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Sample records for ps fwhm gaussian

  1. Relation of hardness with FWHM and residual stress of GCr15 steel after shot peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; Chu, Ruiqing; Xu, Zhijun; Ding, Guanjun; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2018-02-01

    The variations of XRD full width at half maximum (FWHM), residual stress and hardness for the surface of GCr15 steel after triple shot peening (TSP) as a function of annealing time and temperature are studied. The results show that with the increase of annealing temperature and time, hardness and FWHM increase gradually while compressive residual stress (CRS) decreases gradually. CRS and micro- structure work together on the hardness values, and the micro-structure is the most important factor for hardness. According to establishing the quantitive relationship of hardness with FWHM and CRS, the value of hardness can be calculated; a new type of noncontact and nondestructive hardness testing can be realized by XRD method.

  2. Gaussian equilibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    A finite quantum system evolving unitarily equilibrates in a probabilistic fashion. In the general many-body setting the time fluctuations of an observable A are typically exponentially small in the system size. We consider here quasifree Fermi systems where the Hamiltonian and observables are quadratic in the Fermi operators. We first prove a bound on the temporal fluctuations ΔA2 and then map the equilibration dynamics to a generalized classical XY model in the infinite temperature limit. Using this insight, we conjecture that, in most cases, a central limit theorem can be formulated, leading to what we call Gaussian equilibration: observables display a Gaussian distribution with relative error ΔA/A¯=O(L-1/2), where L is the dimension of the single-particle space. The conjecture, corroborated by numerical evidence, is proven analytically under mild assumptions for the magnetization in the quantum XY model and for a class of observables in a tight-binding model. We also show that the variance is discontinuous at the transition between a quasifree model and a nonintegrable one.

  3. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  4. Non-gaussian turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)

  5. Non-Gaussian turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, Jørgen; Hansen, Kurt S.; Pedersen, Bo Juul

    1999-01-01

    The pdf's of atmosperic turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour has been investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-gaussianity. Models for non......-Gaussian turbulence has been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specific distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared....

  6. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  7. Truncated multiGaussian fields and effective conductance of binary media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Youssef M. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ray, Jaideep (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore CA); McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Truncated Gaussian fields provide a flexible model for defining binary media with dispersed (as opposed to layered) inclusions. General properties of excursion sets on these truncated fields are coupled with a distance-based upscaling algorithm and approximations of point process theory to develop an estimation approach for effective conductivity in two-dimensions. Estimation of effective conductivity is derived directly from knowledge of the kernel size used to create the multiGaussian field, defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM), the truncation threshold and conductance values of the two modes. Therefore, instantiation of the multiGaussian field is not necessary for estimation of the effective conductance. The critical component of the effective medium approximation developed here is the mean distance between high conductivity inclusions. This mean distance is characterized as a function of the FWHM, the truncation threshold and the ratio of the two modal conductivities. Sensitivity of the resulting effective conductivity to this mean distance is examined for two levels of contrast in the two modal conductances and different FWHM sizes. Results demonstrate that the FWHM is a robust measure of mean travel distance in the background medium. The resulting effective conductivities are accurate when compared to numerical results and results obtained from effective media theory, distance-based upscaling and numerical simulation.

  8. Gaussian traffic everywhere?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2006-01-01

    It is often assumed that Internet traffic exhibits Gaussian characteristics, and this assumption has been validated in various studies of real Internet traffic. Less is known, however, about possible boundaries: at what timescales is traffic Gaussian and how much user aggregation is required for

  9. Gaussian Boson Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Craig S.; Kruse, Regina; Sansoni, Linda; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine; Jex, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Boson sampling has emerged as a tool to explore the advantages of quantum over classical computers as it does not require universal control over the quantum system, which favors current photonic experimental platforms. Here, we introduce Gaussian Boson sampling, a classically hard-to-solve problem that uses squeezed states as a nonclassical resource. We relate the probability to measure specific photon patterns from a general Gaussian state in the Fock basis to a matrix function called the Hafnian, which answers the last remaining question of sampling from Gaussian states. Based on this result, we design Gaussian Boson sampling, a #P hard problem, using squeezed states. This demonstrates that Boson sampling from Gaussian states is possible, with significant advantages in the photon generation probability, compared to existing protocols.

  10. Inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Pre-start work is going on at the end of the PS long shut-down. The photo shows secondary beams drawn from an internal target (bottom) towards South Hall, behind the shielding wall (top) (see also photo 7409012X).

  11. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  12. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  13. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed...... by increasing the temperature from 25°C to 100°C. The measurements are compared to a simulated spectrum obtained by means of a vectorial Beam Propagation Method model....

  14. Gaussian and Non-Gaussian operations on non-Gaussian state: engineering non-Gaussianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple photon subtraction applied to a displaced phase-averaged coherent state, which is a non-Gaussian classical state, produces conditional states with a non trivial (positive Glauber-Sudarshan Prepresentation. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that, despite its simplicity, this class of conditional states cannot be fully characterized by direct detection of photon numbers. In particular, the non-Gaussianity of the state is a characteristics that must be assessed by phase-sensitive measurements. We also show that the non-Gaussianity of conditional states can be manipulated by choosing suitable conditioning values and composition of phase-averaged states.

  15. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  16. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  17. SPARC Working Point Optimization for a Bunch with Gaussian Temporal Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Manuela; Fusco, Valeria; Migliorati, Mauro; Reiche, Sven; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2005-01-01

    We present the optimization of the working point for the SPARC photoinjector with a Gaussian temporal profile. The implications of a Gaussian temporal profile are discussed here for the standard working conditions and for the RF compressor case in comparison with the nominal working point performances of a 10ps flat top pulse with rise time of 1ps. Comparisons with the upgraded version of the HOMDYN code including arbitrary bunch temporal profiles are also reported. Advantages and drawbacks of the Gaussian and flat top pulse shapes are discussed. For the standard working point, it is shown that the two cases provide the same saturation length and average power, but the higher current in the beam core of the Gaussian pulse gives a higher peak radiation power. As the laser pulse shape could be Gaussian at the first stage of the SPARC operation, it is clear the importance of these simulation results.

  18. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  19. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  20. Inhomogeneous non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f_NL, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher-order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.

  1. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  2. A method for on-site measurements of the effective spatial resolution in PET image volumes reconstructed with OSEM and Gaussian post-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretting, Arne

    2010-01-01

    When PET image volumes are reconstructed with ordered subset expectation-maximization (OSEM) and subjected to filtration with a 3D Gaussian filter the effective spatial resolution is a function of both the intrinsic scanner resolution and the user-selectable spatial width of the filter. A method was developed to derive the effective spatial resolution from such volumes obtained after acquisitions with a line source on a Siemens Biograph 64 PET/CT scanner. Assuming Gaussian distributions, the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) were derived from probit plots of cumulative spatial distributions across the line source. The effective FWHM values were also used to estimate the FWHM of the intrinsic resolution by extrapolation to a zero filter width.

  3. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  4. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...

  5. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  6. SPS and PS Experiments Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    OPEN SESSION: 09:00 Status report of NA58 / COMPASS: A. Magnon 09:40 Status report of PS212 / DIRAC: L. Tausher 10:10 PS212 / DIRAC Addendum: L. Nemenov CLOSED SESSION on Tuesday, 27 April 2004 after the open session, Main Building, 6th floor conference room

  7. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  8. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available distributions at locations on trajectory CSIR National Laser Centre – p.27/30 Morphology evolusion example 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Orientation [pi radians] A n i s o t r o p y [ pi r a d i a n s ] A B' B H C C' D... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  9. Gaussian optical Ising machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, William R.; Renema, Jelmer J.; Wen, Y. Henry; Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2017-10-01

    It has recently been shown that optical parametric oscillator (OPO) Ising machines, consisting of coupled optical pulses circulating in a cavity with parametric gain, can be used to probabilistically find low-energy states of Ising spin systems. In this work, we study optical Ising machines that operate under simplified Gaussian dynamics. We show that these dynamics are sufficient for reaching probabilities of success comparable to previous work. Based on this result, we propose modified optical Ising machines with simpler designs that do not use parametric gain yet achieve similar performance, thus suggesting a route to building much larger systems.

  10. User's manual for the Gaussian windows program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1992-01-01

    'Gaussian Windows' is a method for exploring a set of multivariate data, in order to estimate the shape of the underlying density function. The method can be used to find and describe structural features in the data. The method is described in two earlier papers. I assume that the reader has access to both of these papers, so I will not repeat material from them. The program described herein is written in BASIC and it runs on an IBM PC or PS/2 with the DOS 3.3 operating system. Although the program is slow and has limited memory space, it is adequate for experimenting with the method. Since it is written in BASIC, it is relatively easy to modify. The program and some related files are available on a 3-inch diskette. A listing of the program is also available. This user's manual explains the use of the program. First, it gives a brief tutorial, illustrating some of the program's features with a set of artificial data. Then, it describes the results displayed after the program does a Gaussian window, and it explains each of the items on the various menus.

  11. Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches ...

  12. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...... result is used to study functional summaries for log Gaussian Cox processes....

  13. Spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to characterize the spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales. That is, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel K for X t =∫ K t (s) dN s to be a semimartingale. Here, N denotes an independently scattered Gaussian random measure...

  14. Bandwidth of Gaussian weighted Chirp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1993-01-01

    Four major time duration and bandwidth expressions are calculated for a linearly frequency modulated sinusoid with Gaussian shaped envelope. This includes a Gaussian tone pulse. The bandwidth is found to be a nonlinear function of nominal time duration and nominal frequency excursion of the chirp...

  15. Capacity of quantum Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Sohma, M.; Hirota, O.

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to give explicit calculation of the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels, in particular, involving squeezed states. The calculation is based on a general formula for the entropy of a quantum Gaussian state, which is of independent interest, and on the recently proved coding theorem for quantum communication channels.

  16. Normal form decomposition for Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Palma, Giacomo [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy); Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Holevo, Alexander S. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, 119991 Moscow, Russia and National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we explore the set of linear maps sending the set of quantum Gaussian states into itself. These maps are in general not positive, a feature which can be exploited as a test to check whether a given quantum state belongs to the convex hull of Gaussian states (if one of the considered maps sends it into a non-positive operator, the above state is certified not to belong to the set). Generalizing a result known to be valid under the assumption of complete positivity, we provide a characterization of these Gaussian-to-Gaussian (not necessarily positive) superoperators in terms of their action on the characteristic function of the inputs. For the special case of one-mode mappings, we also show that any Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperator can be expressed as a concatenation of a phase-space dilatation, followed by the action of a completely positive Gaussian channel, possibly composed with a transposition. While a similar decomposition is shown to fail in the multi-mode scenario, we prove that it still holds at least under the further hypothesis of homogeneous action on the covariance matrix.

  17. Normal form decomposition for Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we explore the set of linear maps sending the set of quantum Gaussian states into itself. These maps are in general not positive, a feature which can be exploited as a test to check whether a given quantum state belongs to the convex hull of Gaussian states (if one of the considered maps sends it into a non-positive operator, the above state is certified not to belong to the set). Generalizing a result known to be valid under the assumption of complete positivity, we provide a characterization of these Gaussian-to-Gaussian (not necessarily positive) superoperators in terms of their action on the characteristic function of the inputs. For the special case of one-mode mappings, we also show that any Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperator can be expressed as a concatenation of a phase-space dilatation, followed by the action of a completely positive Gaussian channel, possibly composed with a transposition. While a similar decomposition is shown to fail in the multi-mode scenario, we prove that it still holds at least under the further hypothesis of homogeneous action on the covariance matrix.

  18. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  19. The PS Booster hits 40

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Many accelerators’ "round" birthdays are being celebrated at CERN these days – the PS turned 50 in 2009, the SPS was 35 in 2011, and this year it's the turn of the PS Booster to mark its 40th anniversary. Originally designed to accelerate 1013 protons to 800 MeV, it has far exceeded its initial design performance over the years.   The PS Booster in the 1970s. Imagine the scene: a group of accelerator physicists staring expectantly at a monitor, when suddenly a shout of joy goes up as a signal flickers across the screen. Does that sound familiar? Well, turn the clock back 40 years (longer hair, wider trouser legs) and you have the situation at the PS Booster on 26 May 1972. On that day, beam was injected into the Booster for the first time. “It was a real buzz,” says Heribert Koziol, then Chairman of the Running-in Committee. “We were very happy – and also a little relieved – when the beam finally...

  20. Arbitrage with fractional Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xili; Xiao, Weilin

    2017-04-01

    While the arbitrage opportunity in the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Brownian motion has a long history, the arbitrage strategy in the Black-Scholes model driven by general fractional Gaussian processes is in its infancy. The development of stochastic calculus with respect to fractional Gaussian processes allowed us to study such models. In this paper, following the idea of Shiryaev (1998), an arbitrage strategy is constructed for the Black-Scholes model driven by fractional Gaussian processes, when the stochastic integral is interpreted in the Riemann-Stieltjes sense. Arbitrage opportunities in some fractional Gaussian processes, including fractional Brownian motion, sub-fractional Brownian motion, bi-fractional Brownian motion, weighted-fractional Brownian motion and tempered fractional Brownian motion, are also investigated.

  1. Quantum assisted Gaussian process regression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhikuan; Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GP) are a widely used model for regression problems in supervised machine learning. Implementation of GP regression typically requires $O(n^3)$ logic gates. We show that the quantum linear systems algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] can be applied to Gaussian process regression (GPR), leading to an exponential reduction in computation time in some instances. We show that even in some cases not ideally suited to the quantum linear systems algorith...

  2. Seismic modeling using the frozen Gaussian approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xu; Lu, Jianfeng; Fomel, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We adopt the frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) for modeling seismic waves. The method belongs to the category of ray-based beam methods. It decomposes seismic wavefield into a set of Gaussian functions and propagates these Gaussian functions along appropriate ray paths. As opposed to the classic Gaussian-beam method, FGA keeps the Gaussians frozen (at a fixed width) during the propagation process and adjusts their amplitudes to produce an accurate approximation after summation. We perform t...

  3. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  4. The Multivariate Gaussian Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This technical report intends to gather information about the multivariate gaussian distribution, that was previously not (at least to my knowledge) to be found in one place and written as a reference manual. Additionally, some useful tips and tricks are collected that may be useful in practical ...

  5. Gaussian processes for machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Matthias

    2004-04-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches such as spline smoothing models and support vector machines in which similar ideas have been investigated. Gaussian process models are routinely used to solve hard machine learning problems. They are attractive because of their flexible non-parametric nature and computational simplicity. Treated within a Bayesian framework, very powerful statistical methods can be implemented which offer valid estimates of uncertainties in our predictions and generic model selection procedures cast as nonlinear optimization problems. Their main drawback of heavy computational scaling has recently been alleviated by the introduction of generic sparse approximations.13,78,31 The mathematical literature on GPs is large and often uses deep concepts which are not required to fully understand most machine learning applications. In this tutorial paper, we aim to present characteristics of GPs relevant to machine learning and to show up precise connections to other "kernel machines" popular in the community. Our focus is on a simple presentation, but references to more detailed sources are provided.

  6. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  7. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  8. Purification of Gaussian maximally mixed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kabgyun [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Youngrong, E-mail: sshaep@gmail.com [Center for Macroscopic Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-23

    We find that the purifications of several Gaussian maximally mixed states (GMMSs) correspond to some Gaussian maximally entangled states (GMESs) in the continuous-variable regime. Here, we consider a two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state as a purification of the thermal state and construct a general formalism of the Gaussian purification process. Moreover, we introduce other kind of GMESs via the process. All of our purified states of the GMMSs exhibit Gaussian profiles; thus, the states show maximal quantum entanglement in the Gaussian regime. - Highlights: • Candidates of Gaussian maximally mixed state are proposed. • Obtaining Gaussian maximally entangled states using the purification process. • The suggested states can be applicable for the test of capacity problem in Gaussian regime.

  9. Stable and Efficient Gaussian Process Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of Gaussian processes can be an effective approach to prediction in a supervised learning environment. For large data sets, the standard Gaussian process...

  10. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  11. A note on Gaussian distributions in Rn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Given any finite set F of (n − 1)-dimensional subspaces of Rn we give examples of nonGaussian probability measures in Rn whose marginal distribution in each subspace from F is Gaussian. However, if F is an infinite family of such (n − 1)- dimensional subspaces then such a nonGaussian probability measure in ...

  12. Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to

  13. Bayesian Repulsive Gaussian Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fangzheng; Xu, Yanxun

    2017-01-01

    We develop a general class of Bayesian repulsive Gaussian mixture models that encourage well-separated clusters, aiming at reducing potentially redundant components produced by independent priors for locations (such as the Dirichlet process). The asymptotic results for the posterior distribution of the proposed models are derived, including posterior consistency and posterior contraction rate in the context of nonparametric density estimation. More importantly, we show that compared to the in...

  14. Sparse Gaussian graphical mixture model

    OpenAIRE

    ANANI, Lotsi; WIT, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of networks reconstruction from heterogeneous data using a Gaussian Graphical Mixture Model (GGMM). It is well known that parameter estimation in this context is challenging due to large numbers of variables coupled with the degenerate nature of the likelihood. We propose as a solution a penalized maximum likelihood technique by imposing an l1 penalty on the precision matrix. Our approach shrinks the parameters thereby resulting in better identifiability and v...

  15. General Galilei Covariant Gaussian Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Giulio; Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    We characterize general non-Markovian Gaussian maps which are covariant under Galilean transformations. In particular, we consider translational and Galilean covariant maps and show that they reduce to the known Holevo result in the Markovian limit. We apply the results to discuss measures of macroscopicity based on classicalization maps, specifically addressing dissipation, Galilean covariance and non-Markovianity. We further suggest a possible generalization of the macroscopicity measure defined by Nimmrichter and Hornberger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 16 (2013)].

  16. Equi-Gaussian curvature folding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 10. Note that the graph Gf of any equi-Gaussian curvature of #nT 2 is a regular graph of valency 4. 2. References. [1] Farran H R, El-Kholy E and Robertson S A, Folding a surface to a polygon, Geometric. Dedicatiae 33 (1996) 255–266. [2] Zeen El-Deen M R, Cellular and fuzzy folding, Ph.D. thesis (Egypt: Tanta Univ.) ...

  17. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I

    2015-01-01

    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  18. Enhanced personal protection at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier Genoud

    2013-01-01

    Pictures 03, 06, 07 08 : Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system.Pictures 10, 12 ,13 : View of Building 271, the future control centre of the new PS complex safety system.

  19. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  20. Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan

    1999-01-01

    We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.

  1. On the crystallization behavior of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers, atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends, and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Liana, E-mail: liana.annunziatta@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Monasse, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.monasse@mines-paristech.fr [Mines-ParisTech, CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7635, Sophia Antipolis (France); Rizzo, Paola; Guerra, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università degli studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Duc, Michel [Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy, Zone Industrielle Feluy C, B-7181 Seneffe (Belgium); Carpentier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carpentier@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-09-16

    Crystallization and morphological features of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers (sPS-b-aPS), atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends (aPS/sPS), and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS, with different compositions in aPS and sPS, have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) techniques. For comparative purposes, the properties of parent pristine sPS samples were also studied. WAXRD analyses revealed for all the samples, independently from their composition (aPS/sPS ratio) and structure (blends, block copolymers, blends modified with block copolymers), the same polymorphic β form of sPS. The molecular weight of aPS and sPS showed opposite effects on the crystallization of 50:50 aPS/sPS blends: the lower the molecular weight of aPS, the slower the crystallization while the lower the molecular weight of sPS, the faster the crystallization. DSC studies performed under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, independently confirmed by POM studies, led to a clear trend for the crystallization rate at a given sPS/aPS ratio (ca. 50:50 and 20:80): sPS homopolymers > sPS-b-aPS block copolymers ∼sPS/aPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS copolymers > sPS/aPS blends. Interestingly, sPS-b-aPS block copolymers not only crystallized faster than blends, but also affected positively the crystallization behavior of blends. At 50:50 sPS/aPS ratio, blends (Blend-2), block copolymers (Cop-1) and blends modified with block copolymers (Blend-2-mod) crystallized via spherulitic crystalline growth controlled by an interfacial process. In all cases, an instantaneous nucleation was observed. The density of nuclei in block copolymers (160,000−190,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}) was always higher than that in blends and modified blends (30,000−60,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}), even for quite different sPS/aPS ratio. At 20:80 sPS/aPS ratio, the block copolymers

  2. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  3. Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-02-02

    We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.

  4. A Gaussian mixture ensemble transform filter

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the popular ensemble Kalman filter to an ensemble transform filter where the prior distribution can take the form of a Gaussian mixture or a Gaussian kernel density estimator. The design of the filter is based on a continuous formulation of the Bayesian filter analysis step. We call the new filter algorithm the ensemble Gaussian mixture filter (EGMF). The EGMF is implemented for three simple test problems (Brownian dynamics in one dimension, Langevin dynamics in two dimensions, ...

  5. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  6. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  7. Yasp for LEIR to PS injection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A; Jacquet, D; Nicosia, D; Pasinelli, S; Wenninger, J

    2017-01-01

    The steering program YASP was introduced in the LEIRinjection as well as the extraction lines in 2016 to correctthe trajectories with well-known model based correctionalgorithms such as MICADO or SVD. In addition a YASPconfiguration was prepared to correct the extraction linetogether with the first turn of the PS. In this way the injectionoscillations can be corrected while keeping the trajectoryreasonable in the PS injection line.

  8. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see the PS magnet string awaiting the replacement no. 6 magnet.

  9. A Family of Non-Gaussian Martingales with Gaussian Marginals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Hamza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a family of martingales with Gaussian marginal distributions. We give a weak construction as Markov, inhomogeneous in time processes, and compute their infinitesimal generators. We give the predictable quadratic variation and show that the paths are not continuous. The construction uses distributions Gσ having a log-convolution semigroup property. Further, we categorize these processes as belonging to one of two classes, one of which is made up of piecewise deterministic pure jump processes. This class includes the case where Gσ is an inverse log-Poisson distribution. The processes in the second class include the case where Gσ is an inverse log-gamma distribution. The richness of the family has the potential to allow for the imposition of specifications other than the marginal distributions.

  10. Upgrading fuzzy logic by GA-PS to determine asphaltene stability in crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Ahmadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation and deposition of asphaltene are undesirable phenomena that arise during petroleum production which give rise to a pronounced rate of increase in operational cost and adversely affect production rates as well. Hence, it is imperative to develop a mathematical model for the assessment of asphaltene stability in crude oil. In the present study, delta RI which constitutes the difference between refractive index of crude oil (RI and refractive index of crude oil at the onset of asphaltene precipitation (PRI is employed as the principal factor for determining the asphaltene stability of the region. Fuzzy logic is a potent tool capable of extracting the underlying dependency between SARA fractions (saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene data and delta RI for the inexpensive and rapid diagnosis of asphaltene stability. In this study a novel strategy known as hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS is suggested for the development of an optimal fuzzy logic model as a reliable alternative for the widely-applied subtractive clustering (SC method. While SC solely optimizes mean of input Gaussian membership functions (GMFs, GA-PS tool optimizes both mean and variance of input GMFs. Comparison between GA-PS and SC methods confirmed the capability of GA-PS for developing an optimal fuzzy logic model.

  11. Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartiglia, N.; Staiano, A.; Sola, V.; Arcidiacono, R.; Cirio, R.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R.; Bellora, A.; Durando, S.; Mandurrino, M.; Minafra, N.; Fadeyev, V.; Freeman, P.; Galloway, Z.; Gkougkousis, E.; Grabas, H.; Gruey, B.; Labitan, C. A.; Losakul, R.; Luce, Z.; McKinney-Martinez, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Wilder, M.; Woods, N.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Hidalgo, S.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Merlos, A.; Quirion, D.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 μm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low-Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm2. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V.

  12. Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N., E-mail: cartiglia@to.infn.it [INFN, Torino (Italy); Staiano, A.; Sola, V. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Arcidiacono, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Cirio, R.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellora, A.; Durando, S. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mandurrino, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Minafra, N. [University of Kansas, KS (United States); Fadeyev, V.; Freeman, P.; Galloway, Z.; Gkougkousis, E. [SCIPP, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 µm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low-Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm{sup 2}. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V.

  13. Low energy o-Ps-o-Ps elastic scattering using a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanshu, Sharma [Veer Kunwar Singh Univ., Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Kiran, Kumari [R N College, P. G. Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Sumana, Chakraborty [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Dept. of Theoretical Physics (India)

    2009-06-15

    A simple model is employed to investigate o-Ps-o-Ps (positronium-positronium) scattering at low energies. This model contains the effect of exchange explicitly and a model long range potential in the framework of static-exchange model. These two physical features are of key importance in Ps-Ps (atom-atom) scattering system. S-wave triplet-triplet and singlet-singlet scattering lengths and corresponding phase shifts up to the incident momentum k = 0.5 a.u. are in excellent agreement with those yielded by most elaborate and theoretically sound predictions. (authors)

  14. Gaussian fluctuations in chaotic eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Srednicki, M A; Srednicki, Mark; Stiernelof, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We study the fluctuations that are predicted in the autocorrelation function of an energy eigenstate of a chaotic, two-dimensional billiard by the conjecture (due to Berry) that the eigenfunction is a gaussian random variable. We find an explicit formula for the root-mean-square amplitude of the expected fluctuations in the autocorrelation function. These fluctuations turn out to be O(\\hbar^{1/2}) in the small \\hbar (high energy) limit. For comparison, any corrections due to scars from isolated periodic orbits would also be O(\\hbar^{1/2}). The fluctuations take on a particularly simple form if the autocorrelation function is averaged over the direction of the separation vector. We compare our various predictions with recent numerical computations of Li and Robnik for the Robnik billiard, and find good agreement. We indicate how our results generalize to higher dimensions.

  15. The Halo Mass Function from Excursion Set Theory. III. Non-Gaussian Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Maggiore, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We compute the effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo mass function, using excursion set theory. In the presence of non-Gaussianity the stochastic evolution of the smoothed density field, as a function of the smoothing scale, is non-markovian and beside "local" terms that generalize Press-Schechter (PS) theory, there are also "memory" terms, whose effect on the mass function can be computed using the formalism developed in the first paper of this series. We find that, when computing the effect of the three-point correlator on the mass function, a PS-like approach which consists in neglecting the cloud-in-cloud problem and in multiplying the final result by a fudge factor close to 2, is in principle not justified. When computed correctly in the framework of excursion set theory, in fact, the "local" contribution vanishes (for all odd-point correlators the contribution of the image gaussian cancels the Press-Schechter contribution rather than adding up), and the result comes entirely from non-trivial ...

  16. Conditional and unconditional Gaussian quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Marco G.; Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio

    2016-07-01

    This article focuses on the general theory of open quantum systems in the Gaussian regime and explores a number of diverse ramifications and consequences of the theory. We shall first introduce the Gaussian framework in its full generality, including a classification of Gaussian (also known as 'general-dyne') quantum measurements. In doing so, we will give a compact proof for the parametrisation of the most general Gaussian completely positive map, which we believe to be missing in the existing literature. We will then move on to consider the linear coupling with a white noise bath, and derive the diffusion equations that describe the evolution of Gaussian states under such circumstances. Starting from these equations, we outline a constructive method to derive general master equations that apply outside the Gaussian regime. Next, we include the general-dyne monitoring of the environmental degrees of freedom and recover the Riccati equation for the conditional evolution of Gaussian states. Our derivation relies exclusively on the standard quantum mechanical update of the system state, through the evaluation of Gaussian overlaps. The parametrisation of the conditional dynamics we obtain is novel and, at variance with existing alternatives, directly ties in to physical detection schemes. We conclude our study with two examples of conditional dynamics that can be dealt with conveniently through our formalism, demonstrating how monitoring can suppress the noise in optical parametric processes as well as stabilise systems subject to diffusive scattering.

