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Sample records for pryor mountain study

  1. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Ransom, Jason I.; Coates-Markle, Linda; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Wild horses (Equus caballus) at Pryor Mountain were studied by direct observation from 1993 through 2007. All horses present were individually identifiable on the basis of coat coloration, head and leg markings, gender, and band associations. Of the 609 horses either present prior to foaling in 1993 or born since, ages were precisely known for 491 (observed as a foal). Ages for 52 horses were estimated through tooth eruption and wear patterns, and for the remaining 66 horses through body size, morphology, and anecdotal evidence concerning when they were present on the range. At varying intensities, never less than 30 days per year, all horses were inventoried and their band associations noted. Foals were paired with dams based on observations of attachment during the early days and weeks of life. Year of death was determined by identification of the carcass where possible. In the absence of finding a carcass, an animal that was not observed for 2 years was considered to have died in the year that it went missing. Animals that were removed from the herd and mares that were part of a contraception study were excluded from calculations of survival and foaling rates, respectively, as appropriate. The average prefoaling population over the 15 years of the study was 148.8 animals (range = 120-187), and the annual foal crop averaged 32.1 (range = 23-40). Large removals (19-60 animals) in four years helped maintain the herd at this level; apparent growth rate (calculated as though removals had not occurred) was 9.6 percent annually (? = 1.096, range = 0.977-1.220). This annual growth rate is relatively low compared to that for many western horse herds, at least in part because of a decline in foal survival. Sex ratio of the foal crop varied widely among years, but pooled across years did not differ from 50:50. Sex ratio in the herd changed mostly as a result of removals. The average age of both males and females in the herd increased during the course of the study. Annual

  2. An animal location-based habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep and wild horses in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wockner, Gary; Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this habitat suitability model is to provide a tool that will help managers and researchers better manage bighorn sheep and wild horses in the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (PMWHR). A concern in the management of the Pryor Mountain wild horse population is whether or not the wild horses compete with bighorn sheep for available forage or available space. Two studies have been conducted that have shown no obvious, convincing competition between the two species. A study of diets and habitat-use of both species revealed substantial diet overlap only during some seasons, but there were considerable spatial and habitat separations between wild horses and bighorns during all seasons (Kissell and others, 1996). This empirical data was then used in a modeling exercise that predicted that neither the current (about 160 horses at the time of the analysis) nor larger numbers of wild horses on the area (e.g., about 200 horses) would result in reduced numbers or condition of bighorn sheep (Coughenour 1999). But competition is a very complex biological process to document. Bighorns might have already been spatially avoiding wild horses when these studies were conducted. A second concern for managers is that earlier studies suggest both species are not using many areas of the range that appear to be suitable (Gudorf and others, 1996; Kissell and others, 1996). A primary goal for the management of both species is to increase their numbers for purposes of genetic conservation and viability. The bighorn sheep population declined during the mid-1990’s from a peak of about 211 animals to ~ 100 animals at present. Absolute minimum goals for genetic viability in the bighorn sheep herd (genetic effective population size of N >50) suggest at least 150 animals should be present, while studies of persistence suggest populations of 250+ are e more likely to recover rapidly and persist should the population experience an

  3. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  4. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  5. Clidar Mountain Boundary Layer Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nimmi C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CCD Camera Lidar system called the CLidar system images a vertically pointing laser from the side with a spatially separated CCD camera and wide angle optics. The system has been used to investigate case studies of aerosols in mountain boundary layers in in the times following sunset. The aerosols detected by the system demonstrate the wide variation of near ground aerosol structure and capabilities of the CLidar system.

  6. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  7. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  8. Feasibility Study for Battle Mountain Renewable Energy Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Donna

    2014-09-30

    The Feasibility Study for the Battle Mountain Renewable Energy Park project (“Feasibility Study”) will assess the feasibility, benefits and impacts of a 5 Mega Watt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) generating system (the “Solar Project” or “Energy Park”) on the Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada Battle Mountain Colony in Battle Mountain, Nevada (NV). The Energy Park will provide power for export to utility off-takers and job training and employment for Tribal members and revenue for the Tribe. This Feasibility Study will be a collaborative effort between the Tribal government, consultants, Tribal members and stakeholders and will allow the Tribe to make informed decisions regarding the Solar Project.

  9. Comprehensive geophysical study of the Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Anandakrishan, S.; Shore, P. J.; Voigt, D.

    2004-12-01

    We use teleseismic receiver function and surface wave phase velocities to model the seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle between the Ross Sea and Vostok Subglacial Highlands. The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) has a thinner crust (~20 km) and slower seismic mantle velocities than East Antarctica (EA). Attenuation of shear body waves is also higher in the WARS, which suggests the presence of a thermal anomaly. The transition between EA and the WARS occurs beneath the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs), ~100 km from the coast. Within EA the crust is remarkably uniform in thickness (~35 km) for a lateral distance greater than 1400 km. We calculated theoretical gravity from density models that are based on the seismic results. The observed gravity is consistent with ~1 percent denser mantle material under EA than in the WARS. This density increase is consistent with temperature variations that would cause a 2.5-5 percent velocity increase. The flexural model of ten Brink et al., [1997] adequately accounts for the otherwise uncompensated topography. The buoyant thermal and erosional loads are sufficient to cause the observed uplift. As predicted by Strudinger et al., [2003], a crustal root is present, causing some isostatic support.

  10. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  11. Which nature? A case study of Whitetop Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2000-01-01

    Nature is socially constructed and many different environmental conditions can be considered natural. These assertions have profound implications for landscape design, planning, and management. In our case study of Whitetop Mountain, we found four discrete but closely related natures - ecotourism, romanticism, pastoralism, and ecologism...

  12. Mineral resources of the Whipple Mountains and Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Areas, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Sherman P.; Raines, Gary L.; Diggles, Michael F.; Howard, Keith A.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hoover, Donald B.; Ridenour, James; Moyle, Phillip R.; Willett, Spencee L.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 85,100 acres of the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-312) and 1,380 acres of the Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Area (AZ-050-010) were evaluated for identified mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the Whipple Mountains and Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Areas are referred to as simply "the study area." Most of the mines and prospects with identified resources in the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area are within areas designated as having mineral resource potential. The area in and around the Turk Silver mine and the Lucky Green group and the area near the northwest boundary of the study area have high mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. An area along the west boundary of the study area has moderate resource potential for copper lead, zinc, gold, and silver. An area in the east adjacent to the Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Area has moderate resource potential for copper, gold, and silver resources. One area on the north boundary and one on the southeast boundary of the study area have low mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. Two areas, one on the north boundary and one inside the east boundary of the study area, have moderate resource potential for manganese. A small area inside the south boundary of the study area has high resource potential for decorative building stone, and the entire study area has low resource potential for sand and gravel and other rock products suitable for construction. Two areas in the eastern part of the study area have low resource potential for uranium. There is no resource potential for oil and gas or geothermal resources in the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area. Sites within the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area with identified resources of copper, gold, silver, manganese and (or

  13. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  14. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  15. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  16. Black Studies and the Racial Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marable, Manning

    2000-01-01

    Describes the black intellectual tradition behind the concept of African American studies, which is descriptive, corrective, and prescriptive. Explains that black studies has always been a critical body of scholarship seeking over time to dismantle powerful racist intellectual categories and white supremacy itself. Describes the history and…

  17. Conditions and development case studies for mountainous deposits in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talgamer, B. L.; Franchuk, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article contains the materials on deposits development intensification under challenging climatic and mining conditions, including mountainous areas of Siberia. The exploitation case studies for mountainous deposits all over the world and in Russia have been described. The authors have been set out the factors impeding the development of such deposits, and the extent of mining and transportation equipment performance degradation is also indicated. There have been stated the characteristics and the description of one of the newly mountainous gold ore deposits in Siberia which is being developed at an altitude of 2684m. A number of specific factors concerning its development have also been introduced as well as the description of mining technologies engineered by Irkutsk National Research Technical University (IRNRTU) specialists. The depth and principal dimensions of the open pit together with the mining and transportation equipment and facilities have been justified. The prime cost analysis of mineral extraction has been made, which results showed the substantial growth in expenditures for the transportation of the overburden rocks and ores. In view of the above mentioned research, there appeared the necessity for the search of new and the enhancement of current transport vehicles and communications.

  18. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  19. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2007-12-11

    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  20. Bison Tissue Contaminant Study - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There is a well-documented history of disturbance and contamination from previous activities on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. In April 2013,...

  1. [Summer work study report for Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on research and observations at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal for the summer of 1982.This report is divided into 8 major sections or individual logs. The first...

  2. A New Study of Mountain Snowpack through Graph Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, J. A.; Marshall, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to accurately quantify snowpack variability has major impacts on estimations of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Complex physics based models have attempted to constrain the physical mechanisms that most affect snowpack properties and have been successful in producing results that are comparable to the average changes seasonal snowpack undergoes during the accumulation and melt periods. However they fail to accurately model any abrupt changes, especially in mountainous terrain; in part, due to the lack of in-situ measurements that contain the detailed forcing data required by such models. This study approaches the problem using a merger of Graph Theory, Spectral and K-means Cluster Analysis, as well as Radial Basis Function Neural Network to partition a complete data set of SNODAS product in addition to LiDAR datasets at the 1 km scale. These partitions are used to implement machine learning techniques to make predictions about current and future snowpack conditions. This system leverages the ability of Graphs, collections of nodes and edges, to represent nonlinear systems, such as the continuous spatiotemporal changes in seasonal snowpack and has unique properties that allow optimal sampling design for monitoring and studying snowpack patterns.

  3. Mountaineers' risk perception in outdoor-adventure sports: a study of sex and sports experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mountaineers' (expert, less-experienced, nonparticipant) risk perception in 19 outdoor-adventure sports related to their sex and sports experience. A total of 299 experienced mountaineers (90 women, 209 men), 321 less-experienced mountaineers (110 women, 211 men) and 193 volunteers nonparticipants in sport (95 women and 98 men) took part. Data were collected with items on a Likert-type 5-point scale. Test-retest over 15 days ranged from .64-86. A two-way variance analysis of sex x group showed that men's mean risk perception was lower than that of women for orienteering, mountain biking, rowing, surfing, sailing, nordic skiing, tour skiing, snowboarding, parachuting, and cliff jumping. Also, experienced mountaineers' mean risk perception was lower than that of those less experienced.

  4. Retrospective Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Rechelle; Ahn, Christine; Daniel, Alyssa; Yosipovitch, Gil; Strowd, Lindsay C

    2017-03-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a lethal tick-borne illness, is prevalent in the south central United States. Children younger than 10 years old have the greatest risk of fatal outcome from RMSF. The objective of the current study was to review pediatric cases of RMSF seen in the dermatology consult service and to evaluate dermatology's role in the diagnosis and management of this disease. A retrospective review was performed of inpatient dermatology consultations at a tertiary care center in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011. Data collected included patient demographic characteristics, symptoms, pre- and postconsultation diagnoses, diagnostic procedures, length of hospital stay, and outcome. A total of 3,912 consultations were conducted in the dermatology service over 10 years. Six patients with RMSF, ranging in age from 22 months to 10 years (mean 5.1 years), were evaluated during April, May, and June. All preconsultation diagnoses included RMSF in the differential diagnosis. All patients underwent skin biopsies, and a culture was obtained in one case. Fifty percent of patients died within 4 days of hospitalization. Variables associated with mortality from RMSF are delayed diagnosis and initiation of antirickettsial therapy. Physicians should consider RMSF in children presenting with fever and rash during the summer months. Dermatology consultation is useful in evaluating patients with suspicious clinical features of RMSF with skin findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Field Studies Delve Into the Intricacies of Mountain Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra J. S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Mountain meteorology, in particular weather prediction in complex (rugged) terrain, is emerging as an important topic for science and society. Large urban settlements such as Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Rio de Janeiro have grown within or in the shadow of complex terrain, and managing the air quality of such cities requires a good understanding of the air flow patterns that spill off of mountains. On a daily time scale, the interconnected engineered and natural systems that sustain urban metabolism and quality of life are affected by weather [Fernando, 2010]. Further, recent military engagements in remote mountainous areas have heightened the need for better weather predictions—alpine warfare is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of combat.

  6. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  7. [American Badger Study : Physiology Implant Data : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This record contains physiology implant data sheets related to the American Badger Study conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge.

  8. A seismic study of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada; data report and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, L.R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1980 to 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted seismic refraction studies at the Nevada Test Site to aid in an investigation of the regional crustal structure at a possible nuclear waste repository site near Yucca Mountain. Two regionally distributed deployments and one north-south deployment recorded nuclear events. First arrival times from these deployments were plotted on a location map and contoured to determine traveltime delays. The results indicate delays as large as 0.5 s in the Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat areas relative to the Jackass Flats area. A fourth east-west deployment recorded a chemical explosion and was interpreted using a two-dimensional computer raytracing technique. Delays as high as 0.7 s were observed over Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain. The crustal model derived from this profile indicates that Paleozoic rocks, which outcrop to the east at Skull Mountain and the Calico Hills, and to the west at Bare Mountain, lie at a minimum depth of 3 km beneath part of Yucca Mountain. These results confirm earlier estimates based on the modeling of detailed gravity data. A mid-crustal boundary at 15 ? 2 km beneath Yucca Mountain is evidenced by a prominent reflection recorded beyond 43 km range at 1.5 s reduced time. Other mid-crustal boundaries have been identified at 24 and 30 km and the total crustal thickness is 35 km.

  9. Chlorine-36 alidation Study at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Paces

    2006-08-28

    The amount, spatial distribution, and velocity of water percolating through the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are important issues for assessing the performance of the proposed deep geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To help characterize the nature and history of UZ flow, isotopic studies were initiated in 1995, using rock samples collected from the Miocene ash-flow tuffs in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel constructed along the north-south extent of the repository block, and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift, a 2.5-km-long tunnel constructed across the repository block (Figure 1-1, Sources: Modified from DOE 2002 [Figure 1-14] and USBR 1996). Scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) analyzed for chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl) in salts leached from whole-rock samples collected from tunnel walls and subsurface boreholes, and scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, uranium, lead, thorium, and strontium in secondary minerals collected from subsurface fractures and lithophysal cavities. Elevated values for ratios of {sup 36}Cl to total chloride ({sup 36}Cl/CL) at the level of the proposed repository indicated that small amounts of water carrying bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl (i.e., {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios greater than 1250 x 10{sup -15} resulting from {sup 36}Cl produced by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices during the 1950s and early 1960s) had percolated through welded and nonwelded tuffs to depths of 200 to 300 meters (m) beneath the land surface over the past 50 years. Because of the implications of short travel times to the performance of the proposed repository, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Repository Development (ORD), decided to verify the {sup 36}Cl/Cl data with an independent validation study. DOE asked the USGS

  10. Recent changes in daily climate extremes in an arid mountain region, a case study in northwestern China’s Qilian Mountains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pengfei Lin; Zhibin He; Jun Du; Longfei Chen; Xi Zhu; Jing Li

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to assess the spatial distribution and temporal trends of extreme precipitation and temperature events responses to global warming on the arid mountain regions of China...

  11. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  12. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  13. Fall 1998 Raptor Migrations Study in the Wellsville Mountains of Northern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    The Wellsville Mountains raptor migration study in northern Utah is an ongoing effort to monitor longterm trends in populations of raptors using this northern Rocky Mountain migratory flyway. Raptors feed atop food pyramids, inhabit most ecosystems, occupy large home ranges, and are sensitive to environmental contamination and other human disturbances. Therefore, they serve as important biological indicators of ecosystem health (Cade et al. 1988; Bednarz et al. 1990a; Bildstein and Zalles 199...

  14. The Centre for Mountain Studies: Active From Scottish to Global Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Woolvin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Mountain Studies (CMS, located at Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland, hosts the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Chair in Sustainable Mountain Development. Since 2000, CMS staff and students have been active in research and knowledge exchange activities at scales from the local—in Scotland—to the global (Price 2011; Glass et al 2013. In addition to hosting the Mountains of our Future Earth conference (Perth III, recent international activities have focused on climate change, biosphere reserves, social innovation, and stakeholder engagement in biodiversity research. Projects in Scotland have mainly addressed land management and local communities. The CMS also runs a part-time online MSc program in Sustainable Mountain Development.

  15. Isotopic studies of Yucca Mountain soil fluids and carbonate pedogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Whelan, J.F.; Wickland, K.P.; Moscati, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Secondary carbonates occurring within the soils, faults, and subsurface fractures of Yucca Mountain contain some of the best available records of paleoclimate and palehydrology for the potential radioactive waste repository site. This article discusses conceptual and analytical advances being made with regard to the interpretation of stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates, specifically related to the {sup 13}C content of soil CO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, precipitation mechanisms, and isotopic fractionations between parent fluids and precipitating carbonates. The {sup 13}C content of soil carbon dioxide from Yucca Mountain and vicinity shows most of the usual patterns expected in such contexts: Decreasing {sup 13}C content with depth decreasing {sup 13}C with altitude and reduced {sup 13}C during spring. These patterns exist within the domain of a noisy data set; soil and vegetational heterogeneities, weather, and other factors apparently contribute to isotopic variability in the system. Several soil calcification mechanisms appear to be important, involving characteristic physical and chemical environments and isotopic fractionations. When CO{sub 2} loss from thin soil solutions is an important driving factor, carbonates may contain excess heavy isotopes, compared to equilibrium precipitation with soil fluids. When root calcification serves as a proton generator for plant absorption of soil nutrients, heavy isotope deficiencies are likely. Successive cycles of dissolution and reprecipitation mix and redistribute pedogenic carbonates, and tend to isotopically homogenize and equilibrate pedogenic carbonates with soil fluids.

  16. PECULIARITIES OF GRAMMAR STUDY OF MOUNTAIN FIRST-FORM PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kiryk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The articles describes the role of analiztor system (auditory, visual, kinesthetic at the initial stage of learning literacy and language development six years old. They from specific integration system, that provides more efficient perception, memorization and reproduction of educational material. The article deals with attempt to ascertain linguadidactic interconnections and interdependence between grammar education (reading, writing and speech of six-year pupils. Summing up it should be mentioned to organize 6-year pupils studing in the country mountain school becides pedagogical, economical, geographic and social problems psychologic linguadidactic are added. Preferences of mountain country children: –                    Formation from childhood ability to live in harmony with nature; –                    Sensitive  perception of alive and inanimate surrounding nature; –                    Life-style form children’s responsibility for entrusted things, labour habits, training by hard nature conditions. They should be solved in complex providing achievents of psychology, pedagogics, linguists and up-to-date technology. The aim of the article  - to reveal individual peculiarities of country mountain child who needs special method of approach to grammar studing as well as to help country teacher who strongly feels lack for efficient method help. All these affect on prepearing level, children’s outlook, general development. Scientific and methodogical institutions have not easy task-system training and skill raising of primary school teachers to realize State standart of primary general education. Acquaintance of country teacher with up-to-date achievements in psychologic, pedagogic and linguistic education will help him to organize his work in the country school on rather higher level as well as let him give more qualitative education services and save country school as the

  17. Social and Labor Integration of Asylum Seekers in Rural Mountain Areas—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marcher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Migration into Europe affects the Alps in various ways. The recent influx of refugees and a higher number of asylum requests has presented governance challenges for mountain communities. In Italy, the responsibility of regions to host asylum seekers increased when a national system was implemented to distribute asylum seekers throughout the country. This study explored the impact of current distributions through the analysis of 2 rural mountain municipalities in the northeast Italian Alps in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (also known as South Tyrol in which reception facilities for asylum seekers have been established. A qualitative research approach offered empirical insights into the functioning of the reception system and governance in these communities. Our social network analysis of the research data, focusing on the labor integration of asylum seekers, indicated that stronger relational linkages among actors in rural mountain communities may facilitate access to the labor market for asylum applicants.

  18. Competitive branding policies for medium mountain tourism destinations: a case study from the Val di Sole (Trento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tizzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to address the issue of medium mountain destination branding from a multidisciplinary perspective, focusing on the Italian tourism area of the Val di Sole as a case study.After having summarized the main potentialities and constraints in medium mountain tourism management, the research applies the many-sided concept of in-between place to the destination branding aspects. Finally, the analysis of destination branding policies carried out in the Val di Sole, a medium mountain Alpine area in the Italian Provincia Autonoma of Trento, offers an overview of the basic success factors in medium mountain destinations enhancement.

  19. Landscape-Scale Research In The Ouachita Mountains Of West-Central Arkansas: General Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A landscape-scale study on forest ecology and management began in 1995 in the eastern Ouachita Mountains. Of four large watersheds, three were within the Winona Ranger District of the Ouachita National Forest, and a major forest industry landowner largely owned and managed the fourth. These watersheds vary from 3,700 to 9,800 acres. At this...

  20. Tree species migration studies in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    The movement of tree species in either latitude or elevation has attracted increased recent attention due to growing national/international concerns over climate change. However, studies on tree species movements began in the early 1970s in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, mostly due to ecological interests in the episodic behavior of upper-elevation tree species...

  1. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  2. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  3. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  4. SYSTHESIS OF VOLCANISM STUDIES FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, F. V.; Crowe, G. A.; Valentine, G. A.; Bowker, L. M.

    1997-09-23

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The hazard of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The distribution of Pliocene and Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers is evaluated with respect to tectonic models for detachment, caldera, regional and local rifting, and the Walker Lane structural zone. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of past basaltic volcanic centers and possible future magmatic processes. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the

  5. Deaths associated with skiing in Australia: a 32-year study of cases from the Snowy Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Clout, L

    We present the first study of skiing-related deaths in Australia--a 32-year study of skiing-related deaths in the Snowy Mountains. We have reported 29 such cases; eight subjects died of trauma, 15 subjects died of cardiovascular causes, and six subjects died of hypothermia. The over-all incidence of death was 0.87 deaths per million skier-days; the specific incidence for trauma-related deaths was 0.24 deaths per million skier-days; for cardiac-related deaths was 0.45 deaths per million skier-days; and for hypothermia-related deaths was 0.18 deaths per million skier-days. These findings compare most-favourably with US figures. Death that is associated with skiing in the Snowy Mountains is a rare event.

  6. Mountain and Glacier Terrain Study and Related Investigations in the Juneau Icefield Region, Alaska-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    1972). Special assistance in these studies is acknowledged to Richard Heffernan, John McCracken, Clarke Petrie, Gregg Lamorey, Paul Willis, Howard...34 1000- j~ ~ ~ %lacer Geier --. " 80’Canyon" -- " • Crook , • , •0 I " Kilometers i Fig. 76- Diagrammatic repreentation of Lemon, Ptarmigan, and... George , and Stuiver, M. (1967) Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy and chronology, Northeastern St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada. Bull

  7. Stakeholders’ perception of forest management: a Portuguese mountain case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta-Costa, A.; Torres-Manso, F.; Pinto, R.; Tibério, L.; Carneiro, I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The Natura 2000 Network “Montemuro Mountain” Site in Portugal. Material and methods: This study combined several consultation and citizen participation techniques. Main results: The perceptions shared by the stakeholders are some similar, others not similar and others still quite paradoxical regarding forest characteristics and the opportunities they offer. The study has shown that it is possible to implement and improve citizen participation methodologies. This can be a viable way towards more effective forest management and fire prevention as this may help blunt conflicts of interest in forest space management. However, for participation to be truly effective and representative, a policy regarding training and awareness of the importance of information is necessary. Research highlights: The stakeholder perceptions on forests and forest management are assessed; forest fires and agrarian abandonment are central for territory’s development; depopulation, old age and absenteeism emphasize degradation of forest areas; Conscious citizen participation benefit policymaking and forest management. (Author)

  8. Application of electrical and electromagnetic methods to study sedimentary covers in high mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomecka-Suchoń, Sylwia; Żogała, Bogdan; Gołębiowski, Tomisław; Dzik, Grażyna; Dzik, Tomasz; Jochymczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The results of geophysical studies conducted with selected electrical and electromagnetic methods in the Kondratowa Valley in the Tatra Mountains (the Carpathian Mountains, Poland) are presented in the article. The surveys were performed with the following methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), georadar (GPR) and conductivity meter (CM). The objective of the noninvasive geophysical measurements was to determine the thickness of the Quaternary postglacial sediments that fill the bottom of the valley and to designate the accumulation of boulders deposited on Quaternary sediments. The results of ERT surveys conducted along the axis of the valley allowed to determine the changeability of the thickness of the postglacial sediments and allowed to designate a few areas of occurrence of boulders. The ERT, GPR and CM surveys conducted across the valley allowed to designate with high accuracy the thickness of the accumulation of boulders sliding down the valley bottom from the couloirs surrounding the valley.

  9. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  11. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  12. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  13. A Water Budget Approach to Study the Hydrologic Response of Mountain Meadow Restoration Following Conifer Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosbree, G. F.; Surfleet, C. G.; Jasbinsek, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain meadows are important ecological habitats that have degraded in quality and distribution due to fire suppression and poor land use practices in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Conifer encroachment in mountain meadows has accelerated and is one of the reasons for the decline of meadow habitat. To date there are few studies which quantify the hydrologic response of meadow restoration due to vegetation or conifer removal. This study is using a before after control intervention (BACI) study design to determine the hydrologic response of restoration to a historic meadow encroached by conifers (study meadow). A water budget approach has been developed to quantify the hydrology of the control and study meadow before and after restoration. Measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture are currently being taken on the control and study meadows. A total of 14 Odyssey water level capacitance instruments were installed to a 1.5 meter depth and 14 soil moisture instruments were installed to a 30 cm depth using a spatially balanced random sampling approach. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to determine soil moisture and depth to groundwater across forest-meadow ecotones present on the meadows. Additionally, ERI was used to extrapolate point measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the study and control areas. The weekly water budget indicates differences between the control meadow and study meadow in the first year prior to conifer removal. The ERI indicated differences in sub surface geology, soil moisture, and groundwater depth both between the control and study meadows and along the forest-meadow ecotones. ERI was demonstrated to improve the spatial extrapolation of soil moisture and groundwater point measurements.

  14. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.

    1995-02-01

    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  15. Is acute mountain sickness related to trait anxiety? A normobaric chamber study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Waanders, Robb; Menz, Verena; Wille, Maria; Kopp, Martin; Burtscher, Martin

    2017-03-15

    Some mountaineers are more prone to the occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) than others. State anxiety during altitude exposure might be associated with AMS development. We hypothesized that trait anxiety might be higher in AMS cases compared to non-AMS cases. The aim of the present study was to study the relationship between AMS development and trait anxiety. In an observational study design, AMS incidence during a 12-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12.6%, equivalent to 4500m) was determined by the Lake Louise Scoring System. Trait anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) and confounding variables were assessed in a follow-up questionnaire (37months after hypoxic exposure). Twenty nine participants returned the follow-up questionnaire. AMS incidence was 38%. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses did not reveal trait anxiety as a significant variable in relation to AMS. Based on the findings of this preliminary study, there is no evidence that AMS development under normobaric conditions is related to trait anxiety. Differences to previous studies might be explained by the type of hypoxia, by different sample characteristics and by considering sleep disturbances in the calculation of the AMS score. However, future studies with larger sample sizes may help to clear the relationship between AMS development and the personality factor anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  17. The Sorption/Desorption Behavior of Uranium in Transport Studies Using Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scism, Cynthia D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the proposed site of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. In the event repository engineered barriers fail, the saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain is expected to serve as a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of uranium retardation in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain to support refinement of an assessment model. The distribution of uranium desorption rates from alluvium obtained from Nye County bore holes EWDP-19IM1, EWDP-10SA, EWDP-22SA were studied to address inconsistencies between results from batch sorption and column transport experiments. The alluvium and groundwater were characterized to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the observed behavior. Desorption rate constants were obtained using an activity based mass balance equation and column desorption experiments were analyzed using a mathematical model utilizing multiple sorption sites with different first-order forward and reverse reaction rates. The uranium desorption rate constants decreased over time, suggesting that the alluvium has multiple types of active sorption sites with different affinities for uranium. While a significant fraction of the initially sorbed uranium desorbed from the alluvium quite rapidly, a roughly equivalent amount remained sorbed after several months of testing. The information obtained through this research suggests that uranium may experience greater effective retardation in the alluvium than simple batch sorption experiments would suggest. Electron Probe Microanalysis shows that uranium is associated with both clay minerals and iron oxides after sorption to alluvial material. These results provide further evidence that the alluvium contains multiple sorption sites for uranium.

  18. Understanding Social Conflicts Between Forestry and Nature Protection Sectors: Case Study Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kiš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The last couple of decades brought significant changes in forest and nature protection policy worldwide. Rising environmental awareness, over-utilization of scarce natural resources and global climate change set high goals for the forest and nature protection policy makers. This paper is about a case study of relations among various stakeholders on Velebit Mountain, a coast-by mountain in Central Croatia. Velebit Mountain is both: a nature protection area and a forest exploitation site, which raises various conflicts between these two sectors and major stakeholders. Purpose of this research was to investigate the relations among various interest groups and coalition parties, their opinions, aspirations and interests and, especially, the way to resolve issues or manage conflicts. Material and Methods: This case-study research was conducted in form of interviews held with the representatives of each of the defined stakeholder groups within the target area, i.e. Velebit Mountain Nature Park. Interviews consisted of several groups of questions (introductory part, conflicts, conflict management and policy development, while stakeholder groups included "Croatian Forests ltd.", a state-owned company in charge of the management of state forests, Nature Park Velebit, National Park Paklenica, National Park "Northern Velebit", hunters' associations, private forest owners, fishermen associations, representatives of the local administration and mountaineers' associations. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions regarding various issues divided into these four groups. The data was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Theoretical framework used in this research was Walker and Daniels' Social Conflict Theory (1997, p.13 which describes types of conflicts, ways to address them and typical sources of occurring conflicts. Results and Conclusion: The results showed which the most salient conflict

  19. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  20. Can bed-load help to validate hydrology studies in mountainous catchment? The case study of the Roize (Voreppe, France

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    Piton Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Larges uncertainties are attached to hazard prediction in mountain streams, because of some limitations in our knowledge of physical processes, and overall, because of the lack of measurements for validation. This is particularly true for hydrological data, making the hydrology assessment of a mountain river a very difficult task, usually associated with large uncertainties. On the other hand, contrarily to lowland rivers, bed-load in mountain streams is often trapped in mitigation-structures, such as open check dams. This study aims to take advantage of these additional information for compensating the general lack of hydrological data, in order to converge toward a comprehensive diagnosis of the catchment hydrological behavior. A hydrology and sediment transport study has been done on the Roize torrent (16.1-km2 - Voreppe - 38-FR. After a classical historical study, a regional analysis of raingauges and water-discharge-stations situated in the calcareous north Pre-Alps massifs of the Vercors, Chartreuse and Bauges has been done. A catchment geomorphology study has been performed to get insight about the Roize torrential activity and sediment transport. The volumes of bed-load transported each year on average and during extreme floods have been computed using the estimated hydrology. The good bed-load predictions compare to the volume dredged in the Voreppe sediment trap are considered an indirect validation of the hydrology study.

  1. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  2. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  3. Mechanical defradation of Emplacement Drifts at Yucca Mountain- A Modeling Case Study. Part I: Nonlithophysal Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lin; D. Kicker; B. Damjanac; M. Board; M. Karakouzian

    2006-07-05

    This paper outlines rock mechanics investigations associated with mechanical degradation of planned emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, which is the designated site for the proposed U.S. high-level nuclear waste repository. The factors leading to drift degradation include stresses from the overburden, stresses induced by the heat released from the emplaced waste, stresses due to seismically related ground motions, and time-dependent strength degradation. The welded tuff emplacement horizon consists of two groups of rock with distinct engineering properties: nonlithophysal units and lithophysal units, based on the relative proportion of lithophysal cavities. The term 'lithophysal' refers to hollow, bubble like cavities in volcanic rock that are surrounded by a porous rim formed by fine-grained alkali feldspar, quartz, and other minerals. Lithophysae are typically a few centimeters to a few decimeters in diameter. Part I of the paper concentrates on the generally hard, strong, and fractured nonlithophysal rock. The degradation behavior of the tunnels in the nonlithophysal rock is controlled by the occurrence of keyblocks. A statistically equivalent fracture model was generated based on extensive underground fracture mapping data from the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain. Three-dimensional distinct block analyses, generated with the fracture patterns randomly selected from the fracture model, were developed with the consideration of in situ, thermal, and seismic loads. In this study, field data, laboratory data, and numerical analyses are well integrated to provide a solution for the unique problem of modeling drift degradation.

  4. MAPPING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES SUPPLY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS: A CASE STUDY FROM SOUTH TYROL (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schirpke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide many ecosystem services and spatially explicit assessments have to account for their specific topographic and climatic conditions. Moreover, it is fundamental to understand synergies and trade-offs of multiple ecosystem services. In this study, ecosystem services supply, including forage production, timber production, water supply, carbon sequestration, soil stability, soil quality, and the aesthetic value, was quantified in bio-physical terms on the landscape scale for South Tyrol. Mean ecosystem services values of the 116 municipalities were grouped in 5 clusters. The results indicate that carbon stock is the prevailing ecosystem service of valley municipalities. On contrast, they suffer from water deficit and depend on water supply from high mountain municipalities. Trade-offs can be also found between the aesthetic value on one hand and timber production, carbon sequestration and soil stability on the other hand. The latter are characteristic for municipalities dominated by forest. The resulting maps can support landscape planning, ecosystem management and conservation of biodiversity.

  5. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinagra, T.A. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Harig, R. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ``MRS``) on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D.

  6. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas.

  7. The use of Skylab and LANDSAT in a geohydrological study of the Paleozoic section, west-central Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Sites of geologic structures were identified using Skylab and LANDSAT imagery, and their relationships to ground water recharge and discharge were studied. The study area lies along the western slope of the Bighorn Mountains. Runoff flowing from the Precambrian core of the Bighorn Mountains sinks as it flows over outcrops of the Bighorn dolomite. A comparison of photo-geologic maps prepared from Skylab and LANDSAT imagery and a geologic map compiled by Darton (1906) illustrates that photomapping, by itself, cannot supply adequate detail but can supplement reconnaissance mapping. Lineation maps were compiled from LANDSAT and Skylab images and compared to similar maps compiled by other investigators.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  9. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. A study of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate export in Catskill Mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K.; Moore, K. E.; Lin, L.; Schneiderman, E. M.; Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Watersheds in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State have historically experienced soil and stream acidification due to deposition of acidic compounds created from atmospheric SO2 and NOx. Recent studies in this region, and elsewhere in North America and Europe, have shown increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and lakes. Watersheds in the Catskills are the major source of drinking water for New York City and other communities in the region. Due to use of chlorine for disinfection, there is potential for the increase in DOC to lead to increased levels of disinfection byproducts in treated drinking water. Therefore, developing an improved understanding of the sources, fate and transport mechanisms, and export patterns for nitrate and DOC is important for informing watershed and water supply management. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between watershed characteristics, nitrate, and DOC for 12 gauged streams in the Neversink River watershed. Watershed characteristics included topography (elevation, slope, topographic wetness index), vegetation (leaf area index, species composition), soil (soil hydraulic parameters, soil carbon, wetland soil), atmospheric deposition (SO2, NOx), and climate (precipitation, temperature). Our preliminary analysis showed that both watershed slope and baseflow ratio are negatively correlated with annual median DOC concentration. At Biscuit Brook in the Neversink watershed, annual precipitation explained about 25% of annual DOC median concentration. DOC concentration was highly correlated with storm runoff in spring, summer, and fall, but stream nitrate concentration was weakly correlated with storm runoff in most seasons except summer when it was highly correlated with baseflow. We also applied a process-based ecohydrologic model (Regional Hydrologic Ecologic System Simulation, RHESSys) to the Biscuit Brook watershed to explore sources of nitrate and DOC and their movement within the watershed. We expect

  11. A Study of Smoking Disparity and Factors Associated with Children Smoking Behavior in the Mountain and City Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Ted; Chen, Fu-Li; Magnus, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Yen, Yea-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Background: While higher smoking prevalences have been better described for adults and adolescents in the mountainous areas than in the plain area in Taiwan, no studies have previously examined whether this disparity begins with children in elementary schools. The purpose of this study was thus designed to explore clustering in smoking behavior…

  12. Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

  13. Rock avalanches and glacier dynamics: a case study in the Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Manuela; Fischer, Luzia; Huggel, Christian; Kargell, Jeffrey; Korup, Oliver

    2010-05-01

    Massive rock slope failures resulting in rock avalanches in glacierized environments can have serious consequences for downstream areas. Furthermore they are important drivers of erosion. The Chugach Mountains in south-central Alaska are a vast remote and strongly glacierized area with evidence of numerous rock avalanches, although a systematic documentation and assessment of their role as geomorphic agents is missing so far. Here we use glaciers as a unique archive of rock avalanches that have deposited extensive debris sheets on glaciers. A number of well preserved rock avalanche deposits from past years and decades furthermore facilitate the quantification of hitherto poorly known historic glacier surface velocities in the region. The principal objective of this work was first to create an inventory of rock avalanches on the basis of Landsat satellite images in the Chugach Mountains, and to analyze their characteristics regarding lithology, climate, runout-distance, area and volume, as well as their spatial distribution. The runout distances of mass movements are generally larger in glacial environments than in non-glacial environments. This characteristic was also shown in the studied cases as they always travelled over glaciers, firn or snow. The distribution of the rock avalanches was compared with the occurrence of earthquakes in the region. It has been shown in this study, that especially big earthquakes trigger rock avalanches. Smaller earthquakes do not appear to have enough energy to trigger rock avalanches. Furthermore, the climate conditions were analyzed of being responsible for the spatial pattern of the rock avalanches. The south-eastern part of the Chugach Mountains is affected by high precipitation and mild temperatures. Concentration of rock avalanches occurs in the same area. To analyze glacier dynamics over more than 20 years, rock avalanche deposits on the glaciers were used to derive simple but robust measures of flow velocities over periods

  14. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants around Limu Mountains of Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi-long; Wei, Jian-he; Sun, Wei; Li, Rong-tao; Liu, Shou-bai; Dai, Hao-fu

    2013-07-30

    The main objectives were to document traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and compare medicinal plant traditions between Li and Hmong living around Limu Mountains of Hainan Island. Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided fieldtrips with herbalists. Quantitative methods, such as the coefficient of similarity (S), Chi-square analysis and the 'informant agreement ratio' were applied for the comparison of medicinal plant tradition between Li and Hmong. In all, 224 plant species grown in the study areas are still traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Euphorbiaceae (17 species), Rubiaceae (16 species), Papilionaceae and Poaceae (11 species, respectively), Verbenaceae (10 species) and Compositae (7 species) are predominant families used by herbalists. The most species were reported to be used for injuries (25.1% of all the medicinal use-reports), digestive system disorders (24.8%), infections/infestations (14.7%) and muscular-skeletal system disorders (12.3%). The coefficient of similarity (29.0%) shows a relatively high overlap of medicinal plants used by Li and Hmong. Using Chi-square analysis, it was found that habit mentions were dependent upon the culture. Infections/infestations, injuries and muscular-skeletal system disorders scored high IAR value and mention in both Li and Hmong communities. Medicinal plants are of importance to indigenous people around Limu Mountains who still rely on medicinal plants to treat a wide range of illnesses. There is a close relationship of medicinal plant tradition between Li and Hmong who are culturally distinct. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Study Design on Reported Incidences of Acute Mountain Sickness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Baptiste; Kayser, Bengt; Dumont, Lionel; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R; Elia, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    Published incidences of acute mountain sickness (AMS) vary widely. Reasons for this variation, and predictive factors of AMS, are not well understood. We aimed to identify predictive factors that are associated with the occurrence of AMS, and to test the hypothesis that study design is an independent predictive factor of AMS incidence. We did a systematic search (Medline, bibliographies) for relevant articles in English or French, up to April 28, 2013. Studies of any design reporting on AMS incidence in humans without prophylaxis were selected. Data on incidence and potential predictive factors were extracted by two reviewers and crosschecked by four reviewers. Associations between predictive factors and AMS incidence were sought through bivariate and multivariate analyses for different study designs separately. Association between AMS incidence and study design was assessed using multiple linear regression. We extracted data from 53,603 subjects from 34 randomized controlled trials, 44 cohort studies, and 33 cross-sectional studies. In randomized trials, the median of AMS incidences without prophylaxis was 60% (range, 16%-100%); mode of ascent and population were significantly associated with AMS incidence. In cohort studies, the median of AMS incidences was 51% (0%-100%); geographical location was significantly associated with AMS incidence. In cross-sectional studies, the median of AMS incidences was 32% (0%-68%); mode of ascent and maximum altitude were significantly associated with AMS incidence. In a multivariate analysis, study design (p=0.012), mode of ascent (p=0.003), maximum altitude (pdesign.

