrasives greatly reducing manufacturing costs compared to PS200. It is anticipated that PS300 has potential for sliding bearing and seal applications in both aerospace and general industry.

  16. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  17. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  18. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  19. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  20. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  1. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  2. Constructivist-Based Asynchronous Tutorial to Improve Transfer between Math and Chemistry Domains: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of the Impact of ReMATCH on General Chemistry Course Performance and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. Danielle

    2011-07-01

    The two-year implementation of ReMATCH, a web-based math and problem-solving tutorial, in a traditionally arranged general chemistry classroom at the University of Kansas examined the impact of a designed intervention to assist students with the transfer of their mathematical knowledge to a chemistry context where it could be readily used for quantitative problem solving. The ReMATCH intervention, designed on constructivist-based pedagogies, focused on illuminating the expert-processes of problem solving and transferring knowledge across domains to the novice chemistry. The two implementations of ReMATCH -- once as lab assignments and once lecture assignments -- resulted in very different student responses to the intervention. However, within both, the beneficial effects of sustained ReMATCH-use were visible. In 2006, students who attempted all of the ReMATCH homework assignments were predicted to earn ˜5% higher on their total exam points. The 2007 implementation of ReMATCH demonstrated that students who attempted all of the homework problems and visited at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages were predicted to earn ˜8.5% higher on their total exam points. Additionally, use of ReMATCH in 2006 also resulted in increased confidence (as measured by comfort-level) with some of the math-related chemistry topics covered in ReMATCH. In 2007, when only students who attempted all of the ReMATCH problems were considered, it became clear that individuals who were initially less confident in their math-related chemistry skills were more likely to view more of the ReMATCH tutorial pages. When students with lower initial comfort-levels on these topics viewed at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages, they were able to compensate for their initially lower levels of confidence and were equally comfortable with most of the math-related chemistry topics by the final survey. Student interactions with and perceptions of ReMATCH showed that student attitudes towards Re

  3. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally…

  4. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  5. Investigating the Influence of Gender on Student Perceptions of the Clicker in a Small Undergraduate General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Emily D.; Zewail-Foote, Maha

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic response pads or "clickers" is a popular way to engage students and create an active-learning environment, especially within large chemistry courses. We examined students' perceptions of how the clicker affected their learning, participation, and engagement in the classroom, as well as their overall experience…

  6. Examining Evidence for External and Consequential Validity of the First Term General Chemistry Exam from the ACS Examinations Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Validity of educational research instruments and student assessments has appropriately become a growing interest in the chemistry education research community. Of particular concern is an attention to the consequences to students that result from the interpretation of assessment scores and whether those consequences are swayed by invalidity within…

  7. Effectiveness of Podcasts Delivered on Mobile Devices as a Support for Student Learning during General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Mason, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry instructors in teaching laboratories provide expert modeling of techniques and cognitive processes and provide assistance to enrolled students that may be described as scaffolding interaction. Such student support is particularly essential in laboratories taught with an inquiry-based curriculum. In a teaching laboratory with a high…

  8. Using Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Understand How Students in a General Chemistry Course Approach the Exam Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson-Conrad, Angela; Kowalske, Megan Grunert

    2018-01-01

    Retention of students who major in STEM continues to be a major concern for universities. Many students cite poor teaching and disappointing grades as reasons for dropping out of STEM courses. Current college chemistry courses often assess what a student has learned through summative exams. To understand students' experiences of the exam process,…

  9. Polymer Chemistry--An Elective in the New Leaving Chemistry Course: A Method of Teaching It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, G.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is suggested for teaching concepts of polymer chemistry. Laboratory activities are suggested for the major topics. Interrelationships of different industrial uses of polymers are emphasized during the course. (PS)

  10. Pressure Monitoring Using Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of gas-phase pressure measurements at kHz-rates using fs/ps rotational CARS. Femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is then probed by a high-energy 6-ps pulse introduced at a time delay from the Raman preparation. Rotational CARS spectra were recorded in N2 contained in a room-temperature gas cell for pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm and probe delays ranging from 10-330 ps. Using published self-broadened collisional linewidth data for N2, both the spectrally integrated coherence decay rate and the spectrally resolved decay were investigated as means for detecting pressure. Shot-averaged and single-laser-shot spectra were interrogated for pressure and the accuracy and precision as a function of probe delay and cell pressure are discussed. Single-shot measurement accuracies were within 0.1 to 6.5% when compared to a transducer values, while the precision was generally between 1% and 6% of measured pressure for probe delays of 200 ps or more, and better than 2% as the delay approached 300 ps. A byproduct of the pressure measurement is an independent but simultaneous measurement of the gas temperature.

  11. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Folberth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and volatile organic compounds (VOC from biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass-burning sources has been included. The tropospheric annual mean methane (9.2 years and methylchloroform (5.5 years chemical lifetimes are well within the range of previous modelling studies and are in excellent agreement with estimates established by means of global observations. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the horizontal and vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of CO and key non-methane VOC, such as acetone, methanol, and formaldehyde as compared to observational data from several ground stations and aircraft campaigns. LMDz-INCA in the NMHC version reproduces tropospheric ozone concentrations fairly well throughout most of the troposphere. The model is applied in several sensitivity studies of the biosphere-atmosphere photochemical feedback. The impact of surface emissions of isoprene, acetone, and methanol is studied. These experiments show a substantial impact of isoprene on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations revealing an increase in surface O3 and CO levels of up to 30 ppbv and 60 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene also appears to significantly impact the global OH distribution resulting in a decrease of the global mean tropospheric OH concentration by approximately 0.7×105 molecules cm-3 or roughly 8% and an increase in the global mean tropospheric methane lifetime by approximately seven months. A global mean ozone net radiative forcing due to the isoprene induced increase in the tropospheric ozone burden of 0.09 W m-2 is found. The key role of isoprene photooxidation in the global tropospheric redistribution of NOx is demonstrated. LMDz

  12. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  13. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  14. Morphology and properties of SEBS block copolymer compatibilized PS/HDPE blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rek, V.; Vranješ, N.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Fortelný, Ivan; Jelčic, Ž.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2008), s. 237-251 ISSN 0095-2443 Grant - others:Ministry of Science, Education and Sport (HR) 0125059 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aPS/HDPE/SEBS blends * morphology * processing * rheological Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2008

  15. Positronium chemistry in porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Oka, T.; Hirata, K.

    2007-01-01

    Porous materials have fascinated positron and positronium chemists for over decades. In the early 1970s it was already known that ortho-positronium (o-Ps) exhibits characteristic long lifetimes in silica gels, porous glass and zeolites. Since then, our understanding of Ps formation, diffusion and annihilation has been drastically deepened. Ps is now well recognized as a powerful porosimetric and chemical probe to study the average pore size, pore size distribution, pore connectivity and surface properties of various porous materials including thin films. In this paper, developments of Ps chemistry in porous materials undertaken in the past some 40 yr are surveyed and problems to be addressed in future are briefly discussed

  16. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  17. The LLL compact 10-ps streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Houghton, J.W.; Tripp, G.R.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 10-ps streak camera has been redesigned to simplify its operation, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve its appearance. The electronics have been simplified, a film indexer added, and a contacted slit has been evaluated. Data support a 10-ps resolution. (author)

  18. Enhanced personal protection at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier Genoud

    2013-01-01

    Pictures 03, 06, 07 08 : Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system.Pictures 10, 12 ,13 : View of Building 271, the future control centre of the new PS complex safety system.

  19. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  20. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  1. Nuffield A-Level Chemistry: A Personal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy

    1972-01-01

    Maintains that there are topics of thermodynamics and organic chemistry in Nuffield A-level chemistry program which should be reviewed critically for their content organization. The Nuffield course is considered better than the traditional courses in its educational value, yet highly biased for preparing students for college chemistry courses. (PS)

  2. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo

    2016-01-01

    , but in contemporary science two approaches to the implementation of statistics in decision making are used: 1. Short-term precision and 2. long-term precision. Both approaches are valid and both are described using the same methods of statistics. However, they lead to completely different conclusions and decisions....... Despite good intentions and new concepts, as well as practices and procedures for quality assurance, it is shown by these two examples that these efforts may be inadequate or mislead scientists into making major mistakes in the decision-making process. A set of equations is supplied, which are based......According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty...

  3. General method for labeling siRNA by click chemistry with fluorine-18 for the purpose of PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frédéric; Paris, Jérôme; Kaisin, Geoffroy; Thonon, David; Flagothier, Jessica; Teller, Nathalie; Lemaire, Christian; Luxen, André

    2011-01-19

    The alkyne-azide Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition, a click-type reaction, was used to label a double-stranded oligonucleotide (siRNA) with fluorine-18. An alkyne solid support CPG for the preparation of monostranded oligonucleotides functionalized with alkyne has been developed. Two complementary azide labeling agents (1-(azidomethyl)-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzene) and 1-azido-4-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropoxy)benzene have been produced with 41% and 35% radiochemical yields (decay-corrected), respectively. After annealing with the complementary strand, the siRNA was directly labeled by click chemistry with [(18)F]fluoroazide to produce the [(18)F]-radiolabeled siRNA with excellent radiochemical yield and purity.

  4. Theoretical considerations regarding the existence of PsO and PsS+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farazdel, A.; Cade, P.E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed from experimental studies and in analogy with hydrogen compounds that PsO may be an entity of some importance, or an intermediate, in the reaction of positronium, Ps, with aqueous oxyacid species such as H 2 PO 4 - , HSO 4 - , ClO 4 - , and NO 3 - . This communication explores the stability of PsO and PsS, or [O - :e + ] and [S - :e + ], respectively, relative to dissociation into Ps and O( 3 P) or S( 3 P) on the basis of restricted Hartree-Fock calculations for the PsO and PsS systems and certain correlation correction arguments. A reasonable lower estimate of the dissociation energy to Y+Ps of >-0.47 eV for PsO and >0.70 eV for PsS is obtained. It is suggested that a modest correlation correction to the positron affinity (PA) of O - would very probably lead to a bound state system for PsO. (Auth.)

  5. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  6. On the crystallization behavior of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers, atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends, and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Liana, E-mail: liana.annunziatta@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Monasse, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.monasse@mines-paristech.fr [Mines-ParisTech, CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7635, Sophia Antipolis (France); Rizzo, Paola; Guerra, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università degli studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Duc, Michel [Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy, Zone Industrielle Feluy C, B-7181 Seneffe (Belgium); Carpentier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carpentier@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-09-16

    Crystallization and morphological features of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers (sPS-b-aPS), atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends (aPS/sPS), and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS, with different compositions in aPS and sPS, have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) techniques. For comparative purposes, the properties of parent pristine sPS samples were also studied. WAXRD analyses revealed for all the samples, independently from their composition (aPS/sPS ratio) and structure (blends, block copolymers, blends modified with block copolymers), the same polymorphic β form of sPS. The molecular weight of aPS and sPS showed opposite effects on the crystallization of 50:50 aPS/sPS blends: the lower the molecular weight of aPS, the slower the crystallization while the lower the molecular weight of sPS, the faster the crystallization. DSC studies performed under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, independently confirmed by POM studies, led to a clear trend for the crystallization rate at a given sPS/aPS ratio (ca. 50:50 and 20:80): sPS homopolymers > sPS-b-aPS block copolymers ∼sPS/aPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS copolymers > sPS/aPS blends. Interestingly, sPS-b-aPS block copolymers not only crystallized faster than blends, but also affected positively the crystallization behavior of blends. At 50:50 sPS/aPS ratio, blends (Blend-2), block copolymers (Cop-1) and blends modified with block copolymers (Blend-2-mod) crystallized via spherulitic crystalline growth controlled by an interfacial process. In all cases, an instantaneous nucleation was observed. The density of nuclei in block copolymers (160,000−190,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}) was always higher than that in blends and modified blends (30,000−60,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}), even for quite different sPS/aPS ratio. At 20:80 sPS/aPS ratio, the block copolymers

  7. Preliminary evaluation of PS300: A new self-lubricating high temperature composite coating for use to 800{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DellaCorte, C.; Edmonds, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces PS300, a plasma sprayed, self-lubricating composite coating for use in sliding contacts at temperatures to 800{degrees}C. PS300 is a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with silver and BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} eutectic solid lubricant additives. PS300 is similar to PS200, a chromium carbide based coating; which is currently being investigated for a variety of tribological applications. In pin-on-disk testing up to 650{degrees}C, PS300 exhibited comparable friction and wear properties to PS200. The PS300 matrix, which is predominantly chromium oxide rather than chromium carbide, does not require diamond grinding and polishes readily with silicon carbide abrasives greatly reducing manufacturing costs compared to PS200. It is anticipated that PS300 has potential for sliding bearing and seal applications in both aerospace and general industry.