  17. Shedding new light on Gaussian harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuwen, J.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of two rather disjoint parts. One part concerns some results on Gaussian harmonic analysis and the other on an optimization problem in optics. In the first part we study the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process with respect to the Gaussian measure. We focus on two areas. One is

  18. Gaussian queues in light and heavy traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dębicki, K.; Kosiński, K.M.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Gaussian queues in the light-traffic and in the heavy-traffic regime. Let $Q^{(c)}_{X}\\equiv\\{Q^{(c)}_{X}(t):t\\ge0\\}$ denote a stationary buffer content process for a fluid queue fed by the centered Gaussian process X≡{X(t):t∈ℝ} with stationary increments, X(0)=0,

  19. Entanglement Rate for Gaussian Continuous Variable Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    for Gaussian continuous variable beams Zhi JiaoDeng1,2, Steven JMHabraken1 and FlorianMarquardt1,3 1 Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Friedrich...91058 Erlangen, Germany E-mail: Florian.Marquardt@physik.uni-erlangen.de Keywords: entanglement rate, entangledGaussian beams , optomechanics Abstract

  20. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  1. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  2. A Methodology to Assess the Accuracy with which Remote Data Characterize a Specific Surface, as a Function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM): Application to Three Italian Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Betti, Mattia; Campanelli, Alessandra; Di Cicco, Annalisa; Guglietta, Daniela; Penna, Pierluigi; Piermattei, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    This methodology assesses the accuracy with which remote data characterizes a surface, as a function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The purpose is to identify the best remote data that improves the characterization of a surface, evaluating the number of bands in the spectral range. The first step creates an accurate dataset of remote simulated data, using in situ hyperspectral reflectances. The second step evaluates the capability of remote simulated data to characterize this surface. The spectral similarity measurements, which are obtained using classifiers, provide this capability. The third step examines the precision of this capability. The assumption is that in situ hyperspectral reflectances are considered the “real” reflectances. They are resized with the same spectral range of the remote data. The spectral similarity measurements which are obtained from “real” resized reflectances, are considered “real” measurements. Therefore, the quantity and magnitude of “errors” (i.e., differences between spectral similarity measurements obtained from “real” resized reflectances and from remote data) provide the accuracy as a function of FWHM. This methodology was applied to evaluate the accuracy with which CHRIS-mode1, CHRIS-mode2, Landsat5-TM, MIVIS and PRISMA data characterize three coastal waters. Their mean values of uncertainty are 1.59%, 3.79%, 7.75%, 3.15% and 1.18%, respectively. PMID:24434875

  3. A Methodology to Assess the Accuracy with which Remote Data Characterize a Specific Surface, as a Function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM: Application to Three Italian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Cavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This methodology assesses the accuracy with which remote data characterizes a surface, as a function of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM. The purpose is to identify the best remote data that improves the characterization of a surface, evaluating the number of bands in the spectral range. The first step creates an accurate dataset of remote simulated data, using in situ hyperspectral reflectances. The second step evaluates the capability of remote simulated data to characterize this surface. The spectral similarity measurements, which are obtained using classifiers, provide this capability. The third step examines the precision of this capability. The assumption is that in situ hyperspectral reflectances are considered the “real” reflectances. They are resized with the same spectral range of the remote data. The spectral similarity measurements which are obtained from “real” resized reflectances, are considered “real” measurements. Therefore, the quantity and magnitude of “errors” (i.e., differences between spectral similarity measurements obtained from “real” resized reflectances and from remote data provide the accuracy as a function of FWHM. This methodology was applied to evaluate the accuracy with which CHRIS-mode1, CHRIS-mode2, Landsat5-TM, MIVIS and PRISMA data characterize three coastal waters. Their mean values of uncertainty are 1.59%, 3.79%, 7.75%, 3.15% and 1.18%, respectively.

  4. Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states...

  5. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  6. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. These pictures show one of the magnets (no. 19) on the PS locomotive brought back into service for the removal and replacement operations.

  7. No-go theorem for gaussian quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niset, Julien; Fiurásek, Jaromír; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2009-03-27

    We prove that Gaussian operations are of no use for protecting Gaussian states against Gaussian errors in quantum communication protocols. Specifically, we introduce a new quantity characterizing any single-mode Gaussian channel, called entanglement degradation, and show that it cannot decrease via Gaussian encoding and decoding operations only. The strength of this no-go theorem is illustrated with some examples of Gaussian channels.

  8. Sub-100 ps coincidence time resolution for positron emission tomography with LSO:Ce codoped with Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) becomes a key parameter of 511keV gamma detection in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). This is because additional information obtained through timing leads to a better noise suppression and therefore a better signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed image. In this paper we present the results of CTR measurements on two different SiPM technologies from FBK coupled to LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals. We compare the measurements performed at two separate test setups, i.e. at CERN and at FBK, showing that the obtained results agree within a few percent. We achieve a best CTR value of 85  ±  4 ps FWHM for 2  ×  2  ×  3 mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals, thus breaking the 100 ps barrier with scintillators similar to LSO:Ce or LYSO:Ce. We also demonstrate that a CTR of 140  ±  5 ps can be achieved for longer 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 crystals, which can readily be implemented in the current generation PET syst...

  9. Asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a family of asymmetric Laguerre-Gaussian (aLG) laser beams. The beams have been derived via a complex-valued shift of conventional LG beams in the Cartesian plane. While propagating in a uniform medium, the first bright ring of the aLG beam becomes less asymmetric and the energy is redistributed toward peripheral diffraction rings. The projection of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) onto the optical axis is calculated. The OAM is shown to grow quadratically with increasing asymmetry parameter of the aLG beam, which equals the ratio of the shift to the waist radius. Conditions for the OAM becoming equal to the topological charge have been derived. For aLG beams with zero radial index, we have deduced an expression to define the intensity maximum coordinates and shown the crescent-shaped intensity pattern to rotate during propagation. Results of the experimental generation and rotation of aLG beams agree well with theoretical predictions.

  10. Gaussian mixture model of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Costa

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is an important measure of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions of the autonomic nervous system and a key indicator of cardiovascular condition. This paper proposes a novel method to investigate HRV, namely by modelling it as a linear combination of Gaussians. Results show that three Gaussians are enough to describe the stationary statistics of heart variability and to provide a straightforward interpretation of the HRV power spectrum. Comparisons have been made also with synthetic data generated from different physiologically based models showing the plausibility of the Gaussian mixture parameters.

  11. Equilateral non-Gaussianity from heavy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Pi, Shi [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: spi@apctp.org, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The effect of self-interactions of heavy scalar fields during inflation on the primordial non-Gaussianity is studied. We take a specific constant-turn quasi-single field inflation as an example. We derive an effective theory with emphasis on non-linear self-interactions of heavy fields and calculate the corresponding non-Gaussianity, which is of equilateral type and can be as relevant as those computed previously in the literature. We also derive the non-Gaussianity by directly using the in-in formalism, and verify the equivalence of these two approaches.

  12. Laguerre Gaussian beam multiplexing through turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Naidoo, Darryl; Dudley, Angela; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of multiplexed Laguerre Gaussian modes. We present a method to multiplex Laguerre Gaussian modes using digital holograms and decompose the resulting field after encountering a laboratory simulated atmospheric turbulence. The proposed technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator for the generation of superimposed beam and a second spatial light modulator and a CCD camera for the modal decomposition. The obtained results demonstrate how sensitive the Laguerre Gaussian beams are to atmospheric distortions.

  13. Non-Gaussian signatures of tachyacoustic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessada, Dennis, E-mail: dennis.bessada@unifesp.br [UNIFESP — Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computação Científica, Rua São Nicolau, 210, 09913-030, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-01

    I investigate non-Gaussian signatures in the context of tachyacoustic cosmology, that is, a noninflationary model with superluminal speed of sound. I calculate the full non-Gaussian amplitude A, its size f{sub NL}, and corresponding shapes for a red-tilted spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations. Specifically, for cuscuton-like models I show that f{sub NL} ∼ O(1), and the shape of its non-Gaussian amplitude peaks for both equilateral and local configurations, the latter being dominant. These results, albeit similar, are quantitatively distinct from the corresponding ones obtained by Magueijo et al. in the context of superluminal bimetric models.

  14. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  15. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional…

  16. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    CERN Multimedia

    Adams,J

    1969-01-01

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  17. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  18. 978 nm 1.24 ps ultra-short plused large mode area photonic crystal fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingxue; Liang, Boxing; Zhang, Mengmeng; Yao, Yifei; Chi, Junjie; Hu, Haowei; Zhang, Guangju; Ma, Chunmei; Su, Ning

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 980 nm passively mode-locking Yb-doped large mode area photonic crystal fiber oscillator with semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique, simultaneously. The oscillator generates a maximum average output power of 497 mW with a repetition rate of 87.37 MHz. Because of the invisible filter effect of NPE mode-locked fiber laser, we achieved an ultra-short pulse width of 1.24 ps. The output spectrum of the pulse is centered at 977.7 nm with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 1.90 nm and has a characteristic steep spectral edges of dissipative soliton. In this paper, the pulse evolution process of 980 nm mode-locking fiber laser is simulated and the experimental results are good agreement with the simulation results.

  19. A non-Gaussian multivariate distribution with all lower-dimensional Gaussians and related families

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-07-28

    Several fascinating examples of non-Gaussian bivariate distributions which have marginal distribution functions to be Gaussian have been proposed in the literature. These examples often clarify several properties associated with the normal distribution. In this paper, we generalize this result in the sense that we construct a pp-dimensional distribution for which any proper subset of its components has the Gaussian distribution. However, the jointpp-dimensional distribution is inconsistent with the distribution of these subsets because it is not Gaussian. We study the probabilistic properties of this non-Gaussian multivariate distribution in detail. Interestingly, several popular tests of multivariate normality fail to identify this pp-dimensional distribution as non-Gaussian. We further extend our construction to a class of elliptically contoured distributions as well as skewed distributions arising from selections, for instance the multivariate skew-normal distribution.

  20. Improved Gaussian Beam-Scattering Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam.

  1. Gravitational Lensing Mass Mapping with Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Ng, Karen; Dawson, William; Marshall, Phil; Meyers, Joshua; Bard, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a Gaussian Process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear orGaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we present computational performance metrics with approximate algorithms that introduce sparsity in the Gaussian Process kernel.

  2. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-08-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting “noisiness” of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  3. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Filippo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Eisert, Jens [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universitaet Berlin, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Holevo, Alexander S. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkina 8, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  4. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  5. Gaussian beam tracing for ocean acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael B.; Hursky, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Gaussian beam tracing methods have emerged as a standard approach for modeling sound propagation in the ocean. The first implementations were developed in the 1970's by Bucker and evolved significantly. Today there are actually some four different types of Gaussian beam algorithms. They are quite different in terms of both the beam characteristics and their performance. This paper will review the development of the methods and their application to typical ocean acoustic problems.

  6. Analytic Moment-based Gaussian Process Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Deisenroth, MP; Huber, MF; Hanebeck, UD

    2009-01-01

    04.07.13 KB. Ok to add accepted version to Spiral, authors retain copyright. We propose an analytic moment-based filter for nonlinear stochastic dynamic systems modeled by Gaussian processes. Exact expressions for the expected value and the covariance matrix are provided for both the prediction step and the filter step, where an additional Gaussian assumption is exploited in the latter case. Our filter does not require further approximations. In particular, it avoids finite-sample approxi...

  7. Integration of non-Gaussian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Mohr, Gunnar; Hoffmeyer, Pernille

    1996-01-01

    The limitations of the validity of the central limit theorem argument as applied to definite integrals of non-Gaussian random fields are empirically explored by way of examples. The purpose is to investigate in specific cases whether the asymptotic convergence to the Gaussian distribution is fast...... of the method, it may therefore, in special situations with negative correlation, be necessary to introduce numerical integration checks or simulation checks of the results....

  8. Purity- and Gaussianity-bounded uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandilara, A.; Karpov, E.; Cerf, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bounded uncertainty relations provide the minimum value of the uncertainty assuming some additional information on the state. We derive analytically an uncertainty relation bounded by a pair of constraints, those of purity and Gaussianity. In a limiting case this uncertainty relation reproduces the purity-bounded derived by Man’ko and Dodonov and the Gaussianity-bounded one (Mandilara and Cerf 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 030102R).

  9. Bit error rate analysis of Gaussian, annular Gaussian, cos Gaussian, and cosh Gaussian beams with the help of random phase screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T

    2014-06-10

    Using the random phase screen approach, we carry out a simulation analysis of the probability of error performance of Gaussian, annular Gaussian, cos Gaussian, and cosh Gaussian beams. In our scenario, these beams are intensity-modulated by the randomly generated binary symbols of an electrical message signal and then launched from the transmitter plane in equal powers. They propagate through a turbulent atmosphere modeled by a series of random phase screens. Upon arriving at the receiver plane, detection is performed in a circuitry consisting of a pin photodiode and a matched filter. The symbols detected are compared with the transmitted ones, errors are counted, and from there the probability of error is evaluated numerically. Within the range of source and propagation parameters tested, the lowest probability of error is obtained for the annular Gaussian beam. Our investigation reveals that there is hardly any difference between the aperture-averaged scintillations of the beams used, and the distinctive advantage of the annular Gaussian beam lies in the fact that the receiver aperture captures the maximum amount of power when this particular beam is launched from the transmitter plane.

  10. Gaussian particle flow implementation of PHD filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingling; Wang, Junjie; Li, Yunpeng; Coates, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Particle filter and Gaussian mixture implementations of random finite set filters have been proposed to tackle the issue of jointly estimating the number of targets and their states. The Gaussian mixture PHD (GM-PHD) filter has a closed-form expression for the PHD for linear and Gaussian target models, and extensions using the extended Kalman filter or unscented Kalman Filter have been developed to allow the GM-PHD filter to accommodate mildly nonlinear dynamics. Errors resulting from linearization or model mismatch are unavoidable. A particle filter implementation of the PHD filter (PF-PHD) is more suitable for nonlinear and non-Gaussian target models. The particle filter implementations are much more computationally expensive and performance can suffer when the proposal distribution is not a good match to the posterior. In this paper, we propose a novel implementation of the PHD filter named the Gaussian particle flow PHD filter (GPF-PHD). It employs a bank of particle flow filters to approximate the PHD; these play the same role as the Gaussian components in the GM-PHD filter but are better suited to non-linear dynamics and measurement equations. Using the particle flow filter allows the GPF-PHD filter to migrate particles to the dense regions of the posterior, which leads to higher efficiency than the PF-PHD. We explore the performance of the new algorithm through numerical simulations.

  11. PP and PS joint inversion with a posterior constraint and with particle filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Yanfei

    2017-12-01

    The Bayesian framework works well in amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion, which merges multi-information together to generate posterior distributions of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Most existing AVO inversion methods utilize PP reflection seismic data to predict the three elastic parameters. These methods are not usually sensitive to S-wave velocity and density, which make the inversion methods inaccurate and unstable. One way of solving these problems is to perform PP and PS joint inversion by incorporating PS seismic data. Another way is to provide a relatively accurate prior model. In this paper, we apply a particle filtering technique to produce a prior model for the PP and PS joint inversion. In the Bayesian inversion setting, the prior model works as the regularization term. Particle filtering is a Bayesian recursive method that combines prior information with observed data to provide a posterior constraint to reduce the joint inversion’s uncertainty. We generate synthetic models with different signal-to-noise ratios to validate our new method. Comparisons are provided with the traditional joint inversion, which adopts the Gaussian prior model. The inversion results show that the three elastic parameters are retrieved well when the signal-to-noise ratios are high. As the signal-to-noise ratio reduces, our new method can depict more detailed changes than the traditional inversion method, and improves the inversion accuracy apparent in the target layers.

  12. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J.; Mann, J.; Natarajan, A.; Patton, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    In wind energy applications the turbulent velocity field of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is often characterised by Gaussian probability density functions. When estimating the dynamical loads on wind turbines this has been the rule more than anything else. From numerous studies in the laboratory, in Direct Numerical Simulations, and from in-situ measurements of the ABL we know, however, that turbulence is not purely Gaussian: the smallest and fastest scales often exhibit extreme behaviour characterised by strong non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution we want to investigate whether these non-Gaussian effects are important when determining wind turbine loads, and hence of utmost importance to the design criteria and lifetime of a wind turbine. We devise a method based on Principal Orthogonal Decomposition where non-Gaussian velocity fields generated by high-resolution pseudo-spectral Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the ABL are transformed so that they maintain the exact same second-order statistics including variations of the statistics with height, but are otherwise Gaussian. In that way we can investigate in isolation the question whether it is important for wind turbine loads to include non-Gaussian properties of atmospheric turbulence. As an illustration the Figure show both a non-Gaussian velocity field (left) from our LES, and its transformed Gaussian Counterpart (right). Whereas the horizontal velocity components (top) look close to identical, the vertical components (bottom) are not: the non-Gaussian case is much more fluid-like (like in a sketch by Michelangelo). The question is then: Does the wind turbine see this? Using the load simulation software HAWC2 with both the non-Gaussian and newly constructed Gaussian fields, respectively, we show that the Fatigue loads and most of the Extreme loads are unaltered when using non-Gaussian velocity fields. The turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter which average out the non-Gaussian behaviour on time

  13. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets (no.'s 6 and 19)and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Pictured here are members of the PS team with the replacement no. 6 magnet. From left to right: In the back row, Frédéric Roussel (Transport DBS), Yves Bernard (Transport DBS), Luc Moreno (Cegelec), Thierry Battimanza (Transport DBS), Raymond Brown (AB/ABP), Thomas Zickler (AT/MEL); at the front, Steven Southern (AT/VAC), Thierry Gaidon (Brun & Sorensen), Philippe Vidales (Cegelec), Daniel Aubert (Cegelec), Jerome Cachet (Transport DBS), Jose Manual Gomes de Faria (AT/MEL), Eric Page (AT/VAC).

  14. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators´ spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 19) being prepared.

  15. The PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks.

  16. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  17. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  18. Memories of the PS and of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The CERN PS, which started in 1959, and the Brookhaven AGS in 1960, represented an advance by a factor of more than five in the energy of proton accelerators, from the 5 GeV of the Berkeley Bevatron to about 30 GeV. These accelerators made possible the large progress in our understanding of particles and their interactions over the next two decades, culminating in the electroweak and QCD gauge theories.

  19. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 6) being prepared.

  20. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  1. Semiparametric inference on the fractal index of Gaussian and conditionally Gaussian time series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    Using theory on (conditionally) Gaussian processes with stationary increments developed in Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2009, 2011), this paper presents a general semiparametric approach to conducting inference on the fractal index, α, of a time series. Our setup encompasses a large class of Gaussian...

  2. Mechanisms of particle clustering in Gaussian and non-Gaussian synthetic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Christopher; Andersson, Helge I

    2014-10-01

    We use synthetic turbulence simulations to study how inertial particles cluster in a turbulent flow, for a wide range of Stokes numbers. Two different types of synthetic turbulence are used: one Gaussian, where the time evolution of the velocity field is a simple phase shift, and one non-Gaussian, where convection is used to evolve the velocity field in time. In both flow types we observe significant particle clustering over a wide range of scales and Stokes numbers. The clustering found at low Stokes numbers can be attributed to the vortex centrifuge effect, where heavy particles are expelled from regions dominated by vorticity. This mechanism is much more effective in the non-Gaussian turbulence, because local flow structures are convected with the particles. The preferential sampling of regions with low vorticity is almost negligible in the Gaussian turbulence. At higher Stokes numbers, caustics are formed in a very similar manner in both Gaussian and non-Gaussian synthetic turbulence. In non-Gaussian turbulence, heavy particles cluster in regions of low fluid kinetic energy, while the opposite is true in Gaussian turbulence. Our results show that synthetic simulations cannot correctly predict how the particle clustering correlates with local fluid flow properties, without including convection.

  3. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamideh Kazemi, Seyedeh; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    We present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named ‘trap split’, in a conventional four-level double-Λ atomic system, driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can always be achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This feature is enabled by the interaction of the atomic system and the Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses with zero intensity in the center. A further advantage of using Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses is the insensitivity to fluctuation in the intensity of the lasers in such a way that the separation between the traps remains constant. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the suggested scheme with Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses can form optical traps with spatial sizes that are not limited by the wavelength of the laser, and can, in principle, become smaller than the wavelength of light. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating of particles and the generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  4. Hydraulic Conductivity Fields: Gaussian or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Dogan, Mine; Van Dam, Remke L.; Hyndman, David W.; Benson, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) fields are used to parameterize groundwater flow and transport models. Numerical simulations require a detailed representation of the K field, synthesized to interpolate between available data. Several recent studies introduced high resolution K data (HRK) at the Macro Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site, and used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to delineate the main structural features of the aquifer. This paper describes a statistical analysis of these data, and the implications for K field modeling in alluvial aquifers. Two striking observations have emerged from this analysis. The first is that a simple fractional difference filter can have a profound effect on data histograms, organizing non-Gaussian ln K data into a coherent distribution. The second is that using GPR facies allows us to reproduce the significantly non-Gaussian shape seen in real HRK data profiles, using a simulated Gaussian ln K field in each facies. This illuminates a current controversy in the literature, between those who favor Gaussian ln K models, and those who observe non-Gaussian ln K fields. Both camps are correct, but at different scales. PMID:24415806

  5. Gaussian Models in Automatic Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, Jeff

    Most automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems express probability densities over sequences of acoustic feature vectors using Gaussian or Gaussian-mixture hidden Markov models. In this chapter, we explore how graphical models can help describe a variety of tied (i.e., parameter shared) and regularized Gaussian mixture systems. Unlike many previous such tied systems, however, here we allow sub-portions of the Gaussians to be tied in arbitrary ways. The space of such models includes regularized, tied, and adaptive versions of mixture conditional Gaussian models and also a regularized version of maximum-likelihood linear regression (MLLR). We derive expectation-maximization (EM) update equations and explore consequences to the training algorithm under relevant variants of the equations. In particular, we find that for certain combinations of regularization and/or tying, it is no longer the case that we may achieve a closed-form analytic solution to the EM update equations. We describe, however, a generalized EM (GEM) procedure that will still increase the likelihood and has the same fixed-points as the standard EM algorithm.

  6. Models of discretized moduli spaces, cohomological field theories, and Gaussian means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Chekhov, Leonid O.; Norbury, Paul; Penner, Robert C.

    2015-12-01

    We prove combinatorially the explicit relation between genus filtrated s-loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich-Penner matrix model (KPMM). The latter is the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli spaces Mg,sdisc given by Ng,s(P1, …, Ps) for (P1, …, Ps) ∈ Z+s. This generating function therefore enjoys the topological recursion, and we prove that it is simultaneously the generating function for ancestor invariants of a cohomological field theory thus enjoying the Givental decomposition. We use another Givental-type decomposition obtained for this model by the second authors in 1995 in terms of special times related to the discretization of moduli spaces thus representing its asymptotic expansion terms (and therefore those of the Gaussian means) as finite sums over graphs weighted by lower-order monomials in times thus giving another proof of (quasi)polynomiality of the discrete volumes. As an application, we find the coefficients in the first subleading order for Mg,1 in two ways: by using the refined Harer-Zagier recursion and by exploiting the above Givental-type transformation. We put forward the conjecture that the above graph expansions can be used for probing the reduction structure of the Deligne-Mumford compactification M bar g, s of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces.

  7. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  8. Gaussian elimination is not optimal, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We refactor the universal law for the tensor product to express matrix multiplication as the product . MN of two matrices . M and . N thus making possible to use such matrix product to encode and transform algorithms performing matrix multiplication using techniques from linear algebra. We explore...... of the transformation correspond to apply Gaussian elimination to the columns of . M and to the lines of . N therefore providing explicit evidence on why "Gaussian elimination is not optimal", the aphorism serving as the title to the succinct paper introducing Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithm. Although...... the end results are equations involving matrix products, our exposition builds upon previous works on the category of matrices (and the related category of finite vector spaces) which we extend by showing: why the direct sum . (⊕,0) monoid is not closed, a biproduct encoding of Gaussian elimination...

  9. Parallelizing Gaussian Process Calculations in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Paciorek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider parallel computation for Gaussian process calculations to overcome computational and memory constraints on the size of datasets that can be analyzed. Using a hybrid parallelization approach that uses both threading (shared memory and message-passing (distributed memory, we implement the core linear algebra operations used in spatial statistics and Gaussian process regression in an R package called bigGP that relies on C and MPI. The approach divides the covariance matrix into blocks such that the computational load is balanced across processes while communication between processes is limited. The package provides an API enabling R programmers to implement Gaussian process-based methods by using the distributed linear algebra operations without any C or MPI coding. We illustrate the approach and software by analyzing an astrophysics dataset with n = 67, 275 observations.

  10. Semisupervised Gaussian Process for Automated Enzyme Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Joseph; Grigoras, Ioana; Carbonell, Pablo; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-06-17

    Synthetic biology is today harnessing the design of novel and greener biosynthesis routes for the production of added-value chemicals and natural products. The design of novel pathways often requires a detailed selection of enzyme sequences to import into the chassis at each of the reaction steps. To address such design requirements in an automated way, we present here a tool for exploring the space of enzymatic reactions. Given a reaction and an enzyme the tool provides a probability estimate that the enzyme catalyzes the reaction. Our tool first considers the similarity of a reaction to known biochemical reactions with respect to signatures around their reaction centers. Signatures are defined based on chemical transformation rules by using extended connectivity fingerprint descriptors. A semisupervised Gaussian process model associated with the similar known reactions then provides the probability estimate. The Gaussian process model uses information about both the reaction and the enzyme in providing the estimate. These estimates were validated experimentally by the application of the Gaussian process model to a newly identified metabolite in Escherichia coli in order to search for the enzymes catalyzing its associated reactions. Furthermore, we show with several pathway design examples how such ability to assign probability estimates to enzymatic reactions provides the potential to assist in bioengineering applications, providing experimental validation to our proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach is the first application of Gaussian processes dealing with biological sequences and chemicals, the use of a semisupervised Gaussian process framework is also novel in the context of machine learning applied to bioinformatics. However, the ability of an enzyme to catalyze a reaction depends on the affinity between the substrates of the reaction and the enzyme. This affinity is generally quantified by the Michaelis constant KM

  11. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip osteoarthr......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip...

  12. A Survey of Gaussian Convolution Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian convolution is a common operation and building block for algorithms in signal and image processing. Consequently, its efficient computation is important, and many fast approximations have been proposed. In this survey, we discuss approximate Gaussian convolution based on finite impulse response filters, DFT and DCT based convolution, box filters, and several recursive filters. Since boundary handling is sometimes overlooked in the original works, we pay particular attention to develop it here. We perform numerical experiments to compare the speed and quality of the algorithms.

  13. Bregman Cost for Non-Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Martin; Dong, Yiqiu; Sciacchitano, Federica

    estimator for the Bregman cost if the image is corrupted by Gaussian noise. In this work we extend this result to other noise models with log-concave likelihood density, by introducing two related Bregman cost functions for which the CM and the MAP estimates are proper Bayes estima-tors. Moreover, we also...... prove that the CM estimate outperforms the MAP estimate, when the error is measured in a certain Bregman distance, a result previously unknown also in the case of additive Gaussian noise....

  14. Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, O.

    2006-04-06

    This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)

  15. Construction of Capacity Achieving Lattice Gaussian Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Wael

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new approach to proving results regarding channel coding schemes based on construction-A lattices for the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel that yields new characterizations of the code construction parameters, i.e., the primes and dimensions of the codes, as functions of the block-length. The approach we take introduces an averaging argument that explicitly involves the considered parameters. This averaging argument is applied to a generalized Loeliger ensemble [1] to provide a more practical proof of the existence of AWGN-good lattices, and to characterize suitable parameters for the lattice Gaussian coding scheme proposed by Ling and Belfiore [3].

  16. Laguerre-Gaussian modal q-plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2017-05-15

    We propose space-variant uniaxial flat optical elements designed to generate pure Laguerre-Gaussian modes with arbitrary azimuthal and radial indices l and p from an incident Gaussian beam. This is done via the combined use of the dynamic and the geometric phases. Optimal design protocol for the mode conversion efficiency is derived, and the corresponding characteristics are given for -6≤l≤6 and 0≤p≤5. The obtained "modal q-plates" may find many applications whenever the radial degree of freedom of a light field is at play.

  17. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  18. Gaussian mode selection with intracavity diffractive optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available in Optics Letters: Title:   Gaussian mode selection with intra–cavity diffractive optics Authors:   Andrew Forbes and Igor Litvin Accepted:   3 September 2009 Posted:   9 September 2009 Doc. ID:   113692 OSA Published by 1 Gaussian mode selection... with intra–cavity diffractive optics Igor A. Litvin1,2 and Andrew Forbes1,3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Institute, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa 3School of Physics...