  16. Relationship between Smoking and Acute Mountain Sickness: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Masuet-Aumatell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Previous epidemiological investigations of the relationship between smoking and acute mountain sickness (AMS risk yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, a meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to determine whether smoking is related to the development of AMS. Methods. Searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies that were published before November 2016 reporting smoking prevalence and AMS. Two evaluators independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed study quality. The pooled relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the type of participant, altitude, and study design. Results. A total of 11 observational studies involving 7,106 participants, 2,408 of which had AMS, were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The summary RR for AMS comparing smokers to nonsmokers was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.26. Specific analyses for altitude, type of participant, and study design yielded similar results. There was significant heterogeneity for all studies (Q=37.43; P<0.001; I2=73%, 95% CI: 51% to 85%. No publication bias was observed (Egger’s test: P=0.548, Begg’s test: P=0.418. Conclusions. The meta-analysis indicates that no difference was found in AMS risk with regard to smoking status.

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Data Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This document...

  18. Analysis of Dabie Mountain tourism industry internationalization - A case study of Huanggang in Hubei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems based on relatively backward status of Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism internationalization: low popularity of the tourism products, insufficient international infrastructure, lack of powerful international guidance, ineffective foreign cooperation, lack of international talents and incomplete tourism product systems; according to the existing problems of Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism internationalization, this paper puts forward the following recommendations. Huanggang Dabie Mountain tourism should open markets to break regional and industrial monopolies; actively promote regional economic cooperation of the tourism; strengthen publicity effort and broaden publicity channels; excavate universal value of the resources; guide the superior tourism enterprises to list overseas; the government needs to accelerate the international management of the tourism, in order to provide reference for further development of Dabie Mountain tourism in Huanggang.

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Data Evaulation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This document...

  20. Effects of mountain resort development - a case study in Vermont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    The mountainous landscape of northern New England, USA, faces intense development pressure from recreational and tourism use. In 2000 we began a paired-watershed study in northern Vermont to examine the effects of alpine resort development on stream flow and water quality. To our knowledge this is the only gaged watershed study at a mountain resort. The adjacent paired watersheds have similar topography, relief, geology and forest type, and differ primarily in land use. Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is the undeveloped, nearly 100% forested control basin. West Branch watershed (11.7 km2) is the developed basin, encompassing a pre-existing alpine ski resort and state highway, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces. Measurements during 2000-2003 showed suspended sediment yield was >2.5 times greater and concentrations of nitrate and chloride were significantly elevated at West Branch. From 2004 through 2007 the resort expanded with more ski trails, roads, parking areas, and vacation home development and now has 24% cleared land, with storm sewers draining lower developed areas of the alpine watershed. For the 11-year period of study, water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by an average of nearly 21%. The higher runoff at West Branch occurred primarily as result of higher sustained base flow, driven by a more prolonged snowmelt period, and greater runoff during small events. The annual flow differential had a strong positive correlation to maximum snow water equivalent, suggesting that differences in snow accumulation may explain the flow differential. We are investigating whether these differences are a direct consequence of management activities and resulting vegetation shifts and land clearing on snow capture. Several of the highest peak flows in both watersheds have occurred in the last 2 years of the 11-yr study. Our analysis is aimed at determining whether absolute peak flows have increased

  1. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  2. Remapping annual precipitation in mountainous areas based on vegetation patterns: a case study in the Nu River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Ni, Guang-Heng; Shen, Chen; Sun, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Accurate high-resolution estimates of precipitation are vital to improving the understanding of basin-scale hydrology in mountainous areas. The traditional interpolation methods or satellite-based remote sensing products are known to have limitations in capturing the spatial variability of precipitation in mountainous areas. In this study, we develop a fusion framework to improve the annual precipitation estimation in mountainous areas by jointly utilizing the satellite-based precipitation, gauge measured precipitation, and vegetation index. The development consists of vegetation data merging, vegetation response establishment, and precipitation remapping. The framework is then applied to the mountainous areas of the Nu River basin for precipitation estimation. The results demonstrate the reliability of the framework in reproducing the high-resolution precipitation regime and capturing its high spatial variability in the Nu River basin. In addition, the framework can significantly reduce the errors in precipitation estimates as compared with the inverse distance weighted (IDW) method and the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation product.

  3. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.

  4. Mountain building processes in the Scandinavian Caledonides studied by COSC scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project, located in the Caledonian foreland of Sweden, attempts to sample a continuous section from the allochthons through the basal décollement into the Baltican basement. The primary target of the project is to improve our understanding of mountain building during major continent-continent collision. COSC is located on the Central Caledonian Transect (CCT) in Jämtland, Sweden, a classical locality in the Caledonian mountain belt where nappe emplacement was proposed already 130 years ago. During this long time of research, a wealth of geological and geophysical survey data at different resolution have been acquired. Thus, the CCT is optimal for the integration of scientific work at different scales, from micro-scale investigation on high-resolution borehole sections to orogen-scale geodynamic models. With COSC-1, a first 2.5 km deep fully cored borehole was drilled during 2014 to study in detail a section from a hot allochthon into the underlying thrust zone. Located on the slopes of mountain Åreskutan, the drilled profile through the lower part of Seve Nappe Complex can be extended upwards with good field exposure to the top of Åreskutan, where micro-diamond bearing gneisses were discovered recently. This combined profile was accomplished last year and, at present, the pressure-temperature conditions along it are being established. First results are presented by Holmberg et al. (this session). Comprehensive borehole surveys and geophysical experiments facilitate the integration of borehole data with the regional data sets and provide a better physical characterisation the encountered rock bodies. Of particular interest is here a major shear zone in the lower c. 800 m of the borehole, whose base was not penetrated. It is clearly different and lower grade than the penetrative deformation in the surrounding gneisses and, thus, expected to be younger and, potentially, cutting

  5. A study of the landslide potential along the mountain road using environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of slope land in recent years is rapid as a result of the dense population and limit of land resources in Taiwan. Therefore, mountain road plays an essential role for the necessity of human life. However, landslide disaster resulting in road failure occurred frequently in Taiwan on the slope land due to earthquake and typhoon. Previous studies found that the extreme rainfall coupled with the property of fragile geology could cause landslide. Nevertheless, the landslide occurrence might be affected by the drainage of the road side ditches. Taiwan Highway No.21 in Chi-Shan watershed and the forest roads located in Xiao-Lin Village, which failure during the hit of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, were selected for exploring the potential of vulnerable to landslides. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Road Curvature (RC) were extracted along the road to indicate the potential sites which are vulnerable to slope failure. The surface runoff diverted by the road side ditches could spoil the sites with high RC due to the straight movement characteristics of the diverted runoff and cause the downslope collapse. The sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the SPOT imagery taken in dry and/or rainy seasons could be implied as the vegetation stands showing highly buffer effects in environmental stress due to having deeper soil layer, and are hardly interfered by the drought. The stands located in such sites once collapsed are often resulting in huge volumes of debris. Drainage Density (DD) index could be applied as the degrees of geologic fragile in the slope land. A road across the sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of NDVI and/or higher DD should be paid more attention because of having highly vulnerable to deep seated landslide. This study is focusing on extracting and analyzing the environmental indices such as TWI, RC, NDVI and DD for exploring the slope stability

  6. Distribution limits of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: a case study in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Muths, Erin L.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Corn, P. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the environmental constraints on a pathogen is critical to predicting its dynamics and effects on populations. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an aquatic fungus that has been linked with widespread amphibian declines, is ubiquitous in the Rocky Mountains. As part of assessing the distribution limits of Bd in our study area, we sampled the water column and sediments for Bd zoospores in 30 high-elevation water bodies that lacked amphibians. All water bodies were in areas where Bd has been documented from neighboring, lower-elevation areas. We targeted areas lacking amphibians because existence of Bd independent of amphibians would have both ecologic and management implications. We did not detect Bd, which supports the hypothesis that it does not live independently of amphibians. However, assuming a detection sensitivity of 59.5% (based on sampling of water where amphibians tested positive for Bd), we only had 95% confidence of detecting Bd if it was in > or =16% of our sites. Further investigation into potential abiotic reservoirs is needed, but our results provide a strategic step in determining the distributional and environmental limitations of Bd in our study region.

  7. Distribution limits of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: a case study in the Rocky Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Muths, E.; Anderson, C.W.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Corn, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the environmental constraints on a pathogen is critical to predicting its dynamics and effects on populations. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an aquatic fungus that has been linked with widespread amphibian declines, is ubiquitous in the Rocky Mountains. As part of assessing the distribution limits of Bd in our study area, we sampled the water column and sediments for Bd zoospores in 30 high-elevation water bodies that lacked amphibians. All water bodies were in areas where Bd has been documented from neighboring, lower-elevation areas. We targeted areas lacking amphibians because existence of Bd independent of amphibians would have both ecologic and management implications. We did not detect Bd, which supports the hypothesis that it does not live independently of amphibians. However, assuming a detection sensitivity of 59.5% (based on sampling of water where amphibians tested positive for Bd), we only had 95% confidence of detecting Bd if it was in > or =16% of our sites. Further investigation into potential abiotic reservoirs is needed, but our results provide a strategic step in determining the distributional and environmental limitations of Bd in our study region.

  8. Fluid inclusion studies of calcite veins from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Tuffs: Environment of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedder, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Whelan, J.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Vaniman, D.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Calcite vein and vug fillings at four depths (130-314m), all above the present water table in USW G-1 bore hole at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, contain primary fluid inclusions with variable vapor/liquid raitos: Most of these inclusions are either full of liquid or full of vapor. The liquid-filled inclusions show that most of the host calcite crystallized from fluids at <100{degrees}C. The vapor-filled inclusions provide evidence that a separate vapor phase was present in the fluid during crystallization. Studies of these vapor-filled inclusions on the microscope crushing stage were interpreted in an earlier paper as indicating trapping of an air-water-CO{sub 2} vapor phase at ``<100{degrees}C``. Our new studies reveal the additional presence of major methane in the vapor-filled inclusion, indicating even lower temperatures of trapping, perhaps at near-surface temperatures. They also show that the host calcite crystals grew from a flowing film of water on the walls of fractures open to the atmosphere, the vapor-filled inclusions representing bubbles that exsolved from this film onto the crystal surface.

  9. Landslide detection using LiDAR data and data mining technology: Ali Mountain Highway case study (Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan mountains are severely affected each year by landslides, rock falls, and debris flows where the roads system suffer the most critical consequences. Among all mountain highways, Ali Highway, located into the main entrance of Alishan Mountain region, is one of the most landslide-prone areas in southern Taiwan. During the typhoon season, between May and August, the probability of occurrence of mass movements is at higher level than usual seeing great erosion rates. In fact, during Typhoon Morakot, in 2009, the intense rainfall caused abrupt interruption of the circulation for three months triggering several landslides (Liu et al. 2012). The topographic features such as slope, roughness and curvature among others have been extracted from 1 m DTM derived by a LiDAR dataset (collected in 2015) to investigate the slope failures along the Ali Mountain Highway. The high-resolution DTM highlighted that the hydrogeomorphological (e.g. density of stream, the distance from the ridge and terrain) features are one of the most influencing factors affecting the change and the instability of the slopes. To detect the landslide area, the decision tree classifier and the random forest algorithm (RF) have been adopted. The results provided a suitable analysis of the area involved in the failure. This will be a useful step in the understanding (and management) landslide processes of study area. References Liu CN, Dong JJ, Chen CJ, Lee WF (2012) Typical landslides and related mechanisms in Ali Mountain highway induced by typhoon Morakot: Perspectives from engineering geology. Landslides 9:239-254.

  10. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS scene 1085-17294 of the Big Horn region has been subjected to detailed structural analysis. Band 7 is particularly good for revealing structural and drainage patterns because of enhance topographic detail and the subdued vegetational contrasts. Considerable stereo coverage through sidelap with adjoining scenes adds to the effectiveness of the study and has been used on both positive transparencies and enlarged prints. Negative prints of Band 7 positive transparencies have proven to be much more useful than positive prints because the higher resolution of the positive transparencies can be maintained. The Bighorn Mountains are crisscrossed by a number of prominent topographic linears, most of which can be correlated with known fault and shear zones in the Precambrian crystalline core. Many of these do not appear to continue into the flanking sedimentary rocks and a few that do (Tensleep, Tongue River lineaments) are very difficult to trace farther out into the basins. The Tongue River lineament, long a source of speculation and uncertainty as to its existence, appears as a very prominent discontinuity in the imagery.

  11. Study on energy consumption evaluation of mountainous highway based on LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Lunlin; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Yongqing

    2017-06-01

    For the system to understand the road construction energy consumption process, this paper selects a typical mountainous highway in the south, using the theory and method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantitatively study the energy consumption of the whole process of highway raw materials production, construction and operation. The results show that the energy consumption in the raw material production stage is the highest, followed by the highway operation and construction stage. The energy consumption per unit of tunnel engineering, bridge engineering, roadbed engineering and pavement engineering in the construction phase are 2279.00 tce, 1718.07 tce, 542.19 tce and 34.02 tce, and in operational phase, 85.44% of electricity consumption comes from tunnel ventilation and lighting. Therefore, in the bridge and tunnel construction process, we should promote energy-saving innovation of the construction technology and mechanical equipment, and further strengthen the research and development of tunnel ventilation, lighting energy-saving equipment and intelligent control technology, which will help significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the life cycle of highway.

  12. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  13. A Palaeoenvironmental contribution to the study of trashumance in the Gredos Mountain Range (Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Sáez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Avilan sector of the Gredos Mountain Range represents one of the Iberian Peninsula’s most valuable cultural landscapes. From Prehistory to the present, the importance of trashumance in this region has played a key role in shaping its ecosystyems. Using pollen analysis to examine historical transformations in the region’s ecology, both those engendered by human activity and those relating to palaeoclimatic dynamics, this paper examines the diachronic evolution of the vegetation of the Serranillos Mountain Pass during the Late Holocene.

  14. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  15. Climate change and socio-ecological transformation in high mountains: an empirical study of Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Vishwambhar Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate change, as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive. The main objectives of this study are to examine socio-ecological transformations and to illustrate the major driving forces - climate change, education and waves of modern civilization - in the Garhwal Himalaya. Data on socio-ecological systems and their patterns of change were accumulated from primary and secondary sources and through participatory rural appraisal. We present a case study where household level surveys were conducted in two villages. A total of 37 households were surveyed. Additionally, marginal farmers and extension workers were interviewed. Questions on population, migration, cropping pattern and livestock were answered by the head of the surveyed households. Population size was decreasing due to out-migration. The whole Garhwal region experienced 15.3% out-migration, while migration from the two villages was observed at 50% during the period 1990-2014. Similarly, changes in land use and cropping patterns and in the livestock population were observed. There was a decrease in the extent of land under cereals (24% and fruits (79%, a decrease in fruit production (75%, and a decrease in the number of livestock (76%. Climate change was observed as a major driver of the decrease in production and productivity of cereals and fruits, leading to land abandonment. Education, on the other hand, was a major driver of out-migration. Further, extreme events through climate change happened more frequently and changed the landscape. This study reveals that an increase in infrastructural facilities to create jobs and sustainable land management can control out-migration and can enhance land capability.

  16. Community Cognition Investigation and Research on Tourists Disaster of Mountain Tourism-taking Taibai Moutain as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Jian-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study focus on the community cognition to disasters of tourism taking the disasters frequently happens in Taibai Mountains as the case. The research covers people’s cognition in tourist destination, which is closely related to the development and the economy in tourism. The age, education, occupation, income and the degree of relation to the tourism are also the important factors. The cognition of the community is the disasters influence, the disasters avoidance, the disasters ...

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  18. NDVI from Landsat 8 Vegetation Indices to Study Movement Dynamics of Capra Ibex in Mountain Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotti, F.; Parraga, M. A.; Stuaro, E.; Dubbini, M.; Masiero, A.; Ramanzin, M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyse the correlation between the spatial positions of Capra ibex (mountain goat) on an hourly basis and the information obtained from vegetation indices extracted from Landsat 8 datasets. Eight individuals were tagged with a collar with a GNSS receiver and their position was recorded every hour since the beginning of 2013 till 2014 (still ongoing); a total of 16 Landsat 8 cloud-free datasets overlapped that area during that time period. All images were brought to a reference radiometric level and NDVI was calculated. To assess behaviour of animal movement, NDVI values were extracted at each position (i.e. every hour). A daily "area of influence" was calculated by spatially creating a convex hull perimeter around the 24 points relative to each day, and then applying a 120 m buffer (figure 4). In each buffer a set of 24 points was randomly chosen and NDVI values again extracted. Statistical analysis and significance testing supported the hypothesis of the pseudo-random NDVI values to be have, in average, lower values than the real NDVI values, with a p value of 0.129 for not paired t test and p value of test. This is still a first study which will go more in depth in near future by testing models to see if the animal movements in different periods of the year follow in some way the phenological stage of vegetation. Different aspects have to be accounted for, such as the behaviour of animals when not feeding (e.g. resting) and the statistical significance of daily distributions, which might be improved by analysing broader gaps of time.

  19. History of the Army Ground Forces. Study Number 24. History of the Mountain Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-01-01

    original stqU Is cc¢pjClt•d-b him as a Captain while on 4 temporary duty at Headquarlera, Amy Grond Rovatea fx = 7 May to 30 Mai 1944. In civilian life...the -)urtry, but mainly from the New England area. The Mountain Troops soon lost their parely Western makeup and began to assume a definite Yankee

  20. Does Agrotourism Benefit Mountain Farmers? A Case Study in Phu Ruea District, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanlaya Choenkwan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism is widely advocated as a useful strategy to develop mountain agriculture and improve farmers’ income and quality of life. However, the relationship between agriculture and tourism is complex, and the extent to which tourism benefits farmers remains uncertain. This paper examines the relationship between agriculture and tourism and assesses to what extent agrotourism benefits farmers in Phu Ruea district, a popular tourist destination in the mountains of northeast Thailand. The Phu Ruea agrotourism system generated gross income for the district of almost US$ 16 million in 2014. About 80% of this income came from sales from specialty-crop farms and of tourism services operated by the households of local farms. The agrotourism system also created many employment opportunities for local people. There were 1500 people directly involved in the system, 90% of whom were farmers or members of farm households. Thus, there is no doubt that many local farmers derive significant benefits from their involvement in the agrotourism system. Although the Phu Ruea agrotourism system can be seen as a successful strategy for developing mountain agriculture, agrotourism is not a magic strategy to solve all the problems of rural development in the mountains. Only some localities are attractive to tourists, and only some farmers have the knowledge, skills, and resources to take advantage of the opportunities offered by tourism.

  1. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  2. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  3. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  4. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  5. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  6. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  7. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  8. Geostatistical and Stochastic Study of Flow and Transport in the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting

    2007-08-14

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain’s unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated

  9. Scientific Knowledge and Knowledge Needs in Climate Adaptation Policy: A Case Study of Diverse Mountain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruska Muccione

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems around the world are recognized to be among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The need to develop sound adaptation strategies in these areas is growing. Knowledge from the natural sciences has an important role to play in the development of adaptation strategies. However, the extent of and gaps in such knowledge have not been systematically investigated for mountain areas. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge from natural science disciplines and research needs relevant to the national and subnational climate adaptation policies of 1 US state (Washington and 7 countries (Austria, Bhutan, Colombia, Germany, Nepal, Peru, and Switzerland, in particular the elements of those policies focused on mountain areas. In addition, we asked key individuals involved in drafting those policies to answer a short questionnaire. We found that research needs mainly concern impact and vulnerability assessments at regional and local levels, integrated assessments, and improved climate and socioeconomic data. These needs are often related to the challenges to data coverage and model performance in mountainous areas. In these areas, the base data are often riddled with gaps and uncertainties, making it particularly difficult to formulate adaptation strategies. In countries where data coverage is less of an issue, there is a tendency to explore quantitative forms of impact and vulnerability assessments. We highlight how the knowledge embedded in natural science disciplines is not always useful to address complex vulnerabilities in coupled human and natural systems and briefly refer to alternative pathways to adaptation in the form of no-regret, flexible, and adaptive management solutions. Finally, in recognition of the trans- and interdisciplinary nature of climate change adaptation, we raise the question of which knowledge production paradigms are best able to deliver sustainable adaptations to growing environmental

  10. Modelling distributed mountain glacier volumes: A sensitivity study in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Fischer, Andrea; Otto, Jan Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about the spatial ice thickness distribution in glacier covered mountain regions and the elevation of the bedrock underneath the glaciers yields the basis for numerous applications in geoscience. Applications include the modelling of glacier dynamics, natural risk analyses and studies on mountain hydrology. Especially in recent times of accelerating and unprecedented changes of glacier extents, the remaining ice volume is of interest regarding future glacier and sea level scenarios. Subglacial depressions concern because of their hazard potential in case of sudden releases of debris or water. A number of approaches with different level of complexity have been developed in the past years to infer glacier ice thickness from surface characteristics. Within the FUTURELAKES project, the ice thickness estimation method presented by Huss and Farinotti (2012) was applied to all glaciers in the Austrian Alps based on glacier extents and surface topography corresponding to the three Austrian glacier inventories (1969 - 1997 - 2006) with the aim to predict size and location of future proglacial lakes. The availability of measured ice thickness data and a time series of glacier inventories of Austrian glaciers, allowed carrying out a sensitivity study of the key parameter, the apparent mass balance gradient. First, the parameters controlling the apparent mass balance gradient of 58 glaciers where calibrated glacier-wise with the aim to minimize mean deviations and mean absolute deviations to measured ice thickness. The results were analysed with respect to changes of the mass balance gradient with time. Secondly, we compared the observed to modelled ice thickness changes. For doing so, glacier-wise as well as regional means of mass balance gradients have been used. The results indicate that the initial values for the apparent mass balance gradient have to be adapted to the changing conditions within the four decades covered by the glacier inventories. The gradients

  11. Formal Education on the White Mountain Apache Reservation; Report of a Self-Study Conference. The National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 25, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ned; Chilcott, John H.

    In one phase of the National Study of American Indian Education, local Indian communities were encouraged to conduct their own self-studies of American Indian education. In keeping with this, a conference was held to determine the attitudinal responses of White Mountain Apaches (aged 20-48) to the following general topics concerning Indian…

  12. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WINTER TOURISM IN THE ORIENTAL CARPATHIANS. CASE STUDY: HARGHITA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of weather conditions for winter tourism development in the Eastern Carpathians. Case Study: Harghita Mountains. In the context of the ongoing global and regional climate change debates, the present study intends to analyze the impact these changes have on winter tourism development in the Harghita Mountains. With a maximum altitude of 2545 m, a complex structure of the underlying surface responsible fo r local climatic particularities, as well as for a wide range of complex and elementary topoclimates, the Romanian alpine zone has a moderate potential for the development of winter sports. Our objectives consist of making correlations between annual average temperatures and the average thickness of snow, between the years 1961 and 2000, in three resorts (Bãile Tuşnad, Bãile Harghita and Homorod. In certain cases, the ski slopes’ locations were not correlated with site-specific topoclimate conditions - in such a situation, equally affected are both the users and the owners of the establishment and last but not least, the natural ecosystems they overlap. The study aims to draw attention to development opportunities for winter tourism in the Harghita Mountains area, located west of the Eastern Carpathians. At present, the Harghita Mountains are mainly exploited locally, despite having important winter sports-related assets. From November to April, in Bãile Harghita, Bãile Tuşnad and Bãile Homorod, located in the south-east and south-west of this mountainous area, there is a consistent snow cover on numerous slopes of various inclinations and orientations. The methods that were used in this study aim to determine the average dates of occurrence of the first and last layers of snow and therefore the average annual snow cover interval in the study area. The results show that there is untapped natural potential related to the average and maximum levels of snow thickness and to the number of days with snow-covered ground

  13. A radiographic study of permanent molar development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas of known chronological age from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralick, Alexandra E; Loring Burgess, M; Glowacka, Halszka; Arbenz-Smith, Keely; McGrath, Kate; Ruff, Christopher B; Chan, King Chong; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoinski, Tara S; Bromage, Timothy G; Mudakikwa, Antoine; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2017-05-01

    While dental development is important to life history investigations, data from wild known-aged great apes are scarce. We report on the first radiographic examination of dental development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas, using known-age skeletal samples recovered in Rwanda. In 43 individuals (0.0-14.94 years), we collected radiographs of mandibular molars, and where possible, cone beam CT scans. Molar crown and root calcification status was assessed using two established staging systems, and age prediction equations generated using polynomial regression. Results were compared to available data from known-age captive and wild chimpanzees. Mountain gorillas generally fell within reported captive chimpanzee distributions or exceeded them, exhibiting older ages at equivalent radiographic stages of development. Differences reflect delayed initiation and/or an extended duration of second molar crown development, and extended first and second molar root development, in mountain gorillas compared to captive chimpanzees. However, differences in the duration of molar root development were less evident compared to wild chimpanzees. Despite sample limitations, our findings extend the known range of variation in radiographic estimates of molar formation timing in great apes, and provide a new age prediction technique based on wild specimens. However, mountain gorillas do not appear accelerated in radiographic assessment of molar formation compared to chimpanzees, as they are for other life history traits. Future studies should aim to resolve the influence of species differences, wild versus captive environments, and/or sampling phenomena on patterns observed here, and more generally, how they relate to variation in tooth size, eruption timing, and developmental life history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Structural and Geomorphic Controls in Altitudinal Treeline: a Case Study in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines occur on mountain slopes. The geological history of mountain systems sets both the distribution of slope angles, aspects and lengths, and the physical characteristics of the bedrock and regolith on which trees have to establish and grow. We show that altitudinal treeline is largely controlled at an ecosystem level by structural and slope (i.e. gravitational) geomorphic processes operating at a range of temporal and spatial scales, which have direct influence on the hydrological properties of the substrate (affecting the trees’ water and energy budget), as well as on substrate stability, both of which affect recruitment and growth of trees. The study was conducted over a relatively large area of > 200 km2 in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, selected to contain the regional diversity of slopes and substrates, which is the result of hundreds of millions of years of sea deposition, subsequent mountain building, and deep erosion by glaciations. Very high-resolution remote sensing data (LiDAR), aerial orthophotos taken at several times since the late 1940s, and ground truthing were employed to classify the terrain into process-based geomorphic units. High resolution, landscape-scale treeline studies are able avoid potential biases in site selection (i.e. selection of sites that are not representative of the overall regional treeline), and consequently capture the coupling between trees and the environment at an ecosystem (regional) level. Moreover, explicitly accounting for slope and substrate-related processes occurring in the studied mountain region is paramount in order to understand the dynamics of trees at their altitudinal distribution limit. Presence of trees in each unit was found to be controlled by a set of parameters relevant to both hydrological and slope processes, such as contributing area, slope angle, regolith transmissivity, and aspect. Our results show no treeline advance over the last 60 years in the region, as

  15. Absolute Paleointensity Study of Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiman, A.; Bowles, J.

    2014-12-01

    Unoriented samples from the ~12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon (TC) tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada are studied in terms of magnetic properties and geomagnetic paleointensity. The magnetic mineralogy and magnetic properties of the TC tuff have previously been well documented, and the remanence-carrier in ~15-m thick zones at the top and bottom of the unit is dominantly is single domain (SD) to superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite, which may be considered ideal for absolute paleointensity studies. Among one of the several episodic volcanic eruptions of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field (SWNVF), the welded TC tuff belongs to the Paintbrush Group. Here we present magnetic properties from two previously unreported sections of the TC tuff, as well as Thellier-type absolute paleointensity estimates. Samples were collected from the lower ~7 m at the base of the flow. Magnetic properties studied include hysteresis, bulk magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent susceptibility, and anhysteretic remanent magnetization acquisition. Magnetic property results are consistent with earlier work, showing that the main magnetic mineral is magnetite. SP samples are dominant from the lower ~1 m to ~3.6 m basal unit while the middle unit of ~3.7 m to 7.0 m mainly consists of SD samples. The paleointensity results are closely tied to the stratigraphic height and magnetic properties linked to domain state. The SD samples have consistent absolute paleointensity values 32.40±0.22 uT, VADM 5.74*1022 A.m2 and behaved ideally during paleointensity experiments. The SP samples have consistently higher paleointensity and less ideal behavior, but would likely pass many traditional quality-control tests. Since the magnetite has been interpreted to form by precipitation out of the glass post-emplacement, but at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature, we tentatively interpret the SD remanence to be a primary thermal remanent magnetization and the paleointensity result to be a valid estimate of

  16. Study of the lithology, petrology and rock chemistry for the Pyramid Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Rock and soil samples were collected at 24 sites within the Pyramid Mountains of southwestern New Mexico. The site locations are specified as 10-acre plots within the Section, Township, and Range land survey system. Hand specimen are described. The specimen were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. The technique is designed to obtain good analysis for silica. The other elements are run so that matrix factor logic can be used to adjust the silica intensities, and to compensate for the element interaction.

  17. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ŢARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Török – Oance

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in Ţarcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

  18. Redistribution of Snowfall across a Mountain Range by Artificial Seeding: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, P V; Radke, L F

    1973-09-14

    Clouds over the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains were artificially seeded to reduce the riming and fall speeds of snow crystals and to divert snowfall across the crest. Aircraft observations showed that the clouds were glaciated by the seeding. The crystal habits and the degrees of riming of snow crystals reaching the target area were modified. Snowfall rates decreased at the crest and simultaneously increased 20 kilometers east of the crest.

  19. A Study of the Time–Space Evolution Characteristics of Urban–Rural Integration Development in a Mountainous Area Based on ESDA-GIS: The Case of the Qinling-Daba Mountains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The multi-index comprehensive evaluation method is used in this paper to estimate the urban–rural integration development level of the Qinling-Daba Mountains in China and build an evaluation index system that is composed by five subsystems and 18 basic indexes. The integration of the indexes is conducted through linear weight sum method and the weight of each index is determined through analytic network process to get the urban–rural integration development coordination indexes of each county in the Qinling-Daba Mountains. Meanwhile, the time–space evolution characteristic of urban–rural integration development in the Qinling-Daba Mountains in the past 10 years is studied through exploratory spatial data analysis and GIS technology. The results indicate that urban–rural integration displays a spatial imbalance, with a situation of polarization, i.e., high–level counties gathering with each other; the spatial aggregation rule of west–high, east–low is coupled with land conditions, industrial activity, and the transportation situation to affect the urban–rural development. Finally, we propose that development priorities should be circular industry, eco-agriculture, and tourism to accelerate urban–rural development and work towards a comprehensive modern transportation system and other infrastructure in the Qinling-Daba Mountains.

  20. Hydrogeological studies in high mountains karst environment: the example of Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Mónica; Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sanchez, Montserrat; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination due their high infiltration coefficient, elevated hydraulic conductivity, high speed of circulation, and very low self-purification capacities. The functioning of that type of aquifer is quite complicated by the high heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst and the presence of three different types of porosity. It is necessary to understand the functioning of a karst aquifer in order to protect and manage them properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop working methods to establish the aquifer hydrodynamics, especially in high mountain areas with many methodological constrains (e. g. difficulty to access). The Picos de Europa karst aquifer, located in theNational Park of Picos de Europa (North Spain), presents a high environmental, geomorphological and hydrogeological value; it is included in the "Spanish geological contexts with global relevance" by the Law of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity of Spain, being considered as a Global Geosite by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. In addition, the karst massif is included in several figures of environmental protection, both at global and national levels. Hydrogeological and geomorphological research is developed together in this area under the GEOCAVE project (MAGRAMA-580/12 OAPN) and the "Investigación hidrogeológica en las masas de agua subterránea 012.014 Picos de Europa-Panes y 012.018 Alto Deva-Alto Cares. (IGME-73.3.00.41.00/2013)". The aim of this study is to characterize the hydrodynamics of the karst aquifer, considering the snow as an important component of the aquifer recharge. The proposed methodology includes the installation of an integrated pressure sensor and data logger for level and temperature measurement in two karst spring related to two groundwater bodies (GWB) with 86 and 14 km2 extension. The store of data to regular intervals with punctual values of discharge measures has provided, at least, an annual series of data in

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  2. Population level determinants of acute mountain sickness among young men: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Haiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1

  3. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Factors Associated with Psychological Distress in Mountain Exercisers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niedermeier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.