  8. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  9. Synthesis of NiPS3 and CoPS and its hydrogen storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, N.; Madian, M.; El-Meligi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of NiPS 3 and CoPS using solid state reaction. • Characterization of compounds using XRD, TEM, SEM and IR. • Measuring the compounds thermal stability. • Estimation of the hydrogen storage capacity. -- Abstract: Prepared CoPS and NiPS 3 are studied as new materials for hydrogen energy storage. Single phase of CoPS and NiPS 3 were grown separately in evacuated silicatube via solid state reaction at 650 °C with controlled heating rate 1 °C/min. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of the desired compounds. Both CoPS and NiPS 3 exhibited high thermal stability up to 700 °C and 630 °C, respectively. The morphology of the prepared samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and folded sheets appeared in the transmission electron microscopy. The samples were exposed to 20 bar applied hydrogen pressure at 80 K. Both compounds appear to have feasible hydrogen storage capacity. CoPS was capable to adsorb 1.7 wt% while NiPS 3 storage capacity reached 1.2 wt%

  10. Gamma Transition Jump for PS2

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Métral, E; Möhl, D; Peggs, S

    2008-01-01

    The PS2, which is proposed as a replacement for the existing ~50-year old PS accelerator, is presently considered to be a normal conducting synchrotron with an injection kinetic energy of 4 GeV and a maximum energy of 50 GeV. One of the possible lattices (FODO option) foresees crossing of transition energy near 10 GeV. Since the phase-slip-factor $\\eta$ becomes very small near transition energy, many intensity dependent effects can take place in both longitudinal and transverse planes. The aim of the present paper is on the one hand to scale the gamma transition jump, used since 1973 in the PS, to the projected PS2 and on the other hand based on these results the analysis of the implementation and feasibility of a gamma transition jump scheme in a conventional FODO lattice.

  11. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  12. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see the PS magnet string awaiting the replacement no. 6 magnet.

  13. Computational design of new molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry, part II: generalization of analog series-based scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Extending and generalizing the computational concept of analog series-based (ASB) scaffolds. Materials & methods: Methodological modifications were introduced to further increase the coverage of analog series (ASs) and compounds by ASB scaffolds. From bioactive compounds, ASs were systematically extracted and second-generation ASB scaffolds isolated. Results: More than 20,000 second-generation ASB scaffolds with single or multiple substitution sites were extracted from active compounds, achieving more than 90% coverage of ASs. Conclusion: Generalization of the ASB scaffold approach has yielded a large knowledge base of scaffold-capturing compound series and target information. PMID:29379641

  14. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J

    2013-11-11

    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Dutch adaptation of the Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freke Wink

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQoL questionnaire is a disease- specific instrument developed to measure quality of life (QoL in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The aim of this study was to translate the measure into Dutch and to determine its psychometric properties. METHOD: Translation of the original English PsAQoL into Dutch was performed by bilingual and lay panel. Ten field-test interviews with PsA patients were performed to assess face and content validity. In total, 211 PsA patients were included in a test-retest postal survey to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch adaptation of the PsAQoL. The PsAQoL, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and Skindex-17 were administered on two different occasions approximately two weeks apart. RESULTS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL was found to be relevant, understandable and easy to complete in only a few minutes. It correlated as expected with the HAQ (Spearman's ρ = 0.72 and the 2 subscales of the Skindex-17 (ρ = 0.40 for the psychosocial and ρ = 0.46 for the symptom scale. Furthermore, the measure had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92 and test-retest reliability (ρ = 0.89. The PsAQoL was able to define groups of patients based on self-reported general health status, self-reported severity of PsA and flare of arthritis. Duration of PsA did not influence PsAQoL scores. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch version of the PsAQoL is a valid and reliable questionnaire suitable for use in clinical or research settings to asses PsA-specific QoL.

  16. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  17. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  18. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  19. Anion-π Catalysis of Enolate Chemistry: Rigidified Leonard Turns as a General Motif to Run Reactions on Aromatic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Yoann; Benz, Sebastian; Avestro, Alyssa-Jennifer; Ward, Thomas R; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-03-18

    To integrate anion-π, cation-π, and ion pair-π interactions in catalysis, the fundamental challenge is to run reactions reliably on aromatic surfaces. Addressing a specific question concerning enolate addition to nitroolefins, this study elaborates on Leonard turns to tackle this problem in a general manner. Increasingly refined turns are constructed to position malonate half thioesters as close as possible on π-acidic surfaces. The resulting preorganization of reactive intermediates is shown to support the disfavored addition to enolate acceptors to an absolutely unexpected extent. This decisive impact on anion-π catalysis increases with the rigidity of the turns. The new, rigidified Leonard turns are most effective with weak anion-π interactions, whereas stronger interactions do not require such ideal substrate positioning to operate well. The stunning simplicity of the motif and its surprisingly strong relevance for function should render the introduced approach generally useful. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  1. 100-ps framing-camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  2. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  3. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  4. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  5. PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier (turning buttons) and Bertran Frammery (telephoning) on shift. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster; LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated on the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  6. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. These pictures show one of the magnets (no. 19) on the PS locomotive brought back into service for the removal and replacement operations.

  7. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  8. Enzyme-Initiated Quinone-Chitosan Conjugation Chemistry: Toward A General in Situ Strategy for High-Throughput Photoelectrochemical Enzymatic Bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Yuan, Fang; Gu, Tiantian; Dong, Yuming; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Wei-Wei

    2018-02-06

    Herein we report a general and novel strategy for high-throughput photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis on the basis of enzyme-initiated quinone-chitosan conjugation chemistry (QCCC). Specifically, the strategy was illustrated by using a model quinones-generating oxidase of tyrosinase (Tyr) to catalytically produce 1,2-bezoquinone or its derivative, which can easily and selectively be conjugated onto the surface of the chitosan deposited PbS/NiO/FTO photocathode via the QCCC. Upon illumination, the covalently attached quinones could act as electron acceptors of PbS quantum dots (QDs), improving the photocurrent generation and thus allowing the elegant probing of Tyr activity. Enzyme cascades, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/Tyr and β-galactosidase (Gal)/Tyr, were further introduced into the system for the successful probing of the corresponding targets. This work features not only the first use of QCCC in PEC bioanalysis but also the separation of enzymatic reaction from the photoelectrode as well as the direct signal recording in a split-type protocol, which enables quite convenient and high-throughput detection as compared to previous formats. More importantly, by using numerous other oxidoreductases that involve quinones as reactants/products, this protocol could serve as a common basis for the development of a new class of QCCC-based PEC enzymatic bioanalysis and further extended for general enzyme-labeled PEC bioanalysis of versatile targets.

  9. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  11. CNA-motion in a PS - Fn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Mishra, C.K.

    1989-12-01

    A Finsler space Fn (n > 2), throughout with the projective curvature tensor possessing vanishing covariant derivative, has been called a ''projectively symmetric Finsler space'' and such a space is denoted PS-Fn. The conditions in which an infinitesimal transformation defines non-affine motion with a contra-field, briefly called CNA-motion, are discussed. 7 refs

  12. NIKHEF: AmPS of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Now operational at the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF), Amsterdam, is a new tool for studying the electromagnetic properties of nuclei. Called AmPS - Amsterdam pulse stretcher - this ring provides experiments with a smoother, almost continuous supply of electrons

  13. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    between the OOA2 and WBOA factors and smoke levels indicates that these factors can be used to identify the influence of biomass burning on ambient aerosols. The effectiveness of using the ChemWiki instead of a traditional textbook was investigated during the spring quarter of 2014. Student performance was measured using common midterms, a final, and a pre/post content exams. We also employed surveys, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for Chemistry, and a weekly time-on-task survey to quantify students' attitudes and study habits. The effectiveness of the ChemWiki compared to a traditional textbook was examined using multiple linear regression analysis with a standard non-inferiority testing framework. Results show that the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the ChemWiki was non-inferior to the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the traditional textbook, indicating that the ChemWiki does not substantially differ from the standard textbook in terms of student learning outcomes. The results from the surveys also suggest that the two classes were similar in their beliefs about chemistry and overall average time spent studying. These results indicate that the ChemWiki is a viable cost-saving alternative to traditional textbooks. The impact of using active learning techniques in a large lecture general chemistry class was investigated by assessing student performance and attitudes during the fall 2014 and winter 2015 quarters. One instructor applied active learning strategies while the remaining instructors employed more traditional lecture styles. Student performance, learning, learning environments, and attitudes were measured using a standardized pre/post exams, common final exams, classroom observations, and the CLASS chemistry instrument in large lecture general chemistry courses. Classroom observation data showed that the active learning class was the most student centered

  14. ps-ro Fuzzy Open(Closed Functions and ps-ro Fuzzy Semi-Homeomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chettri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and characterize some new class of functions in a fuzzy topological space termed as ps-ro fuzzy open(closed functions, ps-ro fuzzy pre semiopen functions and ps-ro fuzzy semi-homeomorphism. The interrelation among these concepts and also their relations with the parallel existing concepts are established. It is also shown with the help of examples that these newly introduced concepts are independent of the well known existing allied concepts.

  15. The surface properties of PS/PMMA blends nanostructured polymeric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosycevas, I.; Tamulevicius, S.; Guobiene, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solvent cast thin films of blends polystyrene (PS) and poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) with nominal compositions ranging from 25/75 wt.%/v% (w/v) up to 75/25 w/v PS/PMMA with toluene as the mutual solvent on crystalline Si (100) and silica substrates has been studied. Films of PS and PMMA blends have been examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. The blend films with less than 50% PMMA bulk concentration generally exhibit pitted surfaces; the pit size varies with film thickness and bulk composition. When the PMMA bulk concentration is greater than 50%, the film surface can be described as island-like phase-separated structure. The surface segregation and morphology are explained in terms of solubility of the two polymers in the solvent and rewetting of PMMA relative to PS

  16. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  17. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  19. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  20. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  1. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  2. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  3. avoiding general chemistry textbooks' misrepresentations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    As it has been stated before, it was found [25, 26] that 40% of first-year university ... Table 1. Glossary of equilibrium constant terms for a given chemical equilibrium ..... Notation for States and Processes, Significance of the Word Standard in.

  4. The Development of the Genital Psoriasis Sexual Frequency Questionnaire (GenPs-SFQ) to Assess the Impact of Genital Psoriasis on Sexual Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Kirby, Brian; Ryan, Caitriona; Naegeli, April N; Burge, Russel; Potts Bleakman, Alison; Anatchkova, Milena D; Cather, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) exist for psoriasis but not genital psoriasis (GenPs). This cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs was conducted to support development of a PRO for measuring the impact of GenPs on sexual activity and to establish content validity. The impacts of GenPs were identified in a literature review. Findings from the literature review were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs were interviewed. From the literature review, 52 articles, 44 abstracts, and 41 clinical trials met predefined search criteria. Of these, 11 concepts emerged as having theoretical support for use as measurable impacts of psoriasis symptoms on patients; these concepts included sexual functioning and general health-related quality of life (HRQoL). These concepts were confirmed and expanded upon by two clinicians who routinely care for patients with GenPs. Interviews were then conducted with GenPs patients (n = 20) to discuss the impact of GenPs on their HRQoL. Eighty percent of patients reported that GenPs impacted sexual frequency. The two-item GenPs Sexual Frequency Questionnaire (GenPs-SFQ) was developed to assess limitations on sexual activity frequency because of GenPs. Cognitive debriefing with an additional 50 patients with GenPs confirmed the utility and understandability of the GenPs-SFQ. The GenPs-SFQ may have utility in clinical trials involving GenPs patients and in routine clinical practice. Eli Lilly and Company. Plain language summary available for this article.