  19. Evolving science enhanced with iPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear friends, Greetings from all in the team. With the stage set for online submissions and the review-response-revision-resubmission process standardized, we have come with the first regular issue and from now there will be quarterly issues of the journal. Since the starting of the JSRM in a short span there have been a lot of developments, which we would rather say as "evolutions" keeping in mind, the recent iPS! This evolution we would like you to see from a background of the various developments in the art and science of medicine throughout in the past three centuries. We have come across the era of investigative tools such as bamboo made laryngoscopes to era of vaccines and antibiotics followed by the era of revolutionary non-invasive procedures and recently the nano technology based drugs and now the iPS! Macro to Micro, but still more to go. All through the influence of the society, religions, philosophies have been playing a very important role in every step the science of biology moves ahead. Starting with the contraception, assisted reproduction then the gene modified plants....and now the embryonic stem cells! With the advent of the iPS, though the issues of oncogenes, teratoma yet to be ruled out, we have found there is a way which can bypass the ES cells! Hats off to those scientists who have burnt their midnight oil to have found this way out! The lesson we learn is to explore things with an open mind and continue to proceed further without spending much time fingers crossed. Yours sincerely,The Editorial team.

  20. Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributions and the identification of terrestrial and extraterrestrial intelligence objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Haitun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical criteria used today in the analysis of radio signals suspected on reasonable extraterrestrial origin, are based on the assumption that all the radio signals of natural origin are described by a Gaussian distribution, which is traditionally understood as the Gauss distribution. Usually the normal (Gauss distribution is opposed to all the others. However, this is difficult to recognize the reasonable, because in nature there are many different distributions. The article offers a more realistic dichotomy: the Gaussian distributions, obeying the central limiting theorem, dominate in nature, while non-Gaussian ones, obeying the Gnedenko-Doeblin limiting theorem, are generated by intelligent beings. When identifying objects belonging to an extraterrestrial civilization described by a non-Gaussian distribution is preferable to use the rank form distributions. Using this criterion is associated with certain difficulties: (1 in nature there are also non-Gaussian distributions; (2 in their activities animals generate non-Gaussian distributions like humans; (3 the identification of non-Gaussian distributions in the rank form is hampered sometimes by the rank distortion effect of mathematical nature.

  1. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  2. Space charge studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Asvesta, F; Damerau, H; Huschauer, A; Papaphilippou, Y; Serluca, M; Sterbini, G; Zisopoulos, P

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the results of Machine Development (MD)studies conducted at the CERN Proton Sychrotron (PS) arepresented. The main focus was the investigation of newworking points in an effort to characterize and potentiallyimprove the brightness for LHC-type beams in view of theLHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU). Various working points werecompared in terms of losses and emittance evolution. Sincespace charge and the resonances it excites are the main causefor emittance blow-up and losses, tunes close to excitedresonances were carefully studied. Mitigation techniques,such as bunch flattening using a double harmonic RF system,were also tested.

  3. Generating the Gaussian Basis Functions for Multi-Gaussian Beam Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, Lester W.; Lopez-Sanchez, Ana; Sedov, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    A new K-space Prony's method is developed to determine the amplitude and phase terms of the Gaussians used in a multi-Gaussian beam model. Unlike the previous uses of Prony's method this new K-space approach allows the fitting of the Gaussian beams directly at the face of the transducer. The ability of the K-space Prony's method to model the transducer wave field of planar and focused piston transducers is demonstrated. It is shown that while this method is very fast there are also some stability and sensitivity issues associated with this approach.

  4. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  5. Chemotherapy and quality of life in NSCLC PS 2 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Strøm, Hans H; Sundstrøm, Stein H

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40% of patients with advanced NSCLC are in performance status (PS) 2. These patients have a shorter life expectancy than PS 0/1 patients and they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Data on how platinum-based combination chemotherapy affects Health Related Quality of Life...... (HRQOL) of patients with PS 2 are scarce and the treatment of this important group of patients is controversial. METHODS: A national multicenter phase III study on platinum based chemotherapy to 432 advanced NSCLC patients included 123 patients with PS 2. To explore the treatment impact on HRQOL......: Whereas the demographic data at baseline were well balanced between the groups, the PS 2 patients had significantly worse function and more severe symptoms than the PS 0/1 patients. In response to combination chemotherapy, the PS 2 patients had a more profound improvement of global QOL, cognitive function...

  6. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  7. Sofrimento psíquico e trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rosa Salles Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aprofunda questões clínico-téoricas relacionadas especificamente ao trabalho docente e ao sofrimento psíquico a ele relacionado a partir da observação clínica e vivência grupal nos atendimentos terapêuticos ocupacionais realizados no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" (HSPE-FMO. Partindo dos estudos acerca da Psicopatologia do Trabalho de Christophe Dejours, do trabalho docente e do relato de um caso clínico, caracteriza a problemática do sofrimento no trabalho, os sistemas de defesa contra este sofrimento, a ameaça à subjetividade do próprio trabalhador, as representações e conflitos vivenciados no trabalho docente, bem como a relação aditiva estabelecida como uma estratégia inconsciente de sobrevivência psíquica.

  8. A Gaussian IV estimator of cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårdsen, Gunnar; Haldrup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    -nonparametricestimators. Theoretically ideal instruments can be defined to ensure a limitingGaussian distribution of IV estimators, but unfortunately such instruments areunlikely to be found in real data. In the present paper we suggest an IV estimatorwhere the Hodrick-Prescott filtered trends are used as instruments forthe regressors...

  9. Statistically tuned Gaussian background subtraction technique for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sample videos of various properties such as cluttered background, small objects, moving background and multiple objects are considered for evaluation. The technique is statistically compared with frame differencing technique, temporal median method and mixture of Gaussian model and performance evaluation is done to ...

  10. Open problems in Gaussian fluid queueing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dȩbicki, K.; Mandjes, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present three challenging open problems that originate from the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of Gaussian fluid queueing models. In particular, we address the problem of characterizing the correlation structure of the stationary buffer content process, the speed of convergence to

  11. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  12. Oracle Wiener filtering of a Gaussian signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824518; Belitser, E.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159499585

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of filtering a Gaussian process whose trajectories, in some sense, have an unknown smoothness β0 from the white noise of small intensity . If we knew the parameter β0, we would use the Wiener filter which has the meaning of oracle. Our goal is now to mimic the oracle, i.e.,

  13. Fourth Power Diophantine Equations in Gaussian Integers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25

    Fourth Power Diophantine Equations in Gaussian. Integers. Farzali Izadi · Rasool Naghdali. Forooshani · Amaneh Amiryousefi. Varnousfaderani . Received: date / Accepted: date. Abstract In this paper we examine a class of fourth power Diophantine equa- tions of the form x4 + kx2y2 + y4 = z2 and ax4 + by4 = cz2, in the ...

  14. Advanced LIGO: non-Gaussian beams

    OpenAIRE

    D’Ambrosio, Erika; O’Shaugnessy, Richard; Thorne, Kip; Willems, Phil; Strigin, Sergey; Vyatchanin, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    By using non-Gaussian, flat-topped beams in the advanced gravitational wave interferometers currently being designed, one can reduce the impact on the interferometer sensitivity of a variety of fundamental disturbances (thermoelastic noise, noise in mirror coatings, thermal lensing, etc). This may make beating the standard quantum limit an achievable goal.

  15. Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ben Salem, Amine; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information encoding and decoding using different data transmission scenarios is presented. The effects of the atmospheric turbulence introduced in free space communication is discussed as well.

  16. Non-Gaussianity effects in petrophysical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.

    2013-10-01

    It has been proved that there are many indicators (petrophysical quantities) for the estimation of petroleum reservoirs. The value of information contained in each indicator is yet to be addressed. In this work, the most famous and applicable petrophysical quantities for a reservoir, which are the gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and deep induced resistivity (ILD), have been analyzed in order to characterize a reservoir. The implemented technique is the well-logging method. Based on the log-normal model defined in random multiplicative processes, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the data sets is described. The shape of the PDF depends on the parameter λ2 which determines the efficiency of non-Gaussianity. When non-Gaussianity appears, it is a sign of uncertainty and phase transition in the critical regime. The large value and scale-invariant behavior of the non-Gaussian parameter λ2 is an indication of a new phase which proves adequate for the existence of petroleum reservoirs. Our results show that one of the indicators (GR) is more non-Gaussian than the other indicators, scale wise. This means that GR is a continuously critical indicator. But by moving windows with various scales, the estimated λ2 shows that the most appropriate indicator for distinguishing the critical regime is ILD, which shows an increase at the end of the measured region of the well.

  17. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  18. Sending Quantum Information with Gaussian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, Alexander S.

    Quantum information characteristics, such as quantum mutual information, loss, noise and coherent information are explicitly calculated for Bosonic attenuation/amplification channel with input Gaussian state. The coherent information is shown to be negative for the values of the attenuation coefficient k < 1sqrt 2.

  19. Sending Quantum Information with Gaussian States

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, Alexander S.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum information characteristics, such as quantum mutual information, loss, noise and coherent information are explicitly calculated for Bosonic attenuation/amplification channel with input Gaussian state. The coherent information is shown to be negative for the values of the attenuation coefficient $k

  20. KAJIAN INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL (iPS (HARAPAN DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  1. Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular

  2. Gaussian States Minimize the Output Entropy of One-Mode Quantum Gaussian Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    We prove the long-standing conjecture stating that Gaussian thermal input states minimize the output von Neumann entropy of one-mode phase-covariant quantum Gaussian channels among all the input states with a given entropy. Phase-covariant quantum Gaussian channels model the attenuation and the noise that affect any electromagnetic signal in the quantum regime. Our result is crucial to prove the converse theorems for both the triple trade-off region and the capacity region for broadcast communication of the Gaussian quantum-limited amplifier. Our result extends to the quantum regime the entropy power inequality that plays a key role in classical information theory. Our proof exploits a completely new technique based on the recent determination of the p →q norms of the quantum-limited amplifier [De Palma et al., arXiv:1610.09967]. This technique can be applied to any quantum channel.

  3. Quantifying non-Gaussianity of quantum-state correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-11-01

    We consider how to quantify non-Gaussianity for the correlation of a bipartite quantum state by using various measures such as relative entropy and geometric distances. We first show that an intuitive approach, i.e., subtracting the correlation of a reference Gaussian state from that of a target non-Gaussian state, fails to yield a non-negative measure with monotonicity under local Gaussian channels. Our finding clearly manifests that quantum-state correlations generally have no Gaussian extremality. We therefore propose a different approach by introducing relevantly averaged states to address correlation. This enables us to define a non-Gaussianity measure based on, e.g., the trace-distance and the fidelity, fulfilling all requirements as a measure of non-Gaussian correlation. For the case of the fidelity-based measure, we also present readily computable lower bounds of non-Gaussian correlation.

  4. Convergence of posteriors for discretized log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    In Markov chain Monte Carlo posterior computation for log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) a discretization of the continuously indexed Gaussian field is required. It is demonstrated that approximate posterior expectations computed from discretized LGCPs converge to the exact posterior expectations...

  5. A Gaussian-Sum Filter for Vertex Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Frühwirth, R.; Speer, T

    2004-01-01

    A vertex reconstruction algorithm was developed based on the Gaussian-sum Filter and implemented in the framework of the CMS reconstruction program. While linear least-square estimators are optimal in case all observation errors are Gaussian distributed, a GSF offers a better treatment of non-Gaussian distributions of track parameter errors when these are modeled by Gaussian mixtures. Results are compared to the Kalman filter.

  6. A Gaussian-Sum Filter for Vertex Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R

    2005-01-01

    A vertex reconstruction algorithm was developed based on the Gaussian-sum filter (GSF) and implemented in the framework of the CMS reconstruction program. While linear least-square estimators are optimal in case all observation errors are Gaussian distributed, the GSF offers a better treatment of non-Gaussian distributions of track parameter errors when these are modelled by Gaussian mixtures. In addition, this ensures better protection against outliers and offers some robustness.

  7. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  8. Amplitude damping of Laguerre-Gaussian modes - Journal Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors present an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The channel is tested experimentally for a Laguerre-Gaussian mode, having an azimuthal index l = 1, illustrating that it decays to a Gaussian mode in good...

  9. On the classical capacity of quantum Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Pirandola, Stefano [Department of Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5GH (United Kingdom); Aniello, Paolo, E-mail: cosmo.lupo@unicam.it, E-mail: pirs@cs.york.ac.uk, E-mail: paolo.aniello@na.infn.it, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The set of quantum Gaussian channels acting on one bosonic mode can be classified according to the action of the group of Gaussian unitaries. We look for bounds on the classical capacity for channels belonging to such a classification. Lower bounds can be efficiently calculated by restricting the study to Gaussian encodings, for which we provide analytical expressions.

  10. How Gaussian competition leads to lumpy or uniform species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lopez, Cristóbal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    of the competing species. Most models considered in the literature assume a Gaussian competition kernel. This is unfortunate, since predictions based on such a Gaussian assumption are not robust. In fact, Gaussian kernels are a border case scenario, and slight deviations from this function can lead to either...

  11. Entropic cosmology through non-gaussian statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, Rafael C; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias

    2015-01-01

    Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity, and with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, we propose an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. We use the most recent data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble expansion rate function to constrain the free parameters on the $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models modified by the non-gaussian statistics. We evaluate the problem of age and we note that such modifications solve the problem at 1$\\sigma$ level confidence. Also we analyze the effects on the linear growth of matter density perturbations.

  12. A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coimbra Pinto

    Full Text Available This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN. The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3 for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2 by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets.

  13. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Mahmoud, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The optical trapping techniques have been extensively used in physics, biophysics, micro-chemistry, and micro-mechanics to allow trapping and manipulation of materials ranging from particles, cells, biological substances, and polymers to DNA and RNA molecules. In this Letter, we present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named trap split, in a conventional four-level double-$\\Lambda$ atomic system driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can be always achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating the particles and generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  14. Gaussian laser beam tailoring using acoustooptic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, Abdelhalim; Ferria, Kouider

    2012-06-01

    Profile shaping of a Gaussian laser beam by an acoustic wave is well described using Collins integral and ABCD matrix formalism. It is shown by a numerical simulation that the relative width of the laser beam to the ultrasonic wavelength and the acoustic pressure inside the acoustooptic cell act on the light intensity diffraction pattern. Obtained results show that the output intensity profile differs from the incident Gaussian beam shape, and it is more broadened with an increase in the acoustic pressure. The intensity of a focused laser beam is transformed in a flat form in the central region if the acoustic pressure is proprely controlled. On the other hand the intensity longitudinal range (ILR) of the flat shape is discussed along the propagation axes, we have found the ILR is about 2 mm for a focal length distance f=100 mm.

  15. Spatial properties of rectified cosine Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaha, B.; Bencheikh, A.; Aït-Ameur, K.

    2014-02-01

    The cosine Gaussian beam (CGB) resulting from the coherent coaxial superposition of two Gaussian beams having the same width W and opposite radii of curvature R and - R is a ringed beam characterized by an M2 factor which can be very high, and adjustable by changing R. According to the paper by Hasnaoui et al(2011 Opt. Commun.284 1331-4) we expect that the CGB after ‘rectification’ by a binary diffractive optical element could be a good candidate for focal volume reduction, so useful to many laser applications. Unfortunately, this is not the case, and the physical factors responsible for this unexpected behaviour have been analysed. In particular, we have demonstrated that the three features (M2 factor, divergence and on-axis intensity) do not hold the same information about the spatial characteristics of rectified or unrectified CGBs.

  16. On Alternate Relaying with Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-06-06

    In this letter, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no channel state information is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a significant performance improvement over PGS, especially when the first hop is a bottleneck due to weak source-relay channel gains and/or strong IRI.

  17. Fractional Diffusion in Gaussian Noisy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the fractional diffusion in a Gaussian noisy environment as described by the fractional order stochastic heat equations of the following form: \\(D_t^{(\\alpha} u(t, x=\\textit{B}u+u\\cdot \\dot W^H\\, where \\(D_t^{(\\alpha}\\ is the Caputo fractional derivative of order \\(\\alpha\\in (0,1\\ with respect to the time variable \\(t\\, \\(\\textit{B}\\ is a second order elliptic operator with respect to the space variable \\(x\\in\\mathbb{R}^d\\ and \\(\\dot W^H\\ a time homogeneous fractional Gaussian noise of Hurst parameter \\(H=(H_1, \\cdots, H_d\\. We obtain conditions satisfied by \\(\\alpha\\ and \\(H\\, so that the square integrable solution \\(u\\ exists uniquely.

  18. The non-Gaussian dynamics of glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselez, R.; Lefort, R.; Ghoufi, A.; Beuneu, B.; Frick, B.; Affouard, F.; Morineau, D.

    2011-12-01

    We have combined incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and atomistic molecular simulations to investigate the microscopic dynamics of glycerol moving away from the hydrodynamic limit. We relate changes in the momentum transfer (Q) dependence of the relaxation time to distinct changes of the single-particle dynamics. Going from small to large values of Q, a first crossover at about 0.5 Å-1 is related to the coupling of the translational diffusion dynamics to the non-Debye structural relaxation, while the second crossover at a Q-value near the main diffraction peak is associated with the Gaussian to non-Gaussian crossover of the short-time molecular dynamics, related to the decaging processes. We offer an unprecedented extension of previous studies on polymeric systems towards the case of the typical low-molecular-weight glass-forming system glycerol.

  19. Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states.

  20. Power Spectrum of Generalized Fractional Gaussian Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we introduced a type of autocorrelation function (ACF to describe a long-range dependent (LRD process indexed with two parameters, which takes standard fractional Gaussian noise (fGn for short as a special case. For simplicity, we call it the generalized fGn (GfGn. This short paper gives the power spectrum density function (PSD of GfGn.

  1. Non-Gaussian effects on quantum entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2012-03-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the non-Gaussian frameworks, Tsallis and Kaniadakis, is derived using a generalized combinatorial method and the so-called q and κ calculus. In agreement with previous results, we also show that for the Tsallis formulation the q-quantum entropy is well-defined for values of the nonextensive parameter q lying in the interval [0,2].

  2. Evaluating capacities of bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Werner, R. F.

    2001-03-01

    We show how to compute or at least to estimate various capacity-related quantities for bosonic Gaussian channels. Among these are the coherent information, the entanglement-assisted classical capacity, the one-shot classical capacity, and a quantity involving the transpose operation, shown to be a general upper bound on the quantum capacity, even allowing for finite errors. All bounds are explicitly evaluated for the case of a one-mode channel with attenuation or amplification and classical noise.

  3. PS: A nonprocedural language with data types and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Problem Specification (PS) nonprocedural language is a very high level language for algorithm specification. PS is suitable for nonprogrammers, who can specify a problem using mathematically-oriented equations; for expert programmers, who can prototype different versions of a software system for evaluation; and for those who wish to use specifications for portions (if not all) of a program. PS has data types and modules similar to Modula-2. The compiler generates C code. PS is first shown by example, and then efficiency issues in scheduling and code generation are discussed.

  4. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  5. Fixing convergence of Gaussian belief propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bickson, Danny [IBM RESEARCH LAB; Dolev, Danny [HEBREW UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) is an iterative message-passing algorithm for inference in Gaussian graphical models. It is known that when GaBP converges it converges to the correct MAP estimate of the Gaussian random vector and simple sufficient conditions for its convergence have been established. In this paper we develop a double-loop algorithm for forcing convergence of GaBP. Our method computes the correct MAP estimate even in cases where standard GaBP would not have converged. We further extend this construction to compute least-squares solutions of over-constrained linear systems. We believe that our construction has numerous applications, since the GaBP algorithm is linked to solution of linear systems of equations, which is a fundamental problem in computer science and engineering. As a case study, we discuss the linear detection problem. We show that using our new construction, we are able to force convergence of Montanari's linear detection algorithm, in cases where it would originally fail. As a consequence, we are able to increase significantly the number of users that can transmit concurrently.

  6. Dynamically Focused Gaussian Beams for Seismic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Nowack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An initial study is performed in which dynamically focused Gaussian beams are investigated for seismic imaging. Focused Gaussian beams away from the source and receiver plane allow the narrowest and planar portions of the beams to occur at the depth of a specific target structure. To match the seismic data, quadratic phase corrections are required for the local slant stacks of the surface data. To provide additional control of the imaging process, dynamic focusing is investigated where all subsurface points are specified to have the same planar beam fronts. This gives the effect of using nondiffracting beams, but actually results from the use of multiple focusing depths for each Gaussian beam. However, now different local slant stacks must be performed depending on the position of the subsurface scattering point. To speed up the process, slant stacking of the local data windows is varied to match the focusing depths along individual beams when tracked back into the medium. The approach is tested with a simple model of 5-point scatterers which are then imaged with the data, and then to the imaging of a single dynamically focused beam for one shot gather computed from the Sigsbee2A model.

  7. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-22

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  8. Gaussian Hypothesis Testing and Quantum Illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Tomamichel, Marco; Lloyd, Seth; Berta, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Quantum hypothesis testing is one of the most basic tasks in quantum information theory and has fundamental links with quantum communication and estimation theory. In this paper, we establish a formula that characterizes the decay rate of the minimal type-II error probability in a quantum hypothesis test of two Gaussian states given a fixed constraint on the type-I error probability. This formula is a direct function of the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the quantum Gaussian states in question. We give an application to quantum illumination, which is the task of determining whether there is a low-reflectivity object embedded in a target region with a bright thermal-noise bath. For the asymmetric-error setting, we find that a quantum illumination transmitter can achieve an error probability exponent stronger than a coherent-state transmitter of the same mean photon number, and furthermore, that it requires far fewer trials to do so. This occurs when the background thermal noise is either low or bright, which means that a quantum advantage is even easier to witness than in the symmetric-error setting because it occurs for a larger range of parameters. Going forward from here, we expect our formula to have applications in settings well beyond those considered in this paper, especially to quantum communication tasks involving quantum Gaussian channels.

  9. Improved Discrete Approximation of Laplacian of Gaussian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of computing a discrete approximation of the Laplacian of a Gaussian convolution of an image has been devised. The primary advantage of the method is that without substantially degrading the accuracy of the end result, it reduces the amount of information that must be processed and thus reduces the amount of circuitry needed to perform the Laplacian-of- Gaussian (LOG) operation. Some background information is necessary to place the method in context. The method is intended for application to the LOG part of a process of real-time digital filtering of digitized video data that represent brightnesses in pixels in a square array. The particular filtering process of interest is one that converts pixel brightnesses to binary form, thereby reducing the amount of information that must be performed in subsequent correlation processing (e.g., correlations between images in a stereoscopic pair for determining distances or correlations between successive frames of the same image for detecting motions). The Laplacian is often included in the filtering process because it emphasizes edges and textures, while the Gaussian is often included because it smooths out noise that might not be consistent between left and right images or between successive frames of the same image.

  10. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: N2i2@xplornet.ca [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  11. Comparing the information capacity of Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian modal sets in a finite-aperture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Sara; Giovannini, Daniel; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2016-11-28

    Using a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process to create entangled spatial states, we compare the information capacity associated with measurements in the Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modal basis in an optical system of finite aperture. We show that the cross-talk imposed by the aperture restriction degrades the information capacity. However, the Laguerre-Gaussian mode measurements show greater resilience to cross talk than the Hermite-Gaussian, suggesting that the Laguerre-Gaussian modal set may still offer real-world advantages over other modal sets.

  12. The HARP detector at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gößling, C; Mass, M; Bunyatov, S; Chukanov, A; Klimov, O; Krasin, I; Krasnoperov, A; Kustov, D; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereshchenko, V; Carassiti, V; Di Capua, E; Evangelisti, F; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Brocard, R; Decreuse, G; Friend, B; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, p; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Legrand, J C; Kayis-Topaksu,A; Panman, P; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; van der Vlugt, R; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Ferri, F; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Postoev, V; Bagulya A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Barichello, G; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Laveder, M; Menegolli, A; Mezzetto M; Pepato, Adriano; Dumarchez, J; Troquereau, S; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Iaciofano, A; Lobello, M; Marinilli, F; Orestano, D; Panayotov, D; Pasquali, M; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Bogomilovw, M; Burin, K; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Petev, P; Rusinov, I; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2007-01-01

    HARP is a high-statistics, large solid angle experiment to measure hadron production using proton and pion beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c impinging on many different solid and liquid targets from low to high Z. The experiment, located in the T9 beam of the CERN PS, took data in 2001 and 2002. For the measurement of momenta of produced particles and for the identification of particle types, the experiment includes a large-angle spectrometer, based on a Time Projection Chamber and a system of Resistive Plate Chambers, and a forward spectrometer equipped with a set of large drift chambers, a threshold Cherenkov detector, a time-of-flight wall and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The large angle system uses a solenoidal magnet, while the forward spectrometer is based on a dipole magnet. Redundancy in particle identification has been sought, to enable the cross-calibration of efficiencies and to obtain a few percent overall accuracy in the cross-section measurements. Detector construction, operation an...

  13. Interleaving of beam lines inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The PS ring (section 26) is on the left. The injection tunnel for LEAR leaving from here has increased the trafic in this already busy area where the two Linacs and the transfer tunnel leading to the SPS, ISR and AA join the PS ring (cf. photo 7802260, 7802261, Annual Report 1981, p. 89, fig. 12).

  14. Modulation of enzymatic PS synthesis by liposome membrane composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, Alexandre; Roy, Philippe; Cansell, Maud

    2014-03-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid known to exert important physiological roles in humans. However, this phospholipid (PL) is poorly available as a natural source and hardly produced by the chemical route. In this work, PS was obtained by transphosphatidylation using phospholipase D (PLD) and PL self-assembled into liposomes as the substrates. The aim was to better understand how the liposome membrane composition could modulate PS yield. Three lecithins were used as PL substrates, one originated from a marine source providing a high amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and two issued from soya differing in their phosphatidylcholine (PC) content. Different parameters such as Ca(2+) content, enzyme and L-serine concentrations modulated PS synthesis. The presence of Ca(2+) increased PS conversion yield. The alcohol acceptor (L-serine) concentration positively acted on PL conversion, by governing the equilibrium between transphosphatidylation and hydrolysis. Beside these specific reaction conditions, it was demonstrated that the membrane composition of the liposomes modulated PS synthesis. A direct correlation between PS accumulation and the amount of cholesterol or α-tocopherol incorporated into the soya lecithins was observed. This result was interpreted in terms of "head" spacers promoting PLD transphosphatidylation. On the whole, this work provided key parameters for the formulation of liposomes using enzymatic PLD technology, to produce lecithins enriched in different proportions of PS and esterified with various types of fatty acids depending on the initial lecithin source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16chs with SOAR/Goodman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16chs from spectroscopic observation with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 08 UT. We classify PS16chs as a SN Ia near maximum light at z = 0.19.

  16. Motor-Generator powering the PS (Proton Synchrotron) main magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This motor-generator,30 MW peak, 1500 r.p.m.,pulsed power supply for the PS main magnet replaced in 1968 the initial 3000 r.p.m. motor-generator-flywheel set which had served from the PS start-up in 1959 until end 1967. See also photo 8302337 and its abstract.

  17. Transfer line TT70 (electrons from PS to SPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    As injectors for LEP, PS and SPS had to be converted to the acceleration of electrons and positrons. So far, only positively charged particles had been transferred from the PS to the SPS, for the negatively charged electrons a new transfer line, TT70, had to be built. Due to the difference in level of the two machines, the transfer line slopes and tilts.