  4. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  5. Lake Sediment Particle Size Analysis for Holocene Paleoenvironmental Study of Steens Mountain, Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.; Hatfield, R. G.; Konyndyk, D.; Abbott, M. B.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Hillman, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better understand climate trends in the late Pleistocene and Holocene in southeast Oregon, we present a sedimentological analysis of Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon. Fish Lake (42° 44' 15" N, 118° 38' 57" W, 2,246.7 m) sits on the west slope of Steens Mountain, a fault-block mountain of Miocene basalt, adjacent to a glacial moraine. The present environment is high desert with sub alpine steppe vegetation, receiving approximately 12" of precipitation annually. The lake was cored in August 2013 with a series of overlapping drives, correlated by six distinct tephra and magnetic susceptibility. The composite section provides a 7.5 m continuous record of at least the last 13 ka, constrained by an age model built with 13 terrestrial macrofossil 14C dates. The recovered sediments, consisting of fine terrigenous and biogenous material in varying proportions, were analyzed with computed tomography (CT) scans, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) scans, magnetic measurements, loss on ignition (LOI), and sediment grain-size. CT and LOI data reveal a low density, high organic interval in the early Holocene ( 8.5-11 ka) with relatively coarse and well-sorted grain-size, suggesting an extended period of low lake level and low precipitation. Sediment grain-sizes are variable through the middle and late Holocene with high amplitude longer period features from 3 ka to the present. We investigate these grain-size fluctuations in the context of regional Holocene records.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  8. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  9. Eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in Hainan, China: a study on the use of behavioural change communication intervention to promote malaria prevention in mountain worker populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chang-hua; Hu, Xi-min; Wang, Guang-ze; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Ding-wei; Li, Yu-chun; Chen, Chun-xiang; Du, Jian-wei; Wang, Shan-qing

    2014-07-13

    In the island of Hainan, the great majority of malaria cases occur in mountain worker populations. Using the behavioral change communication (BCC) strategy, an interventional study was conducted to promote mountain worker malaria prevention at a test site. This study found the methods and measures that are suitable for malaria prevention among mountain worker populations. During the Plasmodium falciparum elimination stage in Hainan, a representative sampling method was used to establish testing and control sites in areas of Hainan that were both affected by malaria and had a relatively high density of mountain workers. Two different methods were used: a BCC strategy and a conventional strategy as a control. Before and after the intervention, house visits, core group discussions, and structural surveys were utilized to collect qualitative and quantitative data regarding mountain worker populations (including knowledge, attitudes, and practices [KAPs]; infection status; and serological data), and these data from the testing and control areas were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of BCC strategies in the prevention of malaria. In the BCC malaria prevention strategy testing areas, the accuracy rates of malaria-related KAP were significantly improved among mountain worker populations. The accuracy rates in the 3 aspects of malaria-related KAP increased from 37.73%, 37.00%, and 43.04% to 89.01%, 91.53%, and 92.25%, respectively. The changes in all 3 aspects of KAP were statistically significant (p 0.05). Furthermore, in the testing areas, both the percentage testing positive in the serum malaria indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the number of people inflicted decreased more significantly than in the control sites (p mountain workers in Hainan to avoid malarial infection. Educational and promotional materials and measures were developed and selected in the process, and hands-on experience was gained that will help achieve the goal of total malaria

  10. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...... medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  11. Debate heats up over potential Interim Nuclear Waste Repository, as studies of Yucca Mountain continue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With spent nuclear fuel piling up at power plants around the United States, and with a potential permanent nuclear waste repository at Nevada's Yucca Mountain not scheduled to accept waste until 11 years from now in the year 2010, the nuclear energy industry and many members of Congress have renewed their push to establish an interim repository at the adjacent Nevada Test Site of nuclear bombs.At a sometimes contentious March 12 hearing to consider the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1999 (House Resolution 45) that would require an interim facility to begin accepting waste in 2003, bill cosponsor Rep. Jim Barton (R-Tex.) told Energy Secretary Bill Richardson that he preferred that Congress and the Clinton Administration negotiate rather than fight over the measure.

  12. [Study on spatio-temporal pattern of mountainous Oncomelania hupensis snails at village scale in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning-bo; Yang, Kun; Shi, Xue-wen; Li, Hong-jun; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Dong, Xing-qi

    2014-04-01

    To develop a spatio-temporal model of mountainous Oncomelania hupensis snails based on the Bayesian model, and to analyze and identify the spatio-temporal pattern at a village scale. The data including the intensity and spatial distribution of live and infected snails from 2000 to 2006 and the village boundary were collected. The independent and interactive spatio-temporal models were established, and then the best fitness model was selected to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of live and infected snails. The interactive model of live snails and the independent model of infected snails were relative fitness models, and the models showed 95% CI (confidence interval) of the spatial and temporal coefficient included zero, and indicated that the spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected snails was not significant at a village scale. There is no significant spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected mountainous snails at a village scale, and the furthermore study should be carried out at a small scale.

  13. Studies on sleep status of plateau garrison troops and chronic mountain sickness: A correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-lin ZHOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the sleep status of troops stationed in highland areas, and approach its correlation with chronic mountain sickness (CMS. Methods Stratified-random sampling method was employed and 956 male soldiers stationed in plateau for more than 6 consecutive months were selected from a garrison troops as the study objects (plateau group, and 587 male soldiers from the same garrison troops stationed at plain areas without any experience of highland garrison were selected as the control group. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was employed to collect the sleep status of the soldiers and CMS symptom questionnaire combined with physiological parameters was adopted to determine the existence of CMS and its severity. Physiological parameters and PSQI scores were studied and compared between soldiers in the plateau group as well as its two subgroups (healthy subgroup and CMS subgroup and those in the control group. Correlation analysis between PSQI and CMS scores and physiological parameters, as well as between PSQI of sleep quality and CMS scores of soldiers stationed at plateau were carried out. Differences of PSQI scores and physiological parameters among the three CMS subgroups (healthy subgroup, mild subgroup and moderate and severe subgroup were analyzed. Results The systolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR and hemoglobin (Hb concentration were significantly higher (P<0.05, while the oxyhemoglobin (SpO2 was significantly lower in plateau group than in control group (P<0.05. All the PSQI scores were higher in plateau group than in control group (P<0.05. Among the soldiers in plateau group, the SBP, HR, SpO2 and Hb concentration were significantly higher in those of healthy subgroup and the CMS subgroup than those in the control group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the diastolic blood pressure (DBP was significantly higher in soldiers of the CMS subgroup than those in the control group (P<0.05. Except for the index of sleep medication

  14. Study on tourist carrying capacity of sustainable tourism---by taking Qingliang Mountain in the south-eastern china as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shenglang; Liu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzed measurable problems of tourist carrying capacity and then studied the corresponding measures by adopting theories and methods of environment sciences. Tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain was studied by analyzing the system of tourism environment capacity. The results showed that the level of service was 9726, which was smaller than the ecological carrying capacity of 12894. The facilities and spatial capacity were identified as key factors to limit the tourist carrying capacity in Qingliang Mountain. Some advices and measures including newly built and rebuilt basic facilities, construction of management methods for slack and peak tourist season respectively, construction of new sight spot and touring path were discussed to improve the tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain and solve the problems of overloading of tourists in the peak season.

  15. Hydraulics and morphology of mountain rivers; literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, J.

    1993-01-01

    Present knowledge on fluvial processes in mountain rivers should be expanded to enable the development of projects dealing with mountain rivers or mountain-river catchment areas. This study reviews research on hydraulic and morphological features of mountain rivers. A major characteristic of

  16. Proposal for definition of mountain and under-mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Navrátil

    2005-01-01

    Spatial definitions of study areas for specific projects are of crucial importance for these projects. It is necessary to come out from the aims of the project for spatial definition of mountain and under-mountain areas in South- Bohemian Region. There are many ways of solution and the definition should be strictly connected with the structured goals of this project. The methods and usage of criteria for definition of study areas will depend on aim identification. There are several possibilit...

  17. STUDIES UPON VALORISATION OF NONCONVENTIONAL GREEN ENERGY GENERATED FROM INTEGRATED SYSTEM IN THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF FAGARAS MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil GRECU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies of wooden installations which use the power of water flows for electric power generation and for other industrial activities. This paper focuses on the historical context as well by identifying the places where wooden installations have worked since the 15th century, in the Fagaras Mountains foothills, on the Berivoi River valley, by using the power of water flows for timber production activities, fulling mills and mills. The paper also aims through the archaeological sites which contain important material and highlight the traditions of the Romanian nation around these places and the development of these old craft techniques from ancient times. Apart the identification of these sites (which are not found on any map, other places with hydropower potential are rediscovered, and by using some low investments, they may become centres to produce electricity needed for holiday dwellings, guesthouses, agricultural and livestock facilities located far away from the power station. The implementation of 'green energy' which generates systems by using wood installations as mechanical subsystems of water flow energy conversion, in combination with modern subsystems of conversion, storage and transport, as well as the development of some integrated modules (hydroelectric, photovoltaic and eoalian represent the optimal solution that contribute to the development of foothill areas, in the context of promotion of the Romanian traditional spirituality and the development of sustainable programs. This paper proposes solutions to promote the small hydroelectric power stations on the watercourses of mountains and foothills regions by using fractions of minimum water flows thereof, of maintaining a water flow on the main valley as well, so as the aquatic fauna permanently regenerate, and to protect the specificity of the environment and of the surrounding areas. The studies were referred to Berivoi River valley from the northern part of

  18. Evaluating Satellite Products for Precipitation Estimation in Mountain Regions: A Case Study for Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarendra Lakhankar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation in mountain regions is often highly variable and poorly observed, limiting abilities to manage water resource challenges. Here, we evaluate remote sensing and ground station-based gridded precipitation products over Nepal against weather station precipitation observations on a monthly timescale. We find that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B-43 precipitation product exhibits little mean bias and reasonable skill in giving precipitation over Nepal. Compared to station observations, the TRMM precipitation product showed an overall Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.49, which is similar to the skill of the gridded station-based product Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE. The other satellite precipitation products considered (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP, the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS were less skillful, as judged by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, and, on average, substantially underestimated precipitation compared to station observations, despite their, in some cases, higher nominal spatial resolution compared to TRMM. None of the products fully captured the dependence of mean precipitation on elevation seen in the station observations. Overall, the TRMM product is promising for use in water resources applications.

  19. Exploring the Mythological and Religious Value of Geoheritage. Case Study: The Bucegi Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA-MARIA NECHES

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two of the cultural values of g eoheritage: the mythological and the religious value, while introducing Omu peak and Ial omi ţ a cave, two natural destinations located within the Bucegi Mountains of Romania’s Southern Ca rpathians. Although mythology and religion share common aspects, it is necessary to d istinguish them. Mythology emerged in ancient times as a way of explaining the physical world, wher eas religion characterizes an upper stage in the evolution of mankind. Mythology is reduced to s piritual beliefs, while religion is based upon sacred practices to recall and strengthen these bel iefs. The religious value of geoheritage is conditioned by the existence of sacred relics or pl aces of worship close to geological formations. According to the age of these items, the religious value can be either pre-historical or historical. Omu peak has only acquired a mythological value sin ce hypotheses related to its religious value are not confirmed. Ialomi ţ a cave has acquired both a mythological and a relig ious value. In addition to their exploration as close components o f geoheritage, a brief model for their assessment is also introduced. Both steps aim to en courage landform exploitation not only by means of scientific interpretation but also by reve aling and explaining their cultural attributes.

  20. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snezana; Popović, Zorica; Macukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mijatović, Miroslava; Karadzić, Branko; Mitrović, Miroslava; Pavlović, Pavle

    2007-04-20

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the territory of the highest mountain in Central Serbia, Kopaonik, which is characterized by great plant diversity. In total, 83 wild species from 41 families and 96 preparations for use in human therapy were recorded. Among those wild plants which are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, Hypericum perforatum L., Urtica dioica L., Achillea millefolium L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Sambucus nigra L., and Thymus serpyllum L. were particularly highly recommended by the majority of informants as being 'beneficial for all ailments'. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were for treating gastrointestinal ailments (50%), skin injuries and problems (25.6%), followed by respiratory, urinary-genital and cardiovascular problems (20.5%, 20.5%, 19.2%, respectively). Plants with unusual phytotherapeutic uses are Galium verum L. (sedative properties) and Eupatorium cannabinum L. (influenza-like illnesses), while plants with interesting but lesser-known properties include Daphne laureola L. (rheumatism and skin ailments) and Ficaria verna Huds. (tubers for treating haemorrhoids). In addition, 10 wild species used in veterinary medicine, as well as 25 herbs used for human nourishment were noted.

  1. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    , a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed......There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid...

  2. The non-consumptive value of selected marine species at Table Mountain National Park: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study aimed to determine firstly the non-consumptive value of five marine species (whales, the Great White shark, penguins, dolphins and seals and secondly the socio-demographic and behavioural variables that influence willingness to pay to see these species. This was achieved by means of a structured questionnaire survey conducted at Table Mountain National Park, the largest urban national park in South Africa. The data consisted of 319 fully-completed questionnaires. These were analysed using factor analyses and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression analysis. The results showed that the variables influencing willingness to pay differed from species to species, with the largest differences being found in behavioural rather than socio-demographic variables. In showing how much respondents were willing to pay to see the various species and which species they preferred, the results also highlighted the non-consumptive value of the species.

  3. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  4. Installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study report addendum for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-18 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The following report is an addendum to the Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report dated October 1995 (Air Force 1995a). This report and the activities described were undertaken to fulfill the goals and objectives of the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This report includes findings from additional characterization activities conducted in August 1995 at five of 11 Indian Mountain IRP source areas and revisions to RI/FS report conclusions for those source areas.

  5. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  6. Nutritional behaviour and beliefs of ski-mountaineers: a semi-quantitative and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Caroline; Granges, Mélanie; Burtin, Céline; Kayser, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Endurance athletes are advised to optimize nutrition prior to races. Little is known about actual athletes' beliefs, knowledge and nutritional behaviour. We monitored nutritional behaviour of amateur ski-mountaineering athletes during 4 days prior to a major competition to compare it with official recommendations and with the athletes' beliefs. Participants to the two routes of the 'Patrouille des Glaciers' were recruited (A, 26 km, ascent 1881 m, descent 2341 m, max altitude 3160 m; Z, 53 km, ascent 3994 m, descent 4090 m, max altitude 3650 m). Dietary intake diaries of 40 athletes (21 A, 19 Z) were analysed for energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein and liquid; ten were interviewed about their pre-race nutritional beliefs and behaviour. Despite belief that pre-race carbohydrate, energy and fluid intake should be increased, energy consumption was 2416 ± 696 (mean ± SD) kcal · day(-1), 83 ± 17% of recommended intake, carbohydrate intake was only 46 ± 13% of minimal recommended (10 g · kg(-1) · day(-1)) and fluid intake only 2.7 ± 1.0 l · day(-1). Our sample of endurance athletes did not comply with pre-race nutritional recommendations despite elementary knowledge and belief to be compliant. In these athletes a clear and reflective nutritional strategy was lacking. This suggests a potential for improving knowledge and compliance with recommendations. Alternatively, some recommendations may be unrealistic.

  7. Runoff Effect Evaluation of LID through SWMM in Typical Mountainous, Low-Lying Urban Areas: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Luan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding occurs frequently in many regions of China. To reduce the losses caused by urban flooding, sponge city (SPC and low-impact development (LID have been carried out in many Chinese cities. However, urban flooding is influenced by various factors, such as climate, land cover characteristics and nearby river networks, so it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of LID measures. In this study, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM was adopted to simulate historical urban storm processes in the mountainous Fragrance Hills region of Beijing, China. Subsequently, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate how various LID measures (concave greenbelt, permeable pavement, bio-retention, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures influenced urban runoff reduction. The results showed that the LID measures are effective in controlling the surface runoff of the storm events with return periods shorter than five years, in particular, for one-year events. Furthermore, the effectiveness on traffic congestion mitigation of several LID measures (concave greenbelt, vegetative swales, and comprehensive measures was evaluated. However, the effective return periods of storm events are shorter than two years if the effectiveness on traffic congestion relief is considered. In all evaluated aspects, comprehensive measures and concave greenbelts are the most effective, and vegetative swale is the least effective. This indicated that LID measures are less effective for removing ponding from most storm events in a mountainous, low-lying and backward pipeline infrastructure region with pressures from interval flooding and urban waterlogging. The engineering measures including water conservancy projects and pipeline infrastructure construction combined with the non-engineering measures were suggested to effectively control severe urban storms.

  8. The Influence of Environmental Change on Village Safety in Mountain Area: A Case Study of Haucha Village in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Shang; Huang, Wen-Shun; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Yeh, Nai-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Haucha Village is an indigenous tribe of Rukai people in Pingtung County, Taiwan. Due to the difficulty of providing transportation, education, medical services and jobs, residents were migrated from "Kochapongan" to Haucha village by local authorities in 1980. The site of the relocation is located three km away from Haucha. The new residents in Haucha village lived safely and peacefully before 1996. However, Typhoon Herb brought the first debris flow hazard in 1996, and it caused four deaths. Then, several typhoons caused some damage to the village. Recently, Haucha village was destroyed during typhoon Morakot in 2009 when 128 buildings were buried by sediments. In this study, we used historical map, typhoon records, rainfall data, and the change of river bed elevation to determine the environmental change and the safety of Haucha village. Our results show that Haucha village was located on sand bar of Southern Ailiao stream before 1924, and formed a river terrace between 1925~1960 that was 30m higher than the river bed. Local authorities decided to move Rukai people from Kochapongan to Haucha in 1970. After 30 years, the elevation of Haucha village was equal to the river bed, in other words, the village formed a flood plain of Southern Ailiao stream after typhoon Morakot in 2009. The present landscape of Haucha village looks similar to the one 100 years ago. Morphological changes of mountain area is more rapid than plain changes, hence, we should considered larger temporal and spatial scales to evaluate the village`s safety in the mountain area.

  9. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  10. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  11. Effects of air psychrometrics on the exergetic efficiency of a wind farm at a coastal mountainous site – An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2012-01-01

    disregarded meteorological parameters while planning new WFs (Wind Farms), in fact, do play an important role in the farm’s overall exergetic efficiency. The wind potential around a coastal mountainous area was studied based on field measurements. Understanding atmospheric parameters variation appears...

  12. Origin of the waves in ‘A case-study of mesoscale spectra of wind and temperature, observed and simulated’: Lee waves from the Norwegian mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    This note uses SAR images, satellite cloud pictures and point measurements together with simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to identify the origin of the gravity waves over Denmark on 6 November 2006, studied recently. The wave characteristics, concerning their ini...... the Norwegian mountains. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society...

  13. Site productivity and diversity of the Middle Mountain long-term soil productivity study, West Virginia: Pre-experimental site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the impacts of a changing environment and interactions with forest management options for forest resources, including soil, large long-term experiments are required. Such experiments require careful documentation of reference or pre-experimental conditions. This publication describes the Middle Mountain Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) Study,...

  14. Lithium-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite from Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire: A crystal-chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ottolini, L.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of two crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite (1) (K0.32Na0.68)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.83Mn2+0.10Zn 0.06Fe3+1.46Ti0.07) (Si7.88Al0.12)O22[Fu1.15(OH) 0.85] and (2) (K0.25Na0.75)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.84Mn2+0.11Zn 0.05Fe3+1.45Ti0.07)(Si 7.89Al0.11)O22[F1.35(OH) 0.65] from a granitic pegmatite, Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire, have been refined to R indices of 1.5(1.6)% based on 1380(1387) reflections measured with MoK?? X-radiation. The unit cell parameters are (1) a 9.838(4), b 17.991(6), c 5.315(2) A??, 103.78(3)??, V 913.7 A??3 and (2) a 9.832(3), b 17.990(7), c 5.316(3) A??, ?? 103.79(3)??, V 913.2 A??3. Site-scattering refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site in these crystals. The amphibole composition is intermediate between fluor-arfvedsonite and fluor-ferro-leakeite with a small component (???10%) of fluor-ferro-ferri-nybo??ite. These amphibole crystals project into miarolitic cavities in a pegmatitic phase of a riebeckite granite. The early-crystallizing amphibole is close to fluor-ferro-leakeite in composition, but becomes progressively depleted in Li and F as crystals project out into miarolitic cavities; the final amphibole to crystallize is a fibrous Li-poor riebeckite. Li plays a significant role in late-stage fractionation involving the crystallization of alkali amphibole in peralkaline granitic environments.

  15. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Bison Tail Bulb Biopsy and Tissue Necropsy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This is one of...

  16. FY1995 contaminant study proposal : CO-nonpoint source pollution on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution to water bodies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Arsenal). The Service will...

  17. Cave development in an uplifting fold-and-thrust belt: case study of the Tatra Mountains, Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szczygiel Jacek

    2015-01-01

      Detailed structural analysis and geomorphological observations supplemented by the analysis of the distribution of karst conduit directions have been performed in 23 morphologically diverse caves in the Tatra Mountains...

  18. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  19. Annual report on paleoclimate studies for the Yucca Mountain project site characterization conducted by the Desert Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The prospect that Yucca Mountain may become a repository for high-level radionuclides with especially long half-lives means that the intended waste containment area must be well beyond the reach of the hydrologic system for at least ten millennia. Through the integration of several avenues of paleoclimatic proxy data, the authors intend to arrive at definite conclusions regarding rates of change, and extremes and stabilities of past climate regimes. These will in turn lead to rough estimates of: the amounts of rainfall available for recharge during past periods of effectively wetter climate, and the durations and frequencies of recharge periods. The paper gives summaries of the following studies: Late Quaternary and Holocene climate derived from vegetation history and plant cellulose stable isotope records from the Great basin of western North America; Accomplishments of paleofaunal studies, 1993--1994; Geomorphology studies in the Great Basin; Alluvial fan response to climatic change, Buena Vista Valley, central Nevada; Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and chronology of lacustrine deposition in the Fernley Basin, west-central Nevada; Tree-rings, lake chronologies, alluvial sequences and climate--Implications for Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies; Stable isotopic validation studies--Fossil snails; and Late Pleistocene and Holocene eolian activity in the Mojave Desert.

  20. Mechanisms driving the Holocene vegetation and climate dynamics in central Asia: case study - the Altai Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, N.; Tarasov, P.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene vegetation and climate dynamics in the semiarid Mongolian Altai based on the palynological investigation of two sediment cores recovered from Hoton-Nur Lake (48°37'18''N, 88°20'45''E, 2083 m) in 1980 and 2004 (Tarasov et al., 2000, Rudaya et al., in press), suggests that boreal woodland replaced the primarily open landscape of northwestern Mongolia at about 10 kyr BP in response to a increase in precipitation from 200-250 mm/yr to 450-550 mm/yr. A decline of the forest vegetation and a return to a predominance of open vegetation types occurred after 5 kyr BP when precipitation sums dropped dawn to 250-300 mm/yr. This pattern resembles oxygen isotope records of monsoon dynamics from China, demonstrating an abrupt strengthening of the summer monsoon at 12 kyr BP and an associated increase in precipitation and in lake levels between 11 and 8 kyr BP, followed by the stepwise attenuation of the monsoon circulation and climate aridization towards the modern levels. The records from the neighboring areas of Kazakhstan and Russia, situated west and north of Hoton-Nur, demonstrate spatially and temporally different Holocene vegetation and climate histories, indicating that the Altai Mountains as a climate boundary are of pivotal importance for the Holocene environmental history of Central Asia. For example, during the first half of the Holocene the areas west of the Mongolian Altai range was drier than present whereas the areas east of the range was moister than present. A shift towards wetter conditions occurred in the western region only during the second half of the Holocene, when the mid-latitudinal belt, stretching from the Baltic Sea to Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, came under the control of the Atlantic air masses. At the same time conditions of the Mongolian Altai became relatively dry. The pollen records from the northern region, including Russian Altai display two precipitation maxima during past 12 kyr. In line

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF HEAVY METALS DISTRIBUTION (Zn, Pb, Cd, Bi, Cu IN SOME SOILS FROM GIURGEU MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulgariu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of mineralogical and geochemical studies, realized for few soils from Giurgeu Mountains, which have as main purpose the distribution and mobility interpretation of minor elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Bi in studied soil samples. The determination of fixed fractions and mobile fractions weight, at total contents of studied elements, and relative association of these elements with main mineral and organic components of soil samples, was realized on the basis of results obtained by sequential solid/ liquid extraction. The same, we try to use the correlation establish between metallic ions contents, as indicators of mineral paragenesis (the genetic type and formation conditions. The obtained results are agree with the results of similar studies from literature and they, underline of some interesting aspects about of distribution and migration of heavy metals in soils: (1 exist of some selectivity in heavy metals distribution in mineral components from soils, correlated with reciprocals geochemical affinities between speciation forms of metals and mineral components, in a given pedogeochemical context; (2 the heavy metals distribution between solid phases and soil solution are realized in competitive regime, and the inter-phases equilibrium evolution are thermodynamic and kinetics controlled by the solid/ liquid interfaces processes; (3 the fast elementary processes and local fluctuations of physic-chemical parameters are the main factors which controlled the inter-phases transfer ratio and the evolution direction of equilibriums of heavy metals distribution.

  2. LOCAL CONDITIONS AND IMPACTS OF THE AVALANCHES. CASE STUDIES IN REPRESENTATIVE SECTORS WITHIN PIATRA CRAIULUI AND FĂGĂRAȘ MOUNTAINS

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    ANCA MUNTEANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genesis conditions and effects of avalanches. Case studies in representative sectors within Piatra Craiului and Fagars mountains. The present paper aims at investigating the avalanches and their impact on the environment components. Snow avalanches are natural phenomena, which are controlled by the specific features of the mountain realm. They start suddenly due to the combination of meteorological and non-meteorological factors, which make the loose materials (snow, ice, detritus, vegetation or soil collapse or slide down along the slope. In consequence, erosion is increased or facilitated because of the impact they have on the other components of the environment (thalwegs deepening, forest destruction. The distribution of avalanches is hard to be highlighted, because of the inaccessible lands and the adverse meteorological conditions. From this reason, one needs to know their complex features, namely the morphology, vegetation and spatial dynamics of the areas prone to such phenomena. The effects on the environment can be easily identified in the mountain realm, inasmuch as they create typical corridors along the streams crossing the forests. At the same time, however, they have certain effects on the slope deposits, too. These will be further presented with examples for the eastern slope of the Piatra Craiului Mts. and the Suru – Negoiu section in the Făgăraș Mts. These areas are deemed representative for each of the mentioned mountain massifs.

  3. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Louise B; Hellgren, Lars I; Raff, Marianne; Jensen, Søren K; Petersen, Rikke A; Drachmann, Tue; Tholstrup, Tine

    2013-07-10

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589.

  4. Interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous and hilly regions with an integrated strategy: a longitudinal case study in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Zi-Song; Liang, Song; Qiu, Dong-Chuan; Ma, Xiao

    2017-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China. Since 2004, an integrated strategy was developed to control the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. However, the long-term effectiveness of this integrated strategy for the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission remains unknown in the mountainous and hilly regions of China until now. This longitudinal study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy on transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in Sichuan Province from 2005 through 2014. The data regarding replacement of bovines with machines, improved sanitation, access to clean water, construction of public toilets and household latrines, snail control, chemotherapy, and health education were captured from the annual report of the schistosomiasis control programmes in Sichuan Province from 2005 to 2014, and S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails were estimated to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated strategy. During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, a total of 536 568 machines were used to replace bovines, and 3 284 333 household lavatories and 15 523 public latrines were built. Tap water was supplied to 19 116 344 residents living in the endemic villages. A total of 230 098 hm 2 snail habitats were given molluscicide treatment, and 357 233 hm 2 snail habitats received environmental improvements. There were 7 268 138 humans and 840 845 bovines given praziquantel chemotherapy. During the 10-year study period, information, education and communication (IEC) materials were provided to village officers, teachers and schoolchildren. The 10-year implementation of the integrated strategy resulted in a great reduction in S. japonicum infection in humans, bovines and snails. Since 2007, no acute infection was detected, and no schistosomiasis cases or infected bovines were identified since 2012. In addition, the snail habitats reduced by 62.39% in 2014 as compared to that in 2005, and no S

  5. Combining impact sensor field and laboratory flume measurements with other techniques for studying fluvial bedload transport in steep mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja

    2014-08-01

    The timing and rate of fluvial bedload transport are of central importance within sediment budget studies and in many applications in river science and engineering. During the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 detailed field measurements with portable impact sensors as a non-invasive technique for indirectly determining fluvial bedload transport intensity were conducted in two instrumented and supply-limited drainage basin systems (Erdalen and Bødalen) in the fjord landscape in western Norway. Additional field measurements with portable impact sensors were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in selected transport-limited fluvial systems in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. The collected impact sensor field data were calibrated with laboratory flume experiments. The data from the impact sensor field measurements in western Norway and the flume experiments were combined with field data from continuous discharge monitoring, repeated surveys of channel morphometry and sediment texture, particle tracer measurements, Helley-Smith samplings, underwater video filming and biofilm analyses. The combination of methods and techniques applied provides insights into the temporal variability and intensity of fluvial bedload transport in the selected mountain streams: (i) in the transport-limited systems with generally high bedload transport rates during high discharge and with bedload material moving in clusters over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (based on a 1 s measuring interval) provide the opportunity to detect the start and end of bedload transport, thus to identify discharge thresholds for sediment entrainment, and to roughly estimate the intensity and relative intensity of change of bedload transport during the measuring period; (ii) in the supply-limited systems with low bedload transport rates and bedload components moving separately (as single particles) over the impact sensor plates, impact sensor data (with a 1 s measuring interval) allow the detection of the

  6. Initial assessment of recharge areas for large karst springs: a case study from the central Zagros Mountains, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Vardanjani, Hossein; Chitsazan, Manouchehr; Ford, Derek; Karimi, Haji; Charchi, Abbas

    2018-02-01

    Sousan Spring emerges from the Keyno Anticline, Zagros Mountains (Iran), and the mean annual discharge is 24 m3/s. Geological and hydrochemical evaluations suggest that the spring recharge is from the limestone Ilam-Sarvak Formation (Cretaceous) but the Mafaroon Fault, a major thrust feature, influences the regional groundwater flow path by juxtaposing other strata. Geological, geochemical, stable isotope and water balance studies were employed to interpret this behavior. Using the isotope data, the sources and elevations of the recharge area were found. Temporal variations of the isotopic data were compared with variations of electrical conductivity (EC). Unexpectedly, high EC was associated with a relative increase of discharge and depletion of δ18O. Several hypotheses were investigated and approximate water balance studies employed for validation. It was found that an elongated catchment on the Keyno Anticline plus a lesser catchment on a pair of parallel anticlines recharge the aquifer. While the long groundwater flow path along the Keyno Anticline plus guidance by Mafaroon Fault and the adjacent Garou shaly strata lead to increased EC in the Sousan Spring at the end of the dry season, a flow pulse from two adjoining anticlines (Mahalbakh and Shirgoon) arrives at the same time to increase the discharge and deplete the δ18O signal. Apparently the spring did not experience true base flow conditions during the recorded hydrological year. Although the spring response to specific precipitation events was similar to typical karst aquifers, standard interpretation of recession curves and related coefficients will not be practical at Sousan.

  7. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2016-11-01

    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  8. Estimating Bedrock Topography beneath Ice and Sediment Fillings in High Mountain Valleys: Preliminary Results from a Method Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, J.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.; Zeilinger, G.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about the thickness distribution of ice and sediment fillings in high mountain valleys is important for many applications in the fields of Hydrology, Geology, Glaciology, Geohazards and Geomorphology. However, direct geophysical measurements of ice/sediment thickness are laborious and require infrastructure and logistics that is often not available, particularly in remote mountain regions. In the past years, several methods have been developed to approximate the valley fill thicknesses primarily based on digital elevation data. In the case of sediment fillings, the thickness estimates are mostly based on simple morphometric considerations, whereas in the case of ice, more complex methods have been established using glacier mass balance and ice-flow dynamics. In this study we compare three of these methods that have been frequently applied in the past. These include a physically based approach for estimating ice-thickness distribution of valley glaciers using mass fluxes and flow mechanics. Further we adopt a method that uses the prediction capability of artificial neural networks (ANN) and we investigate a method that is based on the extrapolation of the slopes of the valley walls into the subsurface. We set up a test series in which all methods are applied to four glaciers and two sediment-filled valleys in the European Alps. The resulting bedrock topography derived from each method is checked against available ground truth data, comprising ground penetrating radar-, seismic reflection- and borehole measurements. Obviously, the method developed for estimation of ice-thickness is applicable only to the cases where valleys are occupied by ice, whereas the ANN approach and the slope extrapolation method are independent of the sort of valley fill. Thus a direct comparison is restricted to glacier settings. First results show that all methods can qualitatively reconstruct bedrock topography with typical overdeepenings and trough-shaped cross-profiles. Due to

  9. Biogeomorphological effects of leaf accumulations in stepped-bed channels: Exploratory study, Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains, Czech Republic

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    Přibyla Zdeněk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The stepped-bed system, with a step-like longitudinal profile, is typical morphology in steep headwater streams. These systems are created by a series of coarse sediments or instream wood (steps with supercritical flows interspaced with finer material (forming pools with subcritical flows. In the case of well-developed steps and pools, the resulting channel-reach morphology is referred to as “step-pool” morphology. In this study, we identify a previously undescribed type of step-pool formation, the “foliaged step-pool”, in the high-gradient Stoligy Stream of the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains. The defining feature of this formation is the significant presence of leaves in the step structure. The geometry of the steps and pools was measured and the parameters that characterise the distribution, amount and function of leaves acting in these areas were defined. Statistical results showed differences between non-foliaged and foliaged step-pool formations, in which the latter showed a significant increase in storage level, influencing the channel’s hydrodynamics. Particle-size analyses demonstrated that foliaged step-pool formations had finer sediment in the pools, which indicates that there are differences in sediment transport processes between foliaged and non-foliaged formations. These results offer new insights into stepped-bed and step-pool morphology, providing directions for further research on small streams in deciduous forested regions.

  10. State-Led Ecotourism Development and Nature Conservation: a Case Study of the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

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    Jianqiong Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with fiscal constraints and enormous population pressures, 80% of Chinese nature reserves have employed ecotourism as a support and development strategy. Assessing the actual effects of ecotourism at a nature reserve that has a relatively long history of ecotourism development experience may be instructive for other reserves. Therefore, we take Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR in northeastern China as a case study, for it is one of the pioneers in embracing ecotourism in China. Personal interviews and informal group discussions were employed to understand local residents' attitudes toward conservation. Factors affecting their attitudes were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results indicate that attitudes held by most farmers are not favorable toward the conservation of the CMBR. It is not ecotourism but rather income from collection of forest products, household crop lands, and migrant labor that actually influences their attitudes. We found that the 1-day-sightseeing tour style, the limited tourism period, and the low level of education and extreme poverty of the local residents, together with existing institutions and lagging regulations make it very difficult for ecotourism to engender local residents' support. We concluded that institutional measures to guarantee local people's sharing in the revenue generated by the reserve, as well as regulations to ensure involvement of the local community in the decision-making process are preconditions for ecotourism to engender local support in China. Providing educational opportunities for children and vocational training for young local residents can also contribute indirectly to enhanced conservation.

  11. Evaluating the effects of mountain resort development on snowmelt and runoff production: a case study from northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Peral, A.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, significant developments at mountain resorts in northern New England, USA have occurred to maintain competitiveness with western (USA) ski resorts. This development has included expansion of trail networks and snowmaking and development of resort base infrastructure, including housing, retail and amenities. Permitting these developments has posed particular challenges for predicting the effects of development on runoff and water quality. In this study, we describe efforts to model the effects of ski area development on snowmelt and runoff using a distributed rainfall-runoff model. Our test cases include a forested control watershed and an adjacent watershed encompassing a premier New England alpine ski resort. Empirical results from these watersheds show substantial differences in spring snowmelt and annual water yield between the watersheds. We are evaluating the performance of the Distributed Soil Hydrology Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to model snowmelt and runoff from these watersheds in order to assess its utility for predicting changes in runoff associated with resort development. We use distributed snow pack measurements to validate model simulations of snow accumulation and melt. Our results replicate observed patterns of runoff production in the watershed and can be used to test the effects of alternate development schemes on spring stream flow and annual water yield.

  12. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

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    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  13. Reach Scale Studies of Trace Metal Transport in Mountain Streams: Do Wetlands Act as a Sink or a Source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; August, E.; Duren, S.; Wong, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, there are many watersheds containing streams impacted by acid rock and acid mine drainage. These streams typically have high concentrations of dissolved metals and copious amounts of iron and aluminum oxides deposited on the streambed. Remediation of these contaminated streams is challenging because of the remote locations of the abandoned mines and the large amounts of metal oxides potentially generated in treatment of the drainage. Wetlands have the potential to attenuate trace metal transport. We examined retention of metals in an iron-oxide rich wetland near Leadville, CO, which had been receiving mine drainage for almost a century. We found that in the summer, the wetland did have a net retentive effect for most metals studied, limiting input into the adjacent stream, whereas, the wetland was a net source of metals during the winter. Furthermore, during spring snowmelt, the wetland did not retain the large pulse of zinc and iron leached by melting snow on the surrounding tailings piles. In another stream system receiving acid rock drainage, we found that riparian wetlands become sources of metals to the stream under drought conditions, which further exacerbated the metal enrichment associated with lesser snowmelt dilution.

  14. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  15. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  16. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  17. Seasonal and annual variations of mountain glaciers surface velocity, implications for ice dynamic. Case study: Karakorum and Pamir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ugo; Scherler, Dirk; Ayoub, Francois; Malatesta, Luca; Herman, Frederic; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Pamir and Karakorum regions are heavily glaciated and contain some of the largest and fastest mountain glaciers on Earth. Satellite imagery is key to constrain ice dynamics, in particular glacier surface velocities, and sub glacial processes, e.g., basal sliding or glacier erosion, in such large and remote regions. Significant velocity variations have previously been observed in this area and related to forcing by seasonal meltwater and surges mechanisms. However, the details of surges sequences, in particular their initiation and termination, and multiyear seasonal patterns are still poorly documented. Here we study 26 glaciers and quantify surface velocity variations at high temporal resolution from remote sensing. We present a processing strategy to exploit the large archives of optical satellite imagery available for the study area to obtain more than 500 velocity fields with a 16-day temporal resolution from April 2013 to July 2016. Glacier displacement is measured with a 1.5-meter resolution using sub-pixel correlation (COSI-Corr software) of Landsat-8 images. 14 out of the 26 studied glaciers show seasonal velocity variations with inter-annual variability. These glaciers typically accelerate in early spring, up to 150% of the winter velocity, starting in the ablation zone and occasionally propagating upstream. This behaviour supports a meteorological/hydrological forcing with higher velocities caused by an increase in water pressure due to melt water input during spring time. 12 out of the 26 glaciers underwent one sub-annual or multiyear surging event during the study period. The surging events do not follow a unique pattern. Velocity can increase by up 700% over a month, and with an acceleration that initiate anytime of the year. This suggests that surges are initiated by an internal process, e.g., shear heating or basal hydrology, rather than by an external seasonal forcing.