  5. Discovery of a general method of solving the Schrödinger and dirac equations that opens a way to accurately predictive quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2012-09-18

    Just as Newtonian law governs classical physics, the Schrödinger equation (SE) and the relativistic Dirac equation (DE) rule the world of chemistry. So, if we can solve these equations accurately, we can use computation to predict chemistry precisely. However, for approximately 80 years after the discovery of these equations, chemists believed that they could not solve SE and DE for atoms and molecules that included many electrons. This Account reviews ideas developed over the past decade to further the goal of predictive quantum chemistry. Between 2000 and 2005, I discovered a general method of solving the SE and DE accurately. As a first inspiration, I formulated the structure of the exact wave function of the SE in a compact mathematical form. The explicit inclusion of the exact wave function's structure within the variational space allows for the calculation of the exact wave function as a solution of the variational method. Although this process sounds almost impossible, it is indeed possible, and I have published several formulations and applied them to solve the full configuration interaction (CI) with a very small number of variables. However, when I examined analytical solutions for atoms and molecules, the Hamiltonian integrals in their secular equations diverged. This singularity problem occurred in all atoms and molecules because it originates from the singularity of the Coulomb potential in their Hamiltonians. To overcome this problem, I first introduced the inverse SE and then the scaled SE. The latter simpler idea led to immediate and surprisingly accurate solution for the SEs of the hydrogen atom, helium atom, and hydrogen molecule. The free complement (FC) method, also called the free iterative CI (free ICI) method, was efficient for solving the SEs. In the FC method, the basis functions that span the exact wave function are produced by the Hamiltonian of the system and the zeroth-order wave function. These basis functions are called complement

  6. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets (no.'s 6 and 19)and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Pictured here are members of the PS team with the replacement no. 6 magnet. From left to right: In the back row, Frédéric Roussel (Transport DBS), Yves Bernard (Transport DBS), Luc Moreno (Cegelec), Thierry Battimanza (Transport DBS), Raymond Brown (AB/ABP), Thomas Zickler (AT/MEL); at the front, Steven Southern (AT/VAC), Thierry Gaidon (Brun & Sorensen), Philippe Vidales (Cegelec), Daniel Aubert (Cegelec), Jerome Cachet (Transport DBS), Jose Manual Gomes de Faria (AT/MEL), Eric Page (AT/VAC).

  7. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  8. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators´ spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 19) being prepared.

  9. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 6) being prepared.

  10. The PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks.

  11. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  12. Successful online learning the five Ps

    OpenAIRE

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-01-01

    Successful online learning the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK Key learning points An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagementand learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. Online learning poses a challenging experience for learnersand they need support t...

  13. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  15. Síntese de biodiesel: uma proposta contextualizada de experimento para laboratório de química geral Synthesis of biodiesel: a contextualized experiment proposal for the general chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The contextualized understanding of concepts in Chemistry by students from other areas is a challenging task. In this experiment, the synthesis of biodiesel is done by base catalyzed transesterification of refined soy oil with methanol at room temperature and common glassware found in any chemistry laboratory. The proposal permits introducing several concepts, such as that of emulsion, viscosity and catalysis to illustrate an activity based on an actual problem. In this didactic approach, some common problems of biodiesel production, such as soap formation and phase separation, are introduced into the procedure in order to raise questions and motivate the students to participate in the experimental work and stimulate reflections about critical aspects of biodiesel production. This experiment was carried out in the first semester of 2006, in experimental general chemistry taken by physics and agricultural, civil and chemical engineering students of UNICAMP.

  16. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  17. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  18. Expectation values of the e+PsH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Mitroy, J.

    2007-01-01

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for e + PsH are computed using a ground-state wave function consisting of 1500 explicitly correlated Gaussians. The best estimate of the e + PsH ∞ energy was -0.810 254 hartrees, which has a binding energy of 0.021 057 hartrees against dissociation into e + +PsH. The 2γ annihilation rate was 2.7508x10 9 s -1 . Binding energies and annihilation rates are also given for the different finite-mass variants of e + PsH. Comparisons between expectation values for e + PsH and PsH provide compelling evidence that the e + PsH ground state can be regarded as consisting of a weakly bound positron orbiting the PsH ground state

  19. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments [af

  20. Chemotherapy and quality of life in NSCLC PS 2 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Strøm, Hans H; Sundstrøm, Stein H

    2009-01-01

    , fatigue, dyspnea, sleeping problems and appetite loss in comparison to the PS 0/1 group. CONCLUSIONS: PS 2 NSCLC patients seem to achieve valuable HRQOL benefits from platinum-based combination therapy. Prospective clinical studies with predefined HRQOL outcomes in PS 2 patients are needed to confirm...

  1. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  2. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  3. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  4. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  5. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  6. Space charge studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Asvesta, F; Damerau, H; Huschauer, A; Papaphilippou, Y; Serluca, M; Sterbini, G; Zisopoulos, P

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the results of Machine Development (MD)studies conducted at the CERN Proton Sychrotron (PS) arepresented. The main focus was the investigation of newworking points in an effort to characterize and potentiallyimprove the brightness for LHC-type beams in view of theLHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU). Various working points werecompared in terms of losses and emittance evolution. Sincespace charge and the resonances it excites are the main causefor emittance blow-up and losses, tunes close to excitedresonances were carefully studied. Mitigation techniques,such as bunch flattening using a double harmonic RF system,were also tested.

  7. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  8. Electron Spin Resonance studies on PS, PP and PS/PP blends under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.; Claro, M.; Albano, C.; Venezuela Central University, Caracas; Moronta, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies on Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP) and their mixtures at compositions of 80/20 with and without a compatibilizer (SBS in block), 7.5 wt.%, irradiated with gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source with a dose rate of 4.8 KGy/h at integral doses of radiation of 10, 25, 50, 60, 70, 400, 800 and 1300 KGy in the presence of air and at room temperature (RT) are reported. The dependence of resonance line width, Hpp; resonance line shapes K, and radical concentration, S, with the integral dose of irradiation is investigated. The nature of the free radicals after ten days of air storage is discussed. The free radical concentration, the double integral of the resonance line, S, has been estimated at room temperature, RT, for a group of single lines, characterized by the same giromagnetic, g, value by direct numerical double integration. In the samples studied no spectrum of 0 kGy of integral dose was observed. The concentration of radicals, S, observed when the integral radiation doses was increased, presents a maximum value in the PP samples at high doses (70-1300 kGy) and minimum values in the PS samples with the same doses. This shows that the PP degrades at a faster rate than the PS, owing to the presence of the bencenic ring in the latter. In the PS/PP mixtures studied with and without compatibilizer, the values of the radical concentration is found between the observed values in the homopolymers, being closer to the PS, which might imply that the presence of PS decays the degradation process of the PP in the mixture

  9. Future in actinoids coordination chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    Actinoids coordination chemistry is concerned with spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, specifically with solid-state chemistry of nuclear fuels, separation process with radioactive substances, and geological disposal of high-level radioactive substances. In the 21st century, accumulation of minor actinides, Np, Am, Cm, and others will be realized according with the present program of nuclear energy development. The present article briefly introduces general properties of actinide elements, followed by their coordination chemistry compared with rare earths coordination chemistry. Special facility needed to treat actinoids as well as their chemistry is briefly explained, together with the specific experimental apparatus such as X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectrometry (TRLFS) with synchrotron radiation facilities. The effect of coordination with actinoids in the environment chemistry is important in underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. For theoretical analysis of the results with actinoids chemistry, relativistic calculation is needed. (S. Ohno)

  10. Sofrimento psíquico e trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rosa Salles Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aprofunda questões clínico-téoricas relacionadas especificamente ao trabalho docente e ao sofrimento psíquico a ele relacionado a partir da observação clínica e vivência grupal nos atendimentos terapêuticos ocupacionais realizados no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" (HSPE-FMO. Partindo dos estudos acerca da Psicopatologia do Trabalho de Christophe Dejours, do trabalho docente e do relato de um caso clínico, caracteriza a problemática do sofrimento no trabalho, os sistemas de defesa contra este sofrimento, a ameaça à subjetividade do próprio trabalhador, as representações e conflitos vivenciados no trabalho docente, bem como a relação aditiva estabelecida como uma estratégia inconsciente de sobrevivência psíquica.

  11. An ideal teaching program of nuclear chemistry in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that several reports on the common educational problems of nuclear chemistry have been prepared by certain groups of experts from time to time. According to very important statements in these reports, nuclear chemistry and related courses generally do not take sufficient importance in undergraduate chemistry curricula and it was generally proposed that nuclear chemistry and related courses should be introduced into undergraduate chemistry curricula at universities worldwide. Starting from these statements, an ideal program in an undergraduate chemistry curriculum was proposed to be introduced into the undergraduate chemistry program at the Department of Chemistry, Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey during the regular updating of the chemistry curriculum. Thus, it has been believed that this Department of Chemistry has recently gained an ideal teaching program in the field of nuclear chemistry and its applications in scientific, industrial, and medical sectors. In this contribution, the details of this program will be discussed. (author)

  12. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  13. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  14. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  15. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  16. Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular

  17. Determination of grafting conversion degree in PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites obtained through reactive processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Otavio; Repenning, Gustavo B.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Ricardo V.B.; Canto, Leonardo B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) - PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS - with different grafting degrees were prepared by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene monomer as radical transfer agent. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using triple-detector and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1 H) analyses were used together to determine the conversion degree of PS-graft-POSS as a function of the reactive processing conditions adopted. GPC was employed to evaluate the effects of grafting (PS-graft-POSS) and PS chains degradation (β scission) that occur simultaneously during processing on the variation of average molecular masses and distributions for each PS/POSS sample. PS/POSS systems processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular weights (M w ) and lower polydispersity indexes (M w /M n ), as a result of higher grafting (PS-graft-POSS) conversion (28-40%) and lower PS chain degradation level, as compared to PS/POSS systems processed without styrene in which the degree of grafting conversion was around 25-28%. (author)

  18. Sequence control of phase separation and dewetting in PS/PVME blend thin films by changing molecular weight of PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Qin, Yaping; Huang, Yajiang; Huang, Ting; Xu, Jianhui; Li, Youbing

    2016-11-28

    The morphology evolution mechanism of polystyrene (PS)/poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) blend thin films with different PS molecular weights (M w ) was studied. It was found that the morphology evolution was closely related to the molecular weight asymmetry between PS and PVME. In the film where M w (PS) ≈ M w (PVME), dewetting happened at the interface between the bottom layer and substrate after SD phase separation. While in the film where M w (PS) > M w (PVME), dewetting happened at the interface between the middle PS/PVME blend layer and bottom PVME layer near the substrate prior to phase separation. The different sequences of phase separation and dewetting and different interface for dewetting occurrence were studied by regarding the competitive effects of viscoelasticity contrast between polymer components and preferential wetting between PVME and the substrate. The viscoelastic nature of the PS component played a crucial role in the sequence of phase separation and dewetting.

  19. Analysing the Impact of a Discussion-Oriented Curriculum on First-Year General Chemistry Students' Conceptions of Relative Acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lisa; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Bartoli, Monica; Rushton, Gregory T.

    2018-01-01

    Instructional strategies that support meaningful student learning of complex chemical topics are an important aspect of improving chemistry education. Adequately assessing the success of these approaches can be supported with the use of aligned instruments with established psychometrics. Here, we report the implementation and assessment of one…

  20. GP pain management: what are the 'Ps' and 'As' of pain management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Aston

    2014-08-01

    Pain is one common reason for clinical encounters in primary care. The complex nature of chronic pain syndromes can make assessment and management daunting at times. This article presents an easy scheme to help general practitioners efficiently assess, manage and review/follow up patients with chronic pain. The mnemonic presented for assessment is the '4Ps' (pain, other pathology/past medical history, performance/function and psychological/psychiatric status). For management, we can also use '4Ps' (physical, psychological, pharmacological and procedural) and for review there are the '6As' (activities, analgesia, adverse effects, aberrance behaviours, affects and adequate documentation).

  1. Rejuvenation of the controls of the CERN PS/ISOLDE facility using industrial components

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, J.; Locci, F.; Mornacchi, G.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the general consolidation of the CERN ISOLDE facility, a project has been started to upgrade the ISOLDE control system. We describe the new ISOLDE control system, emphasizing the systematic use of industrial components such as PLCs and field buses, their integration with the existing, VME based, CERN PS control system and their potential applicability to both existing and new controls problems at the CERN PS complex. We also discuss how to extend a PLC-based solution to the case where real-time response is an issue.