  18. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi

    2010-01-01

    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  19. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful online learning – the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK jimflood@btinternet.com Key learning points • An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. • Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. • Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagement–and learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. • Online learning poses a challenging experience for learners–and they need support to cope with it. • A key goal to achieve Praxis – being able to put learning into practice. Many of you will be familiar with the three (or more Ps of marketing and even if not, as trainers or teachers you are likely to have used mnemonics as an aid to retention and recall. Mnemonics are especially useful when you need to get the key points to ‘stick’ in the minds of your audience. With this in mind I offer you the 5 Ps of online learning: Presentation, Pedagogy, Promotion, Preparation and Props. What I offer is not new; in fact much of it results from the eleven years of online teaching and learning at The Open University, the £22 million it has spent on research and evaluation 1, and the worldwide community that have been sharing experience in recent years. You can therefore consider these 5 Ps to be a convenient re-packing of the information and experience that can be found in abundance on the Internet. Presentation Good graphic design appeals to the subtle process by which the brain processes information and, as a result, we decide if we like the ‘look and feel’ of a visual environment. Part of liking this ‘look and feel’ is the way the text and pictorial layout can appear inviting and encouraging–a vital aspect of any online learning environment. Another aspect of presentation is how the text reads in terms of engaging the learner and introducing the story to be told–as well as being written in clear and concise English When browsing through books

  20. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  1. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  2. Humanoid environmental perception with Gaussian process regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingsheng Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, humanoids are increasingly expected acting in the real world to complete some high-level tasks humanly and intelligently. However, this is a hard issue due to that the real world is always extremely complicated and full of miscellaneous variations. As a consequence, for a real-world-acting robot, precisely perceiving the environmental changes might be an essential premise. Unlike human being, humanoid robot usually turns out to be with much less sensors to get enough information from the real world, which further leads the environmental perception problem to be more challenging. Although it can be tackled by establishing direct sensory mappings or adopting probabilistic filtering methods, the nonlinearity and uncertainty caused by both the complexity of the environment and the high degree of freedom of the robots will result in tough modeling difficulties. In our study, with the Gaussian process regression framework, an alternative learning approach to address such a modeling problem is proposed and discussed. Meanwhile, to debase the influence derived from limited sensors, the idea of fusing multiple sensory information is also involved. To evaluate the effectiveness, with two representative environment changing tasks, that is, suffering unknown external pushing and suddenly encountering sloped terrains, the proposed approach is applied to a humanoid, which is only equipped with a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Experimental results reveal that the proposed Gaussian process regression-based approach is effective in coping with the nonlinearity and uncertainty of the humanoid environmental perception problem. Further, a humanoid balancing controller is developed, which takes the output of the Gaussian process regression-based environmental perception as the seed to activate the corresponding balancing strategy. Both simulated and hardware experiments consistently show that our approach is valuable and leads to a

  3. Spin-fluctuation theory beyond Gaussian approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N B [Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I, E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.s, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.r, E-mail: greben@imp.uran.r [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-14

    A characteristic feature of the Gaussian approximation in the functional-integral approach to the spin-fluctuation theory is the jump phase transition to the paramagnetic state. We eliminate the jump and obtain a continuous second-order phase transition by taking into account high-order terms in the expansion of the free energy in powers of the fluctuating exchange field. The third-order term of the free energy renormalizes the mean field, and the fourth-order term, responsible for the interaction of the fluctuations, renormalizes the spin susceptibility. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar.

  4. Gaussian Markov random fields theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rue, Havard

    2005-01-01

    Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) models are most widely used in spatial statistics - a very active area of research in which few up-to-date reference works are available. This is the first book on the subject that provides a unified framework of GMRFs with particular emphasis on the computational aspects. This book includes extensive case-studies and, online, a c-library for fast and exact simulation. With chapters contributed by leading researchers in the field, this volume is essential reading for statisticians working in spatial theory and its applications, as well as quantitative researchers in a wide range of science fields where spatial data analysis is important.

  5. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  6. Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Rasmussen, Carl Edward

    2002-01-01

    The quantification of perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD) is proposed. The fact that the IRF is smooth is incorporated....... GPD provides a better estimate of the entire IRF. As the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) increases or the time resolution of the measurements increases, GPD is shown to be superior to SVD. This is also found for large distribution volumes....

  7. Non-Gaussianity from Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Edward W; Vallinotto, A; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Recently we studied inflation models in which the inflaton potential is characterized by an underlying approximate global symmetry. In the first work we pointed out that in such a model curvature perturbations are generated after the end of the slow-roll phase of inflation. In this work we develop further the observational implications of the model and compute the degree of non-Gaussianity predicted in the scenario. We find that the corresponding nonlinearity parameter, $f_{NL}$, can be as large as 10^2.

  8. Non-Gaussianity as a particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hayden [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University,Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Baumann, Daniel; Pimentel, Guilherme L. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University,Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park, Amsterdam, 1090 GL (Netherlands)

    2016-12-13

    We study the imprints of massive particles with spin on cosmological correlators. Using the framework of the effective field theory of inflation, we classify the couplings of these particles to the Goldstone boson of broken time translations and the graviton. We show that it is possible to generate observable non-Gaussianity within the regime of validity of the effective theory, as long as the masses of the particles are close to the Hubble scale and their interactions break the approximate conformal symmetry of the inflationary background. We derive explicit shape functions for the scalar and tensor bispectra that can serve as templates for future observational searches.

  9. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 JT2A.34.pdf Optics in the Life... Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA) Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams Melanie McLaren, Thulile Khanyile, Patience Mthunzi and Andrew Forbes* National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  10. Return probability: Exponential versus Gaussian decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: izrailev@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx; Castaneda-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-02-13

    We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the time-dependence of the return probability in closed systems of interacting particles. Main attention is paid to the interplay between two regimes, one of which is characterized by the Gaussian decay of the return probability, and another one is the well-known regime of the exponential decay. Our analytical estimates are confirmed by the numerical data obtained for two models with random interaction. In view of these results, we also briefly discuss the dynamical model which was recently proposed for the implementation of a quantum computation.

  11. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    types of turbulence are then used as input to wind turbine load simulations under normal operations with the HAWC2 software package. A slight increase in the extreme loads of the tower base fore-aft moment is observed for high wind speeds when using non-Gaussian turbulence but is insignificant when...

  12. Gaussian-log-Gaussian wavelet trees, frequentist and Bayesian inference, and statistical signal processing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Jacobsen, Robert Dahl

    We introduce a promising alternative to the usual hidden Markov tree model for Gaussian wavelet coefficients, where their variances are specified by the hidden states and take values in a finite set. In our new model, the hidden states have a similar dependence structure but they are jointly Gaus...

  13. On the structure of Gaussian pricing models and Gaussian Markov functional models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.D.D. Neumann

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article investigates the structure of Gaussian pricing models (that is, models in which future returns are normally distributed). Although much is already known about such models, this article differs in that it is based on a formulation of the theory of derivative pricing in which

  14. Characterisation of random Gaussian and non-Gaussian stress processes in terms of extreme responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of military land vehicles, random vibration processes generated by all-terrain wheeled vehicles in motion are not classical stochastic processes with a stationary and Gaussian nature. Non-stationarity of processes induced by the variability of the vehicle speed does not form a major difficulty because the designer can have good control over the vehicle speed by characterising the histogram of instantaneous speed of the vehicle during an operational situation. Beyond this non-stationarity problem, the hard point clearly lies in the fact that the random processes are not Gaussian and are generated mainly by the non-linear behaviour of the undercarriage and the strong occurrence of shocks generated by roughness of the terrain. This non-Gaussian nature is expressed particularly by very high flattening levels that can affect the design of structures under extreme stresses conventionally acquired by spectral approaches, inherent to Gaussian processes and based essentially on spectral moments of stress processes. Due to these technical considerations, techniques for characterisation of random excitation processes generated by this type of carrier need to be changed, by proposing innovative characterisation methods based on time domain approaches as described in the body of the text rather than spectral domain approaches.

  15. Gravitational Wave Emulation Using Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Zoheyr; Farr, Ben; Holz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation (PE) for gravitational wave signals from compact binary coalescences (CBCs) requires reliable template waveforms which span the parameter space. Waveforms from numerical relativity are accurate but computationally expensive, so approximate templates are typically used for PE. These `approximants', while quick to compute, can introduce systematic errors and bias PE results. We describe a machine learning method for generating CBC waveforms and uncertainties using existing accurate waveforms as a training set. Coefficients of a reduced order waveform model are computed and each treated as arising from a Gaussian process. These coefficients and their uncertainties are then interpolated using Gaussian process regression (GPR). As a proof of concept, we construct a training set of approximant waveforms (rather than NR waveforms) in the two-dimensional space of chirp mass and mass ratio and interpolate new waveforms with GPR. We demonstrate that the mismatch between interpolated waveforms and approximants is below the 1% level for an appropriate choice of training set and GPR kernel hyperparameters.

  16. Overlay Spectrum Sharing using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2016-11-30

    Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme has been recently shown to provide performance improvements in interference limited networks as opposed to the conventional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. In this paper, we implement the IGS scheme in overlay cognitive radio system, where the secondary transmitter broadcasts a mixture of two different signals. The first signal is selected from the PGS scheme to match the primary message transmission. On the other hand, the second signal is chosen to be from the IGS scheme in order to reduce the interference effect on the primary receiver. We then optimally design the overlay cognitive radio to maximize the secondary link achievable rate while satisfying the primary network quality of service requirements. In particular, we consider full and partial channel knowledge scenarios and derive the feasibility conditions of operating the overlay cognitive radio systems. Moreover, we derive the superiority conditions of the IGS schemes over the PGS schemes supported with closed form expressions for the corresponding power distribution and the circularity coefficient and parameters. Simulation results are provided to support our theoretical derivations.

  17. Multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, F; Giovannetti, V [NEST CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PE (United Kingdom); Holevo, A S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Gubkina 8, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: filippo.caruso@sns.it

    2008-08-15

    A complete analysis of multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels (BGCs) is proposed. We clarify the structure of unitary dilations of general Gaussian channels involving any number of bosonic modes and present a normal form. The maximum number of auxiliary modes that is needed is identified, including all rank deficient cases, and the specific role of additive classical noise is highlighted. By using this analysis, we derive a canonical matrix form of the noisy evolution of n-mode BGCs and of their weak complementary counterparts, based on a recent generalization of the normal mode decomposition for non-symmetric or locality constrained situations. This allows us to simplify the weak-degradability classification. Moreover, we investigate the structure of some singular multi-mode channels, like the additive classical noise channel that can be used to decompose a noisy channel in terms of a less noisy one in order to find new sets of maps with zero quantum capacity. Finally, the two-mode case is analyzed in detail. By exploiting the composition rules of two-mode maps and the fact that anti-degradable channels cannot be used to transfer quantum information, we identify sets of two-mode bosonic channels with zero capacity.

  18. Multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, F.; Eisert, J.; Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.

    2008-08-01

    A complete analysis of multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels (BGCs) is proposed. We clarify the structure of unitary dilations of general Gaussian channels involving any number of bosonic modes and present a normal form. The maximum number of auxiliary modes that is needed is identified, including all rank deficient cases, and the specific role of additive classical noise is highlighted. By using this analysis, we derive a canonical matrix form of the noisy evolution of n-mode BGCs and of their weak complementary counterparts, based on a recent generalization of the normal mode decomposition for non-symmetric or locality constrained situations. This allows us to simplify the weak-degradability classification. Moreover, we investigate the structure of some singular multi-mode channels, like the additive classical noise channel that can be used to decompose a noisy channel in terms of a less noisy one in order to find new sets of maps with zero quantum capacity. Finally, the two-mode case is analyzed in detail. By exploiting the composition rules of two-mode maps and the fact that anti-degradable channels cannot be used to transfer quantum information, we identify sets of two-mode bosonic channels with zero capacity.

  19. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A.; Miyazawa, M.; Azuma, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Gaussian Warp Factor: Towards a Probabilistic Interpretation of Braneworlds

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Israel

    2012-01-01

    We investigate Gaussian warped five-dimensional thick braneworlds. Identification of the graviton's wave function in the extra-dimension with a probability distribution function leads to a straightforward probabilistic interpretation of braneworlds. The extra-coordinate $y$ is regarded as a Gaussian-distributed random variable. Hence, all of the field variables and operators which depend on $y$ are, also, randomly distributed. Four-dimensional measurable (macroscopic) quantities are identified with the corresponding averaged values over the Gaussian distribution.

  1. Finite n Largest Eigenvalue Probability Distribution Function of Gaussian Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Choup, Leonard N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the finite n probability distribution function of the largest eigenvalue in the classical Gaussian Ensemble of n by n matrices (GEn). We derive the finite n largest eigenvalue probability distribution function for the Gaussian Orthogonal and Symplectic Ensembles and also prove an Edgeworth type Theorem for the largest eigenvalue probability distribution function of Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble. The correction terms to the limiting probability distribution are express...

  2. Diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer: Comparison between Gaussian and non-Gaussian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikis, Georgios C; Marias, Kostas; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Nikiforaki, Katerina; van Heeswijk, Miriam M; Bakers, Frans C H; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four diffusion models, including mono and bi-exponential both Gaussian and non-Gaussian models, in diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer. Nineteen patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent MRI examination of the rectum before chemoradiation therapy including a 7 b-value diffusion sequence (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm2) at a 1.5T scanner. Four different diffusion models including mono- and bi-exponential Gaussian (MG and BG) and non-Gaussian (MNG and BNG) were applied on whole tumor volumes of interest. Two different statistical criteria were recruited to assess their fitting performance, including the adjusted-R2 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). To decide which model better characterizes rectal cancer, model selection was relied on Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and F-ratio. All candidate models achieved a good fitting performance with the two most complex models, the BG and the BNG, exhibiting the best fitting performance. However, both criteria for model selection indicated that the MG model performed better than any other model. In particular, using AIC Weights and F-ratio, the pixel-based analysis demonstrated that tumor areas better described by the simplest MG model in an average area of 53% and 33%, respectively. Non-Gaussian behavior was illustrated in an average area of 37% according to the F-ratio, and 7% using AIC Weights. However, the distributions of the pixels best fitted by each of the four models suggest that MG failed to perform better than any other model in all patients, and the overall tumor area. No single diffusion model evaluated herein could accurately describe rectal tumours. These findings probably can be explained on the basis of increased tumour heterogeneity, where areas with high vascularity could be fitted better with bi-exponential models, and areas with necrosis would mostly follow mono-exponential behavior.

  3. Stochastic analysis for gaussian random processes and fields with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrekar, Vidyadhar S

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic Analysis for Gaussian Random Processes and Fields: With Applications presents Hilbert space methods to study deep analytic properties connecting probabilistic notions. In particular, it studies Gaussian random fields using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs).The book begins with preliminary results on covariance and associated RKHS before introducing the Gaussian process and Gaussian random fields. The authors use chaos expansion to define the Skorokhod integral, which generalizes the Itô integral. They show how the Skorokhod integral is a dual operator of Skorokhod differenti

  4. Fractional Fourier transform of Ince-Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2009-12-01

    Ince-Gaussian beams are introduced to describe the natural resonating modes produced by stable resonators, and they form the third completely orthogonal family of exact solutions of the paraxial wave equation. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to treat the propagation of Ince-Gaussian beams, and an analytical expression for an Ince-Gaussian beam passing through a FRFT system is derived. The normalized intensity distribution of an Ince-Gaussian beam in the FRFT plane is graphically illustrated with numerical examples, and the influences of the different parameters on the normalized intensity distribution are discussed in detail.

  5. A Gaussian-Sum Filter for Vertex Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Speer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A vertex reconstruction algorithm that is based on the Gaussian-sum Filter (GSF) was developed and implemented in the framework of the CMS reconstruction program. While linear least-square estimators are optimal in case all observation errors are Gaussian distributed, the GSF offers a better treatment of non-Gaussian distributions of track parameter errors when these are modelled by Gaussian mixtures. The algorithm has been verified and evaluated with simulated data. The results are compared to the Kalman filter and to an adaptive vertex estimator.

  6. Overview of the Moral Status of iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Andreia Martins

    2016-07-01

    The production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka was a major breakthrough in stem cell research. IPS cells technology holds great promise for cell therapy, disease modelling, and drug testing, but it poses ethical questions concerning the moral status of somatic cells, which can re-gain pluripotency (iPS cells). This article provides an overview of the arguments that substantiate the debate on the moral assessment of iPS cells: potentiality argument; relational properties/standard view; and genetic basis for moral status.

  7. A fast Gaussian beam tracing method for reflection and refraction of general vectorial astigmatic Gaussian beams from general curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, A.; Shishegar, A. A.; Safavi-Naeini, S.

    2004-03-01

    A fast Gaussian beam tracing method for general vectorial astigmatic Gaussian beams based on phase matching has been formulated. Given the parameters of a vectorial Gaussian beam in its principal coordinate system the parameters of the reflected and refracted beams from a general curved surface (with general constitutive parameters) are found. The reflection and transmission of such beams from and through passive photonic structures such as lenses, mirrors and prisms can then be found by considering multiple reflections and transmissions.

  8. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan

    2017-07-13

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  9. Laguerre-Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and Finite-Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-12-01

    The propagation of two-dimensional beams is analytically and numerically investigated in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media (SNNM) based on the ABCD matrix. The two-dimensional beams reported in this paper are described by the product of the superposition of generalized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG), Hermite-Gaussian (HG), Bessel-Gaussian (BG), and circular Airy (CA) beams, carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM). Owing to OAM and the modulation of SNNM, we find that the propagation of these two-dimensional beams exhibits complete rotation and periodic inversion: the spatial intensity profile first extends and then diminishes, and during the propagation the process repeats to form a breath-like phenomenon.

  10. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  11. New safety training for access to the PS complex areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Since 10/08/2012, a new course dedicated to the specific radiological risks in the accelerators of the PS complex has been available on SIR (https://sir.cern.ch/). This course complements the general classroom-based Radiation Safety training. Successful completion of the course will be obligatory and verified by the access system as from 01/11/2012 for access to the following accelerator areas: LINAC2, BOOSTER, PS and TT2. Information and reminder e-mails will be sent to all persons currently authorized to access the accelerators of the PS complex. For questions please contact the HSE unit and in particular, the Radiation Protection Group (+41227672504 or safety-rp-ps-complex@cern.ch).

  12. Study of Value Co-Creation in CoPS

    OpenAIRE

    Mingli Zhang; Jianhua Ye

    2013-01-01

    Value co-creation is associated with specific investment in the context of CoPS. The feature of CoPS decides that the study of co-creation cannot execute without regarding asset specificity. This study considers that value co-creation will be associated with specific value, which is outcome of relationship value and asset specificity. Supplier and customer have a close relation, which conducts to specific investment and then it turns to obstacle for competitors. Trust, commitment and satisfac...

  13. Motor-generator set of the PS main supply

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    Already in 1964, the PS improvement programme included a new main magnet supply with more power for the longer cycles needed for slow extraction at the full energy of 26 GeV. This motor-generator set was installed in 1967 and took up service at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern electronic regulation, it pulses the PS to this day.

  14. The Libera as a PS orbit measurement system building block

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004, extensive tests using a Libera data processor have been made in order to study its suitability as a building block for a complete PS trajectory and orbit measurement system. The Libera consists of four fast 12-bits ADCs, a Virtex II Pro FPGA and a large memory. This note presents some of the results of the analysis of acquisitions made on a position pick-up in the CERN PS.

  15. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  16. Large Deviations for Gaussian Diffusions with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azencott, Robert; Geiger, Brett; Ott, William

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical systems driven by nonlinear delay SDEs with small noise can exhibit important rare events on long timescales. When there is no delay, classical large deviations theory quantifies rare events such as escapes from metastable fixed points. Near such fixed points, one can approximate nonlinear delay SDEs by linear delay SDEs. Here, we develop a fully explicit large deviations framework for (necessarily Gaussian) processes X_t driven by linear delay SDEs with small diffusion coefficients. Our approach enables fast numerical computation of the action functional controlling rare events for X_t and of the most likely paths transiting from X_0 = p to X_T=q. Via linear noise local approximations, we can then compute most likely routes of escape from metastable states for nonlinear delay SDEs. We apply our methodology to the detailed dynamics of a genetic regulatory circuit, namely the co-repressive toggle switch, which may be described by a nonlinear chemical Langevin SDE with delay.

  17. Semisupervised multitask learning with Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolidis, Grigorios; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2013-12-01

    We present a probabilistic framework for transferring learning across tasks and between labeled and unlabeled data. The approach is based on Gaussian process (GP) prediction and incorporates both the geometry of the data and the similarity between tasks within a GP covariance, allowing Bayesian prediction in a natural way. We discuss the transfer of learning in a multitask scenario in the two cases where the underlying geometry is assumed to be the same across tasks and where different tasks are assumed to have independent geometric structures. We demonstrate the method on a number of real datasets, indicating that the semisupervised multitask approach can result in very significant improvements in performance when very few labeled training examples are available.

  18. Bayesian multitask classification with Gaussian process priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolidis, Grigorios; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2011-12-01

    We present a novel approach to multitask learning in classification problems based on Gaussian process (GP) classification. The method extends previous work on multitask GP regression, constraining the overall covariance (across tasks and data points) to factorize as a Kronecker product. Fully Bayesian inference is possible but time consuming using sampling techniques. We propose approximations based on the popular variational Bayes and expectation propagation frameworks, showing that they both achieve excellent accuracy when compared to Gibbs sampling, in a fraction of time. We present results on a toy dataset and two real datasets, showing improved performance against the baseline results obtained by learning each task independently. We also compare with a recently proposed state-of-the-art approach based on support vector machines, obtaining comparable or better results.

  19. Fermions and the Gaussian effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, P.M.; Hajj, G.A.; Reed, J.F.

    1986-11-15

    The effect of fermions on the Gaussian effective potential is studied in a variety of fermion-scalar models in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. Both gphipsi-barpsi and gphi/sup 2/psi-barpsi couplings are considered. Stability requires the bare g to be infinitesimal; g/sub B/ /sup 2/ = G/sup 2//I/sub 0/ with I/sub 0/ a divergent integral. This contrasts with large-N studies in which g/sub B/ remains finite. The presence of fermions encourages spontaneous symmetry breaking, and in 3+1 dimensions the fermions destabilize the already ''precarious'' phi/sup 4/ theory.

  20. Lattices of Graphical Gaussian Models with Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Gehrmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to make graphical Gaussian models a viable modelling tool when the number of variables outgrows the number of observations, [1] introduced model classes which place equality restrictions on concentrations or partial correlations. The models can be represented by vertex and edge coloured graphs. The need for model selection methods makes it imperative to understand the structure of model classes. We identify four model classes that form complete lattices of models with respect to model inclusion, which qualifies them for an Edwards–Havránek model selection procedure [2]. Two classes turn out most suitable for a corresponding model search. We obtain an explicit search algorithm for one of them and provide a model search example for the other.

  1. Asymptotic expansions for the Gaussian unitary ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Let g : R ¿ C be a C8-function with all derivatives bounded and let trn denote the normalized trace on the n × n matrices. In Ref. 3 Ercolani and McLaughlin established asymptotic expansions of the mean value ¿{trn(g(Xn))} for a rather general class of random matrices Xn, including the Gaussian...... aj(g), j ¿ N, as distributions (in the sense of L. Schwarts). We derive a similar asymptotic expansion for the covariance Cov{Trn[f(Xn)], Trn[g(Xn)]}, where f is a function of the same kind as g, and Trn = n trn. Special focus is drawn to the case where and for ¿, µ in C\\R. In this case the mean...

  2. The new heart of the PS is beating strongly

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    The PS has resumed operation with a brand new electrical power system called POPS; this enormous system comprising power electronics and capacitors is crucial because if it broke down practically no particles would be able to circulate at CERN. As soon as it started, POPS passed all the tests with flying colours and is now pulsing at full power.   The new PS power system is made up of 6 containers, each with 60 tonnes of capacitors and 8 power converters. The date 11/02/11 will always be remembered with affection by the engineers in the Electrical Power Converters Group. At 11:11 in the morning (no joke), the first beams powered by the new system began to circulate in the PS. The cutely-named POPS (POwer for PS) took over from the old rotating machine that had been working since 1968. From now on it will be POPS that supplies the PS main magnets with the electrical pulses needed to accelerate the beams for the LHC and all CERN's other facilities. The system is crucial as the PS is one of the lyn...

  3. The PS will soon be back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The PS's power supply system is undergoing repairs for the accelerator to restart on 26 June. The AB Department's Power Converter Group is working flat out with Siemens to return the PS's power supply system to working order. A problem appeared on the insulation of the power cables of the rotor of the rotating machine (photo) which supplies power to the PS magnets. To prevent more significant damage to the rotating machine, the AB Department, with the approval of the CERN Management, decided to shut down the PS which had started running on 15 May. Everything is being done to restart the accelerator on 26 June. The PS's rotating machine comprises a motor coupled to a generator. The generator's rotor acts like a flywheel, supplying high-power pulses of 40 to 50 megawatts to the PS magnets. The 6 megawatt motor drives the installation at 1000 revolutions per minute and compensates only for variations in speed. It is an essential interface since it would be hard to imagine connecting such an electrical charge, p...

  4. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  5. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calculated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above, ...

  6. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calcu- lated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above ...

  7. Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio

    2006-11-10

    We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.

  8. Some superconcentration inequalities for extrema of stationary Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This note is concerned with concentration inequalities for extrema of stationary Gaussian processes. It provides non-asymptotic tail inequalities which fully reflect the fluctuation rate, and as such improve upon standard Gaussian concentration. The arguments rely on the hypercontractive approach developed by Chatterjee for superconcentration variance bounds. Some statistical illustrations complete the exposition.

  9. Exponential Regret Bounds for Gaussian Process Bandits with Deterministic Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Freitas, N.; Smola, A.J.; Zoghi, M.; Langford, J.; Pineau, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of Gaussian process (GP) bandits with deterministic observations. The analysis uses a branch and bound algorithm that is related to the UCB algorithm of (Srinivas et al, 2010). For GPs with Gaussian observation noise, with variance strictly greater than zero, Srinivas

  10. Using Mixture of Gaussians to Compare Approaches to Signal Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2004-01-01

    is an example of how such different approaches to separation can be compared using Mixtures of Gaussians as a prior distribution. This not only illuminates some interesting properties of Maximum Likelihood and Energy Based Models, but is also an example of how Mixtures of Gaussians can serve as a both flexible...

  11. New gaussian points for the solution of first order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new points resulted into stable numerical block methods of order 2m suitable for solving both stiff and non-stiff IVP. Numerical experiments carried out using the new Gaussian points revealed there efficiency on stiff differential equations. The results also reveal that methods using the new Gaussian points are more ...

  12. A complete conformal metric of preassigned negative Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let ℎ be a complete metric of Gaussian curvature 0 on a punctured Riemann surface of genus ≥ 1 (or the sphere with at least three punctures). Given a smooth negative function with =0 in neighbourhoods of the punctures we prove that there exists a metric conformal to ℎ which attains this function as its Gaussian ...

  13. Comparing fixed and variable-width Gaussian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kůrková, Věra; Kainen, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    The role of width of Gaussians in two types of computational models is investigated: Gaussian radial-basis-functions (RBFs) where both widths and centers vary and Gaussian kernel networks which have fixed widths but varying centers. The effect of width on functional equivalence, universal approximation property, and form of norms in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) is explored. It is proven that if two Gaussian RBF networks have the same input-output functions, then they must have the same numbers of units with the same centers and widths. Further, it is shown that while sets of input-output functions of Gaussian kernel networks with two different widths are disjoint, each such set is large enough to be a universal approximator. Embedding of RKHSs induced by "flatter" Gaussians into RKHSs induced by "sharper" Gaussians is described and growth of the ratios of norms on these spaces with increasing input dimension is estimated. Finally, large sets of argminima of error functionals in sets of input-output functions of Gaussian RBFs are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large Deviations for Gaussian Queues (Modelling Communication Networks)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the significance of Gaussian processes to communication networks has grown considerably. The inherent flexibility of the Gaussian traffic model enables the analysis, in a single mathematical framework, of systems with both long-range and short-range dependent input streams. Large

  15. Connections between Graphical Gaussian Models and Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, M. Fatima; Smith, Peter W. F.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Connections between graphical Gaussian models and classical single-factor models are obtained by parameterizing the single-factor model as a graphical Gaussian model. Models are represented by independence graphs, and associations between each manifest variable and the latent factor are measured by factor partial correlations. Power calculations…

  16. Large Deviations for Gaussian Queues: Modelling Communication Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractIn recent years the significance of Gaussian processes to communication networks has grown considerably. The inherent flexibility of the Gaussian traffic model enables the analysis, in a single mathematical framework, of systems with both long-range and short-range dependent input

  17. The stochastic geometry of non-Gaussian fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuman, Thomas Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Gaussian random fields pervade all areas of science. However, it is often the departures from Gaussianity that carry the crucial signature of the nonlinear mechanisms at the heart of diverse phenomena, ranging from structure formation in condensed matter and cosmology to biomedical imaging. The

  18. Fast and Accurate Gaussian Derivatives based on B-Splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Vilanova, A.; Bescos, J.O.; Haar Romeney, B.M. ter; Gerritsen, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    Gaussian derivatives are often used as differential operators to analyze the structure in images. In this paper, we will analyze the accuracy and computational cost of the most common implementations for differentiation and interpolation of Gaussian-blurred multi-dimensional data. We show that – for

  19. The Choi-Jamiolkowski forms of quantum Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2011-04-01

    We obtain explicit expressions for the Choi-Jamiolkowski (CJ) forms and operators defining a general bosonic Gaussian channel. The four principal cases are considered in Sec. III; in Sec. IV, we give a decomposition of Gaussian CJ form into product of these four principal types and provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the bounded CJ operator.