  18. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L

    2016-04-15

    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  19. Studies on ’Macaca mulatta’ Infected with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-10

    demonstrated respiratory alkalosis which was � attributed to fever and induced hyperventilation . Since RMSF in man is generally studied only in scattered...induced hyperventilation . Since RMSF in man is generally studied only in scattered individual cases, it is appropriate to use the rhesus monkey model for...samples were obtained from the femoral artery for blood gas analysis, and from the femoral vein for hematology and serum chemistry. Anesthesia was not

  20. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    antenatal care (ANC are important factors in decreasing maternal mortality rate.  This study aimed to identify the association of ANC to nurse/midwife-assisted birth in Papua.Methods: The subjects of this cross-sectional study and purposive sampling consisted of females with toddlers in the family visiting the integrated community center on 15-30 January 2014 in 24 villages in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. Several demographic characteristics, ANC practices, and labor practices were collected by interview. Analysis was carried out by Cox regression with constant time.Results: There were 469 subjects, but only 391 subjects were available for analysis which consisted of 280 subjects with self/family-assisted births and 111 with nurse/midwife-assistedbirths. There were only 3 subjects that gave birth in the forest or stable (“kandang hina”. Compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC in the integrated community center had 5.6-fold possibility to have a nurse/ midwife-assisted birth [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.99-10.47]. In addition, compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC by midwife and 4 ANC visits had higher possibility to have nurse/midwife-assisted birth, 4.9-fold (RRa = 4.89; 95% CI = 2.70-8.86 and 6.9-fold (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3.59-13.27 respectively.Conclusion: Antenatal care service is a possible way to increase the proportion of deliveries by nurse/midwife in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Key words: antenatal care, nurse/midwife attended birth/labor, Papua

  1. Visual impairment and subsequent use of support services among older people: longitudinal findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Thomas; Mitchell, Paul; Burlutsky, George; Fong, Calvin Sze-Un; Rochtchina, Elena; Wang, Jie Jin

    2013-08-01

    To assess the impact of visual impairment and blindness on the incident use of community support services in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Population-based cohort. Of 3654 baseline participants (1992-1994), 2334, 1952, and 1149 were re-examined after 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Incident visual impairment was defined as subsequent development of visual impairment (visual acuity visual acuity ≥20/40 at baseline. Community support service use included regular use of Meals on Wheels, Home Care, or community nurse services. Informal support included assistance from family or friends. Discrete logistic regression models with time-dependent study and outcome variables were used to assess associations between visual impairment and subsequent use of support, adjusted for potential confounders. Among participants with bilateral visual impairment at baseline, incident use of community services over 5-15 years was 41.7% compared to 19.4% in those without visual impairment at baseline (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-3.60). Persons with incident bilateral visual impairment were more likely to subsequently need community support (odds ratio, 3.32; confidence interval 1.96-5.59) in 5 years, compared to persons without visual impairment during the entire follow-up period. Baseline older age, walking disability, receiving pension, and having 2+ hospital admissions within 12 months were also significantly associated with incident use of support services. Development of bilateral visual impairment in this cohort was associated with greater likelihood of subsequent use of community or informal support services in 5 years, independent of physical comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2017-04-01

    The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.

  3. Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: A study [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton D. Apps

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares are considered the primary prey of Canada lynx throughout their range. Relative to northern populations, hares occurring in mountainous regions at southern latitudes are thought to remain at low and stable densities through time. Hence, the ecology of associated southern lynx populations is expected to resemble that of northern populations during the low...

  4. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  5. Nutrient limitation and microbially mediated chemistry: Studies using tuff inoculum obtained from the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A.; Chen, C.I.; Chuu, Y.J.; Sawvel, A.; Ringelberg, D.

    1999-07-01

    Flow-through bioreactors are used to investigate the relationship between the supply (and limitation) of major nutrients required by microorganisms (C, N, P, S) and effluent chemistry to obtain data that can be useful to develop models of microbially mediated aqueous chemistry. The bioreactors were inoculated with crushed tuff from Yucca Mountain. Six of the 14 bioreactor experiments currently in operation have shown growth, which occurred in as few as 5 days and as much as a few months after initiation of the experiment. The value of combining detailed chemical and microbial community analyses, long-duration experiments, and abiotic chemical models to distinguish chemical patterns is evident. Although all of the bioreactors contain the same initial microorganisms and mineral constituents, PLFA analysis demonstrates that both input chemistry and temperature determine the character of the long-term population of microorganisms. Where microbial growth occurs, that community can have a significant impact on the water chemistry. These principles are well known, but the authors note their relevance to modeling microbially mediated chemistry. The authors recognize, in addition to microbial growth, three categories of chemical effects, each of which will require a different approach and constitutive equation(s): (1) unidirectional bacterial modification of the chemistry (i.e., pH) that is directly related to the dominance of particular species, (2) secondary impact of direct microbial modifications (i.e., increased dissolution of solids as a result of reduced pH), and (3) cyclical effects that may be attributed to internal regulation (e.g., osmoregulation or internal pH regulation) or evolution of the microbial community.

  6. Lithospheric mantle heterogeneities beneath the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau: A petrological-geophysical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tunini, Lavinia; Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We apply a combined geophysical-petrological methodology in order to study the thermal, compositional, density and seismological structure of the crust and upper mantle along two transects across the Arabia-Eurasia collision region. Results on the crustal thickness show minimum values beneath the Arabia Platform and Central Iran (42-43 km), and maximum values beneath the Sanandaj Sirjan zone ...

  7. Feasibility Study: Home Telemonitoring for Patients With Lung Cancer in a Mountainous Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitte, Trisha M.; Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Coole, Charles; Forth, Tara; Frick, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the feasibility of rural home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer. Design Exploratory, descriptive, observational. Setting Patient homes within a 75-mile radius of the study hospital in West Virginia. Sample 10 patients hospitalized with lung cancer as a primary or secondary-related diagnosis. Methods Data included referral and demographics, chart reviews, and clinical data collected using a HomMed telemonitor. Five patients received usual care after discharge; five had telemonitors set up at home for 14 days with daily phone calls for nurse coaching; mid- and end-study data were collected by phone and in homes through two months. Main Research Variables Enrollment and retention characteristics, physiologic (e.g., temperature, pulse, blood pressure, weight, O2 saturation) and 10 symptom datapoints, patient and family telemonitor satisfaction. Findings Of 45 referred patients, only 10 consented; 1 of 5 usual care and 3 of 5 monitored patients completed the entire study. Telemonitored data transmission was feasible in rural areas with high satisfaction; symptom data and physiologic data were inconsistent but characteristic of lung cancer. Conclusions Challenges included environment, culture, technology, and overall enrollment and retention. Physiologic and symptom changes were important data for nurse coaching on risks, symptom management, and clinician contact. Implications for Nursing Enrollment and retention in cancer research warrants additional study. Daily monitoring is feasible and important in risk assessment, but length of time to monitor signs and symptoms, which changed rapidly, is unclear. Symptom changes were useful as proxy indicators for physiologic changes, so risk outcomes may be assessable by phone for patient self-management coaching by nurses. PMID:24578075

  8. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  9. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  10. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, G.; Davalillo, J. C.; Mulas, J.; Cooksley, G.; Monserrat, O.; Pancioli, V.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique, (SPN), has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs) in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  11. Risk management among mountain bikers in selected clubs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mountain biking is the best pedal sport on road and off road trails. The element of adventure in this sport make many people like to join this challenging sports. This study examined the risk among mountain bikers in selected clubs in Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to reveal injuries among mountain bikers ...

  12. A Retrospective Isotopic Study of Spruce Decline in the Vosges Mountains (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poszwa, Anne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France); Wickman, Tonie [Royal Institute of Technology, Land and water resources (Sweden); Dambrine, Etienne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France)], E-mail: dambrine@nancy.inra.fr; Ferry, Bruno [ENGREF, Laboratoire d' Etude des Ressources Foret-Bois (France); Dupouey, Jean-Luc [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France); Helle, Gerdhard; Schleser, Gerdhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, Juelich (Germany); Breda, Nathalie [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France)

    2003-01-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the time variation of mineral and water stress levels across the life of a declining, Mg-deficient, spruce stand, in order to clarify the factors that caused the decline. Since 1985, strong soil acidification linked to a large leaching of nitrate and base cations was measured at the study site. In 1994, 5 trees were felled and tree rings were measured and analysed for Ca, Mg, K, Sr, {sup 13}C{sup 12}C and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic ratios. Strontium pools and fluxes as well as root Sr isotope ratio in relation to depth were also measured. Wood chemical concentrations and isotope ratios were strongly related to the dominance status of each tree. On average during the study period, the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of spruce wood decreased. Using a mechanistic model computing long term variations of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in trees and soils, we reproduced the observed trend by simulating soil acidification - increasing Sr drainage from the whole profile, and particularly from the organic horizon -, and root uptake becoming more superficial with time. Between 1952 and 1976, tree ring {delta} {sup 13}C decreased strongly and continuously, which, in addition to other factors, might be related to an increase in water stress. Thus, a decrease in rooting depth, possibly related to soil acidification, appeared as a possible cause for the long term increase in water stress. The extreme drought event of 1976 appears to have revealed and triggered the decline.

  13. A mission of climatological and human biometeorological studies in high mountain: Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourrou, Pierre

    1990-09-01

    Eight days of September 1985 were spent in a Swiss high-altitude meteorological station. The main facts apparent in this study at the end of summer are a great cold, with a long duration of below zero; sometimes, a severe dryness, decreasing to 1% of relstive humidity but also nearing 99%; a very high wind, blowing to 17 m/s at the maximum; and a considerable variability of these parameters in a very short time. A comparison is made with two nearby, lower altitude stations. The consequences for human confort are also considered.

  14. Quantifying the controls on potential soil production rates: a case study of the San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    2017-08-01

    The potential soil production rate, i.e., the upper limit at which bedrock can be converted into transportable material, limits how fast erosion can occur in mountain ranges in the absence of widespread landsliding in bedrock or intact regolith. Traditionally, the potential soil production rate has been considered to be solely dependent on climate and rock characteristics. Data from the San Gabriel Mountains of California, however, suggest that topographic steepness may also influence potential soil production rates. In this paper I test the hypothesis that topographically induced stress opening of preexisting fractures in the bedrock or intact regolith beneath hillslopes of the San Gabriel Mountains increases potential soil production rates in steep portions of the range. A mathematical model for this process predicts a relationship between potential soil production rates and average slope consistent with published data. Once the effects of average slope are accounted for, a small subset of the data suggests that cold temperatures may limit soil production rates at the highest elevations of the range due to the influence of temperature on vegetation growth. These results suggest that climate and rock characteristics may be the sole controls on potential soil production rates as traditionally assumed but that the porosity of bedrock or intact regolith may evolve with topographic steepness in a way that enhances the persistence of soil cover in compressive-stress environments. I develop an empirical equation that relates potential soil production rates in the San Gabriel Mountains to the average slope and a climatic index that accounts for temperature limitations on soil production rates at high elevations. Assuming a balance between soil production and erosion rates on the hillslope scale, I illustrate the interrelationships among potential soil production rates, soil thickness, erosion rates, and topographic steepness that result from the feedbacks among

  15. Studying the dynamics of mountain ecosystems in the context of climate change employing remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, V.; Tepanosyan, G.; Asmaryan, Sh.; Saghatelyan, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study was aimed to assess the spatio-temporal dynamic of ME using remote sensing methods. SPOT and AVHRR satellite data were used. Average annual, monthly and decade precipitation and temperature data obtained between 1982-2014 from 5 meteorological stations were used. NDVI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Vegetation Health Index (VHI) were calculated and compared with meteorological data. Analyzing the dynamics of average NDVI, VCI, TCI, VHI for the entire area of Syunik marz (Armenia) has indicated that it has a cyclic character with a growth trend. NDVI and VCI show a steady growth, whereas TCI decreases, so wholly the dynamic trend of VHI is stable. Collation between average decade meteorological data for 1998-2013 and NDVI has indicated that during vegetation growing season the vegetation dynamics is determined by the amount of precipitation and average temperature recorded not in the given, but in previous and particularly 2th and 3th decades. So, collation between RS and meteorological data for more than 30 years supports a conclusion that there is a clear rise in productivity of the studied region's ecosystems in the context of climate change.

  16. The Socio-Occupational Structure of the Population in the Apuseni Mountains. Case Study: the Land of the Moți

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to highlight the changes in the socio-occupational structure of the population living in the Apuseni Mountains between 1992 and 2011, through a case study example, namely the Land of the the Moţi, a region in the central part of the mountains. The aim is to highlight any critical status induced by the geodemographic components. These changes do not differ significantly from other regions in Romania and they are expressed by a decreasing share of the population employed in the secondary sector, in parallel with an increase of the same segment of population employed in primary and tertiary sectors. However, due to changes in the Romanian economy in the last two decades, agriculture and forestry have become dominant in the region. Even if an obvious risk situation is not noticeable, as striking as depopulation or ageing, we must sound the alarm about communities in the mountain area. Despite the obvious intensification of the tertiary activities, this area remains weakly developed, dominated by the agricultural sector, less productive and low yield.

  17. Floristic study of Sheet Mountain in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Dehghani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity in central Zagros region is important from different aspects and has been in the research spotlight. In this study, flora of Mt. Sheet located in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, between Shahrekord and Saman cities, with 1.100 hectares and 2110 to 2660 meter elevation above sea level, is investigated. Results showed that the vegetation of this area consists of 204 species, 143 genera and 35 families. Asteraceae (31 species, 15.1 %, Brassicaceae (30 species, 14.7 %, Poaceae (19 species, 9.3 % and Fabaceae (18 species, 8.8 % were the most important families regarding the number of species. The largest genera were Astragalus (13 species, Euphorbia (8 species, Centraurea (7 species and Scorzonera and Salvia (5 species each. Determination of Raunkiaer life-forms showed that 51 % of the species (104 species were Hemicryptophytes, 28 % (57 species were Therophytes, 15 % (30 species were Cryptophytes, 5 % (11 species were Chamaephytes and 1 % (2 species Phanerophytes. 150 species (74 % belonged to Irano-Turanian region, 19 species (9 % to EuroSiberian-Mediterranean-IranoTuranian regions, 17 species (8 % to EuroSiberian-IranoTuranian regions, and 17 species (8 % to Mediterranean-IranoTuranian regions. According to available literature, 30 species were located in low risk class and one species as vulnerable. Conservation status of 173 species was reported as “Data Deficit” (class DD. Comparative evaluation of this flora and other 16 floras in this region showed the presence of 17 unreported species from this region, and the multivariate analyses of presence/absence data determined the relative position of this flora among other floras in this region and further divided the floras into two clusters. Our results showed also the application of multivariate analyses in floristic studies.

  18. Linking biophysical models and public preferences for ecosystem service assessments: a case study for the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Reed, James; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Troy, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Through extensive research, ecosystem services have been mapped using both survey-based and biophysical approaches, but comparative mapping of public values and those quantified using models has been lacking. In this paper, we mapped hot and cold spots for perceived and modeled ecosystem services by synthesizing results from a social-values mapping study of residents living near the Pike–San Isabel National Forest (PSI), located in the Southern Rocky Mountains, with corresponding biophysically modeled ecosystem services. Social-value maps for the PSI were developed using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services tool, providing statistically modeled continuous value surfaces for 12 value types, including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values. Biophysically modeled maps of carbon sequestration and storage, scenic viewsheds, sediment regulation, and water yield were generated using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services tool. Hotspots for both perceived and modeled services were disproportionately located within the PSI’s wilderness areas. Additionally, we used regression analysis to evaluate spatial relationships between perceived biodiversity and cultural ecosystem services and corresponding biophysical model outputs. Our goal was to determine whether publicly valued locations for aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values relate meaningfully to results from corresponding biophysical ecosystem service models. We found weak relationships between perceived and biophysically modeled services, indicating that public perception of ecosystem service provisioning regions is limited. We believe that biophysical and social approaches to ecosystem service mapping can serve as methodological complements that can advance ecosystem services-based resource management, benefitting resource managers by showing potential locations of synergy or conflict between areas supplying ecosystem services and those valued by the public.

  19. Reading the bed morphology of a mountain stream: a geomorphometric study on high-resolution topographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trevisani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution topographic data expand the potential of quantitative analysis of the earth surface, improving the interpretation of geomorphic processes. In particular, the morphologies of the channel beds of mountain streams, which are characterised by strong spatial variability, can be analysed much more effectively with this type of data. In this study, we analysed the aerial LiDAR topographic data of a headwater stream, the Rio Cordon (watershed area: 5 km2, located in the Dolomites (north-eastern Italy. The morphology of the channel bed of Rio Cordon is characterised by alternating step pools, cascades, and rapids with steps. We analysed the streambed morphology by means of ad hoc developed morphometric indices, capable of highlighting morphological features at a high level of spatial resolution. To perform the analysis and the data interpolation, we carried out a channel-oriented coordinate transformation. In the new coordinate system, the calculation of morphometric indices in directions along and transverse to the flow direction is straightforward. Three geomorphometric indices were developed and applied as follows: a slope index computed on the whole width of the channel bed, directional variograms computed along the flow direction and perpendicular to it, and local anomalies, calculated as the difference between directional variograms at different spatial scales. Directional variograms in the flow direction and local anomalies have proven to be effective at recognising morphologic units, such as steps, pools and clusters of large boulders. At the spatial scale of channel reaches, these indices have demonstrated a satisfactory capability to outline patterns associated with boulder cascades and rapids with steps, whereas they did not clearly differentiate between morphologies with less marked morphological differences, such as step pools and cascades.

  20. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in the South Ural Mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherchintsev, V D

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elem...

  1. Magnetic susceptibility as a tool for mineral exploration (Case study: Southern of Zagros Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad boroomand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility has been extensively used to determine the magnetic properties of rocks for different applications, such as hydrocarbon or mineral explorations. This magnetic quantity can be directly measured in an accurate but time-consuming operation, or it can be mathematically approximated using a reliable procedure to achieve a desired accuracy. The Poisson theory is one of the most well-known approaches which provide a meaningful relationship between the earth’s gravity and magnetic fields to derive the magnetic susceptibility. In this approach, the reliability and efficiency of the derived magnetic susceptibility depends on the method of computation of the gravity gradient tensor. We investigated two different methods of determination of gradient tensor; different distance method and Fourier transform technique. From the investigation, the Fourier transform method was more consistent with the geological features which led to more reliable information required for mineral explorations. The performance of the Poisson theory, the different distance method, and the Fourier transform was investigated in the coastal Fars, in Iran. This was highly disposing for geological and mineral features. Salt domes in the study area were detected and results compared with the available geological map.

  2. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  3. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  4. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  5. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  6. Bias in self-reported family history and relationship to glaucoma: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Lee, Anne J; Wang, Jie Jin

    2002-12-01

    To examine bias in the relationship between self-reported family history of glaucoma and its relationship to the prevalence of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In a cross-sectional population-based study of 3654 Australians aged 49-97, participants were asked whether any first-degree relatives had been diagnosed with glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed from matching optic disc and typical visual field changes, after gonioscopy. Ocular hypertension (OH) was diagnosed from elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in subjects without glaucoma. Glaucoma was present in 3.0% and ocular hypertension in 5.2% of subjects. A parent or sibling was reported to have glaucoma by 8.6%, including 10.5% of women and 5.9% of men. A positive family history was reported more frequently in parents (6.4%) than siblings (2.6%). Glaucoma was reported more frequently to affect mothers (5.0%) and sisters (1.6%) than fathers (1.5%) and brothers (1.2%). A first-degree family history was given by 15.7% of subjects with glaucoma compared to 8.3% of controls, odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.6), after adjusting for glaucoma risk factors, including IOP. The association had a similar magnitude for a family history in parents and siblings. Although recall bias was evident from the finding of increased odds (OR 4.2) among previously diagnosed cases, the relationship with family history also persisted in newly-diagnosed cases (OR 2.4). A slightly stronger relationship was found between OH and glaucoma family history, OR 3.9 (95% CI 2.6-5.7), after adjusting for confounders, but was also strongly influenced by recall bias. Although a positive family history of glaucoma may help to identify those at risk, it is subject to recall, selection and survival bias as well as community under-diagnosis of glaucoma and will most likely substantially underestimate the genetic influence.

  7. RANTAI NILAI PADA INDUSTRI SUSU STUDI KASUS PT CISARUA MOUNTAIN DAIRY (CIMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Satrya Arjakusuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to 1 map the value chain of Cimory, 2 analyze value chain governance in Cimory, 3 identify the barriers in Cimory value chain, 4 analyze the production efficiency in Cimory suppliers, and 5 identify the best strategy to upgrade the Cimory’s value chain so it can minimize any hindrance. This research used descriptive method that used value chain analysis, value chain governance analysis, barrier of production efficiency identification, and upgrading strategy. Based on value chain analysis, there are six actors in the whole Cimory value chain: KUD Giri Tani and KUD Cipanas as the dairy suppliers, Kiva Citra as the sugar supplier, Inopec as the bottle supplier, Cimory itself, Macrosentra Niagaboga as the main distributor, Cimory resto, Giant, Indomaret, Alfamart, Home Delivery, and Cimory agent. The relationship between Cimory and the main supplier is captive, between Cimory and secondary supplier is modular, and between Cimory and the distributor is more likely modular. The results of barriers identification showed that almost all barriers came from the main suppliers. The results from the production efficiency showed that only the working hour that didn’t have any positive effect for production. The prioritized strategy that needs to be done based on the upgrading analysis is improving the quality of fresh milk supplied to Cimory.Keywords: cimory, production efficiency, upgrading strategy, value chain, value chain analysis ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan 1 memetakan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 2 analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 3 mengidentifikasi berbagai hambatan pada rantai nilai Cimory, 4 analisis efisiensi produksi dari supplier Cimory, dan 5 identifikasi strategi yang tepat untuk meminimalisir hambatan yang dialami oleh Cimory. Penelitian ini bersifat penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan analisis rantai nilai, analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai, identifikasi hambatan, efisiensi

  8. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  9. Nutrient limitation and microbially mediated chemistry: studies using tuff inoculum obtained from the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C. I.; Chuu, Y. J.; Meike, A.; Ringelberg, D.; Sawvel, A.

    1998-10-30

    Flow-through bioreactors are used to investigate the relationship between the supply (and limitation) of major nutrients required by microorganisms (C, N, P, S) and effluent chemistry to obtain data that can be useful to develop models of microbially mediated aqueous chemistry. The bioreactors were inoculated with crushed tuff from Yucca Mountain. Six of the 14 bioreactor experiments currently in operation have shown growth, which occurred in as few as 5 days and as much as a few months after initiation of the experiment. All of the bioreactors exhibiting growth contained glucose as a carbon source, but other nutritional components varied. Chemical signatures of each bioreactor were compared to each other and selected results were compared to computer simulations of the equivalent abiotic chemical reactions. At 21 C, the richest medium formulation produced a microbial community that lowered the effluent pH from 6.4 to as low as 3.9. The same medium formulation at 50 C produced no significant change in pH but caused a significant increase in Cl after a period of 200 days. Variations in concentrations of other elements, some of which appear to be periodic (Ca, Mg, etc.) also occur. Bioreactors fed with low C, N, P, S media showed growth, but had stabilized at lower cell densities. The room temperature bioreactor in this group exhibited a phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) signature of sulfur- or iron-reducing bacteria, which produced a significant chemical signature in the effluent from that bioreactor. Growth had not been observed yet in the alkaline bioreactors, even in those containing glucose. The value of combining detailed chemical and community (e.g., ester-linked PLFA) analyses, long-duration experiments, and abiotic chemical models to distinguish chemical patterns is evident. Although all of the bioreactors contain the same initial microorganisms and mineral constituents, PLFA analysis demonstrates that both input chemistry and temperature determine the

  10. Recent Deglaciation of Darwin Mountains (Tierra de Fuego) after Little Ice Age: monitoring by photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, L.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Green, A.; Vivas, M.; Pintado, A.

    2012-04-01

    Glaciers from the Darwin mountain range have been retreating since the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the amount of retreat varies and is minimal for some glacial snouts and substantial for others. Possible explanations for this different behaviour include climatic and glacial dynamic causes. The aim of this work was to analyse the impact of climate change on these glaciers. The research site was the terminus of glacier Pia, which descends to the south of Mount Darwin (2488 m asl, 54°45'S, 69°29'W) and reaches the coastline at the Beagle Channel. The terminus is situated some hundreds of meters above the LIA moraine but, whereas one sector retreated rapidly and then stabilized, another sector has had several advances and retreats leaving a number of moraine arches. To better understand the origin of this dynamic behaviour, we undertook a study of the evolution of the terminus of glacier Pia over the last 60 years. We used aerial photographs and satellite images to determine the exact location of the glacial terminus in certain years (1943, 1963, 1987, 1990, 2001 and 2006). These results were completed in 2008 and 2009 through field work. We also carried out lichenometric studies of the two most abundant lichen species that rapidly colonize the moraine boulders abandoned by the glacier: Placopsis perrugosa and Rhizocarpon geographicum. By comparing results from field work carried out in 2008 and 2009, we were able to determine the growth rate of these two species (García-Sancho et al. 2011). In addition, we also carried out a dendrochronological study of Nothofagus antarctica and N. betuloides. The use of the four techniques involved in this study (photogrammetry, lichenometry, dendrochronology and multiyear field work) allowed us to establish the ecesis period of each species as well as their growth curves, from which we can deduce the movements of the glacial terminus from the end of the LIA to the present. From this study we can infer that the different

  11. Transport of the urban pollution plume in a mountain regime during the RoMBAS-BEACHON field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Brioude, J.; de Foy, B.; Hodzic, A.

    2012-12-01

    The formation and origin of organic aerosols measured at forest/urban interfaces is not well understood. Naturally emitted volatile organic compounds from trees can be oxidized into highly functionalized and condensable products that form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Recent studies indicate that the rate of this formation can be enhanced in presence of oxidant-rich urban or industrial pollution plume. The Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol field Study (RoMBAS) took place in July-August 2011 at the Manitou Forest Observatory (MFO) in the Colorado Front Range as part of the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen (BEACHON) program. Extensive aerosol measurements and modeling were performed to study the formation of organic aerosols, and identify the periods of high anthropogenic influence. In particular, the modern carbon filters suggest that up to 50% of the organic material measured at the site is from anthropogenic origin. To analyze the origin of air masses, we simulate transport events using particle trajectories in backward mode with FLEXPART that is integrated with the high temporal and spatial resolutions mesoscale meteorology from Weather Research Forecasting modeling with Chemistry (WRF/Chem). We use the Residence Time Analysis (RTA) method to analyze the transport. The results suggest that the urban plumes from Denver and Colorado Springs are frequently transported to the forest site during the day and could influence the local chemistry, whereas at night the flow is dominated by the westerly winds. The influence of the North American Monsoon circulation and the transport of the Californian pollution are also discussed. As the treatment of atmospheric turbulence in the complex topography is an important source of uncertainty for the back-trajectory simulations, we evaluate the results for two PBL schemes in WRF/Chem i.e. the Yonsei University (YSU) and the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), as well as the

  12. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The KLAM study unit was the thirty-third study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Klamath Mountains study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined by the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the KLAM study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the KLAM study unit, groundwater samples were collected from sites in Del Norte, Siskiyou, Humboldt, Trinity, Tehama, and Shasta Counties, California. Of the 39 sites sampled, 38 were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the primary aquifer system in the study unit (grid sites), and the remaining site was non-randomized (understanding site). The groundwater samples were analyzed for basic field parameters, organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs] and pesticides and pesticide degradates), inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, total dissolved solids [TDS]), radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta

  13. How much are the protected areas worth to the tourism sector? Maramureş mountains case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Popa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available : This paper is a starting point for communicating information that proves that biodiversity and ecosystem services can be priced and have a market in the tourism sector. The data were collected and interpreted starting from a baseline situation and value; business as usual (BAU and sustainable ecosystem management (SEM scenarios applied on Maramureş Mountains Natural Park bring the idea of additional value added by SEM. Thus, the paper is supporting the funding decision of protected areas management.

  14. Assessing the Economic Situation of Small-Scale Farm Forestry in Mountain Regions: A Case Study in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Toscani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the few countries with a long tradition of monitoring the economic performance of forest holdings. The national Farm Accountancy Data Network also addresses some forestry-specific issues, given the high significance of farm forestry in this country. However, it is not possible to assess the profitability of small-scale farm forestry in mountainous regions based on a representative sample. In this paper, we demonstrate how information gaps can be overcome by means of economic modeling and present results of this approach for mountain forestry for the first time. In spite of the unfavorable conditions of an alpine setting, forestry tends to be of special significance for the viability and resilience of family farms in these regions. Sustainable forest management that safeguards the ecosystem services provided by forests relies mostly on the profitability of timber production. Thus, the economic development of farm forestry is a key factor in achieving targets 15.1 and 15.4 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in mountain regions.

  15. Climate control on tree growth at the upper and lower treelines: a case study in the qilian mountains, tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao; He, Minhui; Melvin, Thomas M; Zhao, Yan; Briffa, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    It is generally hypothesized that tree growth at the upper treeline is normally controlled by temperature while that at the lower treeline is precipitation limited. However, uniform patterns of inter-annual ring-width variations along altitudinal gradients are also observed in some situations. How changing elevation influences tree growth in the cold and arid Qilian Mountains, on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, is of considerable interest because of the sensitivity of the region's local climate to different atmospheric circulation patterns. Here, a network of four Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronologies was developed from trees distributed on a typical mountain slope at elevations ranging from 3000 to 3520 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The statistical characteristics of the four tree-ring chronologies show no significant correlation with increasing elevation. All the sampled tree growth was controlled by a common climatic signal (local precipitation) across the investigated altitudinal gradient (520 m). During the common reliable period, covering the past 450 years, the four chronologies have exhibited coherent growth patterns in both the high- and low-frequency domains. These results contradict the notion of contrasting climate growth controls at higher and lower elevations, and specifically the assumption that inter-annual tree-growth variability is controlled by temperature at the upper treeline. It should be stressed that these results relate to the relatively arid conditions at the sampling sites in the Qilian Mountains.

  16. Climate control on tree growth at the upper and lower treelines: a case study in the qilian mountains, tibetan plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Yang

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that tree growth at the upper treeline is normally controlled by temperature while that at the lower treeline is precipitation limited. However, uniform patterns of inter-annual ring-width variations along altitudinal gradients are also observed in some situations. How changing elevation influences tree growth in the cold and arid Qilian Mountains, on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, is of considerable interest because of the sensitivity of the region's local climate to different atmospheric circulation patterns. Here, a network of four Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom. ring-width chronologies was developed from trees distributed on a typical mountain slope at elevations ranging from 3000 to 3520 m above sea level (a.s.l.. The statistical characteristics of the four tree-ring chronologies show no significant correlation with increasing elevation. All the sampled tree growth was controlled by a common climatic signal (local precipitation across the investigated altitudinal gradient (520 m. During the common reliable period, covering the past 450 years, the four chronologies have exhibited coherent growth patterns in both the high- and low-frequency domains. These results contradict the notion of contrasting climate growth controls at higher and lower elevations, and specifically the assumption that inter-annual tree-growth variability is controlled by temperature at the upper treeline. It should be stressed that these results relate to the relatively arid conditions at the sampling sites in the Qilian Mountains.

  17. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  18. Mobilizing citizen science to build human and environmental resilience: a synthesis study of four remote mountain communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Dewulf, Art; Gurung, Praju; Regmi, Santosh; Pandeya, Bhopal; Isaeva, Aiganysh; Mamadalieva, Zuura; Perez, Katya; Alemie, Tilashwork C.; Grainger, Sam; Clark, Julian; Hannah, David M.

    2015-04-01

    Communities that are the most vulnerable to environmental change and hazards, also tend to be those with the least institutional and financial resilience and capacity to cope with consequent impacts. Relevant knowledge generation is a key requisite for empowering these communities and developing adaptation strategies. Technological innovations in data collection, availability, processing, and exchange, are creating new opportunities for knowledge co-generation that may benefit vulnerable communities and bridge traditional knowledge divides. The use of open, web-based technologies and ICT solutions such as mobile phone apps is particularly promising in this regard, because they allow for participation of communities bypassed by traditional mechanisms. Here, we report on efforts to implement such technologies in a citizen science context. We focus on the active engagement of multiple actors (international and local scientists, government officials, NGOs, community associations, and individuals) in the entire process of the research. This ranges from problem framing, to identifying local monitoring needs, to determining the mode of exchange and forms of knowledge relevant for improving resilience related to water dependency. We present 4 case studies in arid, remote mountain regions of Nepal, the Kyrgyz Republic, Peru, and Ethiopia. In these regions, livelihoods depend on the water and soil systems undergoing accelerated degradation from extreme climates, poor agricultural management practices, and changing environmental conditions. However, information on the interlinkages of these processes with people's livelihoods is typically poor and there lies the opportunity for identifying novel forms of joint-creation and sharing of knowledge. Using a centrally-coordinated but locally-adaptable methodological framework comprising of field visits, systematic reviews of white and grey literature, focus group discussions, household questionnaires, semi-structured interviews

  19. Impact of forest disturbance on the runoff response in headwater catchments. Case study: Sumava mountains, Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Hais, Martin; Bartunkova, Kristyna; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    The forest disturbance and stream modifications are important phenomenon affecting the natural dynamics of erosion and sedimentation processes on montane and submontane streams. The changes in land use, land cover structure, forest cover and stream modifications, occurring in the cultural landscape have significant effect on the dynamics of fluvial processes, especially in relation to the extreme runoff events. The contribution discusses the relations between forest disturbance and fluvial dynamics, stemming from the research in Sumava Mountains, located at the border between Czech Republic and Germany, Central Europe. The study area is located in headwater region, affected by different types of forest disturbance in past three decades - bark beetle outbreak, repeated windstorms and clear-cut forest management. The streams in experimental catchments here displayed extensive dynamics of erosion and sedimentation after the extreme floods in 2002 and 2009 and were affected by artificial modifications. The analysis is based on the combination of different research techniques, including remote sensed data processing, network of automated high frequency rainfall-runoff monitoring or field survey of stream modifications and geomorphologic changes on riverbeds after extreme events. Using landsat satellite data and aerial photographs we created model of Bark beetle dispersion and clear-cutting between 1985 and 2007. This model enables to describe disturbance dynamic, which is needed for understanding of nature those processes. Next analysis of Landsat satellite data was used to detect the effect of forest disturbance on the wetness and temperature properties of land cover, affected by two significant different types of forest disturbance - bark beetle outbreak and clear cut. The rainfall-runoff analysis using multivariate geostatistical techniques was focused on experimental catchments with similar conditions of climate, physiography and topography but different type

  20. Ozone and PM2.5 Exposure and Acute Pulmonary Health Effects: A Study of Hikers in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Girardot, Steven P.; Ryan, P. Barry; Smith, Susan M.; Davis, Wayne T.; Hamilton, Charles B.; Obenour, Richard A.; Renfro, James R.; Tromatore, Kimberly A.; Reed, Gregory D.

    2006-01-01

    To address the lack of research on the pulmonary health effects of ozone and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) on individuals who recreate in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA) and to replicate a study performed at Mt. Washington, New Hampshire (USA), we conducted an observational study of adult (18–82 years of age) day hikers of the Charlies Bunion trail during 71 days of fall 2002 and summer 2003. Volunteer hikers performed pre- and posthike pulmon...

  1. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1986 and 1987. The studies were performed by...

  2. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  3. Seismological and geophysical study across the active segment of the Ventaniella fault: understanding its role during the Cantabrian Mountains building up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Viejo, Gabriela; Pulgar, Javier A.; Lopez-Fernandez, Carlos; Olona, Javier; Llana-funez, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The Ventaniella fault is a crustal structure that runs NW-SE through the Cantabrian mountains and margin in the Northern Iberian Peninsula. The fault has a very long cartographic expression exceeding 300 km onshore and 150 offshore, where it is also called the Cantabrian fault. The current structure inland acts mainly as a strike-slip structure with some reverse component elevating the northern block. In some parts along its trace it reworks Mesozoic normal faults that are suitably oriented to accommodate north-south shortening during the alpine cycle. However, its role in the development of the Cantabrian mountain chain is not fully understood. The existence of lingering seismicity at two segments, one offshore and another one onshore, and the suggestion that separates different geodynamical domains offshore, provides good arguments for further investigation of this fault. A focused seismic network of 10 stations within 20 km of radius from the fault trace inland has been deployed within the seismically active southern segment to analyze seismicity, ambient noise and integrate with other neighboring seismic networks and former deep geophysical studies. More than 25 small events (magnitude <1.5) have been registered and located since the network was deployed within a period of 18 months. The events occur mostly at mid-crustal depths. Ambient noise analysis from more than 3 months will also be incorporated in the tomography to unravel the structure of the fault zone at depth. The aim of the study is to propose a model for the continental crust in this part of the Cantabrian mountains.