  2. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  3. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  4. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  5. Radiation Effects on PP/PS Blends as a Model of Protection Effects by Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluszewski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is the most popular polymer for the application in construction of medical devices, due to the hardness and temperature resistance. Unfortunately, the virgin PP is of low resistance towards ionizing radiation, already to sterilization doses and cannot be applied without additives. Another option is a blend with a second polymer, especially aromatic, and therefore polystyrene (PS) was applied. The classic case of protection in the aliphatic/aromatic system (benzene/cyclohexane in liquid or solid state) shows that the surface area and structure of the interphase is crucial for the effectiveness of energy transfer. Our blends of PP (virgin, F401 from Orlen-Olefins) with PS were prepared in a variety of ways, from mechanical blending, to radiation induced grafting. Two linac accelerators (10 MeV, 6-9 kW) were applied, with different shapes of electron beam, formed according to particular methods used for the investigation of effects; doses were 10-600 kGy. As in the classic case, the protection effect was quantisized from the curve of the effect vs 0-100% PP, 100-0 % PS. Main recognition of the protection effect has been done by the diffused reflection spectroscopy (DRS) developed in our Laboratory for the application to irradiated polymers. The dependence of intensity of bands in the DRS spectrum, attributed to keton groups, which are final products of oxidation, shows clearly the protection effect of PP, executed by PS. The second method of observation of radiation effects is gas chromatography (GC), applied for irradiation products analysis. The maximum sensitivity has been achieved using the instrument type GC 2014 by Shimadzu, with thermal conductivity detector, column packed with molecular sieves 5A. Radiation induced formation of gaseous produced at ambient and lower temperatures is unique in the field of chemistry of polymers. There is no form of energy, except ionizing radiation, to cause chemical reactions to produce a wide spectrum of low

  6. PsOr1, a potential target for RNA interference-based pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Y; Liu, F; Yang, G; You, M S

    2011-02-01

    Insect pests cause billions of dollars in agricultural losses, and attempts to kill them have resulted in growing threats from insecticide resistance, dietary pesticide pollution and environmental destruction. New approaches to control refractory insect pests are therefore needed. The host-plant preferences of insect pests rely on olfaction and are mediated via a seven transmembrane-domain odorant receptor (Or) family. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of PsOr1, the first candidate member of the Or gene family from Phyllotreta striolata, a devastating beetle pest that causes damage worldwide. PsOr1 is remarkably well conserved with respect to other insect orthologues, including DmOr83b from Drosophila melanogaster. These insect orthologues form an essential non-conventional Or sub-family and may play an important and generalized role in insect olfaction. We designed double-stranded (ds) RNA directly against the PsOr1 gene and exploited RNA interference (RNAi) to control P. striolata. The chemotactic behavioural measurements showed that adult beetles were unable to sense the attractant or repellent odour stimulus after microinjection of dsRNA against PsOr1. Reverse Transcription (RT)-PCR analysis showed specific down-regulation of mRNA transcript levels for this gene. Furthermore, host-plant preference experiments confirmed that silencing PsOr1 by RNAi treatment impaired the host-plant preferences of P. striolata for cruciferous vegetables. These results demonstrate that this insect control approach of using RNAi to target PsOr1 and its orthologues might be effective in blocking host-plant-seeking behaviours in diverse insect pests. The results also support the theory that this unique receptor type plays an essential general role in insect olfaction. © 2010 Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test was created and validated providing an easy-to-use tool for measuring conceptual understanding and critical scientific thinking of general chemistry models and theories. The test is designed to measure concept understanding comparable to that found in free-response questions requiring explanations over…

  8. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  9. Development and implementation of an empirical frequency map for use in MD simulations of isotope-edited proteins, and, Development, implementation, and evaluation of an online student portal as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorb, Justin Matthew

    The first portion of this thesis describes an extension of work done in the Skinner group to develop an empirical frequency map for N-methylacetamide (NMA) in water. NMA is a peptide bond capped on either side by a methyl group and is therefore a common prototypical molecule used when studying complicated polypeptides and proteins. This amide bond is present along the backbone of every protein as it connects individual component amino acids. This amide bond also has a strong observable frequency in the IR due to the Amide-I mode (predominantly carbon-oxygen stretching motion). This project describes the simplification of the prior model for mapping the frequency of the Amide-I mode from the electric field due to the environment and develops a parallel implementation of this algorithm for use in larger biological systems, such as the trans-membrane portion of the tetrameric polypeptide bundle protein CD3zeta. The second portion of this thesis describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an online textbook within the context of a cohesive theoretical framework. The project begins by describing what is meant when discussing a digital textbook, including a survey of various types of digital media being used to deliver textbook-like content. This leads into the development of a theoretical framework based on constructivist pedagogical theory, hypertext learning theory, and chemistry visualization and representation frameworks. The implementation and design of ChemPaths, the general chemistry online text developed within the Chemistry Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL) is then described. The effectiveness of ChemPaths being used as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course is evaluated within the developed theoretical framework both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Energy and expectation values of the PsH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Close to converged energies and expectation values for PsH are computed using a ground state wave function consisting of 1800 explicitly correlated gaussians. The best estimate of the Ps ∞ H energy was -0.789 196 740 hartree which is the lowest variational energy to date. The 2γ annihilation rate for Ps ∞ H was 2.471 78x10 9 s -1

  11. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  12. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  13. The PrPS4 type structure and a filled variant: the compounds TbPS4 and LiEuPS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergens, S.; Alili, L.; Mewis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Colourless single crystals of TbPS 4 (a = 10.696(2), c = 19.053(4) Aa) were obtained by reaction of the elements (750 C; 30 h). The compound crystallizes with the PrPS 4 type structure (I4 1 /acd; Z = 16). The structure consists of isolated PS 4 tetrahedra each surrounded by four Tb 3+ cations. Both crystallographically different Tb 3+ cations are coordinated by eight sulfur atoms which are part of four PS 4 tetrahedra. Orange single crystals of LiEuPS 4 (a = 11.498(2), c = 19.882(4) Aa) were prepared by reaction of Eu and P with Li 2 S 4 (700 C; 20 h). The crystal structure corresponds to the PrPS 4 type, in which tubes running along [001] are occupied by Li atoms, which are surrounded by four S atoms in strongly distorted tetrahedra. LiS 4 and PS 4 tetrahedra are connected via common edges into alternating chains. (orig.)

  14. The PS Booster, PS and SPS Magnets for the next 25 years

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D

    2010-01-01

    This note provides information and analysis on the present status of the magnets installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) in view of their possible operation for the next 25 years. The note does not cover the magnets installed in the transfer lines, neither it covers the fast injection/extraction magnets (septa and kickers).

  15. High-precision calculation of loosely bound states of LiPs+ and NaPs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs + and NaPs + ), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies. (paper)

  16. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  17. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  18. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: N2i2@xplornet.ca [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  19. What Chemistry To Teach Engineers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines possible general chemistry topics that would be most relevant and practical for engineering majors. Consults the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), engineering textbooks, texts from other required subjects, and practicing engineers for recommendations. (Contains 24 references.) (WRM)

  20. AECL research programs in systems chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-05-01

    Research programs in Systems Chemistry are aimed at preserving the integrity of the many working systems in CANDU reactors and at minimizing chemistry-induced problems such as radiation field growth or fouling of surfaces. The topics of main concern are the chemistry and corrosion of steam generators, for it is in this general area that the potential for serious problems is very real

  1. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  2. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  3. Motor-Generator powering the PS (Proton Synchrotron) main magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This motor-generator,30 MW peak, 1500 r.p.m.,pulsed power supply for the PS main magnet replaced in 1968 the initial 3000 r.p.m. motor-generator-flywheel set which had served from the PS start-up in 1959 until end 1967. See also photo 8302337 and its abstract.

  4. CoPs Facing Rationalization: The Politics of Community Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Ingvaldsen, Jonas A.; Valle, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relationship between the contemporary forms of manufacturing rationalization and the reproduction of communities of practice (CoPs) centred on tasks and craft. Building on critical literature highlighting the tensions between CoPs and rationalization, this paper aims to develop a nuanced account of how CoPs…

  5. Interleaving of beam lines inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The PS ring (section 26) is on the left. The injection tunnel for LEAR leaving from here has increased the trafic in this already busy area where the two Linacs and the transfer tunnel leading to the SPS, ISR and AA join the PS ring (cf. photo 7802260, 7802261, Annual Report 1981, p. 89, fig. 12).

  6. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi

    2010-01-01

    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  7. Step-by-Step Simulation of Radiation Chemistry Using Green Functions for Diffusion-Influenced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiolytic species are formed approximately 1 ps after the passage of ionizing radiation through matter. After their formation, they diffuse and chemically react with other radiolytic species and neighboring biological molecules, leading to various oxidative damage. Therefore, the simulation of radiation chemistry is of considerable importance to understand how radiolytic species damage biological molecules [1]. The step-by-step simulation of chemical reactions is difficult, because the radiolytic species are distributed non-homogeneously in the medium. Consequently, computational approaches based on Green functions for diffusion-influenced reactions should be used [2]. Recently, Green functions for more complex type of reactions have been published [3-4]. We have developed exact random variate generators of these Green functions [5], which will allow us to use them in radiation chemistry codes. Moreover, simulating chemistry using the Green functions is which is computationally very demanding, because the probabilities of reactions between each pair of particles should be evaluated at each timestep [2]. This kind of problem is well adapted for General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU), which can handle a large number of similar calculations simultaneously. These new developments will allow us to include more complex reactions in chemistry codes, and to improve the calculation time. This code should be of importance to link radiation track structure simulations and DNA damage models.

  8. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful online learning – the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK jimflood@btinternet.com Key learning points • An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. • Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. • Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagement–and learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. • Online learning poses a challenging experience for learners–and they need support to cope with it. • A key goal to achieve Praxis – being able to put learning into practice. Many of you will be familiar with the three (or more Ps of marketing and even if not, as trainers or teachers you are likely to have used mnemonics as an aid to retention and recall. Mnemonics are especially useful when you need to get the key points to ‘stick’ in the minds of your audience. With this in mind I offer you the 5 Ps of online learning: Presentation, Pedagogy, Promotion, Preparation and Props. What I offer is not new; in fact much of it results from the eleven years of online teaching and learning at The Open University, the £22 million it has spent on research and evaluation 1, and the worldwide community that have been sharing experience in recent years. You can therefore consider these 5 Ps to be a convenient re-packing of the information and experience that can be found in abundance on the Internet. Presentation Good graphic design appeals to the subtle process by which the brain processes information and, as a result, we decide if we like the ‘look and feel’ of a visual environment. Part of liking this ‘look and feel’ is the way the text and pictorial layout can appear inviting and encouraging–a vital aspect of any online learning environment. Another aspect of presentation is how the text reads in terms of engaging the learner and introducing the story to be told–as well as being written in clear and concise English When browsing through books

  9. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). METHODS: At OMERACT 2016, research...... conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. RESULTS: We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted...... and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health...

  10. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  11. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  12. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Condensate and feedwater systems, pumps, and water chemistry. Volume seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes condensate and feedwater systems (general features of condensate and feedwater systems, condenser hotwell level control, condensate flow, feedwater flow), pumps (principles of fluid flow, types of pumps, centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, jet pumps, pump operating characteristics) and water chemistry (water chemistry fundamentals, corrosion, scaling, radiochemistry, water chemistry control processes, water pretreatment, PWR water chemistry, BWR water chemistry, condenser circulating water chemistry

  14. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  15. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  16. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  17. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A; Miyazawa, M; Azuma, H [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  19. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering

    2017-03-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  20. The four Ps of marketing mix in Information Science literature

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Sueli Angelica Do

    2000-01-01

    Analisa 60 documentos sobre os 4Ps do composto de marketing cm unidades de informação da literatura de Ciência da Informação no período de 1975 a 1995, para conhecer quantos e quais autores escreveram sobre o tema, qual o pioneiro, quem foi o pioneiro a propor adição de Ps. Apresenta a cronologia dos documentos estudados e discute as 4Ps do composto de marketing. Propõe a adoção da mais completa proposta analisada como forma de garantir o futuro das unidades de informação. ___________________...

  1. Role of trapped and solvated electrons in Ps formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.V.; Byakov, V.M.; Mikhin, K.V.; He, C.; Hirade, T.

    2005-01-01

    Role of trapped and solvated electrons in Ps formation is discussed. Combination of thermalized positron with such electrons is possible from the view point of the energy balance and may results in Ps formation. This process proceeds during all e = lifetime matter. Fitting of raw experimental e + -e - annihilation spectra has to be based on an adequate physical input, which often leads to necessity of nonexponential deconvolution of the spectra. We have interpreted the Ps formation data in polyethylene, ethylene-methylmethacrylate and polymethylmethacrylate in dark and in light vs. tome of the measurement and temperature. parameters characterized accumulation of trapped electrons and their recombination with counter ions and positrons are obtained. (author)

  2. RF Scenarios for Pb54+ Ions in the PS2

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Hancock, S; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This note analyses some of the rf scenarios that are presently being considered for lead ions in the PS2. An earlier note principally concerning protons [1] highlighted the problem of the large revolution frequency swing of ions in the PS2 and the issue of bunching factor with direct injection from the LEIR machine. We present solutions based on additional rf systems in LEIR and consider the 40 MHz principal rf system proposed for the PS2 in the earlier work to have switchable tuning ranges to cover the large frequency swing required.

  3. Kinetic model framework for aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions - Part 1: General equations, parameters, and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, U.; Rudich, Y.; Ammann, M.