  20. Gaussian optimizers and the additivity problem in quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper surveys two remarkable analytical problems of quantum information theory. The main part is a detailed report on the recent (partial) solution of the quantum Gaussian optimizer problem which establishes an optimal property of Glauber's coherent states -- a particular case of pure quantum Gaussian states. The notion of a quantum Gaussian channel is developed as a non-commutative generalization of an integral operator with Gaussian kernel, and it is shown that the coherent states, and under certain conditions only they, minimize a broad class of concave functionals of the output of a Gaussian channel. Thus, the output states corresponding to a Gaussian input are the `least chaotic', majorizing all the other outputs. The solution, however, is essentially restricted to the gauge-invariant case where a distinguished complex structure plays a special role. Also discussed is the related well-known additivity conjecture, which was solved in principle in the negative some five years ago. This refers to the additivity or multiplicativity (with respect to tensor products of channels) of information quantities related to the classical capacity of a quantum channel, such as the (1\\to p)-norms or the minimal von Neumann or Rényi output entropies. A remarkable corollary of the present solution of the quantum Gaussian optimizer problem is that these additivity properties, while not valid in general, do hold in the important and interesting class of gauge-covariant Gaussian channels. Bibliography: 65 titles.

  1. Higher-order Gaussian kernel in bootstrap boosting algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bootstrap boosting algorithm is a bias reduction scheme. The adoption of higher-order Gaussian kernel in a bootstrap boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation was investigated. The algorithm used the higher-order. Gaussian kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. A comparison of the scheme with existing ...

  2. Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributions and the identification of terrestrial and extraterrestrial intelligence objects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Haitun

    2015-01-01

    Statistical criteria used today in the analysis of radio signals suspected on reasonable extraterrestrial origin, are based on the assumption that all the radio signals of natural origin are described by a Gaussian distribution, which is traditionally understood as the Gauss distribution. Usually the normal (Gauss) distribution is opposed to all the others. However, this is difficult to recognize the reasonable, because in nature there are many different distributions. The article offers a mo...

  3. Estimating precision, repeatability, and reproducibility from Gaussian and non- Gaussian data: a mixed models approach

    OpenAIRE

    ASSAM NKOUIBERT, Pryseley; Mintiens, Koen; Knapen, Katia; Van Der Stede, Yves; Molenberghs, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Quality control relies heavily on the use of formal assessment metrics. In this paper, for the context of veterinary epidemiology, we review the main proposals, precision, repeatability, reproducibility, and intermediate precision, in agreement with ISO (international Organization for Standardization) practice, generalize these by placing them within the linear mixed model framework, which we then extend to the generalized linear mixed model setting, so that both Gaussian as well as non-Gauss...

  4. Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Meenavathi; K. Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider ...

  5. Simulation of a wide area survey for NEOs with Pan-STARRS PS1 & PS2 Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Dukes, Martin Todd; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed a new survey simulation for a wide area survey with PS1 & PS2 as part of our quest to optimize the discovery rate of Near Earth Objects with the full Pan-STARRS system. The survey is intended to be as unbiased and as complete as possible given the available sky visibility and the anticipated performance of the PS1 and PS2 telescopes working together. The simulation includes a complete model of both telescopes, camera and slew overhead, sky visibility, moon phase, galactic plane exclusion, and weather. The performance of the resulting survey strategy is then evaluated using the method of Lilly et. al. 2017. This uses the Greenstreet et al. 2012 model with 50 million NEOs with absolute magnitudes 13 < H < 29 and the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS, Denneau et al. 2013) for linkages. The results are compared with other possible strategies.

  6. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  7. Gaussian approximations of fluorescence microscope point-spread function models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zerubia, Josiane; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe

    2007-04-01

    We comprehensively study the least-squares Gaussian approximations of the diffraction-limited 2D-3D paraxial-nonparaxial point-spread functions (PSFs) of the wide field fluorescence microscope (WFFM), the laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), and the disk scanning confocal microscope (DSCM). The PSFs are expressed using the Debye integral. Under an L(infinity) constraint imposing peak matching, optimal and near-optimal Gaussian parameters are derived for the PSFs. With an L1 constraint imposing energy conservation, an optimal Gaussian parameter is derived for the 2D paraxial WFFM PSF. We found that (1) the 2D approximations are all very accurate; (2) no accurate Gaussian approximation exists for 3D WFFM PSFs; and (3) with typical pinhole sizes, the 3D approximations are accurate for the DSCM and nearly perfect for the LSCM. All the Gaussian parameters derived in this study are in explicit analytical form, allowing their direct use in practical applications.

  8. Multipartite Gaussian steering: Monogamy constraints and quantum cryptography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Kogias, Ioannis; Adesso, Gerardo; He, Qiongyi

    2017-01-01

    We derive laws for the distribution of quantum steering among different parties in multipartite Gaussian states under Gaussian measurements. We prove that a monogamy relation akin to the generalized Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality holds quantitatively for a recently introduced measure of Gaussian steering. We then define the residual Gaussian steering, stemming from the monogamy inequality, as an indicator of collective steering-type correlations. For pure three-mode Gaussian states, the residual acts as a quantifier of genuine multipartite steering, and is interpreted operationally in terms of the guaranteed key rate in the task of secure quantum secret sharing. Optimal resource states for the latter protocol are identified, and their possible experimental implementation discussed. Our results pin down the role of multipartite steering for quantum communication.

  9. Reconstruction of Electron Tracks With the Gaussian-Sum Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Strandlie, A; Todorov, T

    2003-01-01

    Due to the highly non-Gaussian shape of the bremsstrahlung energy loss distribution the standard Kalman filter is not the optimal algorithm for the reconstruction of electron tracks, since it implicitely assumes that all noise probability density functions involved are Gaussian. A Gaussian-sum filter (GSF) algorithm for electron track reconstruction in the CMS Tracker at LHC has therefore been developed. The basic idea is to model the bremsstrahlung distribution by a Gaussian mixture rather than a single Gaussian. It is shown that the GSF is able to improve the momentum resolution of electrons compared to the standard Kalman filter. The impact of the number of components in the mixture on the quality and the precision of the estimates is studied.

  10. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.

  11. Characterization of crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads in SBR matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon-Jong; Choe, Soonja [Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Monodisperse sized crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads were prepared by a reaction of semibatch emulsion polymerization with styrene monomer, divinylbenzene(DVB) crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate(K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}) initiator in the absence of emulsifier. The glass transition temperature(T{sub g}) and the mean diameter of the beads were increased from 100{degrees}C to 135{degrees}C and from 402 nm to 532 nm, respectively, for an incorporation of 2 to 10 mol% DVB. Crosslinking density was also linearly increased with DVB content. SEM microphotographs of SBR composite filled with various contents of PS beads revealed that PS beads are relatively well dispersed without changing the spherical shape of the beads in all range of compositions. In stress-strain analysis, elongation at break and tensile strength of SBR composite were increased with the bead content. Applicability of the PS beads as a filler in SBR matrix is tested by plotting Mooney-Rivlin or Guth-Smallwood equations. However, mechanical properties of the composite with the beads were not so excellent as those of the composite with carbon black. Crosslinked PS beads are still tentative as a white color reinforcing filler on SBR matrix.

  12. The PS complex produces the nominal LHC beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Borburgh, J; Cappi, R; Chanel, M; Chohan, V; Cyvoct, G; Garoby, R; Grier, D G; Gruber, J; Hancock, S; Hill, C E; Jensen, E; Krusche, A; Lindroos, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Metzmacher, K D; Olsfors, J; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Riunaud, J P; Royer, J P; Sassowsky, M; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schönauer, Horst Otto; Thivent, M; Ullrich, H M; Völker, F V; Vretenar, Maurizio; Barnes, M; Blackmore, E W; Cifarelli, F; Clark, G; Jones, F; Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Mammarella, F; Mitra, A; Poirier, R; Reiniger, K W; Ries, T C

    2000-01-01

    The LHC [1] will be supplied, via the SPS, with protons from the pre-injector chain comprising Linac2, PS Booster (PSB) and PS. These accelerators have under-gone a major upgrading programme [2] during the last five years so as to meet the stringent requirements of the LHC. These imply that many high-intensity bunches of small emittance and tight spacing (25 ns) be available at the PS extraction energy (25 GeV). The upgrading project involved an increase of Linac2 current, new RF systems in the PSB and the PS, raising the PSB energy from 1 to 1.4 GeV, two-batch filling of the PS and the installation of high-resolution beam profile measurement devices. With the project entering its final phase and most of the newly installed hardware now being operational, the emphasis switches to producing the nominal LHC beam and tackling the associated beam physics problems. While a beam with transverse characteristics better than nominal has been obtained, the longitudinal density still needs to be increased. An alternativ...

  13. Pressure Monitoring Using Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of gas-phase pressure measurements at kHz-rates using fs/ps rotational CARS. Femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is then probed by a high-energy 6-ps pulse introduced at a time delay from the Raman preparation. Rotational CARS spectra were recorded in N2 contained in a room-temperature gas cell for pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm and probe delays ranging from 10-330 ps. Using published self-broadened collisional linewidth data for N2, both the spectrally integrated coherence decay rate and the spectrally resolved decay were investigated as means for detecting pressure. Shot-averaged and single-laser-shot spectra were interrogated for pressure and the accuracy and precision as a function of probe delay and cell pressure are discussed. Single-shot measurement accuracies were within 0.1 to 6.5% when compared to a transducer values, while the precision was generally between 1% and 6% of measured pressure for probe delays of 200 ps or more, and better than 2% as the delay approached 300 ps. A byproduct of the pressure measurement is an independent but simultaneous measurement of the gas temperature.

  14. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26- μs, pulse repetition rates of 100-1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered.

  15. Axial acoustic radiation force on a sphere in Gaussian field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Rongrong; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Based on the finite series method, the acoustical radiation force resulting from a Gaussian beam incident on a spherical object is investigated analytically. When the position of the particles deviating from the center of the beam, the Gaussian beam is expanded as a spherical function at the center of the particles and the expanded coefficients of the Gaussian beam is calculated. The analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force on spherical particles deviating from the Gaussian beam center is deduced. The acoustic radiation force affected by the acoustic frequency and the offset distance from the Gaussian beam center is investigated. Results have been presented for Gaussian beams with different wavelengths and it has been shown that the interaction of a Gaussian beam with a sphere can result in attractive axial force under specific operational conditions. Results indicate the capability of manipulating and separating spherical spheres based on their mechanical and acoustical properties, the results provided here may provide a theoretical basis for development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.

  16. Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk

    2014-04-01

    The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.

  17. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  18. Anomalous dimensions and non-gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel; Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Silverstein, Eva; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-10-01

    We analyze the signatures of inflationary models that are coupled to interacting field theories, a basic class of multifield models also motivated by their role in providing dynamically small scales. Near the squeezed limit of the bispectrum, we find a simple scaling behavior determined by operator dimensions, which are constrained by the appropriate unitarity bounds. Specifically, we analyze two simple and calculable classes of examples: conformal field theories (CFTs), and large-N CFTs deformed by relevant time-dependent double-trace operators. Together these two classes of examples exhibit a wide range of scalings and shapes of the bispectrum, including nearly equilateral, orthogonal and local non-Gaussianity in different regimes. Along the way, we compare and contrast the shape and amplitude with previous results on weakly coupled fields coupled to inflation. This signature provides a precision test for strongly coupled sectors coupled to inflation via irrelevant operators suppressed by a high mass scale up to ~ 103 times the inflationary Hubble scale.

  19. Interpolation of intermolecular potentials using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteva, Elena; Graham, Richard S.; Wilkinson, Richard D.; Wheatley, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    A procedure is proposed to produce intermolecular potential energy surfaces from limited data. The procedure involves generation of geometrical configurations using a Latin hypercube design, with a maximin criterion, based on inverse internuclear distances. Gaussian processes are used to interpolate the data, using over-specified inverse molecular distances as covariates, greatly improving the interpolation. Symmetric covariance functions are specified so that the interpolation surface obeys all relevant symmetries, reducing prediction errors. The interpolation scheme can be applied to many important molecular interactions with trivial modifications. Results are presented for three systems involving CO2, a system with a deep energy minimum (HF-HF), and a system with 48 symmetries (CH4-N2). In each case, the procedure accurately predicts an independent test set. Training this method with high-precision ab initio evaluations of the CO2-CO interaction enables a parameter-free, first-principles prediction of the CO2-CO cross virial coefficient that agrees very well with experiments.

  20. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  1. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  2. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  3. Quantum non-Gaussian Depth of Single-Photon States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Ivo; Predojević, Ana; Huber, Tobias; Lachman, Lukáš; Butschek, Lorenz; Miková, Martina; Mičuda, Michal; Solomon, Glenn S; Weihs, Gregor; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2014-11-28

    We introduce and experimentally explore the concept of the non-Gaussian depth of single-photon states with a positive Wigner function. The depth measures the robustness of a single-photon state against optical losses. The directly witnessed quantum non-Gaussianity withstands significant attenuation, exhibiting a depth of 18 dB, while the nonclassicality remains unchanged. Quantum non-Gaussian depth is an experimentally approachable quantity that is much more robust than the negativity of the Wigner function. Furthermore, we use it to reveal significant differences between otherwise strongly nonclassical single-photon sources.

  4. Computational approaches for generating electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Santasri; Hyde, Milo W; Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G; Korotkova, Olga

    2014-12-29

    Two different methodologies for generating an electromagnetic Gaussian-Schell model source are discussed. One approach uses a sequence of random phase screens at the source plane and the other uses a sequence of random complex transmittance screens. The relationships between the screen parameters and the desired electromagnetic Gaussian-Schell model source parameters are derived. The approaches are verified by comparing numerical simulation results with published theory. This work enables one to design an electromagnetic Gaussian-Schell model source with pre-defined characteristics for wave optics simulations or laboratory experiments.

  5. The Two-User Gaussian Fading Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarian, Amin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents outerbounds for the two-user Gaussian fading broadcast channel. These outerbounds are based on Costa's entropy power inequality (Costa-EPI) and are formulated mathematically as a feasibility problem. For classes of the two-user Gaussian fading broadcast channel where the outerbound is found to have a feasible solution, we find conditions under which a suitable inner and outer bound meet. For all such cases, this paper provides a partial characterization of the capacity region of the Gaussian two-user fading broadcast channel.

  6. A note on moving average models for Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis L.

    The class of moving average models offers a flexible modeling framework for Gaussian random fields with many well known models such as the Matérn covariance family and the Gaussian covariance falling under this framework. Moving average models may also be viewed as a kernel smoothing of a Lévy...... basis, a general modeling framework which includes several types of non-Gaussian models. We propose a new one-parameter spatial correlation model which arises from a power kernel and show that the associated Hausdorff dimension of the sample paths can take any value between 2 and 3. As a result...

  7. Majorization theory approach to the Gaussian channel minimum entropy conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2012-03-16

    A long-standing open problem in quantum information theory is to find the classical capacity of an optical communication link, modeled as a Gaussian bosonic channel. It has been conjectured that this capacity is achieved by a random coding of coherent states using an isotropic Gaussian distribution in phase space. We show that proving a Gaussian minimum entropy conjecture for a quantum-limited amplifier is actually sufficient to confirm this capacity conjecture, and we provide a strong argument towards this proof by exploiting a connection between quantum entanglement and majorization theory.

  8. A Solution of Gaussian Optimizer Conjecture for Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.; García-Patrón, R.

    2015-03-01

    The long-standing conjectures of the optimality of Gaussian inputs and additivity are solved for a broad class of gauge-covariant or contravariant bosonic Gaussian channels (which includes in particular thermal, additive classical noise, and amplifier channels) restricting to the class of states with finite second moments. We show that the vacuum is the input state which minimizes the entropy at the output of such channels. This allows us to show also that the classical capacity of these channels (under the input energy constraint) is additive and is achieved by Gaussian encodings.

  9. Final Results on the CERN PS Electrostatic Septa Consolidation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, Jan; Bobbio, Piero; Carlier, Etienne; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Müller, Tania; Prost, Antoine; Crescenti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    The CERN PS electrostatic septum consolidation program is coming to completion after almost 4 years of development. The program was started to fulfil the increased requirements on vacuum performance and the need to reduce the time necessary for maintenance interventions. The new design of septum 31, used for the so-called 'continuous transfer' 5-turn extraction, and the related construction issues will be presented together with the operational experience gained during the PS 2002 run. In addition, the experience of two years of operation with the new generation septum 23, used for a resonant slow extraction, will be briefly discussed. The continued development undertaken since its installation in the PS ring in 2001 will also be described.

  10. A&T Sector Note on the PS transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Marcel; Blas, Alfred; Sterbini, Guido; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In a particle accelerator, several contributions can degrade the beam quality and particularly the beam transverse emittance. In this document we will describe a system used in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to cope with the injection steering errors and the transverse instabilities: the PS transverse feedback (PS TFB). As time progresses, this system is also being used for other purpose, to increase in a controlled way the beam transverse emittance and to excite the beam for the Multi-Turn-Extraction (MTE). In 2016, it has been successfully used on some operational beams to damp injection oscillations. This allowed to test the reliability of the system for its operational deployment. A piquet service is available in case of problem.

  11. SAFETY: STRICTER CONTROLS IN CONTROLLED AREAS IN THE PS

    CERN Document Server

    G. Daems

    2001-01-01

    The PS accelerators will soon stop for several months. Work will take place in controlled areas in the PS and will involve many people who are not always aware of the risks associated with the work sites. To guarentee the safety of these workers, the following two measures will be applied: everyone working in a controlled zone - Linacs, PSB, and PS machines tunnels, and transfer lines - must wear, visibly, his CERN access card and his film badge. the CERN access card and the film badge will only be issued after following a basic safety course. Regular checks will be carried out during the shutdown. Anyone without these two items on their person will be obliged to leave the area immediately.

  12. Electrophysical properties of PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skulski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the technology of obtaining and the electrophysical properties of a multicomponent material 0.61PMN-0.20PT-0.09PS-0.1PFN:Li (PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li. The addition of PFN into PMN-PT decreases the temperature of final sintering which is very important during technological process (addition of Li decreases electric conductivity of PFN. Addition of PS i.e., PbSnO3 (which is unstable in ceramic form permits to shift the temperature of the maximum of dielectric permittivity. One-step method of obtaining ceramic samples from oxides and carbonates has been used. XRD, microstructure, scanning calorimetry measurements and the main dielectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical properties have been investigated for the obtained samples.

  13. Effect of interfaces on the melting of PEO confined in triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, E; Phan, T N T; Robinet, M; Denoyel, R; Davidson, P; Bertin, D; Bouchet, R

    2013-08-27

    Block copolymers form nanostructures that have interesting physical properties because they combine, for a single compound, the complementary features brought by each block. However, in order to fully exploit these properties, the physical state of each kind of domain must be precisely controlled. In this work, triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers consisting of a central poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block covalently bonded to polystyrene (PS) blocks were synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Their morphology was investigated by X-ray scattering and TEM experiments whereas their thermodynamic behavior was characterized by DSC. A strong decrease of both the melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PEO, due to its confinement between the PS domains, was observed and analyzed with a modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, following the approaches used for fluids confined in porous media. The existence of an amorphous bound layer, a few nanometers thick, at the PEO/PS interface, that does not undergo any phase transition in the temperature range investigated, accounts for both the melting temperature depression and the decrease of crystallinity upon confinement. This interfacial layer may significantly affect the mechanical and transport properties of these block copolymers that find applications as solid polymer electrolytes in batteries for example. Moreover, the value obtained for the solid PEO/liquid PEO surface tension is lower than those previously published but is thermodynamically consistent with the surface tensions of polymers at the solid/vapor and liquid/vapor interfaces.

  14. Gaussian or non-Gaussian logconductivity distribution at the MADE site: What is its impact on the breakthrough curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Aldo; Volpi, Elena; Zarlenga, Antonio; Bohling, Geoffrey C

    2015-08-01

    The impact of the logconductivity (Y=ln K) distribution fY on transport at the MADE site is analyzed. Our principal interest is in non-Gaussian fY characterized by heavier tails than the Gaussian. Both the logconductivity moments and fY itself are inferred, taking advantage of the detailed measurements of Bohling et al. (2012). The resulting logconductivity distribution displays heavier tails than the Gaussian, although the departure from Gaussianity is not significant. The effect of the logconductivity distribution on the breakthrough curve (BTC) is studied through an analytical, physically based model. It is found that the non-Gaussianity of the MADE logconductivity distribution does not strongly affect the BTC. Counterintuitively, assuming heavier tailed distributions for Y, with same variance, leads to BTCs which are more symmetrical than those for the Gaussian fY, with less pronounced preferential flow. Results indicate that the impact of strongly non-Gaussian, heavy tailed distributions on solute transport in heterogeneous porous formations can be significant, especially in the presence of high heterogeneity, resulting in reduced preferential flow and retarded peak arrivals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inauguration of POPS: the new power system of the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Pictures 03 and 04 : The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Pictures 01, 06 and 07 : Magid-Michel Saikaly, energy and infrastructure director at Converteam, receives a prize from Steve Myers, Director of Accelerators at CERN, for the development and fabrication of the new electrical power system for the PS, called POPS.

  16. The Septa for LEIR Extraction and PS Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Masson, T; Prost, A

    2006-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is part of the CERN LHC injector chain for ions. The LEIR extraction uses a pulsed magnetic septum, clamped around a metallic vacuum chamber. Apart from separating the ultra high vacuum in the LEIR ring from the less good vacuum in the transfer line to the PS this chamber also serves as magnetic screen and retains the septum conductor in place. The PS ion injection septum consists of a pulsed laminated magnet under vacuum, featuring a single-turn water cooled coil and a remote positioning system. The design, the construction and the commissioning of both septa are described.

  17. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  18. Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2017-12-01

    Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.

  19. Scalable Gaussian Processes and the search for exoplanets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Gaussian Processes are a class of non-parametric models that are often used to model stochastic behavior in time series or spatial data. A major limitation for the application of these models to large datasets is the computational cost. The cost of a single evaluation of the model likelihood scales as the third power of the number of data points. In the search for transiting exoplanets, the datasets of interest have tens of thousands to millions of measurements with uneven sampling, rendering naive application of a Gaussian Process model impractical. To attack this problem, we have developed robust approximate methods for Gaussian Process regression that can be applied at this scale. I will describe the general problem of Gaussian Process regression and offer several applicable use cases. Finally, I will present our work on scaling this model to the exciting field of exoplanet discovery and introduce a well-tested open source implementation of these new methods.

  20. ARC Code TI: Block-GP: Scalable Gaussian Process Regression

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Block GP is a Gaussian Process regression framework for multimodal data, that can be an order of magnitude more scalable than existing state-of-the-art nonlinear...

  1. Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....

  2. Gaussian Process Regression for WDM System Performance Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob; Piels, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian process regression is numerically and experimentally investigated to predict the bit error rate of a 24 x 28 CiBd QPSK WDM system. The proposed method produces accurate predictions from multi-dimensional and sparse measurement data....

  3. Formation of optical vortices through superposition of two Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaity, Pravin; Aadhi, A; Singh, R P

    2013-09-20

    We observe phase singularities in the superposed field of two Gaussian beams. It is seen that the formation of these singularities depends on the tilt between two Gaussian beams and the separation of their beam axes. By reversing the angle or the position of the beams, one can change the sign of the vortex. We have shown the formation of single as well as multiple vortices by changing the tilt angle and the position of two Gaussian beams. The experimental results are verified with theoretical analysis. We also observe that such a vortex structure can be formed through superposition of two backreflected Gaussian beams from any optical element with two flat surfaces, as illustrated through a beam splitter and a neutral density filter. This technique is very useful for generation of vortices with high-power lasers where one cannot use a spatial light modulator.

  4. Solenoidal filtering of volumetric velocity measurements using Gaussian process regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, I.; Dwight, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Volumetric velocity measurements of incompressible flows contain spurious divergence due to measurement noise, despite mass conservation dictating that the velocity field must be divergence-free (solenoidal). We investigate the use of Gaussian process regression to filter spurious divergence,

  5. Propagation of sharply autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Chidao; Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Deng, Dongmei

    2015-07-27

    Controlling the focal length and the intensity of the optical focus in the media is an important task. Here we investigate the propagation properties of the sharply autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams numerically and some numerical experiments are performed. We introduce the distribution factor b into the initial beams, and discuss the influences for the beams. With controlling the factor b, the beams that tend to a ring Airy vortex beam with the smaller value, or a hollow Gaussian vortex beam with the larger one. By a choice of initial launch condition, we find that the number of topological charge of the incident beams, as well as its size, greatly affect the focal intensity and the focal length of the autofocused ring Airy Gaussian vortex beams. Furthermore, we show that the off-axis autofocused ring Airy Gaussian beams with vortex pairs can be implemented.

  6. Spatial properties of coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boubaha, B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore theoretically and experimentally the laser beam shaping ability resulting from the coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams (GBs). This technique is classified under interferometric laser beam shaping techniques...

  7. Elasto-plastic frame under horizontal and vertical Gaussian excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Randrup-Thomsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    /compression axial force. Assuming that the horizontal excitationof the traverse is Gaussian white noise, statistics related to the plastic displacement response are determinedby use of simulation based on the Slepian modelprocess method combined with envelope excursion properties. Besidesgiving physical insight...

  8. Calculation of Differential Entropy for a Mixed Gaussian Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Bucholtz; Jonathan M. Nichols; Joseph V. Michalowicz

    2008-01-01

    In this work, an analytical expression is developed for the differential entropy of a mixed Gaussian distribution. One of the terms is given by a tabulated function of the ratio of the distribution parameters.

  9. Making tensor factorizations robust to non-gaussian noise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Eric C. (Rice University, Houston, TX); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Tensors are multi-way arrays, and the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization has found application in many different domains. The CP model is typically fit using a least squares objective function, which is a maximum likelihood estimate under the assumption of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise. We demonstrate that this loss function can be highly sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. Therefore, we propose a loss function based on the 1-norm because it can accommodate both Gaussian and grossly non-Gaussian perturbations. We also present an alternating majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm for fitting a CP model using our proposed loss function (CPAL1) and compare its performance to the workhorse algorithm for fitting CP models, CP alternating least squares (CPALS).

  10. Decoherence and tripartite entanglement dynamics in the presence of Gaussian and non-Gaussian classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza, E-mail: kenfacklionel300@gmail.com [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Fouokeng, Georges Collince [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structure Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO Box: 67 Dschang (Cameroon); Laboratoire de Génie des Matériaux, Pôle Recherche-Innovation-Entrepreneuriat (PRIE), Institut Universitaire de la Côte, BP 3001 Douala (Cameroon)

    2017-04-15

    We address the entanglement dynamics of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical fluctuating environment described either by a Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise in three different configurations namely: common, independent and mixed environments. Specifically, we focus on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise and the random telegraph noise (RTN). The qubits are prepared in a state composed of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and a W state. With the help of the tripartite negativity, we show that the entanglement evolution is not only affected by the type of system-environment coupling but also by the kind and the memory properties of the considered noise. We also compared the dynamics induced by the two kinds of noise and we find that even if both noises have a Lorentzian spectrum, the effects of the OU noise cannot be in a simple way deduced from those of the RTN and vice-versa. In addition, we show that the entanglement can be indefinitely preserved when the qubits are coupled to the environmental noise in a common environment (CE). Finally, the presence or absence of peculiar phenomena such as entanglement revivals (ER) and entanglement sudden death (ESD) is observed.