  4. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers: A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-06-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques such as nonintrusive photogrammetric techniques. Despite many successful applications of large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) for short-term measurements during flood events, there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap, this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements concerning camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. A case study which comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over 2.5 year is carried out to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. Comparisons against classical current meter profiling show a mean absolute percentage error of 9.0% after the statistical calibration of the system. The study suggests that LSPIV can already be considered as a valuable tool for the monitoring of torrential flows, whereas further research is still needed to fully integrate nighttime observation and stereophotogrammetric capabilities.

  5. A numerical study of the first phase of a deep Mediterranean cyclone: cyclogenesis in the lee of the Atlas mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, K.; Ivancan-Picek, B. [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Fita, L.; Romero, R. [Univ. of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The initiation of a deep and severe impact Mediterranean cyclone in the lee of the Atlas mountains is investigated by a series of numerical experiments using the MM5 forecast model. The roles of orography, surface sensible heat flux and upper-level potential vorticity anomaly are identified using the factor separation method. In addition, a sensitivity experiment addressing the role of a thermal anomaly in the lee of the Atlas is performed. The results of model simulations show that orography blocking is responsible for the generation of a low-level shallow vortex in the first phase of the lee development. An upper-level potential vorticity anomaly is the principal ingredient of this event, responsible for a dominant deepening effect in the later stage of lee formation. The analysis of the cyclone paths shows that orography tends to keep the cyclone stationary, while upper-level dynamical factors prove crucial for the advection of the system to the Mediterranean Sea. The most noteworthy influence of surface sensible heat flux is identified as an afternoon destruction of the surface baroclinic zone and the associated weaker cyclogenesis. Furthermore, it is shown that the thermal anomaly in the lee of the Atlas builds up rather quickly and tends to be responsible for the cyclone initiation positioning in the mountain lee. (orig.)

  6. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  7. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia have been given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountains due to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains: built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation, but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms of the Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in the uppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existed at the peak of the glaciation.

  8. Sensitivity of mountain permafrost to extreme climatic events; a case study from the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, K.; Ødegård, R. S.; Eiken, T.; Sollid, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    An unusual synoptic situation with long periods of warm and humid southerlies produced record breaking temperatures in southern Norway during the period from July 2006 to June 2007, particularly late summer, autumn and early winter 2006-2007. For the one-year period, the temperature anomaly was 2.5-3.0 °C above the 1961-1990 average, with highest anomalies in the eastern and northern parts of southern Norway. The homogenised mean air temperature for the station Kjøremsgrende (62°06'N, 9°03'E, 626 m a.s.l.) was 2.9 °C above the 1961-1990 average. This is the warmest since records began in 1867. The most striking month was December 2006, when mean air temperature was 7.5 °C above the 1961-1990 average. At the official mountain station Fokstugu (62°11'N, 9°29'E, 972 m a.s.l.), on Dovrefjell, there were no days with temperatures below freezing in August and September. The late summer heat had a particularly strong impact on snow, ice and frozen ground in the mountains of southern Norway. Official mass balance investigations performed on three glaciers showed that they had their most negative net balances ever measured. Analysis of a leather shoe that melted out from a perennial snowfield at 2000 meters altitude was dated back 3,400 years old. Several complete arrows and a spade made from wood were also found in front of perennial snowfields. This study seeks to analyse the impact of the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly on the ground thermal regime, including permafrost and seasonal frost, in the high mountains of Jotunheimen and Dovrefjell in southern Norway. In Jotunheimen, ground temperature data are monitored in a 129 m deep permafrost borehole, located at Juvvasshøe (61°40'N, 8°22'E, 1894 m a.s.l.), established within the PACE-project (Permafrost and Climate in Europe). On Dovrefjell ground temperatures are measured in a transect from deep seasonal frost at 1039 m a.s.l. to discontinuous mountain permafrost at 1505 m a.s.l. in 11 boreholes, 9 m deep

  9. Sorption-desorption studies on tuff III. A continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Aguilar, R.D.; Bayhurst, B.P.

    1981-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports describing studies of sorption and migration of radionuclides in tuff. The investigations were extended to lithologies of tuff not previously studied. Continuing experiments with uranium, plutonium, and americium are described. The dependence of sorption on the concentration of the sorbing element and on the solution-to-solid ratio was investigated for a number of nuclides and two lithologies. A circulating system was designed for measuring sorption ratios. Values obtained from this system, batch measurements, and column elutions are compared. Progress on measuring and controlling Eh is described.

  10. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  11. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  12. An empirical inferential method of estimating nitrogen deposition to Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the San Bernardino Mountains case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Johnson, R F; Zhang, L; Jenerette, G D; Fenn, M E; Schilling, S L; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I

    2015-08-01

    The empirical inferential method (EIM) allows for spatially and temporally-dense estimates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to Mediterranean ecosystems. This method, set within a GIS platform, is based on ambient concentrations of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; surface conductance of NH4(+) and NO3(-); stomatal conductance of NH3, NO, NO2 and HNO3; and satellite-derived LAI. Estimated deposition is based on data collected during 2002-2006 in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) of southern California. Approximately 2/3 of dry N deposition was to plant surfaces and 1/3 as stomatal uptake. Summer-season N deposition ranged from methods. Extrapolating summertime N deposition estimates to annual values showed large areas of the SBM exceeding critical loads for nutrient N in chaparral and mixed conifer forests. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Tolerance to disturbance regulated by attractiveness of resources: A case study of desert bighorn sheep within the River Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Human activity may mimic predation risks for wildlife by causing abandonment of foraging sites and increasing expenditure of energy. Animals that can tolerate nonlethal disturbance may minimize these fitness costs. We examine this aspect of the risk—disturbance hypothesis by first analyzing recent habitat use of desert bighorn sheep relative to areas of attraction and disturbance. We then compare and contrast sheep responses to differing levels of anthropogenic disturbance between 2 time periods, 30 years apart. Desert bighorn sheep were tolerant of suburban activity when a consistent forage resource (municipal grass) was provided. Males were more tolerant than females, and females returned to natural, steep areas during the birthing season. Increased recreation activity, specifically mountain bike use, may have resulted in avoidance by sheep of otherwise suitable habitat that had been occupied decades earlier, thereby reducing availability of limited habitat. Tolerance increased only when attractiveness was relatively high and decreased as perceived fitness decreased, supporting risk—disturbance theory.

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  16. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers - A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques. While new discharge measurements technologies such as acoustic doppler current profilers and large-scale image particle velocimetry (LSPIV) have been developed and tested in numerous studies, the continuous monitoring of small mountain rivers and discharge dynamics during strong meteorological events remains challenging. More specifically LSPIV studies are often focused on short-term measurements during flood events and there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability and a mobile riverbed in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements among previous LSPIV methods regarding camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. To account for changes in the bed topography the riverbed is surveyed repeatedly during the dry seasons using multi-view photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanners. The presented case study comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over two and a half year (2013-2015) to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. An analysis of the obtained results suggests that the quality of the camera calibration reaches a sub-pixel accuracy. The median accuracy of the watermask detections is F1=0.82, whereas the precision is systematically higher than the recall. The resulting underestimation of the water surface area

  17. Mountain building, from subduction to collision and erosion: insights from 30 years of field and analog modeling studies (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavieille, J.

    2012-04-01

    Through a rapid overview of my research career, I will outline the role of the primary mechanisms and processes, which exert a strong control on mountain building. Field observations (both from structural geology on-land and marine geophysical surveys at sea), and analog modeling are the two main approaches that I used and developed during more than 30 years of research studying mountain belts at Montpellier University. The substantial contributions made through collaborations and exchanges with colleagues and students will be acknowledged. As mountain belts are long lived structures, their evolution involves numerous processes that interact since the early history, beginning during oceanic subduction and ending during the late orogenic evolution which leads to erosion and the ultimate destruction of topography. Most orogens form in subduction settings due to plate convergence involving large horizontal shortening and strong deformation of the crust developing into an overall wedge shape during their evolution. I will focus on orogens caused by subduction of a continental margin lower-plate under an oceanic or continental upper-plate following oceanic subduction, a process also commonly known as collision. After development of a sedimentary accretionary prism and closure of the oceanic domain, continuous subduction of the lithospheric mantle induces deformation of the continental crust and controls the structural asymmetry of the mountain belt. Since the pioneer works by Dahlen, Davis and Suppe in the Eighties, mountain belts have been often considered by geologists as crustal scale accretionary wedges whose deformation mechanisms can be satisfactorily described by a Coulomb behavior. The theory offers a simple mechanical framework allowing a division into different tectonic regimes depending on wedge stability : critical, undercritical, overcritical. Since then, it has been shown that orogens commonly adopt a distinct geometry with a low-tapered pro-wedge facing

  18. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  19. Extraction of potential debris source areas by logistic regression technique: a case study from Barla, Besparmak and Kapi mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunusluoglu, M. C.; Gokceoglu, C.; Nefeslioglu, H. A.; Sonmez, H.

    2008-03-01

    Debris flow is one of the most destructive mass movements. Sometimes regional debris flow susceptibility or hazard assessments can be more difficult than the other mass movements. Determination of debris accumulation zones and debris source areas, which is one of the most crucial stages in debris flow investigations, can be too difficult because of morphological restrictions. The main goal of the present study is to extract debris source areas by logistic regression analyses based on the data from the slopes of the Barla, Besparmak and Kapi Mountains in the SW part of the Taurids Mountain belt of Turkey, where formation of debris material are clearly evident and common. In this study, in order to achieve this goal, extensive field observations to identify the areal extent of debris source areas and debris material, air-photo studies to determine the debris source areas and also desk studies including Geographical Information System (GIS) applications and statistical assessments were performed. To justify the training data used in logistic regression analyses as representative, a random sampling procedure was applied. By using the results of the logistic regression analysis, the debris source area probability map of the region is produced. However, according to the field experiences of the authors, the produced map yielded over-predicted results. The main source of the over-prediction is structural relation between the bedding planes and slope aspects on the basis of the field observations, for the generation of debris, the dip of the bedding planes must be taken into consideration regarding the slope face. In order to eliminate this problem, in this study, an approach has been developed using probability distribution of the aspect values. With the application of structural adjustment, the final adjusted debris source area probability map is obtained for the study area. The field observations revealed that the actual debris source areas in the field coincide with

  20. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  1. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l., the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m−3 of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about −1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz, and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind

  2. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Gautier; Fortier, Daniel; Domine, Florent; Gray, James T.

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l.), the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i) to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii) to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST) using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m-3) of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about -1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz), and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind-exposed surface of the summit

  3. Nevada Test Site probable maximum flood study, part of US Geological Survey flood potential and debris hazard study, Yucca Mountain Site for US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purposes of these studies are to provide hydrologic and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear waste repository, and to evaluate the ability of the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) to isolate the waste in compliance with regulatory requirements. In particular, the project is designed to acquire information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate in its environmental impact statement (EIS) and license application whether the MGDS will meet the requirements of federal regulations 10 CFR Part 60, 10 CFR Part 960, and 40 CFR Part 191. Complete study plans for this part of the project were prepared by the USGS and approved by the DOE in August and September of 1990. The US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) was selected by the USGS as a contractor to provide probable maximum flood (PMF) magnitudes and associated inundation maps for preliminary engineering design of the surface facilities at Yucca Mountain. These PMF peak flow estimates are necessary for successful waste repository design and construction. The PMF technique was chosen for two reasons: (1) this technique complies with ANSI requirements that PMF technology be used in the design of nuclear related facilities (ANSI/ANS, 1981), and (2) the PMF analysis has become a commonly used technology to predict a ``worst possible case`` flood scenario. For this PMF study, probable maximum precipitation (PMP) values were obtained for a local storm (thunderstorm) PMP event. These values were determined from the National Weather Services`s Hydrometeorological Report No. 49 (HMR 49).

  4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN A MOUNTAIN HOTEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes study of conditions and opportunities for development of tourism in a typical mountain hotel in Bulgaria, presenting conditions and resources for diverse tourism practices and an analysis of potential markets and competitors. Through the example of Ecohotel "Zdravets" situated in the Rhodope Mountains, the study highlights the importance and shares a good example in the management of a mountain hotel near to a large administrative and cultural center.

  5. Sámi reindeer herders' perspective on herbivory of subarctic mountain birch forests by geometrid moths and reindeer: a case study from northernmost Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuojala-Magga, Terhi; Turunen, Minna T

    2015-01-01

    Geometrid moths and semi-domesticated reindeer are both herbivores which feed on birch leaves in the subarctic mountain birch forests in northern Fennoscandia. The caterpillars of autumnal and winter moths have episodic outbreaks, which can occasionally lead to extensive defoliation of birch forests. Earlier studies have shown that reindeer have a negative effect on the regeneration of defoliated birches by grazing and browsing their seedlings and sprouts. We interviewed 15 reindeer herders in the Kaldoaivi and Paistunturi herding co-operative in northernmost Finland in order to analyse their past, present and future views on the behaviour of moths and the growth of mountain birches. We investigate the behaviour of the two herbivores by combining the indigenous knowledge (IK) of Sámi herders with the results of relevant studies in biology and anthropology, applying niche construction theory (NCT) in doing so. In the first stage, the niche constructors (moths, reindeer, herders, mountain birch and other organisms) are looked upon as "equal constructors" of a shared niche. As changes unfold in their niche, their role changes from that of constructor to key constructor. The role and importance of niche constructors were different when nomadic pasture rotation was used than they are today under the herding co-operative system. Niche construction faced its most radical and permanent negative changes during the border closures that took place over the latter half of the 19(th) century. The large-scale nomadic life among the Sámi herders, who migrated between Finland and Norway, came to an end. This phase was followed by stationary herding, which diminished the possibilities of reindeer to look for various environmental affordances. Difficult snow conditions or birch defoliation caused by moth outbreaks made the situation worse than before. Eventually reindeer became key constructors, together with moth larvae, leading to negative ecological inheritance that forced

  6. Robotics Scoping Study to Evaluate Advances in Robotics Technologies that Support Enhanced Efficiencies for Yucca Mountain Repository Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Burgess; M. Noakes; P. Spampinato

    2005-03-17

    This paper presents an evaluation of robotics and remote handling technologies that have the potential to increase the efficiency of handling waste packages at the proposed Yucca Mountain High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository. It is expected that increased efficiency will reduce the cost of operations. The goal of this work was to identify technologies for consideration as potential projects that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Office of Science and Technology International Programs, could support in the near future, and to assess their ''payback'' value. The evaluation took into account the robotics and remote handling capabilities planned for incorporation into the current baseline design for the repository, for both surface and subsurface operations. The evaluation, completed at the end of fiscal year 2004, identified where significant advantages in operating efficiencies could accrue by implementing any given robotics technology or approach, and included a road map for a multiyear R&D program for improvements to remote handling technology that support operating enhancements.

  7. Integrating info-gap decision theory with robust population management: a case study using the Mountain Plover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Max Post; Tyre, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers often make decisions under considerable uncertainty. In the most extreme case, a complete lack of data leads to uncertainty that is unquantifiable. Information-gap decision theory deals with assessing management decisions under extreme uncertainty, but it is not widely used in wildlife management. So too, robust population management methods were developed to deal with uncertainties in multiple-model parameters. However, the two methods have not, as yet, been used in tandem to assess population management decisions. We provide a novel combination of the robust population management approach for matrix models with the information-gap decision theory framework for making conservation decisions under extreme uncertainty. We applied our model to the problem of nest survival management in an endangered bird species, the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus). Our results showed that matrix sensitivities suggest that nest management is unlikely to have a strong effect on population growth rate, confirming previous analyses. However, given the amount of uncertainty about adult and juvenile survival, our analysis suggested that maximizing nest marking effort was a more robust decision to maintain a stable population. Focusing on the twin concepts of opportunity and robustness in an information-gap model provides a useful method of assessing conservation decisions under extreme uncertainty.

  8. Ethnoveterinary treatments by dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan: an observation and questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younas Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Suleiman mountainous region is an important cradle of animal domestication and the habitat of many indigenous livestock breeds. The dromedary camel is a highly appreciated and valued animal and represents an important genetic resource. Camel herders, living in remote areas, have developed their own ways to treat diseases in camels, based on a long time of experience. Methods Information about the diseases and the ethnoveterinary practices performed was collected from a total of 90 herders and healers by interviews and participant observations. Results The respondents classified the diseased in major and minor fractions. Clinical signs were given in detail. Mange followed by trypanosomosis and orf were considered the most prevalent diseases, and also caused the greatest economic losses. Orf was regarded the most complex disease. The season was considered to have great influence on the occurrence of the diseases. A variety of different treatments were described, such as medicinal plants, cauterization, odorant/fly repellents, pesticides, larvicides, cold drink, yogurt and supportive therapy (hot food, hot drink. Conclusions There is paramount need to document and validate the indigenous knowledge about animal agriculture in general and ethnoveterinary practices in particular. This knowledge is rapidly disappearing and represents a cultural heritage as well as a valuable resource for attaining food security and sovereignty.

  9. Micrometeorites from the transantarctic mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, P; Folco, L; Suavet, C; van Ginneken, M; Gattacceca, J; Perchiazzi, N; Braucher, R; Harvey, R P

    2008-11-25

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 mum and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of approximately 0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-mum size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the approximately 480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent ( approximately 1 Myr) geological past.

  10. Combined Inversion of Broadband and Short‐Period Waveform Data for Regional Moment Tensors: A Case Study in the Alborz Mountains, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, Stefanie; Krüger, Frank; Rössler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    for surface waves, whereas for the short‐period data a frequency range suitable for body waves is applied. The second modification is the use of first‐motion body‐wave polarities to select the most probable solution out of all solutions from inversion. To combine three different criteria for selecting...... the most probable solution (i.e., residual from inversion, double‐couple content of solution, number of nonmatching first‐motion body‐wave polarities), the L2 norm is applied to the normalized parameters. We chose five earthquakes within the Alborz mountains, Iran, as a case study (3.1≤Mw≤4.......1). In this area, several factors exacerbate the difficulty of performing inversion for moment tensors, for example, a heterogeneous station network and large azimuthal gaps. We have demonstrated that our approach supplies reliable moment tensors when inversion from broadband data alone fails. In one case, we...

  11. Using global Climate Impact Indicators to assess water resource availability in a Mediterranean mountain catchment: the Sierra Nevada study case (Spain) in the SWICCA platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Gulliver, Zacarias; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Climate services provide water resource managements and users with science-based information on the likely impacts associated to the future climate scenarios. Mountainous areas are especially vulnerable to climate variations due to the expected changes in the snow regime, among others; in Mediterranean regions, this shift involves significant effects on the river flow regime and water resource availability and management. The Guadalfeo River Basin is a 1345 km2 mountainous, coastal catchment in southern Spain, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea coastline to the Sierra Nevada mountains to the north (up to 3450 m a.s.l.) within a 40-km distance. The climate variability adds complexity to this abrupt topography and heterogeneous area. The uncertainty associated to snow occurrence and persistence for the next decades poses a challenge for the current and future water resource uses in the area. The development of easy-to-use local climate indicators and derived decision-making variables is key to assess and face the economic impact of the potential changes. The SWICCA (Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation) Platform (http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/) has been developed under the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and provides global climate and hydrology indicators on a Pan-European scale. Different case studies are included to assess the platform development and contents, and analyse the indicators' performance from a proof-of-concept approach that includes end-users feedbacks. The Guadalfeo River Basin is one of these case studies. This work presents the work developed so far to analyse and use the SWICCA Climate Impact Indicators (CIIs) related to river flow in this mountainous area, and the first set of local indicators specifically designed to assess selected end-users on the potential impact associated to different climate scenarios. Different CIIs were extracted from the SWICCA interface and tested against the local information

  12. A case of "chronic mountain sickness" in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hetch, Hans H.; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Estados Unidos; McClement, John H.; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Estados Unidos

    2014-01-01

    1.-A case of Chronic Mountain Sickness is described at a resident of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. There have been clinical, electrocardiographic and cardiopulmonary physiology studies. Symptoms, signs and electrocardiographic abnormalities disappeared when the patient down to sea level. However, it has been possible to bring out a intensely lightweight persistent lung disease after residence at sea level for more than two years. 2. can be assumed that some cases of chronic mountain sickne...

  13. Use of bioimpedianciometer as predictor of mountain marathon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athl...

  14. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT and hydrometric point measurement: a case study from Ore Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2014-06-01

    Hillslopes are one of the basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap of knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. To improve the knowledge of hydrological responses on hillslopes with periglacial cover beds, hydrometrical measurements have been carried out on a small spring catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains since November 2007. In addition, surface ERT measurements of several profiles were applied to enhance resolution of punctual hydrometric data. From May to December 2008 geoelectrical monitoring in nearly weekly intervals was implemented to trace seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To obtain the link between water content and resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data and resulting in remarkable coincidence. The measured resistivity shows a close correlation with precipitation. Depending on the amount and intensity of rain, different depths were affected by seepage water. Three different types of response to different amounts of precipitation (small, medium, high), could be differentiated. A period with a small amount causes a short interruption of the drying pattern at the surface in summer, whereas a medium amount induces a distinctive reaction at shallow depth (<0.9 m), and a high amount results in a strong response reaching down to 2 m.

  16. Evaluation of different digital elevation models for analyzing drainage morphometric parameters in a mountainous terrain: a case study of the Supin-Upper Tons Basin, Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan; Patel, Priyank Pravin; Sengupta, Somasis

    2016-01-01

    With myriad geospatial datasets now available for terrain information extraction and particularly streamline demarcation, there arises questions regarding the scale, accuracy and sensitivity of the initial dataset from which these aspects are derived, as they influence all other parameters computed subsequently. In this study, digital elevation models (DEM) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER V2), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM V4, C-Band, 3 arc-second), Cartosat -1 (CartoDEM 1.0) and topographical maps (R.F. 1:250,000 and 1:50,000), have been used to individually extract and analyze the relief, surface, size, shape and texture properties of a mountainous drainage basin. Nestled inside a mountainous setting, the basin is a semi-elongated one with high relief ratio (>90), steep slopes (25°-30°) and high drainage density (>3.5 km/sq km), as computed from the different DEMs. The basin terrain and stream network is extracted from each DEM, whose morphometric attributes are compared with the surveyed stream networks present in the topographical maps, with resampling of finer DEM datasets to coarser resolutions, to reduce scale-implications during the delineation process. Ground truth verifications for altitudinal accuracy have also been done by a GPS survey. DEMs derived from the 1:50,000 topographical map and ASTER GDEM V2 data are found to be more accurate and consistent in terms of absolute accuracy, than the other generated or available DEM data products, on basis of the morphometric parameters extracted from each. They also exhibit a certain degree of proximity to the surveyed topographical map.

  17. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  18. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  19. A comparison of cross-country mountain destination importance performance as perceived by international and domestic tourists: a cast study of Mt. Huang (China and Mt. Seorak (South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Newpaney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine visitor’s importance and destination performance with respect to tourist attractions such as the environment, adventure, social culture, accessibility and relaxation of participants at Mt. Huang and Mt. Seorak respectively. This study identified the demographic characteristics of visitors to both mountain destinations. The researchers used the Importance Performed Analysis (IPA method to identify the importance and satisfaction levels of various attributes of both Mt. Huang and Mt. Seorak. They identified that the most important attributes sought after related to the natural environment, mountaineering, knowledge and information sharing, value of money and escape from a mundane daily job routine, while the least important would relate to mountain sports and the localities' inviting ambience for both mountain destinations. Using a simple questionnaire sample procedure, 247 visitors were considered in order to determine what the visitor’s deemed to be important, and what was satisfying from a destination performance perspective. SPSS 17 was used to analyze the data in different stages and pilot testing was conducted. The finding of this study can be helpful for tourist decision-makers in the public and private sectors. It is also useful to improve tourism services and to develop strategies for greater tourism promotion to the two destinations. Furthermore, this study can be a powerful source of input for destination promotion and positioning activities.

  20. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  1. The hydrological significance of mountains: from regional to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions supply a large share of the world’s population with fresh water. Quantification of the hydrological significance of mountains, however, is subject to great uncertainty. Instead of focusing on global averages in advance, the present analysis follows a catchment-based approach using discharge data provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC. The River Rhine originating in the European Alps is chosen as a first study area, revealing the hydrological relationship between mountainous and lowland regions in a well-documented area. Following the findings from this analysis, different aspects of runoff characteristics for a total of 22 case-study river basins world-wide have been investigated and compared, for a global view. The view has been extended through aspects of climate and human use of mountain runoff. The particular hydrological characteristics of mountain areas are characterised by disproportionately large discharges. In humid areas, mountains supply up to 20–50% of total discharge while in arid areas, mountains contribute from 50–90% of total discharge, with extremes of over 95%. The overall assessment of the hydrological significance of mountain areas reveals that the world’s major 'water towers' are found in arid or semi-arid zones where they provide essential fresh water for a significant proportion of a quickly growing global population. Keywords: mountain hydrology, global comparative assessment, runoff, water resources, sustainability, Rhine River, European Alps

  2. Environment-friendly reduction of flood risk and infrastructure damage in a mountain river: Case study of the Czarny Dunajec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Zawiejska, Joanna; Amirowicz, Antoni; Oglęcki, Paweł

    2016-11-01

    Migration of a mountain river channel may cause erosional risk to infrastructure or settlements on the valley floor. Following a flood of 2010, a cutbank in one of the bends of the main channel of the Czarny Dunajec, Polish Carpathians, approached a local road by 50 m. To arrest the erosion of the laterally migrating channel, water authorities planned construction of a ditch cutting the forested neck of the bend, reinforcement of the ditch banks, and damming the main channel with a boulder groyne. In order to avoid channelization of the highly valued, multithread river reach that would deteriorate its ecological status and cause increased flood risk to downstream reaches, an alternative approach to prevent bank erosion was proposed. The new scheme, applied in 2011, included opening of the inlets to inactive side braids located by the neck of the bend of the main channel. This solution reestablished the flow in the steeper low-flow channels, allowing us to expect a cutoff and abandonment of the main channel during subsequent floods. Gravelly deflectors were constructed directly below the inlets to the reactivated side channels to divert the flow into the channels and prevent the water from entering the main channel. Hydraulic measurements performed before and after the implementation of the scheme confirmed that it enabled shifting the main water current, with the highest average velocity and bed shear stress, from the braid closest to the road to the most distant braid. Similar surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrate communities indicated that flow reactivation in the side channels was beneficial for these groups of river biota, increasing their abundance and taxonomic richness in the reach. Not only was the implemented solution significantly less expensive, but it also enhanced ecological functions of the multithread channel and the variability of physical habitat conditions and maintained the role of the reach as a wood debris trap. However, avulsion of the

  3. PROMET - Large scale distributed hydrological modelling to study the impact of climate change on the water flows of mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Bach, Heike

    2009-10-01

    SummaryClimate change will change availability, quality and allocation of regional water resources. Appropriate modelling tools should therefore be available to realistically describe reactions of watersheds to climate change and to identify efficient and effective adaptation strategies on the regional scale. The paper presents the hydrologic model PROMET (Processes of Radiation, Mass and Energy Transfer), which was developed within the GLOWA-Danube project as part of the decision support system DANUBIA. PROMET covers the coupled water and energy fluxes of large-scale ( A ˜ 100,000 km 2) watersheds. It is fully spatially distributed, raster-based with raster-elements of 1 km 2 area, runs on an hourly time step, strictly conserves mass and energy and is not calibrated using measured discharges. Details on the model concept and the individual model components are given. An application case of PROMET is given for the mountainous Upper-Danube watershed in Central Europe ( A = 77,000 km 2). The water resources are intensively utilized for hydropower, agriculture, industry and tourism. The water flows are significantly influenced by man-made structures like reservoirs and water diversions. A 33-years model run covering the period from 1971 to 2003 using the existing meteorological station network as input is used to validate the performance of PROMET against measured stream flow data. Three aspects of the model performance were validated with good to very good results: the annual variation of the water balance of the whole watershed and selected sub-watersheds, the daily runoff for the whole period at selected gauges and the annual flood peaks and low flows (minimum 7-days average). PROMET is used to investigate the impact of climate change on the water cycle of the Upper Danube. A stochastic climate generator is fed with two scenarios of climate development until 2060. One assumes no future temperature change, the other uses the temperature trends of the IPCC-A1B

  4. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  5. Rocky Mountain High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  6. Monitoring the condition of mountain zebra habitat in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Novellie

    1994-01-01

    The study aimed at determining an appropriate sampling design for monitoring the quality of mountain zebra habitat. The parameter used for monitoring was an index of habitat suitability. The value of this index was greater than 20 in the habitat that was most favoured by the mountain zebras, whereas values below 20 were characteristic of moderate to poor habitat. It is recommended that if the index in the most favoured habitat declines to below 20, management intervention in the form of a red...

  7. Upland forest vegetation of the Ozark Mountains in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative data on structure and composition of all strata of vegetation were collected from 20 study sites in the Boston Mountains Subsection of the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas in June 2004. All study sites were located at upper slope or ridgetop positions and occurred at elevations > 457 m. Oaks (Quercus spp.) were dominants in...

  8. [Review of the necropsy studies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on animals from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — USFWS personnel recorded 244 instances of wildlife mortality at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). Since 1990, records of these animal mortalities were kept in the...

  9. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Bison Tissue Contaminant Study, Analysis of Tissue and Tail-bulb Fat, 2014 Bison Necropsy Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge was created on a former Department of Defense site with a history of chemical contamination. This is the one of...

  10. A life to risk: cultural differences in motivations to climb among elite male mountaineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Maher; Tom G. Potter

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the cultural differences and motivations to climb of elite, male mountaineers. The purpose of the study was to first determine the motivations of elite male mountaineers and then link these motivations to the culture in which the mountaineer lives or grew up in. Five co-researchers participated in the study: two Canadians, two Americans, and one...

  11. The evolution of Eastern Tornquist-Paleoasian Ocean and subsequent continental collisions: A case study from the Western Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians (Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Gawęda; Jolanta Burda; Jan Golonka; Urs Klötzli; David Chew; Krzysztof Szopa; Michael Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    The crystalline basement of the Tatra Mountains in the Central Western Carpathians, forms part of the European Variscides and contains fragments of Gondwanan provenance. Metabasite rocks of MORB affinity in the Tatra Mountains are represented by two suites of amphibolites present in two metamorphic units (the Ornak and Goryczkowa Units) intercalated with metapelitic rocks. They are interpreted as relics of ocean crust, with zircon δ18OVSMOW values of 4.97–6.96‰. Zircon REE patterns suggest ox...

  12. A comparative study of frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods for landslide susceptibility mapping: Sultan Mountains, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adnan; Altural, Tolga

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared landslide susceptibility maps produced with three different methods, frequency ratio, weights of evidence, and logistic regression, by using validation datasets. The field surveys performed as part of this investigation mapped the locations of 90 landslides that had been identified in the Sultan Mountains of south-western Turkey. The landslide influence parameters used for this study are geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transportation capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, fault density, and spring density maps. The relationships between landslide distributions and these parameters were analysed using the three methods, and the results of these methods were then used to calculate the landslide susceptibility of the entire study area. The accuracy of the final landslide susceptibility maps was evaluated based on the landslides observed during the fieldwork, and the accuracy of the models was evaluated by calculating each model's relative operating characteristic curve. The predictive capability of each model was determined from the area under the relative operating characteristic curve and the areas under the curves obtained using the frequency ratio, logistic regression, and weights of evidence methods are 0.976, 0.952, and 0.937, respectively. These results indicate that the frequency ratio and weights of evidence models are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. Specifically, the results of the correlation analysis show a high correlation between the frequency ratio and weights of evidence results, and the frequency ratio and logistic regression methods exhibit correlation coefficients of 0.771 and 0.727, respectively. The frequency ratio model is simple, and its input, calculation and output processes are

  13. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  14. Evaluation of soil erosion as a basis of sediment yield in mountainous catchments: a preliminary study in the River Douro Basin (Northern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Martinho Lourenço, José M.; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The River Corgo drains a meso-scale mountainous rural catchment with an area of 295 km2, underlain by crystalline rocks, in a temperate climate, which integrates the transboundary River Douro Basin, in the northeast of Portugal. A geochemical survey on oxic fluvial sediments of the river network shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (account the hydrological pattern of the catchment, the seasonal and spatial variability of metal contents associated to the sediments suggests that the control of metal in the sediments by their mineralogical, geochemical and physical properties is governed primarily at the level of the basin soils system, especially in the Wet Period, when the sediments are frequently remobilised (Reis, 2010). Although the soil particles are a common pathway of transport and entrance of metals in the fluvial network by runoff derived erosion, this mechanism is naturally more marked in mountainous catchments. Modelling sediment and adsorbed contaminant transport within catchments can help to identify possible contaminant sources, as well as to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants. In catchments with the described morphological features, monitoring the transport of sediments poses some issues concerning: (a) the low mass yield of suspended sediment from river water, under low-flow conditions; (b) the maintenance of the sediment sampler's devices in the streams, in periods of high-flow or storm events. This study describes the preliminary results of a GIS-based mass balance model of overland sediment transport to the River. The erosion, the first step of sediment transport, was estimated by an empirical model - The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The objective was to construct a GIS based potential soil loss spatial index model and posteriorly estimate the sediment yield for different locations within the catchment. The R factor was obtained from the literature; K factor

  15. Magnetic Modeling of Buried Basalt Near the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Constrained by New Paleomagnetic, Rock Magnetic, and Petrographic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Stamatakos, J.; Silver, M.

    2007-12-01

    Probability estimates for igneous disruption of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are affected by uncertainties in the number and age of basaltic volcanoes possibly buried in the area. To reduce these uncertainties, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored studies, including a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Yucca Mountain region, to identify potential sites of buried basaltic intrusions and their characteristics. The survey was conducted using a helicopter with an average sensor elevation of 40-50 m [131-164 ft] above terrain. Based on the resulting anomaly map, a subset of seven anomalies (A, G, I, JF5, JF6, O, and Q) was identified for additional testing. These seven anomaly sites were cored to determine whether buried basalt was the source of the anomalies. Basalt was encountered in four of the seven boreholes--A, G, JF5, and Q. Basalt samples from these four boreholes were collected for additional analyses, including radiometric age determinations and mineral identification. This paper reports petrographic, paleomagnetic, and geophysical modeling results from an independent review of the DOE aeromagnetic data and analysis of core samples. Experiments included measurements of (i) natural remanent magnetization, (ii) alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization to isolate the inclination of the characteristic remanent magnetization,(iii) room-temperature bulk susceptibility, (iv) temperature dependence of low-field susceptibility to 700 °C [1,292 °F], and (v) hysteresis and coercivity. The paleomagnetic measurements characterized the magnetic properties of the samples and were used as input for the models. The modeling approach included development of two-dimensional forward models along optimally oriented profiles for each of the four magnetic anomalies. Magnetic source bodies were developed as geologically reasonable polygons with known or inferred magnetic properties for each forward model. Geometry of the

  16. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  17. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  19. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  20. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  1. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Laura Hudnell; Mark W. Williams; Richard A. Sommerfeld

    1996-01-01

    A study of the water chemistry of Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range alpine/subalpine lakes and streams in wilderness ecosystems was conducted during the summer of 1995 by the USDA Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, and the University of Colorado Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research. Data...

  2. The herpetofauna of Madran Mountain (Aydın, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Serdar; ÜZÜM, NAZAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates amphibian and reptile species of Madran Mountain. Specimens were collected in September 2011 and April and May 2012. A total of 23 species (3 amphibians and 20 reptiles) were determined. These species are thought to contribute to our knowledge of the Turkish herpetofauna. In addition, a chorotype classification of the species determined on Madran Mountain is given.

  3. Earthworm (Clitellata: Lumbricidae records from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTO VALCHOVSKI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a contribution to the knowledge of the earthworm diversity from the Rila Mountains (Bulgaria. During the investigation 13 earthworm species were collected altogether, belonging to eight genera. Among them Aporrectodea handlirschi (Rosa, 1897 and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 proved to be new records from the territory of the Rila Mountain.

  4. Sustainability and Mountain Tourism: The Millennial’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies illustrates the different points of view through which sustainability and mountains have been studied over the years. Nowadays, interest in Millennials is increasing but no research has compared Millennials and sustainability in the mountain context. This study aims at defining sustainability with reference to Millennial perception of both winter and summer mountain sports. By analysing data gathered from a sample of 2292 Millennials (Piedmont area, the authors confirm their high degree of sensitivity towards sustainable issues and, above all, discover that there are differences in the sustainable perception Millennials have of both mountain winter and summer sports. More specifically, Millennial perception is deeply influenced by the place where they are used to living―mountains or cities―and by their gender. From a managerial point of view, results have direct implications on the administrators of mountain institutions who can implement appropriate initiatives in order to correctly sensitise Millennials towards mountain sports. Moreover, from a theoretical perspective, the study opens a new scenario on two important topics linked to sustainability, namely Millennials and mountain sports.