    2007-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds play central roles in atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, air pollution, and public health. The mechanistic understanding and predictability of aerosol and cloud properties, interactions, transformations, and effects are, however, still very limited. This is due not only to the limited availability of measurement data, but also to the limited applicability and compatibility of model formalisms used for the analysis, interpretation, and description of heterogeneous and multiphase processes. To support the investigation and elucidation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud surface chemistry and gas-particle interactions, we present a comprehensive kinetic model framework with consistent and unambiguous terminology and universally applicable rate equations and parameters. It enables a detailed description of mass transport and chemical reactions at the gas-particle interface, and it allows linking aerosol and cloud surface processes with gas phase and particle bulk processes in systems with multiple chemical components and competing physicochemical processes. The key elements and essential aspects of the presented framework are: a simple and descriptive double-layer surface model (sorption layer and quasi-static layer); straightforward flux-based mass balance and rate equations; clear separation of mass transport and chemical reactions; well-defined and consistent rate parameters (uptake and accommodation coefficients, reaction and transport rate coefficients); clear distinction between gas phase, gas-surface, and surface-bulk transport (gas phase diffusion, surface and bulk accommodation); clear distinction between gas-surface, surface layer, and surface-bulk reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms); mechanistic description of concentration and time dependences (transient and steady-state conditions); flexible addition of unlimited numbers of chemical species and physicochemical processes; optional aggregation or resolution

  4. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  5. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  6. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  7. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  8. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  9. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  10. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  11. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  12. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on the PS-spin collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu

    1993-05-01

    This volume is a record of the PS-Spin Collider Workshop which was held at KEK, Jan. 31-Feb.1, 1992. As a future project of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron (KEK-PS), the hadron collider (PS-Collider), has been under discussion. Originally, the PSC was designed for heavy ion beam collisions with the energy range of 5-7 GeV/u. If polarized protons are accelerated in PSC, 19 x 19 GeV collisions are possible. This workshop was proposed to bring together interested experimentalists and accelerator physicists to discuss the case that could be made for polarization physics and the technical feasibility at the PS Spin Collider. More than 30 physicists participated in the workshop and very interesting and useful discussions took place. (author)

  14. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  15. Anomalies in social behaviors and exploratory activities in an APPswe/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Mohammed; Lalonde, Robert; Rivest, Serge

    2011-10-24

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deficits in social communication, associated with generalized apathy or agitation, as well as social memory. To assess social behaviors in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1 bigenics relative to non-transgenic controls, the 3-chamber test was used, together with open-field and elevated plus-maze tests of exploration. APPswe/PS1 mice were less willing to engage in social interaction than wild-type, avoiding an unfamiliar stimulus mouse, probably not due to generalized apathy because in both tests of exploratory activity the mutants were hyperactive. This study reveals reduced "sociability" combined with hyperactivity in an APPswe/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  17. Motor-generator set of the PS main supply

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    Already in 1964, the PS improvement programme included a new main magnet supply with more power for the longer cycles needed for slow extraction at the full energy of 26 GeV. This motor-generator set was installed in 1967 and took up service at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern electronic regulation, it pulses the PS to this day.

  18. The PS will soon be back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The PS's power supply system is undergoing repairs for the accelerator to restart on 26 June. The AB Department's Power Converter Group is working flat out with Siemens to return the PS's power supply system to working order. A problem appeared on the insulation of the power cables of the rotor of the rotating machine (photo) which supplies power to the PS magnets. To prevent more significant damage to the rotating machine, the AB Department, with the approval of the CERN Management, decided to shut down the PS which had started running on 15 May. Everything is being done to restart the accelerator on 26 June. The PS's rotating machine comprises a motor coupled to a generator. The generator's rotor acts like a flywheel, supplying high-power pulses of 40 to 50 megawatts to the PS magnets. The 6 megawatt motor drives the installation at 1000 revolutions per minute and compensates only for variations in speed. It is an essential interface since it would be hard to imagine connecting such an electrical charge, p...

  19. The new heart of the PS is beating strongly

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    The PS has resumed operation with a brand new electrical power system called POPS; this enormous system comprising power electronics and capacitors is crucial because if it broke down practically no particles would be able to circulate at CERN. As soon as it started, POPS passed all the tests with flying colours and is now pulsing at full power.   The new PS power system is made up of 6 containers, each with 60 tonnes of capacitors and 8 power converters. The date 11/02/11 will always be remembered with affection by the engineers in the Electrical Power Converters Group. At 11:11 in the morning (no joke), the first beams powered by the new system began to circulate in the PS. The cutely-named POPS (POwer for PS) took over from the old rotating machine that had been working since 1968. From now on it will be POPS that supplies the PS main magnets with the electrical pulses needed to accelerate the beams for the LHC and all CERN's other facilities. The system is crucial as the PS is one of the lyn...

  20. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  1. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  2. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  3. Solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies in heavy element chemistry. Topics considered are: synergistic complexes of plutonyl ion; water uptake in synergistic systems; formation constants of some uranyl BETA -diketone complexes; thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of BETA -diketones; thermodynamic formation constants of uranyl BETA -diketonates; thiocyanate complexes of some trivalent lanthanides and actinides; stability constants of actinide complexes using dinonyl naphthalenesulfonic acid extraction; TBP extraction of actinides; stability constants of complexes of Pu(III) with 5- sulfosalicycllc acid; and solvent extraction behavior of Pu( VII). (DHM)

  4. Interstellar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  7. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  8. Ripple characteristic of the main ring magnet power supply for the KEK 12 GeV PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Sueno, Tuyosi; Mikawa, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    First of all, general description of the main ring magnet power supply for the KEK 12 GeV PS will be described. The main power supply consists of thyristor rectifiers, DC filters, reactive power compensators, AC harmonic filters and control systems. Devices and control systems for suppressing ripple component of magnet field will be described. (author)

  9. A general solution-chemistry route to the synthesis LiMPO4 (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) nanocrystals with [010] orientation for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jing; Wei Bingqing; Rong Jiepeng; Yin Wenyan; Ye Zhixia; Tian Xianqing; Ren Ling; Cao Minhua; Hu Changwen

    2011-01-01

    A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of lithium transition metal phosphate microstructures (LiMnPO 4 , LiFePO 4 , and LiCoPO 4 ), employing ethanol as the solvent, LiI as the Li source, metal salts as the M sources, H 3 PO 4 as the phosphorus source, and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as the carbon source and template. This route features low cost, environmental benign, and one-step process for the cathode material production of Li-ion batteries without any complicated experimental setups and sophisticated operations. The as-synthesized LiMPO 4 microstructures exhibit unique, well-shaped and favorable structures, which are self-assembled from microplates or microrods. The b axis is the preferred crystal growth orientation of the products, resulting in a shorter lithium ion diffusion path. The LiFePO 4 microstructures show an excellent cycling stability without capacity fading up to 50 cycles when they are used as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of lithium transition metal phosphate microstructures under solvothermal conditions in the presence of PVP. Highlights: → A general and efficient solvothermal strategy has been developed for the preparation of LiMPO 4 microstructures. → This route features low cost, environmental benign, and one-step process. → The LiMPO 4 microstructures exhibit unique, well-shaped, and favorable structures. → The LiFePO 4 microstructures show an excellent cycling stability up to 50 cycles as a cathode material of lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Radiation chemistry and bioradical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism results, at the cellular level, in the formation of superoxyde radical O 2 - · and probably also of hydroxyl radical OH·. Other radical species can be produced from exogenous or endogenous molecules and nearly all of them have the possibility to react with oxygen giving peroxyradicals. Some of these transients play a role in various biological processes such as phagocytosis, inflammation or ischemy although the mechanisms invoked are poorly understood. Radiation chemistry is an invaluable tool for obtaining a quantitative view of these mechanisms. A description is given of this interaction [fr

  11. Benchmarking Problems Used in Second Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of the problem types used in college-level general chemistry examinations have been reported in this Journal and were first reported in the "Journal of Chemical Education" in 1924. This study extends the findings from general chemistry to the problems of four college-level organic chemistry courses. Three problem…

  12. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The INCT 2002 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies and diagnostics, nucleonic control systems and accelerators

  13. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The INCT 2002 Annual Report is the review of scientific activities in all branches being developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. The studies are connected in general with the following fields: radiation chemistry and physics, radiation technologies, radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general, radiobiology, process engineering, material engineering, structural studies and diagnostics, nucleonic control systems and accelerators.

  14. Cs0.49NbPS6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseop Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quaternary thiophosphate, Cs0.49NbPS6, caesium hexathioniobiophosphate(V, has been synthesized by the reactive halide flux method. The title compound is isotypic with Rb0.46TaPS6 and is made up of a bicapped trigonal–biprismatic [Nb2S12] unit and a tetrahedral [PS4] group. The [Nb2S12] units linked by the [PS4] tetrahedra form infinite chains, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather large van der Waals gaps along the c axis in which the disordered Cs+ ions reside. The electrons released by the Cs atoms are transferred to the pairwise niobium metal site and there are substantial intermetallic Nb—Nb bonding interactions. This leads to a significant decrease of the intermetallic distance in the title compound compared to that in TaPS6. The classical charge balance of the title compound may be represented as [Cs+]0.49[Nb4.51+][P5+][S2−]4[S22−].

  15. SEA and strategy formation theories: From three Ps to five Ps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Watt, Alan; Vinichenko, Vadim

    2007-01-01

    A transition to environmentally sustainable societies should involve a significant and comprehensive - strategic - change. Much of the promise of SEA is associated precisely with its perceived capacity to facilitate such a strategic transformation by influencing selected 'strategic decisions'. This paper examines the potential effectiveness and limitations of such an approach in light of contemporary organizational strategy theories. Most of these theories separate 'strategies' from 'decisions' and also transcend the notion of strategies as formal plans, policies and programs (PPPs). Instead, they consider strategies as 'five Ps', adding 'Position', 'Perspective', 'Pattern' and 'Ploy' to the 'Plan'. Lessons from organizational strategy formation give rise to the following challenges for SEA theory and practice: 1.How to assess and influence informal as well as formal aspects of strategic initiatives? 2.How to extend SEA 'beyond decisions' to address 'emergent strategies' where strategic action is not necessarily preceded by a decision? 3.How to ensure that knowledge provided as a result of SEA is strategically relevant and communicated to key players in strategy formation? 4.How to deal with an uncontrollable and unpredictable environment in which strategic initiatives unfold? 5.How to recognize those situations when SEA can have most strategic influence? This paper takes a step towards examining these challenges by exploring the intellectual history of SEA in light of the main strategy formation theories and by identifying directions in which the SEA discourse may be further enhanced to meet these five challenges

  16. Vicente Parreño Huilca. Ps.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Jarrín, Flor Patricia

    2015-01-01

    El tema denominado la elaboración y aplicación de una guía didáctica de técnicas grafoplásticas “Aprendiendo con mis Manitas” para el desarrollo de la motricidad fina, para los niños y niñas del primer año de Educación General Básica de la Unidad Educativa Verbo Divino, de la Parroquia Veintimilla, de la Ciudad de Guaranda, provincia Bolívar, período 2013- 2014. Se realizó con el objetivo de demostrar que la aplicación de las diferentes técnicas grafoplásticas permitieron desarrollar en lo...

  17. Optimum coolant chemistry in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Cowan, R.L.; Kiss, E.

    2004-01-01

    LWR water chemistry parameters are directly or indirectly related to the plant's operational performance and for a significant amount of Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs. Obvious impacts are the operational costs associated with water treatment, monitoring and associated radwaste generation. Less obvious is the important role water chemistry plays in the magnitude of drywell shutdown dose rates, fuel corrosion performance and, (probably most importantly) materials degradation such as from stress corrosion cracking of piping and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal components. To improve the operational excellence of the BWR and to minimize the impact of water chemistry on O and M costs. General Electric has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC). The 'best practices' and latest technology findings from the U.S., Asia and Europe are integrated into the suggested OWC Specification. This concept, together with cost effective ways to meet the requirement, are discussed. (author)

  18. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Chuaqui, C.A.

    1990-05-01

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  19. Reburning chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpin, P.; Hupa, M.; Glarborg, P.

    1992-01-01

    No reduction chemistry in natural gas (methane) reburning was studied using detailed kinetic modeling. A reaction set including 225 reversible elementary gas-phase reactions and 48 chemical species was applied to an ideal plug flow reactor, and the most important reactions leading to NO reduction were identified and quantified for a number of conditions relevant for natural gas reburning. In addition, the influence of different process parameters on the NO reduction was investigated in the reburn zone and burn-out zone, respectively. Further, comparison of the calculations to available laboratory-scale data on reburning is made. In this paper, the impact of various fluid dynamic, mixing, and chemical effects---not accounted for in the calculations---on the NO reduction and the optimum reburning conditions predicted is discussed

  20. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  1. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gómez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature

  2. Collections for terminology in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This book describes terminology in chemistry, which is divided into seven chapters. The contents of this book are element name, names of an inorganic compound such as ion and radical and polyacid, an organic compound on general principle and names, general terminology 1 and 2, unit and description method on summary, unit and the symbol for unit, number and pH, Korean mark for people's name in chemistry, names of JUPAC organic compound of summary, hydrocarbons, fused polycyclic hydrocarbons, bridged hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons with side chains, terpenes hydrocarbons, fundamental heterocyclic systems and heterocyclic spiro compounds.