  11. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  12. Identification of Hot Spots in Protein Structures Using Gaussian Network Model and Gaussian Naive Bayes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shan, Guogen

    2016-01-01

    Residue fluctuations in protein structures have been shown to be highly associated with various protein functions. Gaussian network model (GNM), a simple representative coarse-grained model, was widely adopted to reveal function-related protein dynamics. We directly utilized the high frequency modes generated by GNM and further performed Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) to identify hot spot residues. Two coding schemes about the feature vectors were implemented with varying distance cutoffs for GNM and sliding window sizes for GNB based on tenfold cross validations: one by using only a single high mode and the other by combining multiple modes with the highest frequency. Our proposed methods outperformed the previous work that did not directly utilize the high frequency modes generated by GNM, with regard to overall performance evaluated using F1 measure. Moreover, we found that inclusion of more high frequency modes for a GNB classifier can significantly improve the sensitivity. The present study provided additional valuable insights into the relation between the hot spots and the residue fluctuations.

  13. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  14. Non-negative matrix factorization with Gaussian process priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Laurberg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for including prior knowledge in a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), based on Gaussian process priors. We assume that the nonnegative factors in the NMF are linked by a strictly increasing function to an underlying Gaussian process specified by its covariance...... function. This allows us to find NMF decompositions that agree with our prior knowledge of the distribution of the factors, such as sparseness, smoothness, and symmetries. The method is demonstrated with an example from chemical shift brain imaging....

  15. A quantum-statistical-mechanical extension of Gaussian mixture model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3-09 Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsuda, K [Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: kazu@smapip.is.tohoku.ac.jp

    2008-01-15

    We propose an extension of Gaussian mixture models in the statistical-mechanical point of view. The conventional Gaussian mixture models are formulated to divide all points in given data to some kinds of classes. We introduce some quantum states constructed by superposing conventional classes in linear combinations. Our extension can provide a new algorithm in classifications of data by means of linear response formulas in the statistical mechanics.

  16. Space-time correlations of a Gaussian interface

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, Francois M.

    2010-01-01

    The serial harness introduced by Hammersley is equivalent, in the Gaussian case, to the Gaussian Solid-On-Solid interface model with parallel heat bath dynamics. Here we consider sub-lattice parallel dynamics, and give exact results about relaxation dynamics, based on the equivalence to the infinite time limit of a time periodic random field. We also give a numerical comparison to the harness process in continuous time studied by Hsiao and by Ferrari, Niederhauser and Pechersky.

  17. GAUSSIAN 76: an ab initio molecular orbital program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-06-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  18. Properties of Orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite Moments and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments are widely used in pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision and multiresolution analysis. In this paper, we first point out some properties of the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments, and propose a new method to detect the moving objects by using the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments. The experiment results are reported, which show the good performance of our method.

  19. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm......We present a device based on a tapered Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber that allows active all-in-fiber filtering. The resulting Photonic Bandgap Fiber device provides a Gaussian filter covering the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm...

  20. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  1. Non-gaussianity versus nonlinearity of cosmological perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, L

    2001-06-01

    Following the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, the hot big-bang model has become the standard cosmological model. In this theory, small primordial fluctuations are subsequently amplified by gravity to form the large-scale structure seen today. Different theories for unified models of particle physics, lead to different predictions for the statistical properties of the primordial fluctuations, that can be divided in two classes: gaussian and non-gaussian. Convincing evidence against or for gaussian initial conditions would rule out many scenarios and point us toward a physical theory for the origin of structures. The statistical distribution of cosmological perturbations, as we observe them, can deviate from the gaussian distribution in several different ways. Even if perturbations start off gaussian, nonlinear gravitational evolution can introduce non-gaussian features. Additionally, our knowledge of the Universe comes principally from the study of luminous material such as galaxies, but galaxies might not be faithful tracers of the underlying mass distribution. The relationship between fluctuations in the mass and in the galaxies distribution (bias), is often assumed to be local, but could well be nonlinear. Moreover, galaxy catalogues use the redshift as third spatial coordinate: the resulting redshift-space map of the galaxy distribution is nonlinearly distorted by peculiar velocities. Nonlinear gravitational evolution, biasing, and redshift-space distortion introduce non-gaussianity, even in an initially gaussian fluctuation field. I investigate the statistical tools that allow us, in principle, to disentangle the above different effects, and the observational datasets we require to do so in practice.

  2. GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  3. Identification and estimation of non-Gaussian structural vector autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Meitz, Mika; Saikkonen, Pentti

    -Gaussian components is, without any additional restrictions, identified and leads to (essentially) unique impulse responses. We also introduce an identification scheme under which the maximum likelihood estimator of the non-Gaussian SVAR model is consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. As a consequence......, additional economic identifying restrictions can be tested. In an empirical application, we find a negative impact of a contractionary monetary policy shock on financial markets, and clearly reject the commonly employed recursive identifying restrictions....

  4. FPGA implementation of filtered image using 2D Gaussian filter

    OpenAIRE

    Leila kabbai; Anissa Sghaier; Ali Douik; Mohsen Machhout

    2016-01-01

    Image filtering is one of the very useful techniques in image processing and computer vision. It is used to eliminate useless details and noise from an image. In this paper, a hardware implementation of image filtered using 2D Gaussian Filter will be present. The Gaussian filter architecture will be described using a different way to implement convolution module. Thus, multiplication is in the heart of convolution module, for this reason, three different ways to implement multiplication opera...

  5. Back to Normal! Gaussianizing posterior distributions for cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Robert L.; Joachimi, Benjamin; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to map multivariate non-Gaussian posterior probability densities into Gaussian ones via nonlinear Box-Cox transformations, and generalizations thereof. This is analogous to the search for normal parameters in the CMB, but can in principle be applied to any probability density that is continuous and unimodal. The search for the optimally Gaussianizing transformation amongst the Box-Cox family is performed via a maximum likelihood formalism. We can judge the quality of the found transformation a posteriori: qualitatively via statistical tests of Gaussianity, and more illustratively by how well it reproduces the credible regions. The method permits an analytical reconstruction of the posterior from a sample, e.g. a Markov chain, and simplifies the subsequent joint analysis with other experiments. Furthermore, it permits the characterization of a non-Gaussian posterior in a compact and efficient way. The expression for the non-Gaussian posterior can be employed to find analytic formulae for the Bayesian evidence, and consequently be used for model comparison.

  6. Automatic image equalization and contrast enhancement using Gaussian mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Turgay; Tjahjadi, Tardi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive image equalization algorithm that automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution, and the intersection points of the Gaussian components in the model are used to partition the dynamic range of the image into input gray-level intervals. The contrast equalized image is generated by transforming the pixels' gray levels in each input interval to the appropriate output gray-level interval according to the dominant Gaussian component and the cumulative distribution function of the input interval. To take account of the hypothesis that homogeneous regions in the image represent homogeneous silences (or set of Gaussian components) in the image histogram, the Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances, and the gray-level distribution is also used to weight the components in the mapping of the input interval to the output interval. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm produces better or comparable enhanced images than several state-of-the-art algorithms. Unlike the other algorithms, the proposed algorithm is free of parameter setting for a given dynamic range of the enhanced image and can be applied to a wide range of image types.

  7. Scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter: theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In this work we consider the state estimation problem in nonlinear/non-Gaussian systems. We introduce a framework, called the scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter (SUT-GSF), which combines two ideas: the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF) based on the concept of scaled unscented transform (SUT), and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The SUT is used to approximate the mean and covariance of a Gaussian random variable which is transformed by a nonlinear function, while the GMM is adopted to approximate the probability density function (pdf) of a random variable through a set of Gaussian distributions. With these two tools, a framework can be set up to assimilate nonlinear systems in a recursive way. Within this framework, one can treat a nonlinear stochastic system as a mixture model of a set of sub-systems, each of which takes the form of a nonlinear system driven by a known Gaussian random process. Then, for each sub-system, one applies the SUKF to estimate the mean and covariance of the underlyi...

  8. Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of an estuarine shrimp pond located along the south east coast of India. During the investigation, a total of 28 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and examined for their protease activity. Among them, one strain PS-18A which was tentatively identified as ...

  9. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  10. Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Isolation Agar Medium in duplicate Petri plates. To minimize ... on the Petri plates were counted from 5th day onwards, up to 28th .... After the dialysis, the volume was measured and analyzed for proteins and stored in deep freezer. Taxonomic investigation. The genus level identification was made for the strain PS-18A using ...

  11. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  12. Multipole stack for the 4 rings of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV) saw first beam in 1972, routine operation began in 1973. The strive for ever higher intensities required the addition of multipoles. Manufacture of 8 stacks of multipoles was launched in 1974, for installation in 1976. For details, see 7511120X.

  13. The Swelling Behaviour of Polystyrene (PS)/ Polyvinylacetate (Pvac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the variation of the type of solvent responsible for the differences in the swelling kinetics of Polystyrene (PS) and Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) blends was studied. The results showed that the nature of solvent control or affects the degree of swelling. Also, 1-V characteristics at temperature range of 323-363K shows ...

  14. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2011-07-01

    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20-24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to 'open' secondary structure around small RNA's target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/.

  16. Scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter: Theory and application

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2010-05-01

    In this work we consider the state estimation problem in nonlinear/non-Gaussian systems. We introduce a framework, called the scaled unscented transform Gaussian sum filter (SUT-GSF), which combines two ideas: the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF) based on the concept of scaled unscented transform (SUT) (Julier and Uhlmann (2004) [16]), and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The SUT is used to approximate the mean and covariance of a Gaussian random variable which is transformed by a nonlinear function, while the GMM is adopted to approximate the probability density function (pdf) of a random variable through a set of Gaussian distributions. With these two tools, a framework can be set up to assimilate nonlinear systems in a recursive way. Within this framework, one can treat a nonlinear stochastic system as a mixture model of a set of sub-systems, each of which takes the form of a nonlinear system driven by a known Gaussian random process. Then, for each sub-system, one applies the SUKF to estimate the mean and covariance of the underlying Gaussian random variable transformed by the nonlinear governing equations of the sub-system. Incorporating the estimations of the sub-systems into the GMM gives an explicit (approximate) form of the pdf, which can be regarded as a "complete" solution to the state estimation problem, as all of the statistical information of interest can be obtained from the explicit form of the pdf (Arulampalam et al. (2002) [7]). In applications, a potential problem of a Gaussian sum filter is that the number of Gaussian distributions may increase very rapidly. To this end, we also propose an auxiliary algorithm to conduct pdf re-approximation so that the number of Gaussian distributions can be reduced. With the auxiliary algorithm, in principle the SUT-GSF can achieve almost the same computational speed as the SUKF if the SUT-GSF is implemented in parallel. As an example, we will use the SUT-GSF to assimilate a 40-dimensional system due to

  17. The role of a conserved membrane proximal cysteine in altering αPS2CβPS integrin diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Bunch, Thomas A.; Smith, Emily A.

    2016-12-01

    Cysteine residues (Cys) in the membrane proximal region are common post-translational modification (PTM) sites in transmembrane proteins. Herein, the effects of a highly conserved membrane proximal α-subunit Cys1368 on the diffusion properties of αPS2CβPS integrins are reported. Sequence alignment shows that this cysteine is palmitoylated in human α3 and α6 integrin subunits. Replacing Cys1368 in wild-type integrins with valine (Val1368) putatively blocks a PTM site and alters integrins’ ligand binding and diffusion characteristics. Both fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT) diffusion measurements show Val1368 integrins are more mobile compared to wild-type integrins. Approximately 33% and 8% more Val1368 integrins are mobile as measured by FRAP and SPT, respectively. The mobile Val1368 integrins also exhibit less time-dependent diffusion, as measured by FRAP. Tandem mass spectrometry data suggest that Cys1368 contains a redox or palmitoylation PTM in αPS2CβPS integrins. This membrane proximal Cys may play an important role in the diffusion of other alpha subunits that contain this conserved residue.

  18. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of sigma=18 ps and energy resolution Delta E/E=3.5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2008-06-01

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 microm) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to sigma=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than sigma=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of DeltaE(FWHM)/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about Deltam(FWHM)/m=14150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to sigma=115 microm.

  19. Maneuvering Target Detection Based on JRC System in Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the problem of detecting maneuvering targets in the Gaussian and sea clutter environments and based on the established motion state model, this paper proposed a new scheme that uses a joint radar-communication (JRC system with Kalman filter to accurately detect the target with the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT theory and a constant false alarm rate (CFAR based threshold. Also, the theoretical threshold and probability function of GLRT target detection based on CFAR were given. Moreover, target detection probability of the new JRC system in Weibull and K distribution clutter is deduced. In addition to theoretical considerations, simulations and measurement results of the new JRC systems demonstrate excellent detection performance for maneuvering targets in the Weibull and K distribution channel.

  20. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  1. A transmissão psíquica geracional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Oliveira dos Santos

    Full Text Available O artigo seguinte refere-se a um estudo sobre como ocorre a transmissão psíquica entre as gerações e qual sua importância na constituição psíquica do sujeito. É também objetivo deste artigo explicar o que são as transmissões intergeracional e transgeracional. Para buscar respostas para essas questões, fez-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a transmissão psíquica, pelo viés psicanalítico, principalmente a partir da teoria lacaniana e com conceitos oriundos da linguística saussuriana. Será a partir de uma determinada ordem simbólica, constituída pela linguagem que precede o sujeito, nomeado por Lacan como o Outro, que a transmissão psíquica entre gerações ganhará o seu caráter unívoco, sempre se tendo em mente a importância fundamental do recalcamento e de seus efeitos, bem como do retorno do recalcado nas diferentes gerações. A transmissão psíquica é necessária e concomitante à constituição do sujeito, e ocorre através da linguagem, dos significantes que irão determinar uma ordem simbólica para o ser que nasce através dos diferentes discursos que perpassam as gerações nas figuras dos pais desse novo ser. Essa ordem simbólica continuará a se fazer presente nesse novo sujeito pelo restante de sua existência. Este artigo busca dar nova luz ao aspecto da transmissão psíquica transgeracional, diferenciando-se da recalque s abordagens psicanalíticas contemporâneas por ser uma leitura lacaniana. Serão usados dois exemplos: um de como a transmissão aparece na cultura, outro, na subjetividade do sujeito através da arte.

  2. Effects of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section we study the effects of radiation transport on hydrodynamic parameters of typical ICF plasmas. We study the differences in one group and multigroup predictions. We also study the effects of non-LTE plasma conditions. For these studies, we consider the planer foils driven by a 200 ps (FWHM) Gaussian Nd ...

  3. Comparing the information capacity of entangled Laguerre-Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussian modal sets in a finite-aperture system

    OpenAIRE

    Restuccia, Sara; Giovannini, Daniel; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process to create entangled spatial states, we compare the information capacity associated with measurements in the Hermite–Gaussian and Laguerre–Gaussian modal basis in an optical system of finite aperture. We show that the cross-talk imposed by the aperture restriction degrades the information capacity. However, the Laguerre–Gaussian mode measurements show greater resilience to cross talk than the Hermite–Gaussian, suggesting that the Laguerre–...

  4. Non-Gaussian statistical properties of breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Nosratieh, Anita; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have shown that the power spectrum of x-ray breast images is well described by a power-law at lower frequencies where anatomical variability dominates. However, an image generated from a Gaussian process with this spectrum is easily distinguished from an image of actual breast tissue by eye. This demonstrates that higher order non-Gaussian statistical properties of mammograms are readily accessible to the visual system. The authors’ purpose is to quantify and characterize non-Gaussian statistical properties of breast images as influenced by processing of a digital mammogram, different imaging modalities, and breast density. Methods: To quantify non-Gaussian statistical properties, the authors consider histograms of filter responses from the interior of a breast image that have similar properties to receptive fields in the early visual system. They quantify departure from a Gaussian distribution by the relative entropy of the histogram compared to a best-fit Gaussian distribution. This entropy is normalized by the relative entropy of a best-fit Laplacian distribution into a measure they refer to as Laplacian fractional entropy (LFE). They test the LFE on a set of 26 patients recalled at screening for which they have available full-field digital mammography (FFDM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and dedicated breast CT (bCT) images as well as breast density scores and biopsy results. Results: A study of LFE in FFDM comparing the raw “for-processing” transmission data from the device to log-converted density estimates and the processed “for-display” data shows that processing mammographic image data enhances the non-Gaussian content of the image. A check of the methodology using a Gaussian process with a power-law power spectrum shows relatively little bias from the finite extent of the region of interests used. A second study comparing LFE across FFDM, DBT, and bCT modalities shows that each maximized the non-Gaussian content

  5. CLUSTERING OF MULTISPECTRAL AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA USING GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morsy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of the LiDAR technology, multispectral airborne laser scanning systems are currently available. The first operational multispectral airborne LiDAR sensor, the Optech Titan, acquires LiDAR point clouds at three different wavelengths (1.550, 1.064, 0.532 μm, allowing the acquisition of different spectral information of land surface. Consequently, the recent studies are devoted to use the radiometric information (i.e., intensity of the LiDAR data along with the geometric information (e.g., height for classification purposes. In this study, a data clustering method, based on Gaussian decomposition, is presented. First, a ground filtering mechanism is applied to separate non-ground from ground points. Then, three normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs are computed for both non-ground and ground points, followed by histograms construction from each NDVI. The Gaussian function model is used to decompose the histograms into a number of Gaussian components. The maximum likelihood estimate of the Gaussian components is then optimized using Expectation – Maximization algorithm. The intersection points of the adjacent Gaussian components are subsequently used as threshold values, whereas different classes can be clustered. This method is used to classify the terrain of an urban area in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, into four main classes, namely roofs, trees, asphalt and grass. It is shown that the proposed method has achieved an overall accuracy up to 95.1 % using different NDVIs.

  6. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  7. Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@unige.ch [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-09-01

    Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastly simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out that statistics of thresholded regions can be computed using the same formalism. Our results suggest that halo clustering statistics can be modelled consistently (in the sense that the Gaussian and non-Gaussian bias factors agree with peak-background split expectations) from a Lagrangian bias relation only if the latter is specified as a set of constraints imposed on the linear density field. This is clearly not the case of standard Lagrangian local bias. Therefore, one is led to consider additional variables beyond the local mass overdensity.

  8. An algorithm for separation of mixed sparse and Gaussian sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkalkotkar, Ameya; Brown, Kevin Scott

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a ubiquitous method for decomposing complex signal mixtures into a small set of statistically independent source signals. However, in cases in which the signal mixture consists of both nongaussian and Gaussian sources, the Gaussian sources will not be recoverable by ICA and will pollute estimates of the nongaussian sources. Therefore, it is desirable to have methods for mixed ICA/PCA which can separate mixtures of Gaussian and nongaussian sources. For mixtures of purely Gaussian sources, principal component analysis (PCA) can provide a basis for the Gaussian subspace. We introduce a new method for mixed ICA/PCA which we call Mixed ICA/PCA via Reproducibility Stability (MIPReSt). Our method uses a repeated estimations technique to rank sources by reproducibility, combined with decomposition of multiple subsamplings of the original data matrix. These multiple decompositions allow us to assess component stability as the size of the data matrix changes, which can be used to determinine the dimension of the nongaussian subspace in a mixture. We demonstrate the utility of MIPReSt for signal mixtures consisting of simulated sources and real-word (speech) sources, as well as mixture of unknown composition.

  9. Clustering of Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data Using Gaussian Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, S.; Shaker, A.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2017-09-01

    With the evolution of the LiDAR technology, multispectral airborne laser scanning systems are currently available. The first operational multispectral airborne LiDAR sensor, the Optech Titan, acquires LiDAR point clouds at three different wavelengths (1.550, 1.064, 0.532 μm), allowing the acquisition of different spectral information of land surface. Consequently, the recent studies are devoted to use the radiometric information (i.e., intensity) of the LiDAR data along with the geometric information (e.g., height) for classification purposes. In this study, a data clustering method, based on Gaussian decomposition, is presented. First, a ground filtering mechanism is applied to separate non-ground from ground points. Then, three normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) are computed for both non-ground and ground points, followed by histograms construction from each NDVI. The Gaussian function model is used to decompose the histograms into a number of Gaussian components. The maximum likelihood estimate of the Gaussian components is then optimized using Expectation - Maximization algorithm. The intersection points of the adjacent Gaussian components are subsequently used as threshold values, whereas different classes can be clustered. This method is used to classify the terrain of an urban area in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, into four main classes, namely roofs, trees, asphalt and grass. It is shown that the proposed method has achieved an overall accuracy up to 95.1 % using different NDVIs.

  10. An algorithm for separation of mixed sparse and Gaussian sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkalkotkar, Ameya

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a ubiquitous method for decomposing complex signal mixtures into a small set of statistically independent source signals. However, in cases in which the signal mixture consists of both nongaussian and Gaussian sources, the Gaussian sources will not be recoverable by ICA and will pollute estimates of the nongaussian sources. Therefore, it is desirable to have methods for mixed ICA/PCA which can separate mixtures of Gaussian and nongaussian sources. For mixtures of purely Gaussian sources, principal component analysis (PCA) can provide a basis for the Gaussian subspace. We introduce a new method for mixed ICA/PCA which we call Mixed ICA/PCA via Reproducibility Stability (MIPReSt). Our method uses a repeated estimations technique to rank sources by reproducibility, combined with decomposition of multiple subsamplings of the original data matrix. These multiple decompositions allow us to assess component stability as the size of the data matrix changes, which can be used to determinine the dimension of the nongaussian subspace in a mixture. We demonstrate the utility of MIPReSt for signal mixtures consisting of simulated sources and real-word (speech) sources, as well as mixture of unknown composition. PMID:28414814

  11. Transfer line from the PSB to the PS (recombination)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    After sequential ejection of 5 bunches from each of the 4 rings of the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), the 4 batches are brought to the same vertical level, so as to form a string of 20 bunches, filling the circumference of the PS. This vertical "recombination" is performed in the transfer line, using vertical bending magnets, septa and kickers. Here we see the section where the beam from ring 4 (the top one) is brought down to the level of ring 3, and the beam from ring 1 up to the level of ring 2. Further downstream (to the right, outside this picture), level 2 is brought up to level 3, identical to that of the PS. After this original recombination scheme, other ways of combining the 4 beams, vertically and/or longitudinally, were developed and used in operation.

  12. O Trabalho Psíquico da Intersubjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Assumpção Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura refletir sobre o trabalho psíquico da intersubjetividade nos grupos. Trata-se de pensá-lo na relação com a ruptura de investimentos durante o processo de Transformação x Criação, em primeiro lugar. A partir desse ponto, discutiremos a relação entre Transformação, Trabalho e Dispositivo. Neste caso pensamos nas possibilidades de intervenção, refletindo sobre a intervenção inpidual e a intervenção grupal. A questão da Transmissão Psíquica entre gerações será focalizada, fundamentalmente, no que se refere aos tempos lógicos do recalque.

  13. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  14. Magnetoelectric MnPS3 as a candidate for ferrotoroidicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressouche, E.; Loire, M.; Simonet, V.; Ballou, R.; Stunault, A.; Wildes, A.

    2010-09-01

    We have revisited the magnetic structure of manganese phosphorus trisulfide MnPS3 using neutron diffraction and polarimetry. MnPS3 undergoes a transition toward a collinear antiferromagnetic order at 78 K. The resulting magnetic point-group breaks both the time reversal and the space inversion thus allowing a linear magnetoelectric coupling. Neutron polarimetry was subsequently used to prove that this coupling provides a way to manipulate the antiferromagnetic domains simply by cooling the sample under crossed magnetic and electrical fields, in agreement with the nondiagonal form of the magnetoelectric tensor. In addition, this tensor has, in principle, an antisymmetric part that results in a toroidic moment and provides with a pure ferrotoroidic compound.

  15. PS Dreyer: Bakens op die pad van die wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Antonites

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available PS Dreyer: Beacons on the path of science Professor PS Dreyer is an academic who has shown insight and vision into several problems of the human sciences since 1951. He has identified problems, but also contributed solutions to them. In this respect his philosophy on causality and freedom is of utmost importance. The same applies to his investigations into the relationship history-Christianity as well as the unity of sciences and how the concepts scientific, unscientic and nonscientific are related to one another. His contribution to the understanding of Greek philosophy should be of significance for time to come. Two milestones could be distinguished: Dreyer's particular solution to the problem of the criterion on truth, viz meaningfulness and his notion of the knowledge of values in ethics by valuation in contradistinction to knowledge through feeling, reason and will.

  16. Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Stander

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Images of Christ's Saving Work in Ps.-Epiphanius' Homilies. One cannot really speak of a systematic theology on the subject of atone-ment in the patristic writers. Frances Young once said that 'it is in fact impossible to categorize neatly the thought of the major patristic writers on the subject of atonement'. She adds that one cannot do justice to the range of motifs and images that are found in describing the saving and atoning work of Christ if we merely dismember 'systematic theologies' to illustrate common soteriological themes. One can only appreciate patristic views of atonement if one begins by recognizing the multifaceted unity of imagery that pervades the literature. This then is the goal of this article: to discuss the rich images which Ps: -Epiphanius uses to describe the atoning work of Christ.

  17. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  18. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  19. Consolidation of the 45-Year Old PS Main Magnet System

    CERN Document Server

    Zickler, Thomas; Kalbreier, Wilhelm; Mess, Karl Hubert; Newborough, Antony

    2006-01-01

    After a major coil insulation breakdown on two of the 47-year-old CERN PS main magnets in 2003, an extensive magnet consolidation program has been launched. This article reviews the analysis of the magnet state be-fore the repair and the applied major improvements. An overview is given of the production of the new compo-nents, the actual refurbishment and the commissioning of the main magnet system after 18 months shutdown.

  20. Specification of the Beam Position Measurement in the PS Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Chanel, M; Ludwig, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Scrivens, R; Steerenberg, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    This specification, drawn up by the instrumentation specification board 2, describes the requirements concerning orbit and trajectory measurements in the PS machine. The orbit measurement and the trajectory measurement are both indispensable in order to be able to guarantee the correct beam quality for beams like LHC, the future Grand Sasso beam, the nTOF beam and surely the combined operation of the nTOF beam and the East Area beam.

  1. Science spin: iPS cell research in the news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Rachul, C

    2011-05-01

    Big scientific developments have always been spun to meet particular social agendas. We have seen it in the context of global warming, nuclear power, and genetically modified organisms. But few stories illustrate the phenomenon of spin as well as the reaction, and concomitant media coverage, that surrounded the November 2007 announcement regarding the reprogramming of skin cells to produce cells with qualities comparable to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  2. Physics at the AD/PS/SPS (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lecture 1: The CERN injector complex and beams for non-LHC physics. The various machines and beam lines in the CERN injector complex are presented, from the linacs to the SPS. Special emphasis is given to the beam lines at the PS and SPS machines: AD, North and East Areas, nTOF and CNGS and HiRadMad as well as the ion beams. A short outlook is given to possible future upgrades and projects.

  3. Ps18.pdf | sep2002 | jess | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; jess; sep2002; Ps18.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Associates – 2017. Posted on 17 July 2017. Click here to see the list · 28th Mid Year Meeting. Posted on 26 May ...

  4. New Electron Cloud Detectors for the PS Main Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, Ch; Gilardoni, S; Taborelli, M; Neupert, H; Ferreira Somoza, J

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud (EC) has already been observed during normal operation of the PS, therefore it is necessary to study its in fluence on any beam instability for the future LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU). Two new electron cloud detectors have been discussed, developed and installed during the Long Shutdown (LS1) in one of the PS main magnets. The first measurement method is based on current measurement by using a shielded button-type pick-up. Due to the geometry and space limitation in the PS magnet, the button-type pick-up made of a 96%Al2O3 block coated with a thin layer of solvent-based Ag painting, placed 30 degrees to the bottom part of the vacuum chamber was installed in the horizontal direction where the only opening of the magnet coil is. The other newly developed measurement method is based on detection of photons emitted by the electrons from the electron cloud impinging on the vacuum chamber walls. The emitted photons are reected to a quartz window. A MCP-PMT (Micro-Channel Plate Photomultiplier Tube) wit...

  5. LS1 Report: PS Booster prepares for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With Linac2 already up and running, the countdown to beam in the LHC has begun! The next in line is the PS Booster, which will close up shop to engineers early next week. The injector will be handed over to the Operations Group who are tasked with getting it ready for active duty.   Taken as we approach the end of LS1 activities, this image shows where protons will soon be injected from Linac2 into the four PS Booster rings. Over the coming two months, the Operations Group will be putting the Booster's new elements through their paces. "Because of the wide range of upgrades and repairs carried out in the Booster, we have a very full schedule of tests planned for the machine," says Bettina Mikulec, PS Booster Engineer in Charge. "We will begin with cold checks; these are a wide range of tests carried out without beam, including system tests with power on/off and with varying settings, as well as verification of the controls system and timings." Amon...