  5. Isotopic studies of authigenic sulfides, silicates and carbonates, and calcite and pyrite veinlets in the Creede Formation, San Juan Mountains, Southwest Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, Philip M.; Rye, Robert O.; Finkelstein, David B.

    2000-01-01

    formed very late from unexchanged meteoric water. Concretions and possibly some cements at CCM-1 appear to have exchanged with the 17.6 Ma oxygen-shifted hydrothermal fluids. Such exchange is consistent with evidence that lacustrine carbonates at CCM-1 exchanged with low 18O waters, whereas those at CCM-2 underwent little, if any, exchange. The δ13C-δ18O values for calcite veinlets in the Creede Formation are similar to those for authegenic calcites. Fluid-inclusion temperatures and δ18O indicate that some were deposited during the 17.6 Ma hydrothermal event and others from unexchanged meteoric water at a later date. The isotope studies confirm that part of the model of Rye et al., proposing that the barites in the southern end of the Creede Mining District were formed by mixing of the Creede hydrotermal system with Lake Creede pore of lake waters. The silicate and carbonate isotope data indicate that the pores of the Creede Formation were occupied by at least three isotopically distinct water since the time of deposition. The original pore fluids were probably shifted to lower δ18O values during burial diagensis as a result of the hydrolysis of the volcanic glass to for smectites and other hydrous silicates. During or prior to a 17.6 Ma hydrothermal event in the vicinity of CCM-1, the Creede Formation was flushed with oxygen-shifted meteoric water, possibly related to the breaching of the east side of the caldera wall sometime between 20 and 22 Ma. Later, the Creede Formation was again flushed, this time with unexchanged meteoric water with δD-δ18O values of present-day waters, possibly during the incision of the Rio Grande drainage during uplifting of the southern Rocky Mountains beginning about 5 Ma.

  6. The Mountain of Health: The Perceptions and Perceived Expectations of Youth Living with Type 2 Diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Through a Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Elizabeth

    2017-11-08

    The objective of this study was to explore youth's perceptions of diabetes management. The study included 8 Manitoban youth with type 2 diabetes (n=7 girls). Each youth participated in a semistructured interview in person, via Skype or over the phone. The constructivist grounded theory methodologic approach guided the analysis of the data. Discussions about diabetes and health and its management revealed 2 viewpoints: 1) youth's perceptions and 2) youth's perceptions of health-care providers' expectations. The Mountain of Health was used to conceptualize the complex nature of diabetes management. Youth perceived that health-care providers prioritized physical health-behaviour changes in order to achieve successful diabetes management. Conflictingly, many youth described their mental and emotional health as taking precedence over their physical health. Future interventionists should be aware of the vast incongruence in patients' perceptions of health in type 2 diabetes and their perceptions of health-care providers' expectations during the development of interventions. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wide area lithologic mapping with ASTER thermal infrared data: Case studies for the regions in/around the Pamir Mountains and the Tarim basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Fu, Bihong

    2017-07-01

    After the authors have proposed the mineralogical indices, e.g., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI), Mafic Index (MI) for ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data, many articles have been applied the indices for the geological case studies and proved to be robust in extracting geological information at the local scale. The authors also have developed a system for producing the regional map with the indices, which needs mosaicking of many scenes considering the relatively narrow spatial coverage of each ASTER scene. The system executes the procedures very efficiently to find ASTER data covering a wide target area in the vast and expanding ASTER data archive. Then the searched ASTER data are conditioned, prioritized, and the indices are calculated before finally mosaicking the imagery. Here in this paper, we will present two case studies of the regional lithologic and mineralogic mapping of the indices covering very wide regions in and around the Pamir Mountains and the Tarim basin. The characteristic features of the indices related to geology are analysed, interpreted and discussed.

  8. THE USE-POTENTIAL OF QUERCUS ALIENA VAR. ACUTESERRATA FOR URBAN PLANTATIONS – BASED ON HABITAT STUDIES IN THE QINLING MOUNTAINS, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik SJÖMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, a limited number of species and genera dominate the tree stock in streets and urban sites, and recent surveys in European and North American cities show that few species/genera continue to dominate. Yet, over the past decades, a growing proportion of those commonly used species have shown increasing difficulties to cope with urban sites. This has led to considerable and persistent arguments for using a more varied range of trees, including stress-tolerant species, at urban paved sites. This study examined forest systems occurring between 1300-2200 m asl. in the Qinling Mountains, China, in order to evaluate the oriental white oaks (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Maximowicz ex Wenzig growth and development in warm and dry forest habitats and hence evaluate its potential for urban paved sites in northern parts of central Europe and in adjoining milder parts of northern Europe. In total, 102 oriental white oak where found in the studied plots and here showed very promising development in habitats experiencing drier conditions than those in park environments in Copenhagen, and is therefore interesting for urban paved sites were the demands of a greater catalogue of tolerant trees are highly needed.

  9. High-resolution digital elevation models from single-pass TanDEM-X interferometry over mountainous regions: A case study of Inylchek Glacier, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelmeijer, Julia; Motagh, Mahdi; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of using single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) radar imagery to analyse inter- and intra-annual glacier changes in mountainous terrain. Based on SAR images acquired in February 2012, March 2013 and November 2013 over the Inylchek Glacier, Kyrgyzstan, we discuss in detail the processing steps required to generate three reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) with a spatial resolution of 10 m that can be used for glacial mass balance studies. We describe the interferometric processing steps and the influence of a priori elevation information that is required to model long-wavelength topographic effects. We also focus on DEM alignment to allow optimal DEM comparisons and on the effects of radar signal penetration on ice and snow surface elevations. We finally compare glacier elevation changes between the three TDX DEMs and the C-band shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) DEM from February 2000. We introduce a new approach for glacier elevation change calculations that depends on the elevation and slope of the terrain. We highlight the superior quality of the TDX DEMs compared to the SRTM DEM, describe remaining DEM uncertainties and discuss the limitations that arise due to the side-looking nature of the radar sensor.

  10. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  11. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  12. Snowy Mountains. Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El gran macizo de Snowy Mountains sigue la dirección norte-sur en una extensión de unos 160 km, alcanzando una altitud de 2.225 metros en su pico más alto. A esta región se la llama los Alpes australianos, que están cubiertos de nieve durante casi seis meses del año.

  13. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  14. Quantifying uncertainties in tracer-based hydrograph separations: a case study for two-, three- and five-component hydrograph separations in a mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoeg, Simon

    2003-02-01

    The hydrograph separation technique using natural tracers, in which different runoff components are quantified according to their chemical signature, is a widely used method for investigating runoff generation processes at the catchment scale. The first objective of this study is to demonstrate a modified methodology for separating three and five runoff components using 18O and dissolved silica as tracers. The second is to evaluate, with an uncertainty propagation technique using Gaussian error estimators, the hydrograph separation uncertainties that arise due to different error effects.During four summer storm events, an interaction among three main runoff components having distinct dissolved silica concentrations was demonstrated for the mountainous Zastler catchment (18·4 km2, southern Black Forest Mountains, southwest Germany). The three main runoff components are surface storage (low silica, saturated and impermeable areas), shallow ground water (medium silica, periglacial and glacial drift cover), and deep ground water (high silica, crystalline detritus and hard rock aquifer). Together with the event and pre-event water fractions of surface runoff and shallow ground water runoff, five runoff components are considered in all. Pre-event water from shallow ground water storage dominated the total discharge during floods and was also important during low flows. Event water from shallow ground water was detectable only during the falling limb of a larger flood with high antecedent moisture conditions and during the peaks of three events with low antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from surface storage is only significant during floods and can be composed of event and pre-event water. The latter reacts later and is important only during the peak of the large event with high antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from the deeper ground water behaves quite consistently (pure pre-event water).It is demonstrated that large relative uncertainties must be considered

  15. An application of excess lead-210 analysis for the study of fine sediment connectivity in a Mediterranean mountain basin with badlands, the Vallcebre research catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of sediment dynamics in Mediterranean environments is fundamental to basin management, particularly for mountain catchments with badlands, which affect water bodies and freshwater ecosystems. Connectivity has emerged in Environmental and Earth Sciences as an evolution of the sediment delivery concept, providing a useful framework for understanding how sediments are transferred between geomorphic zones of the catchment. This study explores the feasibility of excess lead-210 (210Pbex) to analyse sediment connectivity in a 4-km2 Mediterranean mountain basin with badlands (the Vallcebre research catchments, Eastern Pyrenees) by applying simple 210Pbex mass-balance models for hypothesis generation and experimental testing in the field. Badland surfaces in the basin are weathered by freezing during the winter and are further eroded in summer by the effect of high-intensity storms. The eroded sediments may remain deposited within the catchment streams from months to years. Application of 210Pbex balance models in our basin proposes: (i) a saw-tooth seasonal pattern of badland surface 210Pbex activities (increasing from October to May, and depleted in summer) and (ii) a downstream increase in sediment activity due to fallout lead-210 accumulation in streambed sediment deposits. Both deposited and suspended sediments collected at the Vallcebre catchments showed, in general, low sediment 210Pbex concentrations, illustrating their fresh-rock origin at the badland sites, but also hampering the understanding of sediment 210Pbex patterns due to high measurement uncertainty (particularly for sediments with d50>20µm) and to strong dependence on sediment sampling methodology. Suspended sediment 210Pbex activity reproduced the simulated seasonal activity patterns for the badland surfaces. Contrary to the in-stream transit increases of sediment 210Pbex activity that were predicted by our model simulations, fallout lead-210 concentrations in the suspended sediments decreased

  16. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia havebeen given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountainsdue to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains:built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation,but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms ofthe Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in theuppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existedat the peak of the glaciation.

  17. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE GREATER AND LESSER CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS STUDIED BY THE MOSS TECHNIQUE AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shetekauri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of moss biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition of trace elements was applied for the first time in the western Caucasus Mountains to assess the environmental situation in this region. The sixteen moss samples have been collected in 2014 summer growth period along altitudinal gradients in the range of altitudes from 600 m to 2665 m. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Mo, Cd, I, Sb, Ba, La, Sm, W, Au, and U determined by neutron activation analysis in the moss samples are reported. A comparison with the data for moss collected in Norway (pristine area was carried out.  Multivariate statistical analysis of the results was used for assessment pollution sources in the studied part of the Caucasus. The increase in concentrations of most of elements with rising altitude due to gradually disappearing vegetation cover and wind erosion of soil was observed. A comparison with the available data for moss collected in the Alps at the same altitude (~ 2500 m was performed.

  18. [Studies on main interspecific association of rare and endangered medicinal plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum community in Kangding Zheduo mountain of Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Feng; Wang, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Qin, Song-Yun; Zhong, Guo-Yue

    2014-07-01

    Based on the 2 x 2 contingency table, by using multi-species relevance (variance ratio, VR), chi2-test, Ochiai index, Dice index, Jaccard index, t-test of v/x and F-test of Morisita, s index, the interspecific relationships and the spatial distribution pattern between 20 dominants in Kangding Zheduo Mountain of Sichuan province were studied. The results indicated that the interspecific association between dominants of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum community in this area did not show significant association, which suggested that the S. hexandrum community was in mature stage, and showed stronger independency, among total 190 pairs in 20 dominant species, 2 species pairs exhibited extremely significantly positive association, 12 species pairs showed significantly positive association, 6 species pairs exhibited significantly negative association and there were no pairs showed extremely significantly negative association. S. hexandrum in community did not show significant association, which indicates they are independent in community, the spatial distribution pattern of S. hexandrum is characterized by random distribution.

  19. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Music ] Mountain Pumped...

  20. Recharge Area on the Slopes of Volcano Based on Geological Setting, Content of Deuterium and Oxygen Isotopes of Groundwater Chemistry: Case Study on the Slopes of Salak Mountain, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarmawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian is huge areas that have the highest precipitation in the world, therefore water deficit of groundwater is often happened at anywhere. This study was related to determination of recharge area with approached by combining geological setting, stable isotopes and chemical content of groundwater. Case study was carried out at surrounding the Cicurug area, Sukabumi Prefecture, West Java Province. The area is the slopes of Salak Mountain that have elevation of 400 until 1,200 m mean sea level (msl. While, much groundwater supplies industry activities on elevation 450-500 m msl. Based on data and result analysis of the studies, the recharge areas was not around peak of mountain or near, but water infiltrated on elevation of 700-800 m msl for groundwater exploited by industries. Therefore, the accurate determination of recharge area becomes a key for the groundwater sustainability.

  1. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  2. The Junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs: a Detailed Study of the Morphology and Neogene Tectonic Evolution of the Anaximander Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranshaw, J.; Aksu, A.; Hall, J.; Cifci, G.; Dondurur, D.; Yaltirak, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are enigmatic highs located at the complex corner that links the Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs in the eastern Mediterranean. They are made up of several different highs: Anaximander (sensu stricto), Anaxagoras and Anaximenes. Previous work had shown that rock samples from the Anaximander Mountain have affinity with rocks exposed on land nearby in southern Turkey. This had been explained by rifting of the Mountain away from Turkey. In contrast to that, our interpretation of around 1750 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2001 showed that Anaximander Mountain is part of a broadly south-verging Miocene thrust system associated with relative southward motion of the Tauride Mountains in southern Turkey. Post-Miocene motion also involves thrusting but is accompanied by transpression and rotation. The 3-dimensional nature of the geology makes mapping of the linkage of structures difficult, so we collected an additional 500 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2007, extending our 2001 survey further southwards into the Mediterranean Ridge. These new profiles are shot in a grid oblique to that obtained in 2001, such that the new profile intersections provide a basis for better correlation of the earlier data. We are testing our earlier interpretation through processing and interpretation of these new profiles. Here, we present examples of the new profiles and give first indications of how our earlier interpretation is broadly corroborated by the new data, but with minor adjustments. Anaximenes Mountain is imaged to the south of our previously- mapped area and is characterized as a large south-verging thrust lifting pre-Messinian strata by up to 2 km in a 12-km wide pop-up structure. Internally, Anaximenes is dissected by several splays from the bounding thrusts.

  3. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-10-19

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  4. Comprehensive study of the mountainous lake sediments in relation to natural and anthropogenic processes and time (Mały Staw Lake, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarlowicz, Katarzyna; Reczynski, Witold; Czajka, Agnieszka; Spyt, Barbara; Szacilowski, Grzegorz

    2018-02-01

    The Sudety Mts. form a chain of mountains in the South of Poland and during the last 200 years were subjected to strong industrial and agricultural pressure. The records of these human-induced changes are stored in natural archives like lake sediments. For the comprehensive study, three sediment cores taken from Mały Staw Lake (Sudety Mts.) were analyzed for the concentration of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and radioactivity of 137 Cs and 210 Pb. As a result of the studies, the bathymetry map was developed and the sources of solid material supplied to the lake were identified. The geochronology studies of the cores were performed using 210 Pb method, to evaluate model of time changes in the sediment. Radioactivity of 210 Pb uns (determined indirectly by 210 Po) ranged from 1051 ± 64 to 12 ± 8 Bq kg -1 . The 137 Cs radioactivity was determined directly by gamma spectrometry and varied from 525 ± 37 Bq kg -1 for top layers to 9.80 ± 5.40 Bq kg -1 for the bottom of the core. Two characteristic peaks of 137 Cs radioactivity related to the global fallouts after nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident were observed and used to confirm 210 Pb dating method. Chemometrics analysis of the chosen metal's concentrations combined with sample dating showed distinct imprint of human activity on the studied area.

  5. Selection bias from sampling frames: telephone directory and electoral roll compared with door-to-door population census: results from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Mitchell, P; Attebo, K; Leeder, S

    1997-04-01

    Many Australian public health research studies use the telephone directory or the electoral roll as a sampling frame from which to draw study subjects. The sociodemographic, disease-state and risk-factor characteristics of subjects who could be recruited using only the telephone directory or only the electoral roll sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of subjects who would have been missed using only these sampling frames, respectively. In the first phase of the Blue Mountains Eye Study we interviewed and examined 2557 people aged 49 and over living in a defined postcode area, recruited from a door-to-door census. This represented a participation rate of 80.9 per cent and a response rate of 87.9 per cent. The telephone directory was searched for each subject's telephone number and the electoral roll was searched for each subject. Subject characteristics for those who were present in each of these sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of those subjects not included in the sampling frames. The telephone directory listed 2102 (82.2 per cent) of the subjects, and 115 (4.5 per cent) had no telephone connected. The electoral roll contained 2156 (84.3 per cent) of the subjects, and 141 subjects (5.5 per cent) could not be found in either the electoral roll or the telephone directory. Younger subjects, subjects who did not own their own homes and subjects born outside of Australia were significantly less likely to be included in either of these sampling frames. The telephone directory was also more likely to exclude subjects with higher occupational prestige, while the electoral roll was more likely to exclude unmarried persons and males. Researchers using the telephone directory and electoral roll to select subjects for study should be aware of the potential selection bias these sampling frames incur and need to take care when generalising their findings to the wider community.

  6. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  7. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  8. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient...

  9. Association between avian assemblages and mountain bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the bird species diversity associated with vegetation communities found on a single mountain slope in the Usuthu Gorge Community Conservation Area, northern KwaZulu-Natal. Thirteen sample sites were surveyed on a monthly basis for 12 months. Over this period, 279 birds and 55 species were ...

  10. A thousand mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In creating a series of short dances and presenting them in a variety of informal settings, my Thesis Project examines the encounter of emotion to body movement and the transfer of feeling that occurs when movement is witnessed by a live audience. In making the dances in this series I have borrowed performance practices and structures from song-writing traditions in order to frame this body of trans-performance work. The performance of A Thousand Mountains serves as an archive of my artistic ...

  11. Quantitative estimation of undiscovered mineral resources - a case study of US Forest Service Wilderness tracts in the Pacific Mountain system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The need by land managers and planners for more quantitative measures of mineral values has prompted scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey to test a probabilistic method of mineral resource assessment on a portion of the wilderness lands that have been studied during the past 20 years. A quantitative estimate of undiscovered mineral resources is made by linking the techniques of subjective estimation, geologic mineral deposit models, and Monte Carlo simulation. The study considers 91 U.S. Forest Service wilderness tracts in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. -from Authors

  12. Fluid inclusion studies of gold-bearing quartz veins from the Yrisen deposit, Sula Mountains greenstone belt, Masumbiri, Sierra Leone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrie, I.J.; Touret, J.L.R.

    1999-01-01

    The auriferous veins at Yirisen, Masumbiri, Sierra Leone, occurring mainly in the form of sericitic quartz-sulphide lodes and stringers, are hosted in metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary assemblages invaded by at least two generations of granitic intrusions. Detailed microthermometric studies of fluid

  13. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI. PMID:27417241

  14. An expanded perspective on displacement: A longitudinal study of visitors to two wildernesses in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy Hall; David N. Cole

    2000-01-01

    Displacement has traditionally been defined as a process in which visitors cease using a recreation site because of sensitivity to crowding or other impacts. This study argues that such a definition is overly narrow: Displacement may also occur when those sensitive to regulation cease using a resource. Evidence for the two types of displacement was collected through...

  15. A cloud-based home health care information sharing system to connect patients with home healthcare staff -A case report of a study in a mountainous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Shinichi; Utsumi, Momoe; Sasayama, Satoshi; Dekigai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a cloud system, the e-Renraku Notebook (e-RN) for sharing of home care information based on the concept of "patient-centricity". In order to assess the likelihood that our system will enhance the communication and sharing of information between home healthcare staff members and home-care patients, we selected patients who were residing in mountainous regions for inclusion in our study. We herein report the findings.Eighteen staff members from 7 medical facilities and 9 patients participated in the present study.The e-RN was developed for two reasons: to allow patients to independently report their health status and to have staff members view and respond to the information received. The patients and staff members were given iPads with the pre-installed applications and the information being exchanged was reviewed over a 54-day period.Information was mainly input by the patients (61.6%), followed by the nurses who performed home visits (19.9%). The amount of information input by patients requiring high-level nursing care and their corresponding staff member was significantly greater than that input by patients who required low-level of nursing care.This patient-centric system in which patients can independently report and share information with a member of the healthcare staff provides a sense of security. It also allows staff members to understand the patient's health status before making a home visit, thereby giving them a sense of security and confidence. It was also noteworthy that elderly patients requiring high-level nursing care and their staff counterpart input information in the system significantly more frequently than patients who required low-level care.

  16. Trends in added sugar intake and food sources in a cohort of older Australians: 15 years of follow-up from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghian, H; Louie, J C Y; Charlton, K E; Probst, Y C; Gopinath, B; Mitchell, P; Flood, V M

    2017-06-01

    The trend of added sugar (AS) intake has not been investigated in the Australian population, including in older adults. The present study aimed to assess trends and food sources of AS intake among a cohort of older Australians during 15 years of follow-up. Dietary data from participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (1264 men and 1614 women), aged ≥49 years at baseline, were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed at 5-yearly intervals (1992-94 to 2007-09) using a 145-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). AS content of FFQ food items was estimated using a stepwise systematic method. Trends for AS intake between baseline and the three follow-up periods were assessed using linear mixed modelling. In men, the mean (SEM) percentage of energy provided by AS intake (EAS%) declined from 10.4% (0.1%) at baseline to 9.4% (0.2%) at 15-year follow-up (Ptrend = 0.028). Women's mean (SEM) EAS% intake at baseline and 15-year follow-up was 9.2% (0.1%) and 8.8% (0.2%), respectively (Ptrend = 0.550). EAS% intake of men was significantly higher than that of women for 10 years (P trend was observed in AS intake in both genders, however, was only significant for men during 15 years of follow-up. Table sugar and sugar-containing spreads represent the major source of AS in this cohort of older Australians. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Study of human occupation impacts in the Batedor river basin in the Mantiqueira Mountain in the municipal district of Cruzeiro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrographic basins as territorial units integrating the management of hydric resources is essential to guarantee sustainable use of natural resources in these basins. The establishment of the Paraíba do Sul hydrographic basins committee, in 1994, determined the need for management planning and action integration in the Paraíba do Sul basin which incorporates a variety of industries and intense land use. The Batedor river, in the municipality of Cruzeiro, SP, flows into the Passa Vinte which is an affluent of Paraíba do Sul river. Its mouth is located at 22°31’0.63”S and 45°01’2.07”W. Its farthest water contributing source lies about 8.5 km, near the Itaguaré peak 2,308 m high, in the Mantiqueira Mountain on the border of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. To characterize land use in the Batedor hydrographic basin, Landsat imagery and topographic charts were analyzed based on remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques. This paper describes the study of impacts related to land and water resources use in the Batedor river basin and the generation of educational environmental material. Results have shown that this basin has good water supply, has no flooding risk and has several springs running down the Mantiqueira Moutain slopes that form young creeks with few meanders. Irregular human occupation for housing and subsistence agriculture, mainly banana plantations can be seen in deep slopes and riparian areas, as well as degraded pastures that indicate inappropriate land use and no conformance to pertinent legislation. The decrease in forest vegetation cover can cause severe erosion with significant soil loss and sediment deposition in the river, thus reducing water quality and quantity during the dry season. This basin is currently responsible for 70% of the Cruzeiro, SP water supply.

  18. A Preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study of Acute Mountain Sickness Susceptibility in a Group of Nepalese Pilgrims Ascending to 4380 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Widmer, Nadia; Timulsina, Utsav; Subedi, Ankita; Siwakoti, Ashmita; Pandit, Bidur Prasad; Freeman, Michael G; Carter, Eric A; Manokhina, Irina; Thapa, Ghan Bahadur; Koehle, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    There is significant interindividual variation in acute mountain sickness (AMS) susceptibility in humans. To identify genes related to AMS susceptibility, we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to simultaneously test associations between genetic variants dispersed throughout the genome and the presence and severity of AMS. DNA samples were collected from subjects who ascended rapidly to Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m), as part of the 2005, 2010, and 2012 Janai Purnima festivals. The Lake Louise Score was used to measure AMS severity. The primary analysis was based on 99 male subjects (43 with AMS; 56 without AMS). Genotyping for the GWAS was performed using Infinium Human Core Exome Bead Chips (542,556 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assayed), and validation genotyping was performed with pyrosequencing in two additional cohorts (n = 101 for each). In total, 270,389 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed quality control, and 4 SNPs (one intronic, three nonsynonymous) in the FAM149A gene were associated with AMS severity after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing (p = 1.8E-7); however, in the validation cohorts, FAM149A was not associated with the presence or severity of AMS. No other genes were associated with AMS susceptibility at the genome-wide level. Due to the large influence of environmental factors (i.e., ascent rate and altitude attained) and the difficulties associated with the AMS phenotype (i.e., low repeatability, nonspecific symptoms, potentially independent ailments), we suggest that future studies addressing the variation in the acute human hypoxia response should focus on objective responses to acute hypoxia instead of AMS.

  19. White pine blister rust at mountain home demonstration state forest: a case study of the epidemic and prospects for genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch; Dulitz Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of white pine blister rust at Mountain Home State Demonstration Forest and surrounding areas in the southern Sierra Nevada of California indicates that the epidemic has not yet stabilized and that the most likely prognosis is a pandemic on white pines in this region within the next few decades. The impact on sugar pines, from young regeneration to old...

  20. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  1. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-02-03

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (<85). The age of the children (p < 0.05) and household economic status (p < 0.001) were significant for the BMI. Likewise, frequencies of illness in the previous year, mother's education (p < 0.05) and father's education (p < 0.001) were significant factors for the IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  2. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Ranabhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ. Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173 participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD and about one-third had poor IQ (<85. The age of the children (p < 0.05 and household economic status (p < 0.001 were significant for the BMI. Likewise, frequencies of illness in the previous year, mother’s education (p < 0.05 and father’s education (p < 0.001 were significant factors for the IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  3. The role of microcredits in the development of mountainous and plain rural areas (A case study of the villages of Kardeh and Miyan-velayat in the Mashhad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanshiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Not so long ago, the main obstacle to the development of undeveloped countries was thought to be the lack of capital. However, today it is believed that capital is a necessary condition for development, but not the sufficient one. Therefore, one of the strategies to achieve economic development is to make use of an efficient financial system to circulate stagnant capitals in the community. Accordingly, micro-credits were introduced in developing countries over the past 30 years, aiming to provide low-income groups with financial services. These funds are used to provide villagers with loans, particularly those who are active in production. The availability of liquidity helps villagers meet their financial needs and start a production process and get agricultural products for plantings. The study also aimed to examine the role of microcredits in rural development, with emphasis on the impact of geographical factors in attracting such funds in mountainous and plain rural area of the Mashhad County. This study is an applied research carried out in a descriptive-analytical method. Based on Cochran's formula, 207 rural households were selected. The ratio of households in each area was also calculated by Cochran's formula to be a total of 90 households from mountainous areas, and 118 households from plain areas that were selected. The required data were collected from library sources and the survey (questionnaires among the households that received the funds. The results showed that the effectiveness of microcredits is not significantly different in mountainous and plain areas. However, there is a significant difference between the two areas considering the difficulties and satisfaction level of villagers in getting the loans, such that villagers in plain areas were more satisfied than those in mountainous areas.

  4. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  5. Artificial Snowfall from Mountain Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Ludlam, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    A tentative theory of provoking snowfall from simple orographic clouds is composed, using simplifying assumptions, and it is shown reasonable to suppose that winter snowfall on Central Swedish mountains might be substantially increased by skillful seeding of supercooled mountain clouds.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1955.tb01164.x

  6. The influence of a drop-hydraulic structure on the mountain stream channel regime - case study from the Polish Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic hydraulic parameters such as shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and water velocities were calculated and measured within the region of a drop hydraulic structure erected on the Kasinczanka stream in the Polish Carpathians. Besides examining the hydrodynamics of the stream the study investigated also the distribution of grain size in the bed-load at the upstream and downstream aprons of the structure. It was revealed that grains deposited at the upstream apron were finer than those deposited at the downstream apron. At the same time, shear stresses and unit stream power values were found to be quite stable upstream of the drop structure, but to change significantly along the stream channel downstream of the structure’s energy dissipating pool

  7. Short- and long-term studies of sediment dynamics in a small humid mountain Mediterranean basin with badlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, F.; Pérez-Gallego, N.; Latron, J.; Catari, G.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Nord, G.

    2013-08-01

    Badland landscapes are the main sediment sources in the Vallcebre area (Eastern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain). Short-term studies (up to 3-years long) carried out between 1980 and 1994 were used to estimate the rates of both denudation on bare surfaces and sediment production at the plot scale, to analyse the seasonal dynamics of bedrock weathering and regolith behaviour, and to study the relationships between geomorphic activity and herbaceous plant colonisation. Since 1990, stream flow and suspended sediment loads have been monitored using three gauging stations equipped with infrared backscattering turbidimeters, ultra-sonic beam attenuation solids sensors and automatic water samplers. The combination of the two different approaches has been useful for a better perception of the dynamics of the badland systems and to assess the long-term contribution of these areas to the basin sediment loads. Badland erosion at the event scale for a period of 15 years was simulated with the KINEROS2 model and allowed the long-term comparison between badland erosion and sediment yield at the small basin scale. Badlands are the main source of sediment in the basin for most of the events, but infrequent runoff events cause the removal of sediment stores and the activation of other sediment sources. The analysis of the uncertainty of sediment yield measurements for a range of record durations demonstrated that long records are needed for obtaining acceptable results due to the high interannual variability. Relatively low-cost short-term geomorphic observations may provide information useful for assessing the long-term sediment production in these basins with badland areas only if the observations are used to implement a model able to simulate long-term observations.

  8. Changing stakeholder relationships in nature reserve management: a case study on Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Ziyan; Lassoie, James; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lixin

    2014-12-15

    The number and total area of nature reserves in China has increased rapidly over the past couple of decades; however, the ability to effectively manage these reserves has not kept pace and conflicts between conservation efforts and economic development have emerged. The Snake Island-Laotie Mountain National Nature Reserve (SILMNNR) currently is experiencing the challenges of balancing conservation with local community development. This paper uses components analysis of human ecosystems (HEC) to examine conflicts arising from the management of the nature reserve and uses a stakeholder analysis to identify and better understand stakeholder inter-relationships in the SILMNNR-HEC. The goal of this study is to identify critical factors influencing stakeholder relationships in order to find ways of relieving conflicts between the reserve management and development. The stakeholder analysis revealed that the key stakeholders in the SILMNNR-HEC are natural resources, the Liaoning SILMNNR Authority, local residents, and enterprise developers; however, there was unequal power among stakeholders in the decision making process affecting the nature reserve. The paper evaluated the conditions and processes of SILMNNR-HEC through a framework of stakeholder relationships where critical factors, such as policy, finance, technology, and labor, and their respective strengths and feedbacks among stakeholders, were assessed and showed unequal flows of power among stakeholders. Two approaches are provided for transforming the unbalanced relationships into a stable and sustainable framework to sustainably manage the nature reserve: the first is by changing stakeholder relationships from opposition to cooperation; and the second by enhancing feedbacks and dynamics among stakeholders. The analysis used in this paper can be used as a model to assess conflicts around other protected areas in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l.  in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05–0.45 to a similar (or slightly lower extent as all the measured particles (0.07–0.6 over the measured size range of 0.1–1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  10. Hydrochemistry dynamics in remote mountain lakes and its relation to catchment and atmospheric features: the case study of Sabocos Tarn, Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Zoe; Arruebo, Tomas; Urieta, José Santiago; Lanaja, Francisco Javier; Pardo, Alfonso; Matesanz, José; Rodriguez-Casals, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the understanding of high mountain lake dynamics is essential to use these remote aquatic ecosystems as proxies of global environmental changes. With this aim, at Sabocos, a Pyrenean cirque glacial lake or tarn, this study shows the main results of a morphological and catchment characterization, along with statistical analyses of its hydrochemical trends and their concomitant driving factors from 2010 to 2013. Dissolved oxygen, water temperature stratification, and its snow and ice cover composition and dynamics have been also investigated. According to morphological analyses, Sabocos can be classified as a medium-large and deep lake, having a circular contour and a long water retention time as compared to Pyrenean glacial lake average values. Sabocos hydrochemistry is mainly determined by very high alkalinity, pH and conductivity levels, and high Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and SO4(2-) content, coming from the easily weatherable limestone-dolomite bedrock. Thus, lake water is well buffered, and therefore, Sabocos tarn is non-sensitive to acidification processes. On the other hand, the main source of K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) (sea salts) and nutrients (NH4(+), NO3(-), and phosphorous) to lake water appears to be atmospheric deposition. Primary production is phosphorous limited, and due to the N-saturation stage of the poorly developed soils of Sabocos catchment, NO3(-) is the chief component in the total nitrogen pool. External temperature seems to be the major driver regulating lake productivity, since warm temperatures boot primary production. Although precipitation might also play an important role in lake dynamics, especially regarding to those parameters influenced by the weathering of the bedrock, its influence cannot be easily assessed due to the seasonal isolation produced by the ice cover. Also, as occurs in the whole Pyrenean lake district, chemical composition of bulk deposition is highly variable due to the contribution of air masses with different origin.

  11. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in the Madera Limestone, and Cutler and Chinle Formations of the Sierra Nacimiento-Jemez Mountains area, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, H.P.; O' Neill, A.J.; Dotterer, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Small, surficial, secondary uranium deposits are present in several formations in the Sierra Nacimiento-Jemez Mountains region, but none of significant size are known. Field surveys indicate that the deposits are laterally discontinuous and are, in most cases, associated with carbonaceous debris. Mineral contents of as much as 0.18 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ are recorded. There are 2 known deposits in the Pennsylvanian Madera Limestone, 18 in the Permian Cutler Formation, and 3 in the Triassic Chinle Formation. The Madera Limestone consists of a lower and an upper member. The lower member is predominantly a dense limestone and is lithologically unfavorable. The upper member, which consists of several arkosic units interbedded with cherty limestone, is not a favorable host rock because of its thin arkosic units, the paucity of carbonaceous debris, and its lithologically unfavorable limestone. The Cutler Formation consists mostly of interfingering siltstones and fine- to coarse-grained feldspathic and arkosic sandstones of fluvial origin. The sandstones are generally lenticular, average about 40 ft in thickness, and are favorable. Cutler equivalents south of lat 36/sup 0/ N. (Abo and Yeso Formations) were not included in this study. The Chinle Formation in the project area consists of five members. The Agua Zarca Member, medium-grained to conglomeratic sandstone with beds that average 30 ft in thickness, is the only unit in the Chinle considered favorable. The stratigraphic units under consideration have been eroded and deformed; beds dip steeply. Upturned and deeply dissected beds afford access to infiltrating waters; oxidation and flushing of pre-existing uranium deposits is therefore suspected. The uranium deposits in the Madera, Cutler, and Chinle are likely to be remnants, and the probability of locating any large deposits within the area is therefore low.

  12. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  13. Hierarchical Segmentation Framework for Identifying Natural Vegetation: A Case Study of the Tehachapi Mountains, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ting Liau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two critical limitations of very high resolution imagery interpretations for time-series analysis are higher imagery variances and large data sizes. Although object-based analyses with a multi-scale framework for diverse object sizes are one potential solution, more data requirements and large amounts of testing at high costs are required. In this study, I applied a three-level hierarchical vegetation framework for reducing those costs, and a three-step procedure was used to evaluate its effects on a digital orthophoto quadrangles with 1 m spatial resolution. Step one and step two were for image segmentation optimized for delineation of tree density, which involved global Otsu’s method followed by the random walker algorithm. Step three was for detailed species delineations, which were derived from multiresolution segmentation, in two test areas. Step one and step two were able to delineating tree density segments and label species association robustly, compared to previous hierarchical frameworks. However, step three was limited by less image information to produce detailed, reasonable image objects with optimal scale parameters for species labeling. This hierarchical vegetation framework has potential to develop baseline data for evaluating climate change impacts on vegetation at lower cost using widely available data and a personal laptop.

  14. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties of CH4 and CO2 Hydrate Remodeling Cores in Qilian Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CH4-CO2 replacement method has attracted global attention as a new promising method for methane hydrate exploitation. In the replacement process, the mechanical stabilities of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments have become problems requiring attention. In this paper, considering the hydrate characteristics and burial conditions of hydrate-bearing cores, sediments matrices were formed by a mixture of kaolin clay and quartz sand, and an experimental study was focused on the failure strength of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under different conditions to verify the mechanical reliability of CH4-CO2 replacement in permafrost-associated natural gas deposits. A series of triaxial shear tests were conducted on the CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under temperatures of −20, −10, and −5 °C, confining pressures of 2.5, 3.75, 5, 7.5, and 10 MPa, and a strain rate of 1.0 mm/min. The results indicated that the failure strength of the CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments was higher than that of the CH4 hydrate-bearing sediments under different confining pressures and temperatures; the failure strength of the CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments increased with an increase in confining pressure at a low confining pressure state. Besides that, the failure strength of all hydrate-bearing sediments decreased with an increase in temperature; all the failure strengths of the CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments were higher than those of the CH4 hydrate-bearing sediments in different sediment matrices. The experiments proved that the hydrate-bearing sediments would be more stable than that before CH4-CO2 replacement.