  3. A&T Sector Note on the PS transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Marcel; Blas, Alfred; Sterbini, Guido; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In a particle accelerator, several contributions can degrade the beam quality and particularly the beam transverse emittance. In this document we will describe a system used in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to cope with the injection steering errors and the transverse instabilities: the PS transverse feedback (PS TFB). As time progresses, this system is also being used for other purpose, to increase in a controlled way the beam transverse emittance and to excite the beam for the Multi-Turn-Extraction (MTE). In 2016, it has been successfully used on some operational beams to damp injection oscillations. This allowed to test the reliability of the system for its operational deployment. A piquet service is available in case of problem.

  4. Framing-camera tube developed for sub-100-ps range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A new framing-camera tube, developed by Electronics Engineering, is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the sub-100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits; the resulting electron-line images from the slits are restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. We have demonstrated its performance in a prototype tube by recording 125-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external electronic drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Shorter frame durations (below 100 ps) can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  5. Electrophysical properties of PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skulski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the technology of obtaining and the electrophysical properties of a multicomponent material 0.61PMN-0.20PT-0.09PS-0.1PFN:Li (PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li. The addition of PFN into PMN-PT decreases the temperature of final sintering which is very important during technological process (addition of Li decreases electric conductivity of PFN. Addition of PS i.e., PbSnO3 (which is unstable in ceramic form permits to shift the temperature of the maximum of dielectric permittivity. One-step method of obtaining ceramic samples from oxides and carbonates has been used. XRD, microstructure, scanning calorimetry measurements and the main dielectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical properties have been investigated for the obtained samples.

  6. SAFETY: STRICTER CONTROLS IN CONTROLLED AREAS IN THE PS

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Daems

    2001-01-01

    The PS accelerators will soon stop for several months. Work will take place in controlled areas in the PS and will involve many people who are not always aware of the risks associated with the work sites. To guarentee the safety of these workers, the following two measures will be applied: everyone working in a controlled zone - Linacs, PSB, and PS machines tunnels, and transfer lines - must wear, visibly, his CERN access card and his film badge. the CERN access card and the film badge will only be issued after following a basic safety course. Regular checks will be carried out during the shutdown. Anyone without these two items on their person will be obliged to leave the area immediately.

  7. Evaluation of Recycling Polystyrene (PS) from a Microbiology Product

    OpenAIRE

    Eklöf, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Detta är ett beställningsarbete av Plastone Oy och i det undersöks möjligheterna vad man kan göra genom återvinning med avfallsmaterialet som uppstår då man tillverkar en mikrobiologisk produkt i deras plastfabrik. Produkten tillverkas genom formsprutning och materialet som används är polystyren (PS). Ur litteraturstudien fann man varierande möjligheter på hur man kan återvinna PS på bästa sätt, men ingen lösning som har varit effektiv i praktiken. Det framgick också att återvunnet PS inte är...

  8. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  9. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  10. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model with Chemistry for the CRAY T3E: Design, Performance Optimization and Coupling to an Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrara, John D.; Drummond, Leroy A.; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Spahr, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    The design, implementation and performance optimization on the CRAY T3E of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) which includes the transport of, and chemical reactions among, an arbitrary number of constituents is reviewed. The parallel implementation is based on a two-dimensional (longitude and latitude) data domain decomposition. Initial optimization efforts centered on minimizing the impact of substantial static and weakly-dynamic load imbalances among processors through load redistribution schemes. Recent optimization efforts have centered on single-node optimization. Strategies employed include loop unrolling, both manually and through the compiler, the use of an optimized assembler-code library for special function calls, and restructuring of parts of the code to improve data locality. Data exchanges and synchronizations involved in coupling different data-distributed models can account for a significant fraction of the running time. Therefore, the required scattering and gathering of data must be optimized. In systems such as the T3E, there is much more aggregate bandwidth in the total system than in any particular processor. This suggests a distributed design. The design and implementation of a such distributed 'Data Broker' as a means to efficiently couple the components of our climate system model is described.

  11. Multiple bunch-splitting in the PS results and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2001-01-01

    The nominal longitudinal characteristics of the PS proton beam for the LHC were attained during the year 2000, using a sequence of triple- and double-splittings to divide each PS Booster (PSB) bunch into 12. This method minimizes longitudinal emittance blow-up and preserves a gap, free of particles, in the bunch train. Some of the ideas for alternative bunch trains have also been tested. The performance achieved is described and the sources of limitations are discussed together with the foreseen improvements.

  12. Look into the PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier at work. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster, LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated at the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  13. Preliminary Specifications for the PS Transverse Damper Control Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, A

    2003-01-01

    The transverse feedback system foreseen for the PS in 2004 is composed of different units to be remotely controlled and monitored: the pick-up amplifiers, the DSPU, the fine delay, the driver and power amplifiers. A special VME unit being dedicated to the pick-up amplifier ("The VMOD-TRX: a device for communication with remote instrumentation", A. Barreira Sevillano, J. Belleman, PS/BD/Note 96-02), the new interface will have to deal with the remaining parts of the loop.

  14. HiPS - Hierarchical Progressive Survey Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernique, Pierre; Allen, Mark; Boch, Thomas; Donaldson, Tom; Durand, Daniel; Ebisawa, Ken; Michel, Laurent; Salgado, Jesus; Stoehr, Felix; Fernique, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    This document presents HiPS, a hierarchical scheme for the description, storage and access of sky survey data. The system is based on hierarchical tiling of sky regions at finer and finer spatial resolution which facilitates a progressive view of a survey, and supports multi-resolution zooming and panning. HiPS uses the HEALPix tessellation of the sky as the basis for the scheme and is implemented as a simple file structure with a direct indexing scheme that leads to practical implementations.

  15. Inauguration of POPS: the new power system of the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Pictures 03 and 04 : The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Pictures 01, 06 and 07 : Magid-Michel Saikaly, energy and infrastructure director at Converteam, receives a prize from Steve Myers, Director of Accelerators at CERN, for the development and fabrication of the new electrical power system for the PS, called POPS.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of the Rubidium Thiophosphate Rb 6 (PS 5 )(P 2 S 10 ) and the Rubidium Silver Thiophosphates Rb 2 AgPS 4 , RbAg 5 (PS 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 Ag 9 (PS 4 ) 4

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.; Davaasuren, Bambar; Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The metal thiophosphates Rb2AgPS4 (2), RbAg5(PS4)2 (3), and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4 (4) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions, whereas Rb6(PS5)(P2S10) (1) was prepared with excess amount of sulfur. The compounds crystallize as follows: 1 monoclinic, P21

  17. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  18. BWR chromium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Indig, M.E.; Skarpelos, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This report addresses the concern about higher total specific conductivity in the reactor recirculation loop water due to the chromate ion. This concern is particularly high at plants where all other ionic species have been reduced through careful attention to makeup and condensate polisher operations. An EPRI Chromate Workshop was held in November 1990 to consider the issues raised by observed levels of chromate ion (generally 5 to 50 ppB). While BWRs on normal water chemistry were the only ones observing chromate, even plants on hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) observe sharp spikes of conductivity due to chromate whenever the hydrogen supply was interrupted after a reasonably long HWC operational period. The consensus of the workshop attendees was that chromate was not a concern as an agent causing pipe cracking compared to the more common species such as chloride and sulfate. However, the data are somewhat ambiguous for levels of chromate above 50 ppB. Adjustments to the weighing factors for the various ionic species in the industry chemistry performance index are suggested to allow for the known relative higher aggressiveness of other species relative to that of chromate

  19. Chemistry between the stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroto, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the past 15 years the techniques used by chemists to determine accurate molecular structures have combined with those of radio astronomers to probe the space between the stars. Together they paint a new picture of interstellar space, a picture which shows that vast clouds of gas and dust are continually collapsing to form stars and planets and that the main constituents of these clouds are molecules, some of which are quite complex organic species. It is now known that many of the organic building blocks, useful in the evolution of biologically significant macromolecules, existed long before the Earth was formed. These findings present a challenge to previous widely-accepted theories that such molecules were first generated in the Earth's primaeval atmosphere. In this paper certain aspects of these discoveries are considered with particular emphasis on the contributions made by techniques of use in general chemistry. After a brief astronomical introduction to the Interstellar Medium (ISM) the interaction between chemistry and radioastronomy is discussed. This is followed by details of some exciting, new and quite unexpected advances in our understanding of carbon chemistry, discovered during experiments aimed at understanding some of the more perplexing radioastronomy results. Finally an overview is given of the present knowledge of the molecular composition of the ISM and the resulting implications in so far as the origins of life are concerned. (author)

  20. Chemistry between the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroto, H W

    1986-01-01

    During the past 15 years the techniques used by chemists to determine accurate molecular structures have combined with those of radio astronomers to probe the space between the stars. Together they paint a new picture of interstellar space, a picture which shows that vast clouds of gas and dust are continually collapsing to form stars and planets and that the main constituents of these clouds are molecules, some of which are quite complex organic species. It is now known that many of the organic building blocks, useful in the evolution of biologically significant macromolecules, existed long before the Earth was formed. These findings present a challenge to previous widely-accepted theories that such molecules were first generated in the Earth's primaeval atmosphere. In this paper certain aspects of these discoveries are considered with particular emphasis on the contributions made by techniques of use in general chemistry. After a brief astronomical introduction to the Interstellar Medium (ISM) the interaction between chemistry and radioastronomy is discussed. This is followed by details of some exciting, new and quite unexpected advances in our understanding of carbon chemistry, discovered during experiments aimed at understanding some of the more perplexing radioastronomy results. Finally an overview is given of the present knowledge of the molecular composition of the ISM and the resulting implications in so far as the origins of life are concerned.

  1. Aqueous chemistry of transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aqueous chemistry of the first three transactinide elements is briefly reviewed with special emphasis given to recent experimental results. Short introductory remarks are discussing the atom-at-a-time situation of transactinide chemistry as a result of low production cross-sections and short half-lives. In general, on-line experimental techniques and, more specifically, the automated rapid chemistry apparatus, ARCA, are presented. Present and future developments of experimental techniques and resulting perspectives are outlined at the end. The central part is mainly focussing on hydrolysis and complex formation aspects of the superheavy group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with F - and Cl - anions. Experimental results are compared with the behaviour of lighter homologous elements and with relativistic calculations. It will be shown that the chemical behaviour of the first superheavy elements is already strongly influenced by relativistic effects. While it is justified to place rutherfordium, dubnium and seaborgium in the Periodic Table of the Elements into group 4, 5 and 6, respectively, it is no more possible to deduce from this position in detail the chemical properties of these transactinide or superheavy elements. (orig.)

  2. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  3. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    Contents: Adsorption, Chemistry,Alkaloids, Analytical Chemistry, Catalysis,Chemical Industry,,Coal Gasification, Combustion, Electrochemistry,Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Free Radicals, Inorganic...

  4. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are reported in solid state science (ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis), general chemistry (analytical chemistry, hydrogen-water exchange, radioactivity measurements, electrochemistry), physical chemistry (radiation and isotope chemistry), materials science (surface chemistry and metal physics), and university research (deuterium exchange and zirconium alloy properties). (E.C.B.)

  5. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  6. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  7. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  8. Water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the accident, the coolants in the primary and secondary systems were within normal chemistry specifications for an operating pressurized water reactor with once-through steam generators. During and immediately after the accident, additional boric acid and sodium hydroxide were added to the primary coolant for control of criticality and radioiodine solubility. A primary to secondary leak developed contaminating the water in one steam generator. For about 5 years after the accident, the primary coolant was maintained at 3800 +. 100 ppm boron and 1000 +. 100 ppm sodium concentrations. Dissolved oxygen was maintained 7.5, corrosion caused by increased dissolved oxygen levels (up to 8 ppm) and higher chloride ion content (up to 5 ppm) is minimized. Chemical control of dissolved oxygen was discontinued and the coolant was processed. Prior to removal of the reactor vessel head, the boron concentration in the coolant was increased to ≅ 5000 ppm to support future defueling operations. Decontamination of the accident generated water is described in terms of contaminated water management. In addition, the decontamination and chemical lay-up conditions for the secondary system are presented along with an overview of chemical management at TMI-2

  9. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  10. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  11. Microproteins (miPs) - the next big thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Stephan

    2012-12-18

    With iPS cells, sncRNAs, chromatin modification regulation and cancer stem cells already cooling off again, i.e. not being guaranteed publications in the 'ultimate' journals anymore, what will be very soon the new red-hot (or super-cool, i.e. anything but lukewarm) 'kid on the block'? We would vote for microproteins.