  6. Nonparametric estimation of stochastic differential equations with sparse Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Constantino A.; Otero, Abraham; Félix, Paulo; Presedo, Jesús; Márquez, David G.

    2017-08-01

    The application of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to the analysis of temporal data has attracted increasing attention, due to their ability to describe complex dynamics with physically interpretable equations. In this paper, we introduce a nonparametric method for estimating the drift and diffusion terms of SDEs from a densely observed discrete time series. The use of Gaussian processes as priors permits working directly in a function-space view and thus the inference takes place directly in this space. To cope with the computational complexity that requires the use of Gaussian processes, a sparse Gaussian process approximation is provided. This approximation permits the efficient computation of predictions for the drift and diffusion terms by using a distribution over a small subset of pseudosamples. The proposed method has been validated using both simulated data and real data from economy and paleoclimatology. The application of the method to real data demonstrates its ability to capture the behavior of complex systems.

  7. Gaussian white noise as a resource for work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Andreas; Baule, Adrian; Sasa, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    We show that uncorrelated Gaussian noise can drive a system out of equilibrium and can serve as a resource from which work can be extracted. We consider an overdamped particle in a periodic potential with an internal degree of freedom and a state-dependent friction, coupled to an equilibrium bath. Applying additional Gaussian white noise drives the system into a nonequilibrium steady state and causes a finite current if the potential is spatially asymmetric. The model thus operates as a Brownian ratchet, whose current we calculate explicitly in three complementary limits. Since the particle current is driven solely by additive Gaussian white noise, this shows that the latter can potentially perform work against an external load. By comparing the extracted power to the energy injection due to the noise, we discuss the efficiency of such a ratchet.

  8. Nonparametric estimation of stochastic differential equations with sparse Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Constantino A; Otero, Abraham; Félix, Paulo; Presedo, Jesús; Márquez, David G

    2017-08-01

    The application of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to the analysis of temporal data has attracted increasing attention, due to their ability to describe complex dynamics with physically interpretable equations. In this paper, we introduce a nonparametric method for estimating the drift and diffusion terms of SDEs from a densely observed discrete time series. The use of Gaussian processes as priors permits working directly in a function-space view and thus the inference takes place directly in this space. To cope with the computational complexity that requires the use of Gaussian processes, a sparse Gaussian process approximation is provided. This approximation permits the efficient computation of predictions for the drift and diffusion terms by using a distribution over a small subset of pseudosamples. The proposed method has been validated using both simulated data and real data from economy and paleoclimatology. The application of the method to real data demonstrates its ability to capture the behavior of complex systems.

  9. Bloch-Messiah reduction of Gaussian unitaries by Takagi factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. The nonlinear part is due to the squeezing possibly present in the Gaussian unitary. The reduction is usually obtained by exploiting the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrices appearing in the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary. This paper discusses a different approach, where the BM reduction is obtained in a straightforward way. It is based on the Takagi factorization of the (complex and symmetric) squeeze matrix and has the advantage of avoiding several matrix operations of the previous approach (polar decomposition, eigendecomposition, SVD, and Takagi factorization). The theory is illustrated with an application example in which the previous and present approaches are compared.

  10. Study of Gaussian Relay Channels with Correlated Noises

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lili; Goldsmith, Andrea J; Cui, Shuguang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider full-duplex and half-duplex Gaussian relay channels where the noises at the relay and destination are arbitrarily correlated. We first derive the capacity upper bound and the achievable rates with three existing schemes: Decode-and-Forward (DF), Compress-and-Forward (CF), and Amplify-and-Forward (AF). We present two capacity results under specific noise correlation coefficients, one being achieved by DF and the other being achieved by direct link transmission (or a special case of CF). The channel for the former capacity result is equivalent to the traditional Gaussian degraded relay channel and the latter corresponds to the Gaussian reversely-degraded relay channel. For CF and AF schemes, we show that their achievable rates are strictly decreasing functions over the negative correlation coefficient. Through numerical comparisons under different channel settings, we observe that although DF completely disregards the noise correlation while the other two can potentially exploit such ...

  11. Planck 2013 Results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG).Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordiallocal, equilateral......-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ΛCDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive crossvalidationof these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensivesuite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C∫, wavelet bispectrum......, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Daviesvacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ≥0.02 (95% CL...

  12. Gaussian process interpolation for uncertainty estimation in image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Reuter, Martin; Wells, William

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-based image registration requires resampling images on a common grid to evaluate the similarity function. The uncertainty of interpolation varies across the image, depending on the location of resampled points relative to the base grid. We propose to perform Bayesian inference with Gaussian processes, where the covariance matrix of the Gaussian process posterior distribution estimates the uncertainty in interpolation. The Gaussian process replaces a single image with a distribution over images that we integrate into a generative model for registration. Marginalization over resampled images leads to a new similarity measure that includes the uncertainty of the interpolation. We demonstrate that our approach increases the registration accuracy and propose an efficient approximation scheme that enables seamless integration with existing registration methods.

  13. Outage performance of cognitive radio systems with Improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama

    2015-06-14

    Improper Gaussian signaling has proved its ability to improve the achievable rate of the systems that suffer from interference compared with proper Gaussian signaling. In this paper, we first study impact of improper Gaussian signaling on the performance of the cognitive radio system by analyzing the outage probability of both the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU). We derive exact expression of the SU outage probability and upper and lower bounds for the PU outage probability. Then, we design the SU signal by adjusting its transmitted power and the circularity coefficient to minimize the SU outage probability while maintaining a certain PU quality-of-service. Finally, we evaluate the proposed bounds and adaptive algorithms by numerical results.

  14. Standard sirens and dark sector with Gaussian process*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Rong-Gen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational waves from compact binary systems are viewed as a standard siren to probe the evolution of the universe. This paper summarizes the potential and ability to use the gravitational waves to constrain the cosmological parameters and the dark sector interaction in the Gaussian process methodology. After briefly introducing the method to reconstruct the dark sector interaction by the Gaussian process, the concept of standard sirens and the analysis of reconstructing the dark sector interaction with LISA are outlined. Furthermore, we estimate the constraint ability of the gravitational waves on cosmological parameters with ET. The numerical methods we use are Gaussian process and the Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo. Finally, we also forecast the improvements of the abilities to constrain the cosmological parameters with ET and LISA combined with the Planck.

  15. Gaussian geometric discord in terms of Hellinger distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Serban, E-mail: serban.suciu@theory.nipne.ro; Isar, Aurelian [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we address the quantification of general non-classical correlations in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems from a geometric perspective. We give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord by using the Hellinger distance as a measure for quantum correlations between two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord by taking two-mode squeezed thermal states as initial states of the system and show that it has finite values between 0 and 1 and that it decays asymptotically to zero in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  16. Self-similar Gaussian processes for modeling anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Muniandy, S. V.

    2002-08-01

    We study some Gaussian models for anomalous diffusion, which include the time-rescaled Brownian motion, two types of fractional Brownian motion, and models associated with fractional Brownian motion based on the generalized Langevin equation. Gaussian processes associated with these models satisfy the anomalous diffusion relation which requires the mean-square displacement to vary with tα, 0Brownian motion and time-rescaled Brownian motion all have the same probability distribution function, the Slepian theorem can be used to compare their first passage time distributions, which are different. Finally, in order to model anomalous diffusion with a variable exponent α(t) it is necessary to consider the multifractional extensions of these Gaussian processes.

  17. Quantum state majorization at the output of bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, A.; Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum communication theory explores the implications of quantum mechanics to the tasks of information transmission. Many physical channels can be formally described as quantum Gaussian operations acting on bosonic quantum states. Depending on the input state and on the quality of the channel, the output suffers certain amount of noise. For a long time it has been conjectured, but never proved, that output states of Gaussian channels corresponding to coherent input signals are the less noisy ones (in the sense of a majorization criterion). Here we prove this conjecture. Specifically we show that every output state of a phase-insensitive Gaussian channel is majorized by the output state corresponding to a coherent input. The proof is based on the optimality of coherent states for the minimization of strictly concave output functionals. Moreover we show that coherent states are the unique optimizers.

  18. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-01-13

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

  19. Characterization of Adrenal Adenoma by Gaussian Model-Based Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Larson D; Wang, Carolyn L; Clark, Toshimasa J

    2016-01-01

    We confirmed that computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of pixels in an adrenal nodule approximate a Gaussian distribution. Building on this and the previously described histogram analysis method, we created an algorithm that uses mean and standard deviation to estimate the percentage of negative attenuation pixels in an adrenal nodule, thereby allowing differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomas. The institutional review board approved both components of this study in which we developed and then validated our criteria. In the first, we retrospectively assessed CT attenuation values of adrenal nodules for normality using a 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In the second, we evaluated a separate cohort of patients with adrenal nodules using both the conventional 10HU unit mean attenuation method and our Gaussian model-based algorithm. We compared the sensitivities of the 2 methods using McNemar's test. A total of 183 of 185 observations (98.9%) demonstrated a Gaussian distribution in adrenal nodule pixel attenuation values. The sensitivity and specificity of our Gaussian model-based algorithm for identifying adrenal adenoma were 86.1% and 83.3%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the mean attenuation method were 53.2% and 94.4%, respectively. The sensitivities of the 2 methods were significantly different (P value Gaussian distribution. Our Gaussian model-based algorithm can characterize adrenal adenomas with higher sensitivity than the conventional mean attenuation method. The use of our algorithm, which does not require additional postprocessing, may increase workflow efficiency and reduce unnecessary workup of benign nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kultuur isiksuse psühholoogiat ei mõjuta / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2010-01-01

    Psühholoogia uuemate andmete kohaselt ei sõltu indiviidi seadumus kultuurist, soost, vanusest, haridusest. Eesti psühholoogide Jüri Alliku ja Ann Realo osalusel ajakirjas "Journal Personality and Social Psychology" ilmunud artiklist

  1. Kultuur isiksuse psühholoogiat ei mõjuta / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Psühholoogia uuemate andmete kohaselt ei sõltu indiviidi seadumus kultuurist, soost, vanusest, haridusest. Eesti psühholoogide Jüri Alliku ja Anu Realo osalusel ajakirjas "Journal Personality and Social Psychology" ilmunud artiklist

  2. Higher Moments of Weighted Integrals of Non-Gaussian Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Gunnar

    1996-01-01

    In general , the exact probability distribution of a definite non-Gaussian random field is not known. Some information about this unknown distribution can be obtained from the 3rd and 4th moment of the integral. Approximations to these moments are calculated by a numerical technique based...... on recursive application of Winterstein approximations) moment fitted linear combinations of Hermite Polynomials of standard Gaussian variables). By use of computerized symbol manipulations it is practicable to obtain exact moments (up to order 4) of partial weighted sums of mutually dependent variables...

  3. Propagation of Gaussian Beams through Active GRIN Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Varela, A I; Flores-Arias, M T; Bao-Varela, C; Gomez-Reino, C [Grupo de ' Microoptica y Optica GRIN' , Unidad asociada al Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, ICMA/CSIC, Zaragoza, Espana y Escuela de Optica y OptometrIa, Campus Sur s/n, Universidade de Santiago, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); De la Fuente, X, E-mail: maite.flores@usc.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC), Maria de Luna 3, E50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    We discussed light propagation through an active GRIN material that exhibits loss or gain. Effects of gain or loss in GRIN materials can be phenomenologically taken into account by using a complex refractive index in the wave equation. This work examines the implication of using a complex refractive index on light propagation in an active GRIN material illuminated by a non-uniform monochromatic wave described by a Gaussian beam. We analyze how a Gaussian beam is propagated through the active material in order to characterize it by the beam parameters and the transverse irradiance distribution.

  4. Stochastic invertible mappings between power law and Gaussian probability distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Vignat, C.; Plastino, A.

    2005-01-01

    We construct "stochastic mappings" between power law probability distributions (PD's) and Gaussian ones. To a given vector $N$, Gaussian distributed (respectively $Z$, exponentially distributed), one can associate a vector $X$, "power law distributed", by multiplying $X$ by a random scalar variable $a$, $N= a X$. This mapping is "invertible": one can go via multiplication by another random variable $b$ from $X$ to $N$ (resp. from $X$ to $Z$), i.e., $X=b N$ (resp. $X=b Z$). Note that all the a...

  5. Identification of Multimodel LPV Models with Asymmetric Gaussian Weighting Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of linear parameter varying (LPV systems by utilizing a multimodel structure. To improve the approximation capability of the LPV model, asymmetric Gaussian weighting functions are introduced and compared with commonly used symmetric Gaussian functions. By this mean, locations of operating points can be selected freely. It has been demonstrated through simulations with a high purity distillation column that the identified models provide more satisfactory approximation. Moreover, an experiment is performed on real HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning to further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Non-Gaussianity in String Cosmology: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, Per

    2010-01-01

    We study non-gaussianity effects, using the $\\delta N$ formalism, in a multi-field inflationary model consisting of K\\"ahler moduli derived from type IIB string compactification in the large volume limit. The analytical work in this paper mostly follows the separable potential method developed by Vernizzi and Wands. The numerical analysis is then used in computing non-gaussianity beyond slow-roll regime. The possibility of the curvaton scenario is also discussed. We give the condition for the existence of the curvaton and calculate the non-guassianity generated by the curvaton decay in the large volume limit.

  7. Gaussian translation operator for Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Hansen, Per Christian; Sorensen, Stig B.

    2014-01-01

    Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step.......Results using a new translation operator for the Multi-Level Fast Multipole Method are presented. Based on Gaussian beams, the translation operator allows a significant portion of the plane-wave directions to be neglected, resulting in a much faster translation step....

  8. Fractional Fourier transform of truncated elliptical Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinyue; Zhao, Daomu

    2006-12-20

    Based on the fact that a hard-edged elliptical aperture can be expanded approximately as a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions in tensor form, an analytical expression for an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB) truncated by an elliptical aperture and passing through a fractional Fourier transform system is derived by use of vector integration. The approximate analytical results provide more convenience for studying the propagation and transformation of truncated EGBs than the usual way by using the integral formula directly, and the efficiency of numerical calculation is significantly improved.

  9. Multi-Gaussian Schell-model vortex beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongtao [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Department of Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Liu, Lin; Zhao, Chengliang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) beam was introduced recently (Sahin and Korotkova, 2012, and Korotkova et al., 2012). In this paper, multi-Gaussian Schell-model vortex (MGSMV) beam is introduced as a natural extension of MGSM beam. The explicit expression for the cross-spectral density of a MGSMV beam propagating through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived and the focusing properties of a MGSMV beam are studied in detail. It is found that we can shape the focused beam profile by varying the initial beam parameters, which will be useful in material thermal processing and particle trapping.

  10. Non-gaussian statistics of pencil beam surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Luca

    1994-01-01

    We study the effect of the non-Gaussian clustering of galaxies on the statistics of pencil beam surveys. We derive the probability from the power spectrum peaks by means of Edgeworth expansion and find that the higher order moments of the galaxy distribution play a dominant role. The probability of obtaining the 128 Mpc/h periodicity found in pencil beam surveys is raised by more than one order of magnitude, up to 1%. Further data are needed to decide if non-Gaussian distribution alone is sufficient to explain the 128 Mpc/h periodicity, or if extra large-scale power is necessary.

  11. Improved Gaussian Mixture Models for Adaptive Foreground Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, Nikolaos; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    elements to the baseline algorithm: The learning rate can change across space and time, while the Gaussian distributions can be merged together if they become similar due to their adaptation process. We quantify the importance of our enhancements and the effect of parameter tuning using an annotated......Adaptive foreground segmentation is traditionally performed using Stauffer & Grimson’s algorithm that models every pixel of the frame by a mixture of Gaussian distributions with continuously adapted parameters. In this paper we provide an enhancement of the algorithm by adding two important dynamic...

  12. Gaussian Network’s Dynamics Reflected into Geometric Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Felice

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a geometric entropy as a measure of complexity for Gaussian networks, namely networks having Gaussian random variables sitting on vertices and their correlations as weighted links. We then show how the network dynamics described by the well-known Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process reflects into such a measure. We unveil a crossing of the entropy time behaviors between switching on and off links. Moreover, depending on the number of links switched on or off, the entropy time behavior can be non-monotonic.

  13. Gaussian classical-quantum channels: gain of entanglement-assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper we introduce and study Bosonic Gaussian classical-quantum (c-q) channels; the embedding of the classical input into quantum is always possible and therefore the classical entanglement-assisted capacity C_{ea} under appropriate input constraint is well defined. We prove a general property of entropy increase for weak complementary channel, that implies the equality C_{ea}=C (where C is the unassisted capacity) for certain class of c-q Gaussian channel under appropriate ene...

  14. Majorization and additivity for multimode bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.; Mari, A.

    2015-02-01

    We obtain a multimode extension of the majorization theorem for bosonic Gaussian channels, in particular, giving sufficient conditions under which the Glauber coherent states are the only minimizers for concave functionals of the output state of such a channel. We discuss direct implications of this multimode majorization for the positive solution of the famous additivity problem in the case of Gaussian channels. In particular, we prove the additivity of the output Rényi entropies of arbitrary order p > 1. Finally, we present an alternative, more direct derivation of a majorization property of the Husimi function established by Lieb and Solovej.

  15. Comparative, validity and responsiveness of the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS to the WOMAC physical function subscale in total joint replacement for osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Canizares, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (HOOS-PS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Short-form (KOOS-PS) in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee (TKR) replacement....... Construct validity and responsiveness were compared to the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) Likert 3.0 physical function (PF) subscale and the PF excluding the items in the short measures (PF-exclusions). METHODS: Participants completed the full HOOS or KOOS, measures...... of fatigue, anxiety, depression and the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) pre-surgery and the HOOS or KOOS 6 months post-surgery. Internal consistency for the HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. For construct validity, it was hypothesized that correlations between the HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS and PF...

  16. Analüütilised voolud psühholoogias ja nende rakendamine pedagoogikas / Aleksander Elango

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elango, Aleksander, 1902-2004

    2001-01-01

    Analüütise psühholoogia kolm koolkonda - S.Freudì koolkond e. päris-psühhoanalüüs, A.Adlerì koolkond e. individuaalpsühholoogia ja C.G.Jungì psühhoanalüüsi ja individuaalpsühholoogia sünteesi luua püüdev koolkond. Analüütise psühholoogia koolkondade ja pedagoogika suhetest

  17. Dynamical transition in proteins and non-Gaussian behavior of low-frequency modes in self-consistent normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianguang; Budarz, Timo; Ward, Joshua M; Prohofsky, Earl W

    2010-10-01

    Self-consistent normal mode analysis (SCNMA) is applied to heme c type cytochrome f to study temperature-dependent protein motion. Classical normal mode analysis assumes harmonic behavior and the protein mean-square displacement has a linear dependence on temperature. This is only consistent with low-temperature experimental results. To connect the protein vibrational motions between low and physiological temperatures, we have incorporated a fitted set of anharmonic potentials into SCNMA. In addition, quantum harmonic-oscillator theory has been used to calculate the displacement distribution for individual vibrational modes. We find that the modes involving soft bonds exhibit significant non-Gaussian dynamics at physiological temperature, which suggests that it may be the cause of the non-Gaussian behavior of the protein motions probed by elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The combined theory displays a dynamical transition caused by the softening of few "torsional" modes in the low-frequency regime ( 0.6 ps). These modes change from Gaussian to a classical distribution upon heating. Our theory provides an alternative way to understand the microscopic origin of the protein dynamical transition.

  18. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX317576,S...077,SRX317607 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: His.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX088...16,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX977434,SRX027462 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX135563,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX135563,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...7435,SRX027462,SRX977434 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX753...09,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX977417,SR...RX127372,SRX1090869,SRX127376,SRX035977,SRX146530,SRX146547,SRX146522 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX97...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX040377,SRX040376,SRX135563,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX127389,SR...RX127372,SRX127373,SRX1090869,SRX127376,SRX146530,SRX146522,SRX146547 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  18. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Ray, Chelsea; Wang, Xin; Shamis, Yulia; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Li, Xiajun

    2013-09-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression of the Snrpn and Zim1 imprinted genes was also lost in these iPS clones. This loss of parental genomic imprinting in iPS cells was likely caused by the reprogramming process during iPS cell derivation because extended culture of iPS cells did not lead to significant increase in the loss of genomic imprinting. Intriguingly, one to several paternal chromosomes appeared to have acquired de novo methylation at the Snrpn and Zac1 imprinted regions in a high percentage of iPS clones. These results might have some implications for future therapeutic applications of iPS cells. Since DNA methylation imprint can be completely erased in some iPS clones at multiple imprinted regions, iPS cell reprogramming may also be employed to dissect the underlying mechanisms of erasure, reacquisition and maintenance of genomic imprinting in mammals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. File list: Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX977417,SR...RX127374,SRX127373,SRX1090869,SRX333561,SRX146530,SRX146522,SRX146547 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9774...30,SRX146524,SRX146547,SRX146522 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.10.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9773...1,SRX035985,SRX1090869 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 All antigens Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX9773...30,SRX146522,SRX146547 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 Histone Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX110015,S...315,SRX381309 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.20.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells mm9 TFs and others Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX65...RX146524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.05.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells hg19 DNase-seq Pluripotent stem cell iPS cells SRX040379...,SRX040378,SRX135563,SRX040376,SRX040377,SRX189427,SRX189400,SRX189399 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.PSC.50.AllAg.iPS_cells.bed ...

  7. GaussianCpG: a Gaussian model for detection of CpG island in human genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Guo, Xuan; Zelikovsky, Alexander; Pan, Yi

    2017-05-24

    As crucial markers in identifying biological elements and processes in mammalian genomes, CpG islands (CGI) play important roles in DNA methylation, gene regulation, epigenetic inheritance, gene mutation, chromosome inactivation and nuclesome retention. The generally accepted criteria of CGI rely on: (a) %G+C content is ≥ 50%, (b) the ratio of the observed CpG content and the expected CpG content is ≥ 0.6, and (c) the general length of CGI is greater than 200 nucleotides. Most existing computational methods for the prediction of CpG island are programmed on these rules. However, many experimentally verified CpG islands deviate from these artificial criteria. Experiments indicate that in many cases %G+C is thousand of nucleotides. It implies that CGI detection is not just a straightly statistical task and some unrevealed rules probably are hidden. A novel Gaussian model, GaussianCpG, is developed for detection of CpG islands on human genome. We analyze the energy distribution over genomic primary structure for each CpG site and adopt the parameters from statistics of Human genome. The evaluation results show that the new model can predict CpG islands efficiently by balancing both sensitivity and specificity over known human CGI data sets. Compared with other models, GaussianCpG can achieve better performance in CGI detection. Our Gaussian model aims to simplify the complex interaction between nucleotides. The model is computed not by the linear statistical method but by the Gaussian energy distribution and accumulation. The parameters of Gaussian function are not arbitrarily designated but deliberately chosen by optimizing the biological statistics. By using the pseudopotential analysis on CpG islands, the novel model is validated on both the real and artificial data sets.

  8. Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256 and pS269-mediated aquaporin-2 apical translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Naofumi; Ando, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-08-26

    Vasopressin catalyzes aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at several serine sites in the C-terminal region. Compared with Ser-256 and Ser-269 phosphorylation, the role of Ser-261 phospho-regulation on vasopressin-regulated AQP2 apical translocation is largely unknown. In addition, recent discovery of transcytotic apical delivery of AQP2 made the concept of its intracellular trafficking even more complicated. In this study, we evaluated how intact phospho-AQP2 signals fit with the transcytosis trafficking model in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. PS256 and pS269 signals were intracellularly detectable in wild-type AQP2 at the beginning of forskolin stimulation (1 min). These phospho-signals were detectable in basolateral membranes even after 10 min of stimulation. AQP2 stably inserted in the apical membrane increased pS269 and decreased pS261 signals. In an NDI-causing mutant P262L-AQP2, in which Ser-261 phospho-regulation is impaired, the pS256 and pS269 signals were detectable in the basolateral membranes with increased pS261 signals after forskolin stimulation. These results suggest that Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256- and pS269-mediated AQP2 apical translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approximation method for Gaussian process (GP) learning for large data sets that combines inline active set selection with hyperparameter optimization. The predictive probability of the label is used for ranking the data points. We use the leave-one-out predictive probability...

  10. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    likelihood maximization. The active set update rules rely on the ability of the predictive distributions of a Gaussian process classifier to estimate the relative contribution of a datapoint when being either included or removed from the model. This means that we can use it to include points with potentially...

  11. Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...

  12. Gaussian proposal density using moment matching in SMC methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, S.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Boers, Y.; Boers, Y.; Driessen, H.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2007-01-01

    In this article we introduce a new Gaussian proposal distribution to be used in conjunction with the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method for solving non-linear filtering problem. This proposal incorporates all the information about the to be estimated current state from both the available state and

  13. Gaussian proposal density using moment matching in SMC methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, S.; Mandal, Pranab K.; Boers, Y.; Boers, Y.; Driessen, H.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2009-01-01

    In this article we introduce a new Gaussian proposal distribution to be used in conjunction with the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method for solving non-linear filtering problem. This proposal incorporates all the information about the to be estimated current state from both the available state and

  14. Asymptotics of sums of lognormal random variables with Gaussian copula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Let (Y1, ..., Yn) have a joint n-dimensional Gaussian distribution with a general mean vector and a general covariance matrix, and let Xi = eYi, Sn = X1 + ⋯ + Xn. The asymptotics of P (Sn > x) as n → ∞ are shown to be the same as for the independent case with the same lognormal marginals. In part...

  15. Exact overflow asymptotics for queues with many Gaussian inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Debicki; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a queue fed by a large number $n$ of independent continuous-time Gaussian processes with stationary increments. After scaling the buffer exceedance threshold $B$ and the (constant) service capacity $C$ by the number of sources (i.e., $Bequiv nb$ and $Cequiv

  16. Exact overflow asymptotics for queues with many Gaussian inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debicki, Krzysztof; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider a queue fed by a large number of independent continuous-time Gaussian processes with stationary increments. After scaling the buffer exceedance threshold and the (constant) service capacity by the number of sources, we present asymptotically exact results for the

  17. Selected Research Opportunities (SRO) II, Non-Gaussian Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-05

    analysis of the effect of instantaneous nonlinear transformation in the Gaussian case. 24 TD 6591 List of Participants Dr. G. Adomian Mr. E. Bohn Center for...Illinois, 1101 Springfield Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 1 Mr. S. Portnoy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 1 Mr. G. Adomian

  18. Representation and properties of a class of conditionally Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pedersen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the class of conditionally Gaussian processes with independent increments is stable under marginalisation and conditioning. Moreover, in general such processes can be represented as integrals of a time changed Brownian motion where the time change and the integrand are jointly...

  19. The deep structure of Gaussian scale space images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arjan

    2002-01-01

    In order to be able to deal with the discrete nature of images in a continuous way, one can use results of the mathematical field of 'distribution theory'. Under almost trivial assumptions, like 'we know nothing', one ends up with convolving the image with a Gaussian filter. In this manner scale is

  20. Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…

  1. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, Arquímedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Evaluation of Distance Measures Between Gaussian Mixture Models of MFCCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2007-01-01

    In music similarity and in the related task of genre classification, a distance measure between Gaussian mixture models is frequently needed. We present a comparison of the Kullback-Leibler distance, the earth movers distance and the normalized L2 distance for this application. Although...

  3. Sparse Gaussian graphical mixture model | Lotsi | Afrika Statistika

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper considers the problem of networks reconstruction from heterogeneous data using a Gaussian Graphical Mixture Model (GGMM). It is well known that parameter estimation in this context is challenging due to large numbers of variables coupled with the degenerate nature of the likelihood. We propose as ...

  4. Terrain Mapping and Obstacle Detection Using Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Massaro, Alessandro Salvatore; Bayramoglu, Enis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a probabilistic method for extracting terrain maps from a scene and use the information to detect potential navigation obstacles within it. The method uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) to predict an estimate function and its relative uncertainty. To test the new met...

  5. Terrain Mapping and Obstacle Detection using Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Massaro, Alessandro Salvatore; Bayramoglu, Enis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a probabilistic method for extracting terrain maps from a scene and use the information to detect potential navigation obstacles within it. The method uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) to predict an estimate function and its relative uncertainty. To test the new met...