  16. Risk factors for coliform bacteria in backcountry lakes and streams in the Sierra Nevada mountains: a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, Robert W; Ger, K Ali; Richards, John R; Carlson, James R

    2008-01-01

    To provide a 5-year longitudinal assessment of risk of acquiring disease from Sierra Nevada Wilderness area lakes and streams. This study examines the relative risk factors for harmful water microorganisms, using coliforms as an indicator. Streams and lakes in the backcountry of Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks and neighboring wilderness areas were selected and water was analyzed each year over a 5-year period. A total of 364 samples from lakes or streams were chosen to statistically differentiate the risk categories based on land usage, as follows: 1) areas rarely visited by humans (Wild), 2) human day-use-only areas (Day Hike), 3) areas used by backpackers with overnight camping allowed (Backpack), 4) areas primarily impacted by horses or pack animals (Pack Animal), and 5) cattle and sheep grazing tracts (Cattle). Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis using standardized techniques. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed utilizing Fisher exact test and analysis of variance. A total of 364 sampling sites were analyzed. Coliforms were found in 9% (4/47) of Wild site samples, 12% (5/42) of Day Hike site samples, and 18% (20/111) of Backpacker site samples. In contrast, 63% (70/111) of Pack Animal site samples yielded coliforms, and 96% (51/53) of samples from the Cattle areas grew coliforms. Differences between Backpacker vs Cattle or Pack Animal areas were significant at P

  17. Study on the Microstructures and Seismic Anisotropy of Blueschist and Eclogite from Ring Mountain and Jenner in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA, Y.; Jung, H.; Raymond, L. A.; Bero, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been found in many subduction zones. During subduction of slab, the oceanic crust changes to blueschist and eclogite. Since minerals in blueschist are very anisotropic elastically, seismic properties in the subducting slab can be attributed to the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of these minerals. We studied microstructures and seismic properties of blueschist and eclogite from Ring Mt. and Jenner in California. Blueschist samples are mainly composed of glaucophane, epidote and phengite. Eclogite samples are mostly composed of omphacite, glaucophane, epidote and garnet. We determined LPOs of minerals using SEM/EBSD technique and calculated seismic properties of minerals and whole rocks. LPOs of glaucophane showed [001] axes are aligned subparallel to lineation, and both (110) poles and [100] axes subnormal to foliation. Glaucophane in samples from Jenner, however, exhibited [001] axes forming a girdle subparallel to lineation. Seismic anisotropy of glaucophane was stronger in samples from Ring Mt. than those from Jenner. Epidote showed [001] axes are aligned subnormal to foliation and (110) and (010) poles subparallel to lineation. LPOs of phengite were characterized by a maximum of [001] axes normal to foliation, with (110) and (010) poles and [100] axes aligning in a weak girdle parallel to foliation. Phengite showed the strongest seismic anisotropy among major minerals. LPOs of omphacite showed [001] axes are aligned subparallel to lineation and [010] axes subnormal to foliation. Seismic anisotropy of omphacite was very weak. Blueschist from Ring Mt. showed stronger seismic anisotropy than those from Jenner. Especially, blueschist including abundant phengite showed very strong seismic anisotropy (AVP=30%, max.AVS=23%). Eclogite showed much weaker seismic anisotropy (AVP=7%, max.AVS=6%) than blueschist (AVP=12-30%, max.AVS=9-23%). Therefore, strong seismic anisotropy observed in subduction zone can be more affected by blueschist than

  18. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  19. Mental health problems among children and adolescents experiencing two major earthquakes in remote mountainous regions: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Zhao, Jingdong; Lu, Yi; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jiuping

    2017-01-01

    Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder. A total of 435 Chinese children and adolescents who survived the 2013 Ya'an earthquake were recruited from six primary, secondary and high schools in Baoxing County. All survivors were assessed at 12months after the disaster, when a trained psychiatrist assessed mental health problems in a face-to-face structured interview, and 153 survivors were followed up at 30months after the earthquake via telephone. The 12-month assessment indicated a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence of 43.9% as well as depression (20.9%) or the criteria for both PTSD and depression (18.2%) and the other disorder (0.9%). The 30-month assessment indicated that 15.7% of subjects met the criteria for PTSD, 21.6% met the criteria for depression. No subjects met the criteria for other affective or anxiety disorders. Significant predictors of PTSD and depression were death in the family, previous earthquake experience, a poor parent-child relationship and economic pressure or poverty. Clinical interview face to face is quite different from via telephone and the attrition rate in the longitudinal cohort is high, which would directly affect our results of the assessment. PTSD and depression may be as prevalent and persistent in disaster victims in China as elsewhere, and high co-comorbidities remain poorly understood. Although many adolescents recover over time, some exhibit chronic, delayed-onset PTSD and depression, especially those with poor relationships with their parents or those living

  20. Estimates of cloud water deposition at mountain acid deposition program sites in the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph E. Baumgardner, Jr.; Selma S. Isil; Thomas F. Lavery; Christopher M. Rogers; Volker A. Mohnen [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman s Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman s Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} greater than 50 kg/ha and NO{sub 3}{sup -} rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} on the order of 6 20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80 90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition. 56 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs., 1 app.

  1. Mountain Snow System Interactions - An Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C. C.; Painter, T. H.; Barrett, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    Snow scientists now have capabilities and opportunities unimagined in the 1950's due to refinements in field techniques and instrumentation, and the advent of remote sensing platforms. These technical advances enable snow scientists to observe the mountain snow system at virtually any spatial scale. Mountain snow covers are essential water resources in many regions and are increasingly recognized as sensitive bellwethers of global change. Earth system science requires datasets that capture the 'vital signs' of system states and interactions at multiple spatio/temporal scales. Snowmelt processes are influenced by complex interactions that occur over a range of spatial scales. Surface energy exchange states and storage of melt water within the snowpack are expected to dominate snowmelt at the point scale. At larger spatial scales, the influence on lateral movement of water through the snowpack by basin topography and stream network traits may begin to dominate runoff. At still larger scales, reductions in basin- scale snow albedo caused by aerosols or dusts originating from distant sources may become the dominant forcing agent. Models based on an understanding of snowpack processes at the point scale will tend to allow point-scale processes to dominate when integrated to the basin scale. Knowledge of how processes at different scales interact, and which processes dominate at which scales, is essential to the development of new models. Traditional snow observation protocols and existing datasets often fail to capture or represent earth-surface interactions and processes in ways that enhance the integrated investigation of the mountain snow system as a system. The Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies and its collaborators seek to facilitate the interdisciplinary, integrative development of a ?mountain snow system observation protocol? or MSSOP. A multi-modal, multi-scale, integrative MSSOP observation set would identify proxy measures of system behavior for routine

  2. Sorption-desorption studies on tuff. II. Continuation of studies with samples from Jackass Flats, Nevada and initial studies with samples from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.N.; Aguilar, R.D.; Bayhurst, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    Distruibution coefficients were determined by a static (batch) technique for sorption-desorption of radionuclides between tuffs from drill holes UE25a No. 1 and J-13 at the Nevada Test Site and water from well J-13. Measurements were performed under atmospheric and controlled atmosphere conditions. Under atmospheric conditions tuffs high in zeolite minerals had sorption ratios of {similar_to}10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} ml/g with Sr, Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, Am, and Pu. For tuffs similar mineralogically to a microgranite the sorption ratios were {similar_to}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} ml/g. Values for U and Tc were obtained under controlled atmosphere (< 0.2 ppM 0{sub 2}) conditions. Studies were also begun to measure distribution ratios by a dynamic (column) technique. The ratios obtained for the elements studied, Sr, Cs, and Ba, were similar to, although lower than, those obtained by batch methods.

  3. Safer mountain climbing using the climbing heartbeat index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Akio; Nose, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    As the numbers of middle-aged and elderly mountain climbers have increased with the general aging of the population, accidents during mountain climbing have increased recently. A possible cause of such accidents is an excessively difficult expedition plan. To enjoy safe mountain climbing, the plans must take account of the climber's fitness level. We developed a method to plan mountain climbing using the climbing heartbeat index (CHI). This study is based on the assumption that the work expended when climbing a mountain is equal to the potential energy of the body and load weights elevated to the height of the mountain, and that the work is proportional to the heart rate. The CHI was calculated by the following equation The CHI values examined in this study ( n = 94) showed very small standard deviations and were significantly correlated with the maximum oxygen uptake, .VO(2 max) (ml kg(-1) min(-1)) ( r = -0.934, P < 0.01); it showed a characteristic value corresponding to the fitness level in each subject. In addition, this value remained nearly unchanged even when the load was changed. Therefore, if the CHI value of an individual is known (it can be estimated from .VO(2 max)), safer mountain climbing can be planned accordingly. Once determined, this CHI value can be used repeatedly unless the fitness level of the individual changes.

  4. Predicting spatial patterns of eagle migration using a mesoscale atmospheric model: a case study associated with a mountain-ridge wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, B; Alexander, N; Johnston, N; Bradley, J; Pomeroy, A C; Jackson, P L; Otter, K A

    2014-01-01

    High resolution numerical atmospheric modeling around a mountain ridge in Northeastern British Columbia (BC), Canada was performed in order to examine the influence of meteorology and topography on Golden Eagle migration pathways at the meso-scale (tens of km). During three eagle fall migration periods (2007-2009), local meteorological conditions on the day of peak bird counts were modeled using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. Hourly local surface wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure and relative humidity were also monitored during these migration periods. Eagle migration flight paths were observed from the ground and converted to three-dimensional tracks using ArcGIS. The observed eagle migration flight paths were compared with the modeled vertical velocity wind fields. Flight tracks across the study area were also simulated using the modeled vertical velocity field in a migration model based on a fluid-flow analogy. It was found that both the large-scale weather conditions and the horizontal wind fields across the study area were broadly similar on each of the modeled migration days. Nonetheless, the location and density of flight tracks across the domain varied between days, with the 2007 event producing more tracks to the southwest of the observation location than the other 2 days. The modeled wind fields suggest that it is not possible for the eagles to traverse the study area without leaving updraft regions, but birds do converge on the locations of updrafts as they move through the area. Statistical associations between observed eagles positions and the vertical velocity field suggest that to the northwest (and to a lesser extent the southwest) of the main study ridge (Johnson col), eagles can always find updrafts but that they must pass through downdraft regions in the NE and SE as they make their way across the study area. Finally, the simulated flight tracks based on the fluid-flow model and the vertical

  5. Mountain Braking Test Venue Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    FMVSS 105 Inertia Brake Dynamometer Test Procedure for vehicles above 4 540 kg GVWR; FMVSS Test Sequence, 2nd Fade Section,” November 2011.(15) Scope...Test Brake Temperature and Speed The U.S. Department of Defense Army Tank Purchase Description 2354A (ATPD-2354A) includes dynamometer test...11, March 1992. [12] "Performance Requirements for Determining Tow -Vehicle Gross Combination Weight Rating and Trailer Weight Rating", SAE Surface

  6. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and...

  7. [Budget Summary Forms : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains three detailed budget summaries for terrestrial mammal studies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal; American Badger, European Starling, and Deer...

  8. Ski mountaineering competition: fit for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Kai; Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Ferrari, Marcello

    2011-03-01

    To examine the physiological characteristics of experienced ski mountaineers and to determine the physical demands of ski mountaineering competition. Descriptive field study. An international ski mountaineering competition characterized by 20 400 m distance and 1869 m altitude difference that took place in March 2009 in the South Tyrolean Alps (Italy). Nine healthy and experienced male ski mountaineers. Bioimpedance measurements for body composition definition; maximal exercise testing (Bruce protocol) to determine maximal heart rate (HRmax), maximal oxygen uptake (.VO2max), and ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and to define individual exercise intensity zones; HR registration during competition. Exercise intensity distribution, occurrence of respiratory symptoms. Ventilatory thresholds were found on average at 70.5% ± 5.0% (VT1) and 90.9% ± 2.6% (VT2) of .VO2max (68.18 ± 6.11 mL·kg⁻¹·minute⁻¹). The overall exercise intensity, defined by the ratio between mean HR during competition and maximal HR in the laboratory (0.87 ± 0.02), was high. Partial times (% of race time) spent competing in 4 defined performance zones were on average 20.4% ± 17.0% (maximal intensity), 59.8% ± 12.5% (high intensity), 12.8% ± 5.6% (moderate intensity), and 7.0% ± 5.9% (low intensity). Five participants reported respiratory discomfort during competition, with cough being the most frequent symptom. Statistical analysis revealed percent body fat mass to correlate with the partial time performed above VT2 (r = 0.782, P < 0.05); the latter was associated with a worse final placement (r = 0.734, P < 0.05). Competitive ski mountaineering is characterized by an important cardiopulmonary strain and requires a high degree of physical fitness.

  9. Impacts of glacier recession and declining meltwater on mountain societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, Mark; Molden, Olivia C.; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Glacierized mountains are often referred to as our world's water towers because glaciers both store water over time and regulate seasonal stream flow, releasing runoff during dry seasons when societies most need water. Ice loss thus has the potential to affect human societies in diverse ways, inc...... around ice and climate. By systematically evaluating human impacts in different mountain regions, the article strives to stimulate cross-regional thinking and inspire new studies on glaciers, hydrology, risk, adaptation, and human–environment interactions in mountain regions....

  10. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  11. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornack, M.P. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (USA); French, C.A. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Effect of latitude and mountain height on the timberline (Betula pubescens ssp. czerpanovii elevation along the central Scandinavian mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Odland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously published isoline maps of Fennoscandian timberlines show that their highest elevations lie in the high mountain areas in central south Norway and from there the limits decrease in all directions. These maps are assumed to show differences in “climatic forest limits”, but the isoline patterns indicate that factors other than climate may be decisive in most of the area. Possibly the effects of ‘massenerhebung’ and the “summit syndrome” may locally have major effects on the timberline elevation. The main aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of latitude and mountain height on the regional variation of mountain birch timberline elevation. The study is a statistical analysis of previous published data on the timberline elevation and nearby mountain height. Selection of the study sites has been stratified to the Scandinavian mountain range (the Scandes from 58 to 71o N where the timberlines reach their highest elevations. The data indicates that only the high mountain massifs in S Norway and N Sweden are sufficiently high to allow birch forests to reach their potential elevations. Stepwise regression shows that latitude explains 70.9% while both latitude and mountain explain together 89.0% of the timberline variation. Where the mountains are low (approximately 1000 m higher than the measured local timberlines effects of the summit syndrome will lower the timberline elevation substantially and climatically determined timberlines will probably not have been reached. This indicates that models of future timberlines and thereby the alpine area extent in a warmer world may result in unrealistic conclusions without taking account of local mountain heights.

  13. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF FORESTS VEGETATION FROM THE SUPERIOR MOUNTAIN LEVEL OF HĂŞMAŞUL MARE MASSIF (EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological conditions specific to the researched territory have favoured installation of a wooden vegetation represented by mountain beech forests, beech and resinous mixed forests and pure spruce-fir forests. Locally, on limited areas and superficial soils, relict pine phytocoenosis have been identified. Two plant communities from Vaccinio – Piceetea Br.-Bl. 1939 and Erico – Pinetea Horv. 1959 classes are presented and analysed in this paper from the bioforms, floristic elements and ecological requests perspectives.

  15. The Quantitative Analysis of Land Use Structure Characteristics of County in Mountainous Areas in Sichuan Province of China-A Case Study of Rong County

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Chen; Song, Xing; Deng, Liang-ji

    2011-01-01

    Based on me data concerning detailed survey on land in the year 2009 and land change in the year 2010 in Rong County, a mountainous region of Sichuan Province, by using quantitative geographical model, we conduct quantitative analysis of the status quo of land use in Rong County in terms of land use diversification, land use centralization, land use combination type, land use geographic significance and comprehensive use degree of land use. m e results show some characteristics as follows. Fi...

  16. Preliminary study of food habits in the Japanese clawed salamander larvae (Onychodactylus japonicus) in a mountain brook of the Kiso River system

    OpenAIRE

    Teruhiko, Takahara; Motomi, Genkai-Kato; Hitoshi, MIYASAKA; Yukihiro, Kohmatsu

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate food habits of the Japanese clawed salamander larvae (Onychodactylus japonicus), we examined stomach contents of 22 individuals collected from a natural mountain brook in a tributary of the Kurokawa River in Kiso Fukushima, Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Their diet composition did not differ between fast and slow current conditions. The diet reflected the natural benthos communities of the brook, in which mayfly nymphs and caddisfly larvae accounted for 70–88%. The salamander l...

  17. Space distribution, volume and structure of lodging facilities in the mountains of Slovenia: Case studies of the Bled lake, Bohinj, Bohinjska Bistrica, and Bovec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the assessment of the mountain tourism in the region, the authors chose the mountain Triglav ( Slovenia, and some of the most visited destinations on the mountain, in relation to the speed of reaching the necessary level of service quality, while keeping in mind that, twenty years ago, Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia, just like Serbia. Slovenia has developed its own standards for defining specific areas suitable for the development of sports and recreational tourism. Such destinations are well marked and labeled; there are entire systems of bike route maps, bike and hiking trails, as well as the additional opportunities for engaging in complementary activities within certain sections (horseback riding, paintball, paragliding, etc.. Destinations have thematically arranged accommodation facilities, adapted to the requirements of sports and recreational tourists, whether it refers to hotels, campsites and tourist farms, they have well-trained staff (tour guide; in each destination, there are points where tourists can rent a bike and service it. In this sense, the aim of the paper is to show the condition of hotel offer for the Bled Lake, Bohinj, Bohinjska Bistrica, and Bovec, and the purpose of this paper is to exploit the situation observed for the development of the concrete innovative projects, which will elaborate a system of partnership that would contribute to sustainable development, encouraging entrepreneurship and a greater number of tourists on the mountains in Serbia. The methodology comprised field research and data collection through direct examination of the various managers of different hotel establishments, and tourism organizations of municipalities, various sport clubs, Slovenian societies and associations. The benchmark analysis was also used in order to compare the state of accommodation facilities with storage capacities in Serbia, with the aim of improving the state of accommodation capacities in Serbia.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of mountain peat bogs restoration measures on the groundwater level: case study Rokytka peat bog, the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Doležal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates measures taken to restore mountain Peat Bogs and their effect on hydrological regime, with the main focus on groundwater levels. The level of groundwater is a key factor in maintaining the character of mountain Peat Bogs and the main objective of restoration is to increase and stabilize the groundwater level in disturbed Peat Bogs. At the same time, the paper provides a complex overview of the topic, which is being often discussed nowadays, mostly due to a big retention potential of mountain Peat Bogs. The paper is based on detailed measurements of groundwater levels in a selected experimental drainage ditch in the catchment of the Rokytka stream. Basic statistical characteristics, the equation of Penman-Montheit or antecedent precipitation index were used to show the dependence of groundwater level on precipitation or evapotranspiration. The results show a positive influence of the restoration measures on Peat Bogs. In this case it has been confirmed that restoration measures cause increase of groundwater level and decrease its fluctuation in the Peat Bog.

  19. Experimental studies of anomalous radon activity in the Tlamacas Mountain, Popocatepetl Volcano area, México: new tools to study lithosphere-atmosphere coupling for forecasting volcanic and seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Lopez Cruz Abeyro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents and discusses the results of soil radon monitoring at three different volcano sites and one reference site, from December 2007 to January 2009. This relates to the activity of the Popocatepetl Volcano and a radon survey and gamma-ray spectrometry in the area between Paso de Cortes and Tlamacas Mountain, and in the adjacent regions. The results are applied to the aspects of atmosphere electricity and lithosphere-atmosphere coupling in relation to the forecasting of volcano and earthquake activity. The monitoring of radon release reveals a decrease in radon concentration (down to total suppression with approaching moderate volcanic eruptions. The behavior of the radon activity at the Tlamacas site is more apparent, compared to other observational sites. The average level of radon release observed at the Tlamacas site is much higher, with some characteristic variations. Both the radon survey and gamma-ray spectrometry indicate intensive diffusion radon emission localized in the area of Tlamacas Mountain. The average radon concentration in the area of Tlamacas is about 10-20-fold greater than the background volcano values. The new concept of lithosphere-atmosphere coupling is presented: intensive radon release in high elevated areas shortens and modifies the Earth-to-thunderclouds electric circuit, which provokes microdischarges into the air close to the ground, attracting lightning discharges. This concept attempts to explain in a new way the noise-like geomagnetic emissions registered before major earthquakes, and it promotes interest for the study of thunderstorm activity in seismo-active zones, as a promising instrument for earthquake forecasting.

  20. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Athena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health Initiative (BFHI is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23% have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the

  1. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of landslides in volcanic areas - a case study from the Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco Mountain Range, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Rodríguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Schwindt, Daniel; Bücker, Matthias; Flores Orozco, Adrián; García García, Emilio; Pita de la Paz, Carlos; Terhorst, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    The Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco mountain range, situated in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, is highly susceptible to landslides, which is evidenced by the high frequency of landslide events of different sizes. The study area is located near the Gulf of Mexico coastline in the eastern sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. There, landslide triggers are intense rainfalls related to tropical storms and hurricanes. Steeper slopes are commonly affected by rockfalls, whereas moderate slopes, covered by massive slope deposits, are affected by shallow as well as deep seated landslides. Some of the landslides in the slope deposits reach dimensions of more than 1000 m in length and depths of over 30 m. The heterogeneous parent material as well as older slide masses hamper the detailed characterization of the involved materials. Therefore, in this study, a multidisciplinary approach is applied that integrates geomorphological, geological, and geophysical data. The aim is the reconstruction of process dynamics by analyzing the geomorphological situation and subsurface conditions before and after the event. The focus lies on the identification of past landslide areas, which represent areas with high susceptibility for the reactivation of old slide masses. Furthermore, the analysis of digital terrain models, generated before the landslide event, indicate initial movements like extension cracks, which are located close to the current scarp area. In order to characterize the subsurface of slide masses geophysical investigations are applied. The geophysical survey consists of a total of nine profiles covering relevant key features of the large affected area. Along these profiles, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) data were collected. Both, electrical and seismic images reveal a sharp contrast between relatively loose and dry material of the slide mass (high resistivities and low seismic velocities) and the former land surface that is

  2. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

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    Tian-Pei Guan

    Full Text Available The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39 and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29 over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4% and Caopo (7.4%, but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2% and increased (84.6% at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001, showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair

  3. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to

  4. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  5. The Energetics during the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon-A Case Study at the Tor des Geants®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldelli, Aldo; Fornasiero, Alessandro; Trabucchi, Pietro; Limonta, Eloisa; La Torre, Antonio; Degache, Francis; Pellegrini, Barbara; Millet, Grégoire P; Vernillo, Gianluca; Schena, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM). Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day) with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter. We then calculated the net metabolic cost per unit of distance (C), the vertical metabolic cost (C vert ) and the mechanical efficiency of locomotion (Eff mech ) throughout the six uphills monitored. We further monitored the distance covered, speed, altimetry and D+ from the GPS data as well as the pulse oxygen saturation with the finger pulse oximeter. Results: Subject's [Formula: see text] was 48.1 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 . Throughout the six uphills investigated the mean exercise intensity was 57.3 ± 6.0% [Formula: see text] and 68.0 ± 8.7% HR peak . C, C vert and Eff mech were 11.4 ± 1.9 J·kg -1 ·m -1 , 57.9 ± 15.2 J·kg -1 ·[Formula: see text], and 17.7 ± 4.8%, respectively. The exercise intensity, as well as C, C vert , and Eff mech did not consistently increase during the MUM. Conclusions: For the first time, we described the feasibility of assessing the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of a MUM in ecologically valid environment settings. The present case study shows that, despite the distance performed during the MUM, our participant did not experience a metabolic fatigue state. This is likely due to improvements in locomotor efficiency as the race progressed.

  6. The Energetics during the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon—A Case Study at the Tor des Geants®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Savoldelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM.Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter. We then calculated the net metabolic cost per unit of distance (C, the vertical metabolic cost (Cvert and the mechanical efficiency of locomotion (Effmech throughout the six uphills monitored. We further monitored the distance covered, speed, altimetry and D+ from the GPS data as well as the pulse oxygen saturation with the finger pulse oximeter.Results: Subject's V˙O2peak was 48.1 mL·kg−1·min−1. Throughout the six uphills investigated the mean exercise intensity was 57.3 ± 6.0% V˙O2peak and 68.0 ± 8.7% HRpeak. C, Cvert and Effmech were 11.4 ± 1.9 J·kg−1·m−1, 57.9 ± 15.2 J·kg−1·mvert−1, and 17.7 ± 4.8%, respectively. The exercise intensity, as well as C, Cvert, and Effmech did not consistently increase during the MUM.Conclusions: For the first time, we described the feasibility of assessing the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of a MUM in ecologically valid environment settings. The present case study shows that, despite the distance performed during the MUM, our participant did not experience a metabolic fatigue state. This is likely due to improvements in locomotor efficiency as the race progressed.

  7. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  8. Intercomparison and validation of MODIS and GLASS leaf area index (LAI) products over mountain areas: A case study in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huaan; Li, Ainong; Bian, Jinhu; Nan, Xi; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhengjian; Yin, Gaofei

    2017-03-01

    The validation study of leaf area index (LAI) products over rugged surfaces not only gives additional insights into data quality of LAI products, but deepens understanding of uncertainties regarding land surface process models depended on LAI data over complex terrain. This study evaluated the performance of MODIS and GLASS LAI products using the intercomparison and direct validation methods over southwestern China. The spatio-temporal consistencies, such as the spatial distributions of LAI products and their statistical relationship as a function of topographic indices, time, and vegetation types, respectively, were investigated through intercomparison between MODIS and GLASS products during the period 2011-2013. The accuracies and change ranges of these two products were evaluated against available LAI reference maps over 10 sampling regions which standed for typical vegetation types and topographic gradients in southwestern China. The results show that GLASS LAI exhibits higher percentage of good quality data (i.e. successful retrievals) and smoother temporal profiles than MODIS LAI. The percentage of successful retrievals for MODIS and GLASS is vulnerable to topographic indices, especially to relief amplitude. Besides, the two products do not capture seasonal dynamics of crop, especially in spring over heterogeneously hilly regions. The yearly mean LAI differences between MODIS and GLASS are within ±0.5 for 64.70% of the total retrieval pixels over southwestern China. The spatial distribution of mean differences and temporal profiles of these two products are inclined to be dominated by vegetation types other than topographic indices. The spatial and temporal consistency of these two products is good over most area of grasses/cereal crops; however, it is poor for evergreen broadleaf forest. MODIS presents more reliable change range of LAI than GLASS through comparison with fine resolution reference maps over most of sampling regions. The accuracies of direct

  9. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: a study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Gribble, Karleen; Sheehan, Athena; Taylor, Christine; Dykes, Fiona C

    2011-08-31

    The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to disseminate and implement BFHI need to be

  10. Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a research institution focusing on processes and mechanisms of mountain environmental variation and its ecological regulation in China, especially in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. By studying the movement of soil and water, as well as the material circulation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and more, the laboratory aims to reveal processes and mechanisms of mountain environmental variation specific to soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution, the vulnerability of mountain environments, and responses and adaptations of mountain environments under global change. Based on this, it seeks to propose countermeasures of environmental conservation and ecological control in mountain areas and to provide scientific evidence and technical support for sustainable development and ecological security in mountainous areas of China.

  11. Genetic analysis of scats reveals minimum number and sex of recently documented mountain lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Ashwin; Smythe, Lindsay A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Recent records of mountain lions Puma concolor and concurrent declines in desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona, United States, have prompted investigations to estimate the number of mountain lions occurring there. We performed noninvasive genetic analyses and identified species, individuals, and sex from scat samples collected from the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains. From 105 scats collected, we identified a minimum of 11 individual mountain lions. These individuals consisted of six males, two females and three of unknown sex. Three of the 11 mountain lions were identified multiple times over the study period. These estimates supplement previously recorded information on mountain lions in an area where they were historically considered only transient. We demonstrate that noninvasive genetic techniques, especially when used in conjunction with camera-trap and radiocollaring methods, can provide additional and reliable information to wildlife managers, particularly on secretive species like the mountain lion.

  12. Budesonide Versus Acetazolamide for Prevention of Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Grant S; Pomeranz, David; Burns, Patrick; Phillips, Caleb; Cheffers, Mary; Evans, Kristina; Jurkiewicz, Carrie; Juul, Nick; Hackett, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Inhaled budesonide has been suggested as a novel prevention for acute mountain sickness. However, efficacy has not been compared with the standard acute mountain sickness prevention medication acetazolamide. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial compared inhaled budesonide versus oral acetazolamide versus placebo, starting the morning of ascent from 1240 m (4100 ft) to 3810 m (12,570 ft) over 4 hours. The primary outcome was acute mountain sickness incidence (headache and Lake Louise Questionnaire ≥3 and another symptom). A total of 103 participants were enrolled and completed the study; 33 (32%) received budesonide, 35 (34%) acetazolamide, and 35 (34%) placebo. Demographics were not different between the groups (P > .09). Acute mountain sickness prevalence was 73%, with severe acute mountain sickness of 47%. Fewer participants in the acetazolamide group (n = 15, 43%) developed acute mountain sickness compared with both budesonide (n = 24, 73%) (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-10.1) and placebo (n = 22, 63%) (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.2). Severe acute mountain sickness was reduced with acetazolamide (n = 11, 31%) compared with both budesonide (n = 18, 55%) (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1-7.2) and placebo (n = 19, 54%) (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-1), with a number needed to treat of 4. Budesonide was ineffective for the prevention of acute mountain sickness, and acetazolamide was preventive of severe acute mountain sickness taken just before rapid ascent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rootless Mountains and Gravity Lows in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Southern Colorado-Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, L.; Keller, G. R.; Andronicos, C.; Quezada, O.

    2004-12-01

    Gravity lows over large portions of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the southern Rocky Mountains are a geophysical curiosity. Two very low gravity anomalies in the continental United States are found in southern Colorado, in the San Juan Mountains and in the Colorado Mineral belt. Gravity modeling implies that these gravity lows may be attributed to granitic batholiths emplaced at a shallow depth. However, low gravity anomalies along the Sangre de Cristo Mountains cannot be attributed to subsurface batholiths. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are largely composed of Proterozoic basement and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Exposed and uplifted, this presumably dense, Proterozoic basement in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains should be associated with gravity highs, but this is not the case. In this study, we focused on two gravity lows in northern New Mexico-southern Colorado. One is centered over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in Colorado and northernmost New Mexico, and the other is located near Mora, New Mexico. The northern low can be attributed to Precambrian rocks being thrust over less dense Paleozoic rocks resulting in a rootless basement. In the Mora area, the low is attributed to unusually low-density Precambrian granitic rocks (the 1.68 Ga Guadalupita pluton) underlying a thick sequence.

  14. The influence of organic matter decay on the distribution of major and trace elements in ombrotrophic mires - a case study from the Harz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Harald; Hermanns, Yvonne-Marie; Martinez Cortizas, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Mires are frequently used as environmental archives of historical atmospheric deposition of trace elements and pollutants. This approach assumes that the elements of concern are immobile in the peat through time and space, because they are associated with dust particles or strongly bound to the organic substrate. Based on this assumption, records of element concentrations or accumulation rates are believed to reflect solely atmospheric fluxes. However, the influence of organic matter decomposition processes on element records in peat has only been poorly investigated. Here we present a study on the influence of peat decomposition and related mass loss on the fate of lithogenic elements (Si, Ti, Zr), metals and submetals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ca, Zn, Pb, As, Hg) and organically bound elements (Cl, Br) in three ombrotrophic mires located in the Harz mountains, Germany. Concentrations in peat have been directly determined by means of micro-XRF and by CVAAS (Hg). Changes in peat decomposition and mass loss were based on C/N ratios. The identification of the main process affecting the concentrations of the elements in peat was statistically evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that long term trends of decreasing peat decomposition towards the mires' surface are similar in the three bogs, but there is some within-bog variability on a short time scale. Concentration records of most of the investigated elements are strongly influenced by peat decomposition processes. Zirconium, Ti and Si, which are predominately hosted in dust particles, are exponentially enriched by mass (carbon) loss and increasing particle density during peat decay. The biophyllic (N) and organically bound elements (Cl and Br) are linearly enriched through mass loss and not affected by changes in particle density. Redox-sensitive elements (Fe, Mn, Cr) and the mobile nutrients Ca and Zn are assumed to be initially bound to the organic substrate but released and recycled during peat decay

  15. Thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions from organic and inorganic studies: the case history of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolese, Matteo; Stefano Celano, Antonio; Corrado, Sveva; Caricchi, Chiara; Schito, Andrea; Aldega, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The rapid increase in shale gas production in the USA has triggered a growing interest in unconventional resources in Eastern and Northern Europe. In this framework, the potential shale gas reserves in Poland are the most promising in Europe, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Ukraine border. In this area, the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins have already become objective of shale gas exploration and the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM, Central Poland) represents the outcropping analog of the buried targeted Lower Paleozoic successions, providing a unique opportunity to study and assess source rock potential. In this work, we provide new thermal maturity data of Paleozoic rocks exposed in the HCM. A multi-method approach, coupling organic matter/graptolites (i.e., marine organoclasts) optical analysis and X-ray diffraction of clay-sized fraction of sediments, was applied to constrain the burial - thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. The investigated area of the HCM includes two different tectonic blocks: the Łysogóry region to the North and the Kielce region to the South, separated by the Holy Cross Fault (HCF). lllite content in mixed layer illite-smectite determinations and vitrinite/graptolites reflectance measurements (Roeq%), performed on samples (Cambrian - Devonian) collected from both the regions, show a substantial difference between the two blocks in terms of thermal maturity and burial history. Roeq% values in the southern block range from 0.5% to 1.0%, with few exceptions, indicating early to mid-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Samples collected in the northern block show much higher values, mainly from 1.2% up to 1.7%, representative of the gas generation window. The I-S ordering type also shows relevant differences in the two blocks. In the southern block, mixed-layered clay minerals varies from R1 (short-range) to R3 (long-range), whereas R3 structures are recorded in the northern block. Vitrinite reflectance and mixed-layer I

  16. Mountain medical kits: epidemiology-based recommendations and analysis of medical supplies carried by mountain climbers in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, William E; Locke, Brian W

    2017-03-01

    : To provide medical kit recommendations for short mountain wilderness recreation trips (hiking, trekking, backpacking, mountaineering etc.) based on the epidemiology of injury and illness sustained and best treatment guidelines. Additionally, to compare these recommendations to the medical kit contents of mountain climbers in Colorado. : A primary literature review concerning the epidemiology of injury and illness in mountain wilderness settings was performed. This information and literature on the efficacy of given treatments were used to derive recommendations for an evidence-based medical kit. The contents of 158 medical kits and the most likely demographics to carry them were compiled from surveys obtained from mountain climbers on 11 of Colorado's 14 000-foot peaks. : Musculoskeletal trauma, strains, sprains and skin wounds were the most common medical issues reported in the 11 studies, which met inclusion criteria. Adhesive bandages (Band-Aids) were the most common item and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most common medication carried in medical kits in Colorado. More than 100 distinct items were reported overall. : Mountain climbing epidemiology and current clinical guidelines suggest that a basic mountain medical kit should include items for body substance isolation, materials for immobilization, pain medications, wound care supplies, and medications for gastrointestinal upset and flu-like illness. The medical kits of Colorado mountain climbers varied considerable and often lacked essential items such as medical gloves. This suggests a need for increased guidance. Similar methodology could be used to inform medical kits for other outdoor activities, mountain rescue personnel, and travel to areas with limited formal medical care.