  12. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: ps75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: ps75. Bond precision:.

  13. Microproteins (miPs – the next big thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Stephan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With iPS cells, sncRNAs, chromatin modification regulation and cancer stem cells already cooling off again, i.e. not being guaranteed publications in the 'ultimate' journals anymore, what will be very soon the new red-hot (or super-cool, i.e. anything but lukewarm 'kid on the block'? We would vote for microproteins.

  14. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on polystyrene (PS, w = 234 K) – Au nanoparticle composite thin films that were annealed up to 350°C under reduced pressure conditions. The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then ...

  15. (PS)2: protein structure prediction server version 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsun-Tsao; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Chi-Wen; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    Protein complexes are involved in many biological processes. Examining coupling between subunits of a complex would be useful to understand the molecular basis of protein function. Here, our updated (PS)(2) web server predicts the three-dimensional structures of protein complexes based on comparative modeling; furthermore, this server examines the coupling between subunits of the predicted complex by combining structural and evolutionary considerations. The predicted complex structure could be indicated and visualized by Java-based 3D graphics viewers and the structural and evolutionary profiles are shown and compared chain-by-chain. For each subunit, considerations with or without the packing contribution of other subunits cause the differences in similarities between structural and evolutionary profiles, and these differences imply which form, complex or monomeric, is preferred in the biological condition for the subunit. We believe that the (PS)(2) server would be a useful tool for biologists who are interested not only in the structures of protein complexes but also in the coupling between subunits of the complexes. The (PS)(2) is freely available at http://ps2v3.life.nctu.edu.tw/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Environmental Chemistry in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.; Austin, Rachel N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of environmental chemistry and the use of laboratory exercises in analytical and general chemistry courses. Notes the importance of lab work in heightening student interest in coursework including problem-based learning in undergraduate curricula, ready adaptability of environmental coursework to existing curricula, and…

  17. Impact of Amazonian deforestation on atmospheric chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.

    2004-01-01

    A single-column chemistry and climate model has been used to study the impact of deforestation in the Amazon Basin on atmospheric chemistry. Over deforested areas, daytime ozone deposition generally decreases strongly except when surface wetness decreases through reduced precipitation, whereas

  18. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  19. A High Five for ChemistryOpen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David; Ortúzar, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Fabulous at five! When ChemistryOpen was launched in 2011, it was the first society-owned general chemistry journal to publish open-access articles exclusively. Five years down the line, it has featured excellent work in all fields of chemistry, leading to an impressive first full impact factor of 3.25. In this Editorial, read about how ChemistryOpen has grown over the past five years and made its mark as a high-quality open-access journal with impact.

  20. Control protocol: large scale implementation at the CERN PS complex - a first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abie, H.; Benincasa, G.; Coudert, G.; Davydenko, Y.; Dehavay, C.; Gavaggio, R.; Gelato, G.; Heinze, W.; Legras, M.; Lustig, H.; Merard, L.; Pearson, T.; Strubin, P.; Tedesco, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Control Protocol is a model-based, uniform access procedure from a control system to accelerator equipment. It was proposed at CERN about 5 years ago and prototypes were developed in the following years. More recently, this procedure has been finalized and implemented at a large scale in the PS Complex. More than 300 pieces of equipment are now using this protocol in normal operation and another 300 are under implementation. These include power converters, vacuum systems, beam instrumentation devices, RF equipment, etc. This paper describes how the single general procedure is applied to the different kinds of equipment. The advantages obtained are also discussed. ((orig.))

  1. Chemistry Perfumes Your Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortineau, Anne-Dominique

    2004-01-01

    A synopsis on the history of perfumery is presented, along with the various processes accessible for obtaining natural perfume constituents, and creation of synthetic chemicals. The important contribution of organic chemists in the invention of perfumes, aspects of fragrance chemistry, and general information on the perfume industry are…

  2. Nobel Prize in Chemistry-1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Nobel Prize in Chemistry – 1997 The Story of Two Extra-ordinary Enzymes. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 45-52 ...

  3. Educational benefits of green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Serenity; Ray, Christian; Andino Martínez, José G.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present our current state of affairs in the "greening" of general chemistry laboratories, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We recognize the need to quantify our environmental mark and what we plan to do to continue to strive to make our work more sustainable and educational.

  4. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  5. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  6. Atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Edith B. Allen; Ricardo Cisneros

    2016-01-01

    At present, negative impacts of air pollution on California ecosystems are caused mainly by elevated levels of ozone and nitrogen deposition. Generally, ozone air pollution in California has been improving significantly since the 1970s; however, it still causes serious ecological and human health effects. The most serious ecological effects occur in mixed conifer...

  7. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  8. A transmissão psíquica geracional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Oliveira dos Santos

    Full Text Available O artigo seguinte refere-se a um estudo sobre como ocorre a transmissão psíquica entre as gerações e qual sua importância na constituição psíquica do sujeito. É também objetivo deste artigo explicar o que são as transmissões intergeracional e transgeracional. Para buscar respostas para essas questões, fez-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a transmissão psíquica, pelo viés psicanalítico, principalmente a partir da teoria lacaniana e com conceitos oriundos da linguística saussuriana. Será a partir de uma determinada ordem simbólica, constituída pela linguagem que precede o sujeito, nomeado por Lacan como o Outro, que a transmissão psíquica entre gerações ganhará o seu caráter unívoco, sempre se tendo em mente a importância fundamental do recalcamento e de seus efeitos, bem como do retorno do recalcado nas diferentes gerações. A transmissão psíquica é necessária e concomitante à constituição do sujeito, e ocorre através da linguagem, dos significantes que irão determinar uma ordem simbólica para o ser que nasce através dos diferentes discursos que perpassam as gerações nas figuras dos pais desse novo ser. Essa ordem simbólica continuará a se fazer presente nesse novo sujeito pelo restante de sua existência. Este artigo busca dar nova luz ao aspecto da transmissão psíquica transgeracional, diferenciando-se da recalque s abordagens psicanalíticas contemporâneas por ser uma leitura lacaniana. Serão usados dois exemplos: um de como a transmissão aparece na cultura, outro, na subjetividade do sujeito através da arte.

  9. Contributing Chemistry and Compelling Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2013-04-01

    transplantation for haematological disorders and malignancies. With these two original research articles throwing a light upon the influence of various factors on stem cell proliferation, homing and engraftment, the article by Telpalo-Carpio et al has attempted to provide a general scenario of the state of the art in the Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells generation, giving a glimpse of the most important and promising emerging de-differentiation technologies of the various research groups all over the world who are extensively researching on this ‘most sought after cell type’. Though all ideas and innovations may not turn out to yield successful solutions and all researches may not end up in positive outcome, the article by Terunuma et al which provides an in-sight into the in vitro expansion of patients’ immune cells such as NK cells, and T cells using chemically synthesized culture media without any feeder layers, whose clinical outcome in tackling several tumours with long term follow-up is something really a tonic of encouragement to scientists. Contribution of chemical moieties having been studied and translated to clinical applications, the physical forces' real worth have not yet been explored to the fullest. Time has come to dig, hig or boson them! References: Engler AJ, Sen S, Sweeney HL, Discher DE. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell. 2006 Aug 25;126(4:677-89. Adams DS. A new tool for tissue engineers: ions as regulators of morphogenesis during development and regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008 Sep;14(9:1461-8.

  10. Spectra and relaxation dynamics of the pseudohalide (PS) vibrational bands for Ru(bpy)2(PS)2 complexes, PS = CN, NCS and N3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, Ryan; Gerardi, Helen K.; Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Dressick, Walter J.; Heilweil, Edwin J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Static and transient infrared spectroscopy of pseudohalide bipyridine ruthenium complexes. ► Vibrational energy relaxes faster for the azide than the thiocyanate and cyanide analogs. ► Intramolecular vibrational relaxation is prevalent in cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 . - Abstract: Static and transient infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (NCS) 2 , and cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (CN) 2 in solution. The NC stretching IR band for cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (NCS) 2 appears at higher frequency (∼2106 cm −1 in DMSO) than for the free NCS − anion while the IR bands for the azide and cyanide complexes are closer to those of the respective free anions. The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) lifetime for the azide complex is found to be much shorter (∼5 ps) than for either the NCS or CN species (both ∼70 ps in DMSO) and the lifetimes resemble those for each corresponding free anion in solution. However, for cis-Ru(bpy) 2 (N 3 ) 2 , it is determined that the transition frequency depends more on the solvent than the VER lifetime implying that intramolecular vibrational relaxation is predominant over solvent energy-extracting interactions. These results are compared to the behavior of other related metal complexes in solution

  11. Terminology dictionary for physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    1988-03-01

    This book introduces as many as terms covering from basic chemistry and applied chemistry to general industry and tries to explain them correctly. If it is not needed to explain the terms or they are not general, it omits explanation. However, it accurately and precisely, without omitting, describes elementary reaction and operation, representative materials, naming, idiom, and method of measurement. It also adds to supplement all the materials which are helpful in daily lives and are convenient to studying and understanding.

  12. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  13. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden; W. Watson

    1999-01-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described

  14. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  15. Laboratory spectrum of the PS radical and related astronomical search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Saito, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Suzuki, H.

    1988-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectrum of the PS radical (X 2Pi r) was observed in the laboratory for the first time in the frequency region of 79-293 GHz by discharging the mixture of PSCl3 and He. Some 44 lines were measured, and the rotational constant, the centrifugal distortion constant, the centrifugal distortion term of the spin-orbit coupling constant, the Lambda-type doubling constants, and the hyperfine coupling constants were determined. Based on the measured and calculated frequencies, an astronomical search for the interstellar and circumstellar PS radical was made without success in Orion KL, Sgr B2, L134N,IRC + 10216, VY CMa, and OH 231.8 + 4.2. 29 references

  16. O Trabalho Psíquico da Intersubjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Assumpção Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura refletir sobre o trabalho psíquico da intersubjetividade nos grupos. Trata-se de pensá-lo na relação com a ruptura de investimentos durante o processo de Transformação x Criação, em primeiro lugar. A partir desse ponto, discutiremos a relação entre Transformação, Trabalho e Dispositivo. Neste caso pensamos nas possibilidades de intervenção, refletindo sobre a intervenção inpidual e a intervenção grupal. A questão da Transmissão Psíquica entre gerações será focalizada, fundamentalmente, no que se refere aos tempos lógicos do recalque.

  17. Four-frame gated optical imager with 120-ps resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-04-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and applications of a framing camera capable of four separate two-dimensional images with each frame having a 120-ps gate width. Fast gating of a single frame is accomplished by using a wafer image intensifier tube in which the cathode is capacitively coupled to an external electrode placed outside of the photocathode of the tube. This electrode is then pulsed relative to the microchannel plate by a narrow (120 ps), high-voltage pulse. Multiple frames are obtained by using multiple gated tubes which share a single bias supply and pulser with relative gate times selected by the cable lengths between the tubes and the pulser. A beamsplitter system has been constructed which produces a separate image for each tube from a single scene. Applications of the framing camera to inertial confinement fusion experiments are discussed

  18. Transfer line from the PSB to the PS (recombination)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    After sequential ejection of 5 bunches from each of the 4 rings of the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), the 4 batches are brought to the same vertical level, so as to form a string of 20 bunches, filling the circumference of the PS. This vertical "recombination" is performed in the transfer line, using vertical bending magnets, septa and kickers. Here we see the section where the beam from ring 4 (the top one) is brought down to the level of ring 3, and the beam from ring 1 up to the level of ring 2. Further downstream (to the right, outside this picture), level 2 is brought up to level 3, identical to that of the PS. After this original recombination scheme, other ways of combining the 4 beams, vertically and/or longitudinally, were developed and used in operation.

  19. Ps beam production and scattering from gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, A.J.; Laricchia, G.; Oezen, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the conversion of a positron beam into an ortho-Ps beam via charge exchange in gaseous H 2 , He and Ar at energies up to 120 eV and gas pressures up to 14 μmHg. H 2 has been found to be the most efficient converter at energies up to 90 eV. At higher energies, Ar has been found to be the best. Total cross sections of ortho-Ps scattering from H 2 and He have also been measured. A comparison with available theories suggests that electron exchange at lower energies and target inelastic collisions at higher energies are playing a major role in the collisions. (author)

  20. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  1. From hot atom chemistry to epithermal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The rise and fall of hot atom chemistry (HAC) over the years from 1934 to 2004 is reviewed. Several applications are discussed, in particular to astrophysics and the interaction of energetic ions and atoms in space. Epithermal chemistry (ETC) is proposed to substitute the old name, since it better fits the energy range as well as the non-thermal and non-equilibrium character of the reactions. ETC also avoids the strong connexion of HAC to nuclear chemistry and stands for the opening of the field to physical chemistry and astrophysics. (orig.)