  6. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    of side information at the decoder. For this problem, we derive lower and upper bounds on the rate-distortion function (RDF) for the Gaussian case, which in general do not coincide. We then provide some cases, where the RDF can be derived exactly. We also show that previous results on specific instances...

  7. Finite Gaussian Mixture Approximations to Analytically Intractable Density Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Richard, Jean-Francois

    The objective of the paper is that of constructing finite Gaussian mixture approximations to analytically intractable density kernels. The proposed method is adaptive in that terms are added one at the time and the mixture is fully re-optimized at each step using a distance measure that approxima...

  8. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors outline a theory for the calculation of the beam quality factor of an aberrated laser beam. They provide closed form equations that show that the beam quality factor of an aberrated Gaussian beam depends on all primary aberrations except...

  9. Supervised Gaussian mixture model based remote sensing image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research is to experiment the use of the parametric Gaussian mixture model multi-class classifier/algorithm for multi-class remote sensing task, implemented in MATLAB. MATLAB is a programming language just like C, C++, and python. In this research, a computer program implemented in MATLAB is ...

  10. Comparison of two inference approaches in Gaussian graphical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purutçuoğlu, Vilda; Ayyıldız, Ezgi; Wit, Ernst

    Introduction: The Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM) is one of the well-known probabilistic models which is based on the conditional independency of nodes in the biological system. Here, we compare the estimates of the GGM parameters by the graphical lasso (glasso) method and the threshold gradient

  11. Vortex beam characterization in terms of Hypergeometric- Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Q-plates are commonly used for uncomplicated generation of polarization controlled vortex beams. Here we show experimentally that the output is not a pure vortex but rather a Hypergeometric-Gaussian mode. Results are in good agreement with theory....

  12. An optimal nonorthogonal separation of the anisotropic Gaussian convolution filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Christoph H; Wirjadi, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    We give an analytical and geometrical treatment of what it means to separate a Gaussian kernel along arbitrary axes in R(n), and we present a separation scheme that allows us to efficiently implement anisotropic Gaussian convolution filters for data of arbitrary dimensionality. Based on our previous analysis we show that this scheme is optimal with regard to the number of memory accesses and interpolation operations needed. The proposed method relies on nonorthogonal convolution axes and works completely in image space. Thus, it avoids the need for a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-subroutine. Depending on the accuracy and speed requirements, different interpolation schemes and methods to implement the one-dimensional Gaussian (finite impulse response and infinite impulse response) can be integrated. Special emphasis is put on analyzing the performance and accuracy of the new method. In particular, we show that without any special optimization of the source code, it can perform anisotropic Gaussian filtering faster than methods relying on the FFT.

  13. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  14. Scale dependent bias from primordial non-Gaussianity with trispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    We study the scale dependent bias of the halo power spectrum arising from primordial non-Gaussianity. We present an analytic result of the halo bias including up to the trispectrum contributions. We find the scale dependent bias opens a new possibility of probing the relation between the non-linearity parameters $\\fnl$ and $\\tnl$.

  15. Extensions of the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Apol, M.E F; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present the quasi-Gaussian entropy theory in a comprehensive and consistent way, introducing a new derivation of the theory very suited for applications to molecular systems, and addressing its use in the case of multi-phase systems. A general derivation of the possible confinement

  16. On the minimization of Hamiltonians over pure Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Napiorkowski, Marcin; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2013-01-01

    A Hamiltonian defined as a polynomial in creation and annihilation operators is considered. After a minimization of its expectation value over pure Gaussian states, the Hamiltonian is Wick-ordered in creation and annihillation operators adapted to the minimizing state. It is shown that this proce...

  17. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  18. A complete conformal metric of preassigned negative Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Let h be a complete metric of Gaussian curvature K0 on a punctured Riemann surface of genus g ≥ 1 (or the sphere with at least three punctures). Given a smooth negative function K with K = K0 in neighbourhoods of the punctures we prove that there exists a metric conformal to h which attains this function as its ...

  19. Leading non-Gaussian corrections for diffusion orientation distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jens H; Helpern, Joseph A; Tabesh, Ali

    2014-02-01

    An analytical representation of the leading non-Gaussian corrections for a class of diffusion orientation distribution functions (dODFs) is presented. This formula is constructed from the diffusion and diffusional kurtosis tensors, both of which may be estimated with diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI). By incorporating model-independent non-Gaussian diffusion effects, it improves on the Gaussian approximation used in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This analytical representation therefore provides a natural foundation for DKI-based white matter fiber tractography, which has potential advantages over conventional DTI-based fiber tractography in generating more accurate predictions for the orientations of fiber bundles and in being able to directly resolve intra-voxel fiber crossings. The formula is illustrated with numerical simulations for a two-compartment model of fiber crossings and for human brain data. These results indicate that the inclusion of the leading non-Gaussian corrections can significantly affect fiber tractography in white matter regions, such as the centrum semiovale, where fiber crossings are common. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tables Of Gaussian-Type Orbital Basis Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Harry

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum contains tables of estimated Hartree-Fock wave functions for atoms lithium through neon and potassium through krypton. Sets contain optimized Gaussian-type orbital exponents and coefficients, and near Hartree-Fock quality. Orbital exponents optimized by minimizing restricted Hartree-Fock energy via scaled Newton-Raphson scheme in which Hessian evaluated numerically by use of analytically determined gradients.

  1. Robust Gaussian Graphical Modeling via l1 Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hokeun; Li, Hongzhe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Gaussian graphical models have been widely used as an effective method for studying the conditional independency structure among genes and for constructing genetic networks. However, gene expression data typically have heavier tails or more outlying observations than the standard Gaussian distribution. Such outliers in gene expression data can lead to wrong inference on the dependency structure among the genes. We propose a l1 penalized estimation procedure for the sparse Gaussian graphical models that is robustified against possible outliers. The likelihood function is weighted according to how the observation is deviated, where the deviation of the observation is measured based on its own likelihood. An efficient computational algorithm based on the coordinate gradient descent method is developed to obtain the minimizer of the negative penalized robustified-likelihood, where nonzero elements of the concentration matrix represents the graphical links among the genes. After the graphical structure is obtained, we re-estimate the positive definite concentration matrix using an iterative proportional fitting algorithm. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed robust method performs much better than the graphical Lasso for the Gaussian graphical models in terms of both graph structure selection and estimation when outliers are present. We apply the robust estimation procedure to an analysis of yeast gene expression data and show that the resulting graph has better biological interpretation than that obtained from the graphical Lasso. PMID:23020775

  2. Two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available , the quantum correlations for Bessel-Gaussian modes produced by three holographic masks: a blazed axicon, a binary axicon, and a binary Bessel function. We then proceed to test the theory on the down-converted photons using the binary Bessel mask. We...

  3. Quantum entanglement with a hermite-gaussian pump; poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, a Gaussian mode is used to pump a non-linear crystal to produce pairs of entangled photons. We demonstrate orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement when a non-fundamental mode is used to pump a non-linear crystal. An approximation...

  4. Probing the cosmological viability of non-gaussian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Barboza, Edésio M., Jr.; Abreu, Everton M. C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity we propose, with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. This description takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. The effect of these non-gaussian statistics in the cosmological context is to change the strength of the gravitational constant. In this paper, we consider the wCDM model modified by the non-gaussian statistics and investigate the compatibility of these non-gaussian modification with the cosmological observations. In order to analyze in which extend the cosmological data constrain these non-extensive statistics, we will use type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, Hubble expansion rate function and the linear growth of matter density perturbations data. We show that Tsallis' statistics is favored at 1σ confidence level.

  5. Some fractional and multifractional Gaussian processes: A brief introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Eab, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to some important fractional and multifractional Gaussian processes commonly used in modelling natural phenomena and man-made systems. The processes include fractional Brownian motion (both standard and the Riemann-Liouville type), multifractional Brownian motion, fractional and multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes, fractional and mutifractional Reisz-Bessel motion. Possible applications of these processes are briefly mentioned.

  6. Invariance principle, multifractional Gaussian processes and long-range dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Serge; Marty, Renaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to establish an invariance principle where the limit process is a multifractional Gaussian process with a multifractional function which takes its values in $(1/2,1)$. Some properties, such as regularity and local self-similarity of this process are studied. Moreover the limit process is compared to the multifractional Brownian motion.

  7. Reduced-load equivalence for queues with Gaussian input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Dieker (Ton)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this note, we consider a queue fed by a number of independent heterogeneous Gaussian sources. We study under what conditions a reduced load equivalence holds, i.e., when a subset of the sources becomes asymptotically dominant as the buffer size increases. For this, recent results on

  8. Kernel Methods on Riemannian Manifolds with Gaussian RBF Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Sadeep; Hartley, Richard; Salzmann, Mathieu; Li, Hongdong; Harandi, Mehrtash

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to exploiting kernel methods with manifold-valued data. In many computer vision problems, the data can be naturally represented as points on a Riemannian manifold. Due to the non-Euclidean geometry of Riemannian manifolds, usual Euclidean computer vision and machine learning algorithms yield inferior results on such data. In this paper, we define Gaussian radial basis function (RBF)-based positive definite kernels on manifolds that permit us to embed a given manifold with a corresponding metric in a high dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space. These kernels make it possible to utilize algorithms developed for linear spaces on nonlinear manifold-valued data. Since the Gaussian RBF defined with any given metric is not always positive definite, we present a unified framework for analyzing the positive definiteness of the Gaussian RBF on a generic metric space. We then use the proposed framework to identify positive definite kernels on two specific manifolds commonly encountered in computer vision: the Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definite matrices and the Grassmann manifold, i.e., the Riemannian manifold of linear subspaces of a Euclidean space. We show that many popular algorithms designed for Euclidean spaces, such as support vector machines, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis can be generalized to Riemannian manifolds with the help of such positive definite Gaussian kernels.

  9. Application Of Shared Gamma And Inverse-Gaussian Frailty Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared Gamma and Inverse-Gaussian Frailty models are used to analyze the survival times of patients who are clustered according to cancer/tumor types under Parametric Proportional Hazard framework. The result of the analysis shows that patients within the same cluster share some common unobserved heterogeneity ...

  10. Improved kernel correlation filter tracking with Gaussian scale space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shukun; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Yicui

    2016-10-01

    Recently, Kernel Correlation Filter (KCF) has achieved great attention in visual tracking filed, which provide excellent tracking performance and high possessing speed. However, how to handle the scale variation is still an open problem. In this paper, focusing on this issue that a method based on Gaussian scale space is proposed. First, we will use KCF to estimate the location of the target, the context region which includes the target and its surrounding background will be the image to be matched. In order to get the matching image of a Gaussian scale space, image with Gaussian kernel convolution can be gotten. After getting the Gaussian scale space of the image to be matched, then, according to it to estimate target image under different scales. Combine with the scale parameter of scale space, for each corresponding scale image performing bilinear interpolation operation to change the size to simulate target imaging at different scales. Finally, matching the template with different size of images with different scales, use Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) as the match criterion. After getting the optimal matching in the image with the template, we will get the best zoom ratio s, consequently estimate the target size. In the experiments, compare with CSK, KCF etc. demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high improvement in accuracy, is an efficient algorithm.

  11. Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating

  12. Create and Publish a Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernique, P.; Boch, T.; Pineau, F.; Oberto, A.

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the CDS promotes a method for visualizing based on the HEALPix sky tessellation. This method, called “Hierarchical Progressive Survey" or HiPS, allows one to display a survey progressively. It is particularly suited for all-sky surveys or deep fields. This visualization method is now integrated in several applications, notably Aladin, the SiTools/MIZAR CNES framework, and the recent HTML5 “Aladin Lite". Also, more than one hundred surveys are already available in this view mode. In this article, we will present the progress concerning this method and its recent adaptation to the astronomical catalogs such as the GAIA simulation.

  13. Electrostatic septum for "Continuous Transfer" from PS to SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    For "Continuous Transfer" to the SPS, the PS beam, after acceleration, is peeled off in 5 turns. To minimize losses, the magnetic septa are preceded by an electrostatic septum in straight section 31. We see the inner part of it, on a lab-bench. The first part consists of W-wires, the second part is a Mo-foil. The circulating beam passes through the opening, the ejected beam at the outside (above the wires, in this picture). This assembly is the anode-part, the cathode is not shown.

  14. Beam Quality Preservation in the CERN PS-SPS Complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Arduini, Gianluigi

    2004-01-01

    The LHC will require beams of unprecedented transverse and longitudinal brightness. Their production imposes tight constraints on the emittance growth in each element of the LHC injector chain, namely the PS-SPS Accelerator Complex. The problems encountered at the different stages of the acceleration in the complex span a wide range of topics, such as injection matching, RF gymnastics, space charge, transverse and longitudinal single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, and electron cloud effects. The measurement techniques developed and applied to identify and study the various sources of emittance dilution to the high precision required for the LHC beams and the solutions found to control such phenomena are illustrated.

  15. Lo irreductible social y lo irreductible psíquico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gaulejac, de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la reconstrucción de las polaridades explicativas -lo irreductible social y lo irreductible psíquico-que atraviesan a las ciencias sociales, este texto propone trascender los modelos antagónicos y excluyentes. El objetivo es instaurar en el centro de la reflexión la idea de la dialktica existencial que restituye al sujeto tanto el contexto socio-histórico en el cual está localizado como el deseo y la singularidad que lo constituyen en productor de la afirmación de su individualidad y su historicidad.

  16. PS potential performance with a higher injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S; Borburgh, J; Bodart, D; Chiggiato, P; Damerau, H; Hancock, S; Metral, G; Pittet, S; Rossi, C; Rumolo, G; Steerenberg, R; Widorski, M

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the LHC Injectors upgrade project, the PS has to be brought up to − and to operate reliably at − the level of performance required by the HL-LHC until the end of the LHC lifetime. The study has started on the potential benefits of increasing the injection energy. An overview of the impact of this upgrade will be presented, with a preliminary estimate of the beam characteristics at the SPS entrance and the remaining performance limitations. The necessary hardware modifications will be described, highlighting the critical systems and the risks. The program for the 2011 machine studies and hardware interventions for refining these plans will be presented.

  17. Injection and transfer lines of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1972-01-01

    In the foreground is the vacuum chamber for the 50 MeV proton beam coming from the Linac. The tank held by white frames houses the "Vertical Distributor", which deflects the Linac beam to the levels of the Booster's 4 superposed rings. After acceleration in the Booster, originally to 800 MeV, today to 1.4 GeV, the beams from the 4 rings are combined in the vertical plane and transfered to the 26 GeV PS. The "Recombination Line", intersecting the injection line, crosses the picture from left to right.

  18. Search for Decays of Heavy Neutrinos with the PS Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment searches for neutrino decay, primarily into the e|+e|-@n^e and @g@g@n^e modes. Neutrino masses in the region between 1 and 400~MeV will be explored. The beam used is the neutrino PS beam used for the oscillation experiments. The apparatus consists of a decay volume @=30~m long and a calorimeter @=8~radiation lengths thick and @=20~m|2 in surface. The detectors are flash-tube modules of the type developed at Saclay for the proton-stability experiment. Scintillator hodoscopes give the timing information necessary for the trigger logic and background rejection.

  19. Reliability and maintenance analysis of the CERN PS booster

    CERN Document Server

    Staff, P S B

    1977-01-01

    The PS Booster Synchrotron being a complex accelerator with four superposed rings and substantial additional equipment for beam splitting and recombination, doubts were expressed at the time of project authorization as to its likely operational reliability. For 1975 and 1976, the average down time was 3.2% (at least one ring off) or 1.5% (all four rings off). The items analysed are: operational record, design features, maintenance, spare parts policy, operating temperature, effects of thunderstorms, fault diagnostics, role of operations staff and action by experts. (15 refs).

  20. Viscometric characterization of PS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Otávio; Repenning, Gustavo B.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Ricardo V. B.; Canto, Leonardo B.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocompósitos híbridos de poliestireno (PS) e poliedros oligoméricos silsesquioxanos (POSS) com diferentes composições e graus de hibridização foram obtidos por processamento reativo no estado fundido utilizando-se peróxido de dicumila (DCP) como iniciador, na presença ou não de estireno como agente de transferência de radical. Os materiais foram caracterizados viscosimetricamente por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC) usando detecção tripla por espalhamento de luz, viscosimetria e índi...

  1. A multiturn measurement system for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Multiturn beam position measurements on one or more pickups provide very important information needed to derive machine optics parameters. A variety of analyses is possible, such as determination of phase advance, detuning with amplitude, and most important, the exploration of phase space. In this paper we present a new multiturn acquisition system for the CERN proton synchrotron (CERN PS) based on a compact PCI fast digitiser and a new general object-oriented visualisation and analysis tool for the acquired multiturn data. (11 refs).

  2. Optical coherence tomography image denoising using Gaussianization transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Zahra; Rabbani, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the power of the Gaussianization transform (GT) for modeling image content by applying GT for optical coherence tomography (OCT) denoising. The proposed method is a developed version of the spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model (SC-GMM) method, which assumes that each cluster of similar patches in an image has a Gaussian distribution. SC-GMM tries to find some clusters of similar patches in the image using a spatially constrained patch clustering and then denoise each cluster by the Wiener filter. Although in this method GMM distribution is assumed for the noisy image, holding this assumption on a dataset is not investigated. We illustrate that making a Gaussian assumption on a noisy dataset has a significant effect on denoising results. For this purpose, a suitable distribution for OCT images is first obtained and then GT is employed to map this original distribution of OCT images to a GMM distribution. Then, this Gaussianized image is used as the input of the SC-GMM algorithm. This method, which is a combination of GT and SC-GMM, remarkably improves the results of OCT denoising compared with earlier version of SC-GMM and even produces better visual and numerical results than the state-of-the art works in this field. Indeed, the main advantage of the proposed OCT despeckling method is texture preservation, which is important for main image processing tasks like OCT inter- and intraretinal layer analysis. Thus, to prove the efficacy of the proposed method for this analysis, an improvement in the segmentation of intraretinal layers using the proposed method as a preprocessing step is investigated. Furthermore, the proposed method can achieve the best expert ranking between other contending methods, and the results show the helpfulness and usefulness of the proposed method in clinical applications.

  3. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  4. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-02-18

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  5. [Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell - issues for clinical application - ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by introducing small sets of transcription factors. iPS cells demonstrate pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. In addition, iPS cells can be generated from donor individuals with particular characteristics. Based on these features, iPS cells are expected to be applicable in drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and cell therapy. From a technical point of view, "diversity" is the key word. At present, iPS cells can be derived using various techniques, resulting in diversity in the quality of iPS cells generated. Therefore, optimization of the derivation technology is one of the most important issues. Another "diversity" is in the propensities amongst iPS cell lines derived using similar techniques. Thus, strategies for selecting good quality lines remain to be established. Considering such technical hurdles, establishment of an iPS cell bank consisting of high quality and versatile iPS lines is a promising idea because of the merits of cost and quality control. Now, we are exploring relevant parameters for the quality control of banked cells. The challenges facing clinical application of iPS cells are new but not unprecedented. To realize clinical applications of iPS cells, we need to make these challenges clear and overcome them through partnership not only with industry, governments and universities, but also patients and society at large.

  6. Methods for iPS cell generation for basic research and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochiduki, Yuji; Okita, Keisuke

    2012-06-01

    The induction of pluripotency can be achieved by forced expression of defined factors in somatic cells. The established cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have pluripotency and an infinite capacity for self-renewal in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Patient-specific iPS cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies; however, the original method for iPS cell generation had several issues that were obstacles to their clinical application. Recent studies have brought about various improvements for iPS cell generation and uncovered several characteristics of iPS cells. Here we summarize the current status of iPS cell studies, with a focus on the improved methods that can be used to generate iPS cells, and also refer to the future challenges. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Toward the detection of gravitational waves under non-Gaussian noises I. Locally optimal statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2014-01-01

    After reviewing the standard hypothesis test and the matched filter technique to identify gravitational waves under Gaussian noises, we introduce two methods to deal with non-Gaussian stationary noises. We formulate the likelihood ratio function under weakly non-Gaussian noises through the Edgeworth expansion and strongly non-Gaussian noises in terms of a new method we call Gaussian mapping where the observed marginal distribution and the two-body correlation function are fully taken into account. We then apply these two approaches to Student's t-distribution which has a larger tails than Gaussian. It is shown that while both methods work well in the case the non-Gaussianity is small, only the latter method works well for highly non-Gaussian case.

  8. Toward the detection of gravitational waves under non-Gaussian noises I. Locally optimal statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOKOYAMA, Jun’ichi

    2014-01-01

    After reviewing the standard hypothesis test and the matched filter technique to identify gravitational waves under Gaussian noises, we introduce two methods to deal with non-Gaussian stationary noises. We formulate the likelihood ratio function under weakly non-Gaussian noises through the Edgeworth expansion and strongly non-Gaussian noises in terms of a new method we call Gaussian mapping where the observed marginal distribution and the two-body correlation function are fully taken into account. We then apply these two approaches to Student’s t-distribution which has a larger tails than Gaussian. It is shown that while both methods work well in the case the non-Gaussianity is small, only the latter method works well for highly non-Gaussian case. PMID:25504231

  9. Properties of Extruded PS-212 Type Self-Lubricating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Sliney, H. E.; Soltis, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center since the 1960's to develop high temperature, self-lubricating materials. The bulk of the research has been done in-house by a team of researchers from the Materials Division. A series of self-lubricating solid material systems has been developed over the years. One of the most promising is the composite material system referred to as PS-212 or PM-212. This material is a powder metallurgy product composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and two solid lubricating materials known to be self-lubricating over a wide temperature range. NASA feels this material has a wide potential in industrial applications. Simplified processing of this material would enhance its commercial potential. Processing changes have the potential to reduce processing costs, but tribological and physical properties must not be adversely affected. Extrusion processing has been employed in this investigation as a consolidation process for PM-212/PS-212. It has been successful in that high density bars of EX-212 (extruded PM-212) can readily be fabricated. Friction and strength data indicate these properties have been maintained or improved over the P.M. version. A range of extrusion temperatures have been investigated and tensile, friction, wear, and microstructural data have been obtained. Results indicate extrusion temperatures are not critical from a densification standpoint, but other properties are temperature dependent.

  10. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  11. Preparations for Upgrading the RF Systems of the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Simon; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The accelerators of the LHC injector chain need to be upgraded to provide the HL-LHC beams. The PS Booster, the first synchrotron in the LHC injection chain, uses three different RF systems (first, second and up to tenth harmonic) in each of its four rings. As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade the current ferrite RF systems will be replaced with broadband Finemet cavities, increasing the flexibility of the RF system. A Finemet test cavity has been installed in Ring 4 to investigate its effect on machine performance, especially beam stability, during extensive experimental studies. Due to large space charge impedance Landau damping is lost through most of the cycle in single harmonic operation, but is recovered when using the second harmonic and controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up. This paper compares beam parameters during acceleration with and without the Finemet test cavity. Comparisons were made using beam measurements and simulations with the BLonD code based on a full PS Booster impedance model. Thi...

  12. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  13. Analysis of Flow and Transport in non-Gaussian Heterogeneous Formations Using a Generalized Sub-Gaussian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Neuman, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental quantities such as log hydraulic conductivity (or transmissivity), Y(x) = ln K(x), and their spatial (or temporal) increments, ΔY, are known to be generally non-Gaussian. Documented evidence of such behavior includes symmetry of increment distributions at all separation scales (or lags) between incremental values of Y with sharp peaks and heavy tails that decay asymptotically as lag increases. This statistical scaling occurs in porous as well as fractured media characterized by either one or a hierarchy of spatial correlation scales. In hierarchical media one observes a range of additional statistical ΔY scaling phenomena, all of which are captured comprehensibly by a novel generalized sub-Gaussian (GSG) model. In this model Y forms a mixture Y(x) = U(x) G(x) of single- or multi-scale Gaussian processes G having random variances, U being a non-negative subordinator independent of G. Elsewhere we developed ways to generate unconditional and conditional random realizations of isotropic or anisotropic GSG fields which can be embedded in numerical Monte Carlo flow and transport simulations. Here we present and discuss expressions for probability distribution functions of Y and ΔY as well as their lead statistical moments. We then focus on a simple flow setting of mean uniform steady state flow in an unbounded, two-dimensional domain, exploring ways in which non-Gaussian heterogeneity affects stochastic flow and transport descriptions. Our expressions represent (a) lead order autocovariance and cross-covariance functions of hydraulic head, velocity and advective particle displacement as well as (b) analogues of preasymptotic and asymptotic Fickian dispersion coefficients. We compare them with corresponding expressions developed in the literature for Gaussian Y.

  14. Design of novel architectures and field programmable gate arrays implementation of two dimensional gaussian surround function

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumantharaju, M. C; Gopalakrishna, M. T

    2014-01-01

    A new design and novel architecture suitable for FPGA/ASIC implementation of a 2D Gaussian surround function for image processing application is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme results in enormous savings of memory normally required for 2D Gaussian function implementation. In the present work, the Gaussian symmetric characteristics which quickly falls off toward plus/minus infinity has been used in order to save the memory. The 2D Gaussian function implementation is presented for...

  15. Randomized Unscented Transform in State Estimation of Non-Gaussian Systems: Algorithms and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 application of local methods, e.g. the Gaussian Sum Filter ( GSF ) consists of...estimation methods was compared in the numerical example: • global filters: – Gaussian sum filter with the RUT ( GSF -RUT), – Gaussian sum filter with...Taylor expansion of the nonlinear equations [4] ( GSF -TE), – Gaussian sum filter with unscented transform [20] ( GSF -UT). • local filters: – EKF, – UKF

  16. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-06-24

    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  17. On the nice behavior of the Gaussian projection filter with small observation noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.

    1995-01-01

    When projecting on the manifold of Gaussian densities, the projection filter has been shown to be equal to a McShane-Fisk-Stratonovich (MFS) derivation of the Gaussian assumed density filter. Starting from this point, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the Gaussian projection filter when the

  18. The implementation of the Gaussian filter for dimensional metrology basics, algorithms and C code

    CERN Document Server

    Krystek, Michael, Dr

    2012-01-01

    The Gaussian filter is set to remain of enduring importance in metrology. This publication deals with the digital implementation of the Gaussian filter and the estimation of the occurring errors. Guidance is given on how to keep these errors as small as possible. In addition algorithms for the implementation of the Gaussian filter are given.

  19. Laser cutting of bone tissue under bulk water with a pulsed ps-laser at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulea, Cristian-Alexander; Caron, Jan; Gehlich, Nils; Lenenbach, Achim; Noll, Reinhard; Loosen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Hard-tissue ablation was already investigated for a broad variety of pulsed laser systems, which cover almost the entire range of available wavelengths and pulse parameters. Most effective in hard-tissue ablation are Er:YAG and CO2 lasers, both utilizing the effect of absorption of infrared wavelengths by water and so-called explosive vaporization, when a thin water film or water-air spray is supplied. The typical flow rates and the water layer thicknesses are too low for surgical applications where bleeding occurs and wound flushing is necessary. We studied a 20 W ps-laser with 532 nm wavelength and a pulse energy of 1 mJ to effectively ablate bones that are submerged 14 mm under water. For these laser parameters, the plasma-mediated ablation mechanism is dominant. Simulations based on the blow-off model predict the cut depth and cross-sectional shape of the incision. The model is modified considering the cross section of the Gaussian beam, the incident angle, and reflections. The ablation rate amounts to 0.2 mm3/s, corresponding to an increase by at least 50% of the highest values published so far for ultrashort laser ablation of hard tissue.

  20. Comparison of implosion core metrics: A 10 ps dilation X-ray imager vs a 100 ps gated microchannel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.

    2016-11-01

    The dilation x-ray imager (DIXI) [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010); S. R. Nagel et al., ibid. 83, 10E116 (2012); S. R. Nagel et al., ibid. 85, 11E504 (2014)] is a high-speed x-ray framing camera that uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps. This is a 10 × improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) (100 ps resolution), and otherwise only achievable with 1D streaked imaging. A side effect of the dramatically reduced gate width is the comparatively lower detected signal level. Therefore we implement a Poisson noise reduction with non-local principal component analysis method [J. Salmon et al., J. Math. Imaging Vision 48, 279294 (2014)] to improve the robustness of the DIXI data analysis. Here we present results on ignition-relevant experiments at the NIF using DIXI. In particular we focus on establishing that/when DIXI gives reliable shape metrics (P0, P2, and P4 Legendre modes, and their temporal evolution/swings).