  2. Development of a 64-channel 100 ps TDC module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohua; An Qi; Liu Shubin; Su Hong; Zhan Wenlong

    2009-01-01

    Multi-wire drift chamber at external target experiment in HIRFL-CSR measures drift time of charged particles to obtain the track information. A 64-channel TDC module hosting high density connectors and high performance TDC chips (HPTDC) are used to perform the time digitization. Data of the module is transferred to computer through PXI bus. The test results show that a 100 ps resolution has been achieved. (authors)

  3. The four "P"s of marketing are dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J

    2000-01-01

    For several decades marketing planning in the United States has relied upon the "four Ps" model. Product, price, place, and promotion were considered the foundation of the marketing mix. This model, however, has never been a comfortable fit for health care and, as the new century dawns, we find that a new marketing model--emphasizing the "four Rs"--is emerging. The foundations of the new model are relevance, response, relationships, and results.

  4. Physics at the AD/PS/SPS (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lecture 1: The CERN injector complex and beams for non-LHC physics. The various machines and beam lines in the CERN injector complex are presented, from the linacs to the SPS. Special emphasis is given to the beam lines at the PS and SPS machines: AD, North and East Areas, nTOF and CNGS and HiRadMad as well as the ion beams. A short outlook is given to possible future upgrades and projects.

  5. The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, E.

    The Pan-STARRS PS1 Image Processing Pipeline (IPP) performs the image processing and data analysis tasks needed to enable the scientific use of the images obtained by the Pan-STARRS PS1 prototype telescope. The primary goals of the IPP are to process the science images from the Pan-STARRS telescopes and make the results available to other systems within Pan-STARRS. It also is responsible for combining all of the science images in a given filter into a single representation of the non-variable component of the night sky defined as the "Static Sky". To achieve these goals, the IPP also performs other analysis functions to generate the calibrations needed in the science image processing, and to occasionally use the derived data to generate improved astrometric and photometric reference catalogs. It also provides the infrastructure needed to store the incoming data and the resulting data products. The IPP inherits lessons learned, and in some cases code and prototype code, from several other astronomy image analysis systems, including Imcat (Kaiser), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (REF), the Elixir system (Magnier & Cuillandre), and Vista (Tonry). Imcat and Vista have a large number of robust image processing functions. SDSS has demonstrated a working analysis pipeline and large-scale databasesystem for a dedicated project. The Elixir system has demonstrated an automatic image processing system and an object database system for operational usage. This talk will present an overview of the IPP architecture, functional flow, code development structure, and selected analysis algorithms. Also discussed is the HW highly parallel HW configuration necessary to support PS1 operational requirements. Finally, results are presented of the processing of images collected during PS1 early commissioning tasks utilizing the Pan-STARRS Test Camera #3.

  6. A complete classification of minimal non-PS-groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let G be a finite group. A subgroup H of G is called s-permutable in G if it permutes with every Sylow subgroup of G, and G is called a PS-group if all minimal subgroups and cyclic subgroups with order 4 of G are s-permutable in G. In this paper, we give a complete classification of finite groups which are not ...

  7. Study of an energy upgrade of the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, K; Angoletta, M E; Bartmann, W; Bartolome, S; Bertone, C; Blas, A; Borburgh, J; Bozzini, D; Butterworth, A; Carli, C; Dahlen, P; Dobers, T; Findlay, A; Folch, R; Gilbert, N; Hansen, J; Hermanns, T; Jensen, S; Le Roux, P; Lopez-Hernandez, L A; Mahner, E; Masi, A; Mikulec, B; Muttoni, Y; Newborough, A; Nisbet, D; Nonis, M; Olek, S; Paoluzzi, M; Pittet, S; Puccio, B; Raginel, V; Ruehl, I; Tan, J; Todd, B; Weterings, W; Widorski, W

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s LHC injector chain will have to deliver beams with ultimate brilliance as the LHC is heading for increased luminosity in the coming years. In order to overcome bottlenecks in the injector chain, an increase of the beam transfer energy from the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) to the Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been investigated as a possible upgrade scenario. This paper gives an overview of the technical solutions and summarizes the conclusions of the feasibility study.

  8. PS3 CELL Development for Scientific Computation and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, M.; Sevre, E.; Wang, S. M.; Yuen, D. A.; Liu, S.; Lyness, M. D.; Broten, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Cell processor is one of the most powerful processors on the market, and researchers in the earth sciences may find its parallel architecture to be very useful. A cell processor, with 7 cores, can easily be obtained for experimentation by purchasing a PlayStation 3 (PS3) and installing linux and the IBM SDK. Each core of the PS3 is capable of 25 GFLOPS giving a potential limit of 150 GFLOPS when using all 6 SPUs (synergistic processing units) by using vectorized algorithms. We have used the Cell's computational power to create a program which takes simulated tsunami datasets, parses them, and returns a colorized height field image using ray casting techniques. As expected, the time required to create an image is inversely proportional to the number of SPUs used. We believe that this trend will continue when multiple PS3s are chained using OpenMP functionality and are in the process of researching this. By using the Cell to visualize tsunami data, we have found that its greatest feature is its power. This fact entwines well with the needs of the scientific community where the limiting factor is time. Any algorithm, such as the heat equation, that can be subdivided into multiple parts can take advantage of the PS3 Cell's ability to split the computations across the 6 SPUs reducing required run time by one sixth. Further vectorization of the code can allow for 4 simultanious floating point operations by using the SIMD (single instruction multiple data) capabilities of the SPU increasing efficiency 24 times.

  9. Future perspective of meson spectroscopy studies at KEK-PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.

    1992-01-01

    Physics of light-quark meson spectroscopy at present is simply reviewed and a direction of next generation experiment is investigated. A new charge and gamma spectrometer is proposed to push forward next generation physics at KEK-PS. It should have almost 4π acceptance for both charged particles and gamma's and have options of π/K separation and good π 0 /γ separation. (author)

  10. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  11. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  12. Physics with primary beams of the KEK-PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Yoshii, Masahito

    1993-08-01

    The 12-GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) has provided great opportunities to high-energy-physics and related communities as a unique high-energy hadron machine, since its operation in 1976. Activities of the KEK-PS are indispensable for the rapid development in the field. Six experimental subjects are proposed in this Report; (1) media effects in φ meson decay, (2) multifragmentation in high-energy reactions, (3) mechanism of high-energy reactions by means of radio-chemical methods, (4) physics with polarized high-energy neutrons, (5) physics with polarized high-energy deuterons, and (6) hypernucleus with high-energy heavy-ion beams. As a summary, new facilities (a new injector, a new beamline and a new experimental area) and physics programs with primary beams, proposed in this Report are themselves unique and valuable. Moreover, technical developments and physics outcomes stimulated with those new facilities are indispensable for future plans of the KEK-PS. (J.P.N.)

  13. LS1 Report: PS Booster prepares for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With Linac2 already up and running, the countdown to beam in the LHC has begun! The next in line is the PS Booster, which will close up shop to engineers early next week. The injector will be handed over to the Operations Group who are tasked with getting it ready for active duty.   Taken as we approach the end of LS1 activities, this image shows where protons will soon be injected from Linac2 into the four PS Booster rings. Over the coming two months, the Operations Group will be putting the Booster's new elements through their paces. "Because of the wide range of upgrades and repairs carried out in the Booster, we have a very full schedule of tests planned for the machine," says Bettina Mikulec, PS Booster Engineer in Charge. "We will begin with cold checks; these are a wide range of tests carried out without beam, including system tests with power on/off and with varying settings, as well as verification of the controls system and timings." Amon...

  14. PsVPS1, a dynamin-related protein, is involved in cyst germination and soybean infection of Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Li

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant immunity. However, the mechanism by which oomycete pathogens deliver effector proteins during plant infection remains unknown. In this report, we characterized a Phytophthora sojae vps1 gene. This gene encodes a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar protein sorting gene vps1 that mediates budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the late Golgi, which are diverted from the general secretory pathway to the vacuole. PsVPS1-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation and were viable but had reduced extracellular protein activity. The PsVPS1-silenced mutants showed impaired hyphal growth, and the shapes of the vacuoles were highly fragmented. Silencing of PsVPS1 affected cyst germination as well as the polarized growth of germinated cysts. Silenced mutants showed impaired invasion of susceptible soybean plants regardless of wounding. These results suggest that PsVPS1 is involved in vacuole morphology and cyst development. Moreover, it is essential for the virulence of P. sojae and extracellular protein secretion.

  15. Genome Therapy of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 iPS Cells for Development of Autologous Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanzheng; Guo, Xiuming; Santostefano, Katherine; Wang, Yanlin; Reid, Tammy; Zeng, Desmond; Terada, Naohiro; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Xia, Guangbin

    2016-08-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expanded Cytosine-Thymine-Guanine (CTG) repeats in the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of the Dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene, for which there is no effective therapy. The objective of this study is to develop genome therapy in human DM1 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to eliminate mutant transcripts and reverse the phenotypes for developing autologous stem cell therapy. The general approach involves targeted insertion of polyA signals (PASs) upstream of DMPK CTG repeats, which will lead to premature termination of transcription and elimination of toxic mutant transcripts. Insertion of PASs was mediated by homologous recombination triggered by site-specific transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-induced double-strand break. We found genome-treated DM1 iPS cells continue to maintain pluripotency. The insertion of PASs led to elimination of mutant transcripts and complete disappearance of nuclear RNA foci and reversal of aberrant splicing in linear-differentiated neural stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and teratoma tissues. In conclusion, genome therapy by insertion of PASs upstream of the expanded DMPK CTG repeats prevented the production of toxic mutant transcripts and reversal of phenotypes in DM1 iPS cells and their progeny. These genetically-treated iPS cells will have broad clinical application in developing autologous stem cell therapy for DM1.

  16. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  17. Popular Science Articles for Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Kupatadze

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper reviews popular science articles (these articles are published in online magazine “The Teacher” as one of the methods of chemistry teaching. It describes which didactic principles they are in line with and how this type of articles can be used in order to kindle the interest of pupils, students and generally, the readers of other specialties, in chemistry.  The articles review the main topics of inorganic/organic chemistry, biochemistry and ecological chemistry in a simple and entertaining manner. A part of the articles is about "household" chemistry. Chemical topics are related to poetry, literature, history of chemistry or simply, to fun news. The paper delineates the structure of popular science articles and the features of engaging students. It also reviews the teachers' and students' interview results about the usage of popular science articles in chemistry teaching process. The aforementioned pedagogical study revealed that the popular science articles contain useful information not only for the students of other specialties, but also for future biologists and ecologists (having chemistry as a mandatory subject at their universities. The articles are effectively used by teachers on chemistry lessons to kindle students' interest in this subject. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.960 

  18. Network structure control of binary mixed langmuir monolayers of homo-PS and PS-b-P2VP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gangyao

    2010-03-25

    Our recent work showed there existed a composition window for mixed Langmuir monolayers of homopolystyrene (h-PS) and a symmetric diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) to form necklace-network structures at the air/water interface. In order to study further the possible mechanism and control the network structure (i.e., surface coverage and nanoaggregate diameter), effects of spreading solution concentration and volume, subphase temperature, and transfer pressure on the network structure were studied by the Langmuir monolayer technique and tapping mode atomic force microscopy. With the increase of transfer pressure, there existed a novel nonlinear behavior for the nanoaggregate diameter first to increase, then to decrease, and finally to increase again, while the surface coverage tended to increase step by step. Moreover, with the elevation of temperature, chain motion between the adjoining nanoaggregates tended to be improved and thus the nanoaggregate diameter tended to be more uniform.

  19. Psühholoog Pulver: uskumatu. Kurb. Õõvastav / Aleksander Pulver ; intervjueerinud Tiina Jõgeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pulver, Aleksander, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Vestlus Tallinna Ülikooli psühholoogia instituudi direktori Aleksander Pulveriga pedofiilia teemal. Psühholoogi seisukohavõtud laste õiguste kaitsjana ja koolihariduse uuendajana silma paistnud Kaur Hansoni pedofiiliasüüdistuste kohta

  20. Kultuur isiksuse psühholoogiat ei mõjuta / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2010-01-01

    Psühholoogia uuemate andmete kohaselt ei sõltu indiviidi seadumus kultuurist, soost, vanusest, haridusest. Eesti psühholoogide Jüri Alliku ja Ann Realo osalusel ajakirjas "Journal Personality and Social Psychology" ilmunud artiklist