  17. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat

  18. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  19. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  20. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  1. Camera Geolocation From Mountain Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    be reliably extracted from query images. However, in real-life scenarios the skyline in a query image may be blurred or invisible , due to occlusions...extracted from multiple mountain ridges is critical to reliably geolocating challenging real-world query images with blurred or invisible mountain skylines...Buddemeier, A. Bissacco, F. Brucher, T. Chua, H. Neven, and J. Yagnik, “Tour the world: building a web -scale landmark recognition engine,” in Proc. of

  2. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

  3. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  4. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    to manage nuclear waste, including spent fuel reprocessing. One of the studies, by a consortium led by the French firm Areva , called a government...1936). In a 2008 report for GNEP, a consortium led by the French nuclear firm Areva recommended that U.S. spent fuel be reprocessed overseas from...shipment rate to Yucca Mountain. Many decades would be required to implement a reprocessing and recycling strategy. For example, the Areva consortium

  5. How thawing ground ice can affect the mobility of landslides: the case study of Móafellshyrna Mountain in northern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Costanza; Conway, Susan J.; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Balme, Matthew R.; Kristinn Helgason, Jón; Jordan, Colm; Hillier, John; Argles, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The risks associated with permafrost degradation in Arctic and alpine environments have received growing attention, but few studies address the effects of thawing ground ice on the landscape of Iceland. Permafrost degradation can affect slope stability [1], but its role in conditioning mass movements in Iceland is poorly understood. Our study focusses on the effects of ground-ice on the behaviour and mobility of landslides, using a case study in northern Iceland to assess the morphology and mobility of the unstable mass. Characterizing this kind of landslide is crucial in order to mitigate the risks of similar landslides that might occur in the future. The landslide occurred in 2012 on the northwest-facing flank of Móafellshyrna Mountain (Tröllaskagi peninsula, Iceland), mobilising about 500,000 m3 of debris. Immediately after the failure, we observed large blocks of ice-cemented sediments both in the main body of the landslide and perched on a topographic bench - the source of the failure. The landslide originated at 870 m a.s.l., an altitude that corresponds to the modelled elevation limits of the discontinuous permafrost in northern Iceland [2]. The failure happened after an unusually warm and dry summer, followed by weeks of heavy precipitation (440 mm during the month before the event, when the mean annual precipitation here is 670 mm) and earthquake activity (three events, all above 4 M on the Richter scale). We present the results of our analysis of the Móafellshyrna landslide. Our study includes differential GPS, Ground Penetrating Radar and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) creation using Structure from Motion (SfM) to provide morphological and volumetric characterisation of the slide's features. We also used air photography and 1 m resolution airborne LiDAR data, collected in 2015. We used these data to identify and analyse the landforms and processes involved during the failure. We quantify the volumes eroded, transported and deposited along the flow

  6. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations Regarding Alpine Rivers And Their Ligneous Vegetation With Myricaria germanica In The Maramureş Mountains Nature Park (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Danci Oana

    2014-01-01

    The habitat 3230 Mountain rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Myricaria germanica was not listed in the standard form based on which the Natura 2000 site ROSCI0124 Maramureș Mountains was declared. The aim of this study is to offer some new information regarding the structure, distribution and ecology of the Natura 2000 habitat 3230 Mountain rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Myricaria germanica in Maramureș Mountains Nature Park. The ecological importance of habitat 3230 results...

  8. Winter severity and snowiness and their multiannual variability in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Richterová, Dáša; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Zusková, Ilona; Pawliczek, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses winter severity and snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains and examines their long-term trends. The analysis used modified comprehensive winter snowiness (WSW) and winter severity (WOW) indices as defined by Paczos (1982). An attempt was also made to determine the relationship between the WSW and WOW indices. Measurement data were obtained from eight stations operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB), from eight stations operated by the Czech Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (CHMI) and also from the Meteorological Observatory of the University of Wrocław (UWr) on Mount Szrenica. Essentially, the study covered the period from 1961 to 2015. In some cases, however, the period analysed was shorter due to the limited availability of data, which was conditioned, inter alia, by the period of operation of the station in question, and its type. Viewed on a macroscale, snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains (in similar altitude zones) are clearly more favourable on southern slopes than on northern ones. In the study area, negative trends have been observed with respect to both the WSW and WOW indices—winters have become less snowy and warmer. The correlation between the WOW and WSW indices is positive. At stations with northern macroexposure, WOW and WSW show greater correlation than at ones with southern macroexposure. This relationship is the weakest for stations that are situated in the upper ranges (Mount Śnieżka and Mount Szrenica).

  9. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  10. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  11. Mapping genetic variation and seed zones for Bromus carinatus in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Nancy L. Mandel; J. Bradley St. Clair; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland

    2010-01-01

    Seed transfer zones ensure that germplasm selected for restoration is suitable and sustainable in diverse environments. In this study, seed zones were developed for mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.) in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. Plants from 148 Blue Mountain seed source locations were...

  12. The study of forest dynamics in the pergumid climate of Western Sayan mountains (Ermakovsky research station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Nazimova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ermakovsky territory research station (53°17´–52°28´ N, 92°49´–93°20´ E has served as a long-term site for studies of mountain forest ecosystem structure and its dynamics during the last 50 years. The most interesting results of study in 2000–2014 are presented in the paper concerning biodiversity and forest succession in primary and secondary forest types forming the chern forest formation with Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica L.. The data of remote sensing confirm differentiation of landscapes into altitudinal belt complexes (ABC that are characteristic for windward macroslopes of the West and East Sayans: Scotch pine-Birch-Aspen subtaiga (Pinus sylvestris L., Betula pendula Roth., Populus tremula L., chern forest with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica, mountain Siberian fir (Abies sibirica taiga within perhumid climate, subalpine open woodlands with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica. They were singled out earlier with traditional methods. Position of the mountain polygon-transect (study area in the system of natural zonation of Altai-Sayan ecoregion and its belonging to barrier-rain mountain landscapes of South Siberia are defined more exactly with help of forest inventory and remote sensing data. Initial phases of forest successions by the above mentioned four ABCs are considered with special attention to regeneration of Pinus sibirica. In contrast to Abies sibirica it remains weak or absent for more than 50 years. It shows unstable positions of Siberian pine in all ABCs due to high general humidity and well developed herb layers. For chern ABC, the dynamics of primary and secondary stands structure are researched on a number of representative plots with the use of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer 1:100 mapping three times in a 45 year period. It is shown that species number and composition remain stable on permanent plots whereas synuzial diversity and the share of their

  13. Students experience self-esteem improvement during mountaineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaeloo-Horeh, Saeid; Assari, Shervin

    2008-01-01

    Despite ample evidence in the literature of the correlation between sports participation in general and self-esteem, there is a dearth of information regarding the probable impact of specific sporting activities on self-concept. We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of mountaineering on self-esteem and its correlates in university students. This longitudinal study recruited 54 students (male 26%, female 74%) from different universities in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. The students participated in a mountaineering program in Mt. Damavand in July 2006. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), SF-36, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed by all the participants before and after this activity. Their demographic data and mountaineering experience were also collected. Mean RSES after climbing was significantly higher than before the experience (24.78 +/- 2.4 vs. 23.67 +/- 3.3; P = .002). Self-esteem was correlated with bodily pain, and its improvement was correlated with mental health and depression (P Self-esteem and its improvement were not significantly correlated with age, sex, marital status, prior personal and family history of mountaineering, past history of mountain sickness, and reaching the summit (P > .05). This study showed that participation in a single mountaineering program improved students' sense of self-esteem. We suggest that taking up this activity might have benefits for students with depression.

  14. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  15. Comparison of extreme precipitation characteristics between the Ore Mountains and the Vosges Mountains (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, Alain; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (EPEs) not only helps in mitigating the hazards associated with it but will also reduce the risks by improved planning based on the detailed information, and provide basis for better engineering decisions which can withstand the recurring and likely more frequent events predicted in future in the context of global climate change. In this study, extremity, temporal and spatial characteristics, and synoptic situation of the 54 EPEs that occurred during 1960-2013 were compared between two low mountain ranges situated in Central Europe: the Ore Mountains (OM) and Vosges Mountains (VG). The EPEs were defined using the Weather Extremity Index, which quantifies the extremity, duration, and spatial extent of events. Comparative analysis of EPE characteristics showed that in both regions the EPEs were mostly short (lasted 1-2 days) and their seasonal occurrence significantly depended on the synoptic situation and duration of EPEs; the low was related to summer short EPEs, while zonal circulation to winter long EPEs. The EPEs were generally related to lows in OM and to troughs in VG. The lows often moved to OM from the Mediterranean area, i.e. along the Vb track. However, five EPEs in VG occurred during a low with Vb track significantly deflected westwards. The EPEs in VG affected smaller area as compared to that in OM. The comparison of EPEs between the two low mountain ranges is first of its kind and contributes to the understanding of EPE characteristics in the regions.

  16. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  18. THE DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS ENCOUNTRED IN NATURA 2000 6520 HABITAT FROM GURGHIU MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia OROIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches on medicinal plants used in various human disorders are particularly important and timely, as an alternative to medication. The studied semi-natural mountainous grasslands occur in the Gurghiu mountains. Special interest today worldwide for herbal medicine has led us to study the Gurghiu Mountains medicinal plants used in various diseases. In order to identify the taxa we used classical methods, described in the literature and statistical analyze was also carried out. In the study area 2 plant associations rich in medicinal plants were identified. They belong to 6520 Mountain hay meadows habitat.

  19. Public policies for sustainability in mountain environments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amazile López Netto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mountains encompass a great biological diversity, essential to the survival of the ecosystem on the planet, and key resources for humans, such as water and deposits for genetic food safety. Brazil is among the countries with largest area of mountains on the planet. The country is a signatory of documents prepared for global environmental conventions, in which the fostering sustainability in mountain environments is signed, taking as examples Global Agenda 21; Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and The Future We Want.  The objective of this study is to analyze whether the Brazilian public actions promoting sustainability in mountain environments, as recommended in the global environmental conventions.  This was done through a survey and critical analysis of secondary data, where it was observed that the Brazilian government has no public actions where the focal theme are the mountains, checking only transversal issues at the federal, regional and state levels that affect these environments.  Among these policies, there is the payment for environmental services that can be basis for considering public actions that promote sustainable rural development in mountain environments Brazilians.

  20. Incidence and risk factors associated with acute mountain sickness in children trekking on Jade Mountain, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Yin-Chou; Chiu, Yu-Hui; Weng, Yi-Ming; Li, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Jr; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Te-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high-altitude areas. The incidence of AMS on Jade Mountain, the highest peak in Taiwan (3952 m), has been reported to be ∼36%. There is a lack of data in children trekking at altitude in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and symptoms of AMS in children trekking on Jade Mountain, Taiwan. This prospective cohort study included a total of 96 healthy non-acclimatized children aged 11-12 years who trekked from an elevation of 2600-3952 m in 3 days. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms associated with AMS. AMS were reported in 59% of children trekking on Jade Mountain over a 3 day period. AMS incidence increased significantly with increasing altitude. The most common AMS symptom was headache, followed by fatigue or weakness, difficulty sleeping, dizziness or lightheadedness and gastrointestinal symptoms. Children who had experienced upper respiratory infection (URI) within the 7 days before their trek tended to have a greater risk for development of AMS. AMS incidence did not significantly differ according to gender, recent acute gastroenteritis, menstruation and body mass index. The incidence of AMS in children trekking on Jade Mountain is greater than that observed in adults, and was associated with altitude and recent URI. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  2. Hydrothermal speleogenesis in carbonates and metasomatic silicites induced by subvolcanic intrusions: a case study from the Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several caves of hydrothermal origin in crystalline limestones and metasomatic silicites were investigated in the central zone of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, central Slovakia. Evidence of hydrothermal origin includes irregular spherical cave morphology sculptured by ascending thermal water, occurrence of large calcite crystals and hydrothermal alteration of host rocks, including hydrothermal clays. The early phases of speleogenesis in the crystalline limestone near Sklené Teplice Spa were caused by post-magmatic dissolution linked either to the emplacement of subvolcanic granodiorite intrusions during Late Badenian time or to the spatially associated Late Sarmatian epithermal system. Speleogenesis in metasomatic silicites in the Šobov area is related to hydrothermal processes associated with the pre-caldera stage of the Štiavnica stratovolcano in Late Badenian. Both localities are remarkable examples of hydrothermal speleogenesis associated with Miocene volcanic and magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians.

  3. The languages and peoples of the Müller Mountains; A contribution to the study of the origins of Borneo’s nomads and their languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sellato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Müller and northern Schwaner mountain ranges are home to a handful of tiny, isolated groups (Aoheng, Hovongan, Kereho, Semukung, Seputan, altogether totaling about 5,000 persons, which are believed to have been forest hunter-gatherers in a distant or recent past. Linguistic data were collected among these groups and other neighbouring groups between 1975 and 2010, leading to the delineation of two distinct clusters of languages of nomadic or formerly nomadic groups, which are called MSP (Müller-Schwaner Punan and BBL (Bukat-Beketan-Lisum clusters. These languages also display lexical affinity to the languages of various major Bornean settled farming groups (Kayan, Ot Danum. Following brief regional and particular historical sketches, their phonological systems and some key features are described and compared within the wider local linguistic setting, which is expected to contribute to an elucidation of the ultimate origins of these people and their languages.

  4. Geophysical approach to the study of a periglacial blockfield in a mountain area (Ztracené kameny, Eastern Sudetes, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Dominika; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona; Kania, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    Fluctuation of climatic events in Central Europe with oceanic and continental influences intensified during the Pleistocene, especially above the timberline, enabled the analysis of this record on the ridge and slopes of the Ztracené kameny massif (1245 m a.s.l.), Czech Republic. Seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) are geophysical methods that, that allow the comprehensive recognition of shallow geological structures in a strongly folded area of the High Jesenik Mountains. Geophysical surveys were performed to determine structure and thickness of the quartzite blockfield and its boundary with consolidated rock. The measured resistivity values were compared with the seismic wave velocities. The resistivity values of the block cover show significant differences according to its morphology, slope orientation and altitude. The data analysis indicates an occurrence of remnants of Pleistocene permafrost. The subnival traces within the blockfield demonstrate the intensity of past slope processes and the role of frost weathering even during the Holocene.

  5. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  6. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Liverworts (Marchantiophyta flora of Bolu Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The liverwort (Marchantiophyta flora of Bolu mountains was investigated in this study. 310 specimens were collected between period of September 2009 and September 2011. After identifications of these specimens 34 liverwort taxa belonging 18 families and 22 genera have been reported. Also, Marsupella funckii (F. Weber & D. Mohr. Dumort. was reported for the first time from A2 sqaure of Turkey which adopted by Henderson (1961. Scapaniaceae is the rishest family with 6 species and 17,65% rates in the study area. The second family is Lophocoleaceae with 5 species and the rate of this family to all families at the study area is 14,71%.

  8. Determining an appropriate integrated assessment model of tourism safety risk within the Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijun; Liu, Jisheng

    2017-03-01

    Tourism safety is gradually gaining more attention due to the rapid development of the tourism industry in China. Changbai Mountain is one of the most famous mountainous scenic areas in Northeast Asia. Assessment on Changbai Mountain scenic area’s tourism safety risk could do a favor in detecting influence factor of tourism safety risk and classifying tourism safety risk rank, thereby reducing and preventing associated tourism safety risks. This paper uses the Changbai Mountain scenic area as the study subject. By the means of experts scoring and analytic hierarchy process on quantified relevant evaluation indicator, the grid GIS method is used to vectorize the relevant data within a 1000m grid. It respectively analyzes main indicators associated tourism safety risk in Changbai Mountain scenic area, including hazard, exposure, vulnerability and ability to prevent and mitigate disasters. The integrated tourism safety risk model is used to comprehensively evaluate tourism safety risk in Changbai Mountain scenic area.

  9. [Organization and management of mountain rescues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains.

  10. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Novie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death. This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019. The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  11. Spatial Correlation between Type of Mountain Area and Land Use Degree in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuluan Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A scientific definition of the type of mountain area and an exploration of the spatial correlation between different types of mountain areas and regional land use at the county level are important for reasonable land resource utilization and regional sustainable development. Here, a geographic information system was used to analyze digital elevation model data and to define the extent of mountainous land and types of mountain areas in Guizhou province. Exploratory spatial data analysis was used to study the spatial coupling relation between the type of mountain area and land use degree in Guizhou province at the county level. The results were as follows: (1 Guizhou province has a high proportion of mountainous land, with a ratio of mountainous land to non-mountainous land of 88:11. The county-level administrative units in Guizhou province were exclusively mountainous, consisting of eight semi mountainous counties, nine quasi mountainous counties, 35 apparently mountainous counties, 13 type I completely mountainous counties, and 23 type II completely mountainous counties; (2 The land use degree at the county level in Guizhou province have remarkable spatial differentiation characteristics. Counties with a high cultivation coefficient are mainly located in the western area along the line between Yinjiang county and Anlong county in west Guizhou province. Counties with a large proportion of construction land or a high integrated index of land use degree are mainly distributed in the economically developed area of central Guizhou province, including parts of the counties (districts/cities administrated by Guiyang, Zunyi, Liupanshui, Anshun, Duyun, and Kaili; (3 County-level administrative units with relatively flat topography and a low proportion of mountainous land have a large proportion of construction land and a large degree of regional land exploitation. However, the extent of cultivation of county-level administrative units under similar

  12. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    distance x sex on detection probability). These numbers translate to a total estimate of 293 mountain lions (95% Cl 182–451) to 529 (95% Cl 245–870) within the Blackfoot drainage. Results from the distance model are similar to previous estimates of 3.6 mountain lions/100 km2 for the study area; however, results from all other models indicated greater numbers of mountain lions. Our results indicate that unstructured spatial sampling combined with spatial capture–recapture analysis can be an effective method for estimating large carnivore densities.

  13. Habitual body posture and mountain position of people practising yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grabara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the physical exercises of yoga (hatha yoga, the Mountain Pose is a basic arrangement of the body involving, among other things, active extension of the spine in the vertical axis and symmetrical arrangement of individual elements of the body. The aim of the study was to compare the difference between this posture and the relaxed stance in people doing hatha yoga. The study included 28 women and 8 men doing yoga aged 20-58. The study was carried out using the apparatus for computer assessment of posture of the MORA system.The study has shown that all the elements of body posture in the Mountain Pose are placed more correctly (according to the criterion of symmetry related to frontal and transverse planes. Differences in the placement of lines of the spinous processes and of the pelvis in the transverse plane were observed. The angles of inclination of the anteroposterior curvatures of the spine were smaller in the Mountain Pose than in the habitual one. It has been demonstrated that for people doing hatha yoga the Mountain Pose is a more correct (symmetrical stance than the habitual one. Those who had been doing yoga longer and those who devoted more time to exercise per week were characterised by more correct body stance. The physical exercises of yoga shape the habit of correct stance. The arrangement of the body in the Mountain Pose in the light of the criteria of correct posture may be regarded as optimal.

  14. Climate Change Has Cascading Ecological Effects on Mountain Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Evidence that ecosystems of the Northern Rocky Mountains are responding to climate change abounds. Alpine glaciers, as iconic landscape features, are disappearing rapidly with some glaciers losing one half of their area in five years. A model developed in the 1990s to predict future rates of melt has proved too conservative when compared to recent measurements. The largest glaciers in Glacier National Park are almost 10 years ahead of schedule in their retreat. The cascading ecological effects of losing glaciers in high-elevation watersheds includes shifts in distribution and dominance of temperature-sensitive stream macroinvertebrates as stream volume dwindles (or disappears) in later summer months and water temperatures increase. Critical spawning areas for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) will be lost without the consistent supply of cold water that melting snow and ice provide and raise management questions regarding the efficacy of recovery efforts. Snowpacks are documented as becoming smaller and melting earlier in the spring, facilitating the invasion of subalpine meadows by trees and reducing habitat for current alpine wildlife. Even vital ecosystem disturbances, such as periodic snow avalanches that clear mountain slope forests, have been shown by tree-ring studies to be responsive to climatic trends and are likely to become less prevalent. Monitoring of high-elevation mountain environments is difficult and has largely been opportunistic despite the fact that these areas have experienced three times the temperature increases over the past century when compared to lowland environments. A system of alpine observatories is sorely needed. Tighter integration of mountains studies, and comparisons among diverse mountain systems of the western U.S. has been initiated by the USGS-sponsored Western Mountain Initiative and the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains to begin addressing this need.

  15. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  16. 27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... located in Clackamas, Yamhill, and Washington Counties, Oregon. The boundary of the Chehalem Mountains... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205... Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chehalem...

  17. Mountain migrations in recent Alpine anthropology: some critical remarks to Braudel's residual sedentarism and immobilism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Baskar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that Braudel's view of mountain communities (which he, though allowing for numerous exceptions, depicted as isolated, largely immobile and prolific remains heavily indebted to the tradition of the Vidalian School of Human Geography, characterized by its immobilism and anti-urban bias. Braudel is famous for “dynamizing” the Mediterranean and thereby opposing Vidalian immobilism. However, Braudel's dynamism and his stress on mobility and connectivity applies only to his view of the urban part, whereas his view of the rural, and especially mountainous, hinterlands remains largely exempted from it. This questioning of the Braudelian model of mountain migrations is based on the recent developments within Alpine anthropology made possible by its cross-fertilization with historical demography (Pier Paolo Viazzo and his “school” as well as within recent mountain studies in general. The new picture of mountain communities emerging from these studies is one of highly mobile mountain populations who are characterized by entrepreneurial spirit and proactive strategies of migration, and is often based on prosperity instead of misery and hunger, and it aims at making the survival of mountain communities possible. As this “Alpine model” has been progressively expanded and tested on other mountain environments, this paper argues for the continuities between the Alps and the mountains of the Balkan peninsula.

  18. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  19. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  20. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  1. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type...

  2. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C...

  3. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  4. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  5. Effects of timber harvest on elk distribution in the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin; Larry D. Bryant; Paul J. Edgerton

    1989-01-01

    A long-term study to determine the effects of several methods of timber harvest on the distribution of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) was begun in the early 1970's in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. The study area was an upper slope spruce-fir type with harvest designed to compare changes in elk use, as measured by...

  6. Are sackungen diagnostic features of (de)glaciated mountains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Mentlík, Pavel; Ditchburn, Bob; Zondervan, Albert; Norton, Kevin; Hradecký, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) with characteristic sackung landforms (e.g., double crests, trenches, uphill-facing scarps, and toe bulging) are considered by some researchers to be diagnostic features indicating past mountain glaciations. However, an extensive literature review on sackung features throughout the world reveals that in some regions, paraglacial processes are not the causes of such phenomena. Sackungen occur across a diverse spectrum of mountain types, with different morphoclimatic histories, including regions that have never experienced glaciation. To reinforce that sackungen may originate independently of glaciation, we also include two case studies from the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic and Slovakia) which are supported by detailed geomorphic mapping, trenching and absolute dating (10Be, 14C and OSL). On the Ondřejník ridge (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic), sackungen occur in the mid-Holocene in the medium-high mountains which are beyond the Pleistocene glacial limits. On the Salatín Mt. (Tatra Mts., Slovakia), the sackungen, which occur in formerly glaciated terrain, date between 7.5 and 4.2 ka BP, representing a > 4 ka time lag after the disappearance of glaciers. This suggests that the direct link between the ice retreat and the onset of sackung formation is not obvious, even in the case of the once glaciated mountain range. Although paraglacial stress release is undoubtedly one of the crucial causes of sackung genesis, in many mountain regions, it is not the only important mechanism. Therefore, despite occurring in numerous (de)glaciated mountains, sackung features cannot be considered as proof of past mountain glaciations, e.g., during analysis of extra-terrestrial settings.

  7. Multiple congenital ocular abnormalities (MCOA) in Rocky Mountain Horses and Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horses in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kaps, S.; Spiess, B M

    2010-01-01

    The study describes the prevalence of multiple congenital ocular abnormalities (MCOA) in Rocky Mountain Horses and Kentucky Moutain Saddle Horses in Europe. Materials and methods: 35 RMH und KMSH were examined between 1999 and 2010. Their coat color were chocolate (24), seal brown (7), and one each of bay, black, chestnut and palomino. Ciliary body cysts (CBC) were found in 17/35 hor- ses. Two (2/35) horses had multiple congenital ocular abnormalities consistent with anterior segment dysgenes...

  8. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  9. Assessing the potential for maladaptation during active management of limber pine populations: A common garden study detects genetic differentiation in response to soil moisture in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2015-01-01

    Active management is needed to sustain healthy limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains (henceforth, Southern Rockies), as they are threatened by the interaction of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic, climate change, and the spread of the non-native pathogen that causes white pine blister...

  10. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  11. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Karzhavin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  12. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fuwen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD, least-cost path distance (LCD defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. Results A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Conclusions Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

  13. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  14. Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1 Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fidani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The September–October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria–Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L’Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows’ behavior—local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes—is discussed.

  15. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  16. Monitoring the condition of mountain zebra habitat in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Novellie

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining an appropriate sampling design for monitoring the quality of mountain zebra habitat. The parameter used for monitoring was an index of habitat suitability. The value of this index was greater than 20 in the habitat that was most favoured by the mountain zebras, whereas values below 20 were characteristic of moderate to poor habitat. It is recommended that if the index in the most favoured habitat declines to below 20, management intervention in the form of a reduction in stocking rate of large herbivores should be considered. A sample size of 20 randomly located monitoring plots should be adequate to detect a decline to below the critical level. There was considerable patchiness in the distribution of grazing pressure within plant communities, and this needs to be taken into account in the design of the monitoring programme.

  17. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  18. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  19. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  20. Spiders in mountain habitats of the Giant Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Vaněk, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2012), s. 341-347 ISSN 1067-4136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Giant Mountain s (Krkonoše, Karkonosze) * spiders * anemo-orographic systems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0k5g721q1155r146/fulltext.pdf

  1. Discovery of continental-scale travelling waves and lagged synchrony in geometrid moth outbreaks prompt a re-evaluation of mountain birch/geometrid studies [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1sb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Tenow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of two 9-10 year cyclic-outbreaking geometrids, Operophtera brumata and Epirrita autumnata in mountain birch forests in northern Fennoscandia, have been studied since the 1970´s by a Swedish-Norwegian research team and, during the last decade, by Norwegian and Finnish research teams. Some of the early results have been challenged by the Norwegian team. To examine the base for disagreements, five of the papers published by the Norwegian team (2004-2011 are reviewed. It is found that conclusions in these papers are questionable or data could not be interpreted fully because two decisive traits in the spatio-temporal behaviour of outbreaks of the two species were not considered.

  2. The 17th Rocky Mountain Virology Association Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rovnak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, scientists and students from the greater Rocky Mountain region, along with invited speakers, both national and international, have gathered at the Mountain Campus of Colorado State University to discuss their area of study, present recent findings, establish or strengthen collaborations, and mentor the next generation of virologists and prionologists through formal presentations and informal discussions concerning science, grantsmanship and network development. This year, approximately 100 people attended the 17th annual Rocky Mountain Virology Association meeting, that began with a keynote presentation, and featured 29 oral and 35 poster presentations covering RNA and DNA viruses, prions, virus-host interactions and guides to successful mentorship. Since the keynote address focused on the structure and function of Zika and related flaviviruses, a special session was held to discuss RNA control. The secluded meeting at the foot of the Colorado Rocky Mountains gave ample time for in-depth discussions amid the peak of fall colors in the aspen groves while the random bear provided excitement. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes the >50 reports.

  3. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  4. Use of Bioimpedianciometer as Predictor of Mountain Marathon Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athlete's chronological age were negatively associated with race performance. In contrast, the daily training volume was positively associated with mountain marathon time. A regression analysis showed that race time could be predicted (R 2  = .948) by the daily training load, sports experience, age, body fat mass, BF and level of abdominal obesity. The comparison between performance groups regarding to body composition and training characteristics showed that the higher performance group was lighter with lower BF, fat mass and level of abdominal obesity, and with more days of training per week compared with the lower performance group (p mountain marathon runners should develop exercise and nutritional strategies to reduce BF and consider increasing mean daily training volume to improve performance.

  5. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  6. The 17th Rocky Mountain Virology Association Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovnak, Joel; Perera, Rushika; Hopken, Matthew W; Read, Jenna; Waller, Derrick M; Cohrs, Randall J

    2017-11-08

    Since 2000, scientists and students from the greater Rocky Mountain region, along with invited speakers, both national and international, have gathered at the Mountain Campus of Colorado State University to discuss their area of study, present recent findings, establish or strengthen collaborations, and mentor the next generation of virologists and prionologists through formal presentations and informal discussions concerning science, grantsmanship and network development. This year, approximately 100 people attended the 17th annual Rocky Mountain Virology Association meeting, that began with a keynote presentation, and featured 29 oral and 35 poster presentations covering RNA and DNA viruses, prions, virus-host interactions and guides to successful mentorship. Since the keynote address focused on the structure and function of Zika and related flaviviruses, a special session was held to discuss RNA control. The secluded meeting at the foot of the Colorado Rocky Mountains gave ample time for in-depth discussions amid the peak of fall colors in the aspen groves while the random bear provided excitement. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes the >50 reports.

  7. Analysis of Criteria for Delimiting Less Favoured Mountain Areas (LFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyse and establish the criteria for the course of the elevation boundaries applied in delimiting of less favoured areas (LFA under mountain and foothill conditions. This aim was achieved by verifying of the structural data on land use in relation to an altitude a.s.l. Based on the information collected on the areas in the particular land categories, and in order to assess land use, a database was created for 99 mountain communes (NUTS-5. The regulation by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (2009 distinguishes the areas of less favourable farming (LFA, mountain, where over 50% of the agricultural land (AL is located above an altitude of 500 m a.s.l. Previous studies have shown that the adopted limit of the average elevation for mountain LFA is too restrictive for the Polish conditions and needs correction. This is particularly clear in the case of agricultural land elevated above sea level. Support for rural development is necessary because the economic importance of agriculture in the Polish mountain and foothill regions is decreasing, and these areas are characterized by a considerably limited land use, under conditions of higher production costs. This is to do with terrain elevation a.s.l. and with the presence of large areas of significant land slopes, making it too to use normal equipment.

  8. Climate change impacts on maritime mountain snowpack in the Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Sproles; A.W. Nolin; K. Rittger; T.H. Painter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of projected temperature increases on maritime mountain snowpack in the McKenzie River Basin (MRB; 3041 km2) in the Cascades Mountains of Oregon, USA. We simulated the spatial distribution of snow water equivalent (SWE) in the MRB for the period of 1989–2009 with SnowModel, a spatiallydistributed, process-based...

  9. The demography of a small population of yellow columbines in the Organ Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Stubben; Brook G. Milligan

    2001-01-01

    Yellow-flowered columbines (Aquilegia chrysantha Gray) are usually found in small, isolated populations near streams and pools in mountain ranges throughout the southwestern United States. To study the long-term dynamics of these populations, which are vulnerable to extinction, we have monitored the demography of a population in Fillmore Canyon in the Organ Mountains...

  10. Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John E. Hunter; Robin Hamlin; Keith M. Slauson; M. J. Mazurek

    2010-01-01

    The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Using...

  11. Use of medicinal plants in the Eastern Arc Mountains with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional methods of conserving medicinal plants include social control of access (sacred groves), domestication, sustainable collecting and storage. Eastern Arc Mountains endemics are rarely used. Compared to other studies in the Eastern Arc Mountains, the number of overlapping medicinal plant species in different

  12. Historic fire regime dynamics and forcing factors in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Martin A. Spetich; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2006-01-01

    We used dendrochronological methods to construct three fire history chronologies in the interior of the Boston Mountains of Arkansas from 281 dated fire scars identified on 86 shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) remnants and trees. We describe and contrast these interior sites with sites on the southern perimeter of Boston Mountains that were documented in an earlier study...

  13. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  14. Meeting ultraviolet B radiation requirements of amphibians in captivity: a case study with mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and general recommendations for pre-release health screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Benjamin; Rendle, Matthew; Baines, Frances M; Goetz, Matthias; Bradfield, Kay S; Rood, David; Lopez, Javier; Garcia, Gerardo; Routh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent amphibian extinctions. The husbandry requirements of amphibians are complex. Ongoing research is needed to ensure optimal management of those captive-bred animals destined, in particular, for reintroduction. The UV-B and vitamin D3 requirements of amphibians are largely unknown. Metabolic bone disease has been reported in a number of species. These include the Critically Endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) reared in captivity on diets supplemented with a high-calcium multivitamin and mineral supplement containing vitamin D3 but without UV-B provision. Captive-bred L. fallax being reared for reintroduction to Montserrat were provided with UV-B radiation from metamorphosis and were fed on insects supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Overlapping heat, light and UV-B gradients were provided, mimicking what we believe best represents the natural situation and thereby facilitated self-regulation of UV-B exposure. A subset of 10 frogs was periodically radiographed to assess skeletal health. Radiographic bone density and anatomical integrity appeared unremarkable when compared with a wild caught L. fallax. In addition to other routine health-screening, we recommend that radiography be performed to a structured schedule on a subset of all captive-bred and reared amphibians to assess skeletal health and to gauge the appropriateness of captive husbandry. We demonstrate here that, through the appropriate provision of a combination of both UV-B radiation and dietary supplementation, L. fallax can be bred and reared in captivity with healthy skeletal development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  16. Combined tree-ring width and δ13C to reconstruct snowpack depth: a pilot study in the Gongga Mountain, west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Liangju; Chen, Tuo; Shao, Xuemei; Liu, Qiao; Hou, Shugui; Qin, Dahe; An, Wenling

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring width (TRW) and stable carbon isotope (δ13C) in tree-ring cellulose of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri) were used to develop high-resolution climate proxy data to indicate snow-depth variations in the Gongga Mountain, west China. Tree radial growth- and δ13C-climate response analyses demonstrated that the TRW and δ13C at the timberline (3,400 m.a.s.l.) are mainly influenced by temperature and precipitation of previous growth seasons and current summer (June to August) under cold and humid conditions. Considering the analogous control factors on both tree growth and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) and snow accumulation, the negative and significant relationships between tree-ring parameters (TRW and Δ13C) and mean monthly snowpack depth were found. Herein, by combining two tree-ring parameters, a primary snow-depth reconstruction (previous October to current May) over the reliable period A.D. 1880-2004 was estimated. The reconstruction explains 58.0% of the variance in the instrumental record, and in particular captures the longer-term fluctuations successfully. Except the period with extreme higher snowpack depth around 1990, the snowpack depth seems to fluctuate in a normal way. The reconstruction agrees with the nearby snowpack depth record in Kangding and the mean observed snowpack-depth variations of the stations on the Tibetan Plateau, particularly at long-term scales. The snowpack depth in low-frequency fluctuations, during the past century, agrees quite well with the Eastern India precipitation covering the period of previous October-current May. Our results suggest that combing tree-ring width and δ13C in certain subalpine tree species growing on the Tibetan Plateau may be an effective way for reconstructing regional snowpack variations.

  17. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, B.M.; Hall, I.J.; Peters, R.R.; Easterling, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic formations in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain are currently being studied as the host rock for a potential radioactive waste repository. Data from several drill holes have been collected to provide the preliminary information needed for planning site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. Hydrologic properties have been measured on the core samples and the variables analyzed here are thought to be important in the determination of groundwater travel times. This report presents a statistical analysis of four hydrologic variables: saturated-matrix hydraulic conductivity, maximum moisture content, suction head, and calculated groundwater travel time. It is important to modelers to have as much information about the distribution of values of these variables as can be obtained from the data. The approach taken in this investigation is to (1) identify regions at the Yucca Mountain site that, according to the data, are distinctly different; (2) estimate the means and variances within these regions; (3) examine the relationships among the variables; and (4) investigate alternative statistical methods that might be applicable when more data become available. The five different functional stratigraphic units at three different locations are compared and grouped into relatively homogeneous regions. Within these regions, the expected values and variances associated with core samples of different sizes are estimated. The results provide a rough estimate of the distribution of hydrologic variables for small core sections within each region.

  18. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  19. Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, Doc; Hatfield, Connie

    1995-01-01

    The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the BLM, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work togethe...

  20. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  1. Understanding the Potential for Volcanoes at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-08-01

    By studying the rocks and geologic features of an area, experts can assess whether it is vulnerable to future volcanic eruptions. Scientists have performed extensive studies at and near Yucca Mountain to determine whether future volcanoes could possibly affect the proposed repository for nuclear waste.

  2. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction...... of the respiratory alkalosis normally seen at high altitude. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness were rapidly relieved. In three subjects cerebral blood flow increased by 17-39%, so that oxygen delivery to the brain would have been considerably improved. This study confirms earlier suggestions of the beneficial...

  3. Modeling the Boundaries of Plant Ecotones of Mountain Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ivanova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ecological second-order phase transition model has been used to describe height-dependent changes in the species composition of mountain forest ecosystems. Forest inventory data on the distribution of various tree species in the Sayan Mountains (south Middle Siberia are in good agreement with the model proposed in this study. The model was used to estimate critical heights for different altitudinal belts of vegetation, determine the boundaries and extents of ecotones between different vegetation belts, and reveal differences in the ecotone boundaries between the north- and south-facing transects. An additional model is proposed to describe ecotone boundary shifts caused by climate change.

  4. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  5. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Gregory Steve [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  6. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  7. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  9. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  10. Reduced performance difference between sexes in master mountain and city marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The performance in master marathoners has been investigated in flat city marathons but not in mountain marathons. This study examined changes in the sex differences in performance across time in female and male master runners competing in a mountain marathon compared to a flat city marathon. The association between age and performance of finishers in the Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland, with 1830 meter changes in altitude and a flat city marathon (Lausanne Marathon), Switzerland, were analyzed from 2000 to 2011. In both events, athletes in the 35-44 years age group showed the highest number of finishers. In the mountain marathon, the number of female master runners aged > 35 years increased in contrast to female finishers aged mountain marathon. Female master runners reduced the sex difference in performance in the 45-54-year age group in both competitions and in the 35-44-year age group in the mountain marathon. The sex difference in performance decreased in the 35-44-year age group from 19.1% ± 4.7% to 16.6% ± 1.9% in the mountain marathon (r(2) = 0.39, P = 0.03). In age groups 45-54 years, the sex difference decreased from 23.4% ± 1.9% to 15.9% ± 6.1% in the mountain marathon (r(2) = 0.39, P mountain and city marathon running.

  11. The role of travel intermediaries in the development of sustainable mountain tourism. The case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Icoz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the current situation of mountain tourism and its sustainability in Turkey as a new and ascending tourism product. In addition, tourism policies of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism in the mountain tourism area are scrutinized. Not only the tourism policies of the government are enough to promote a new alternative tourism type, but also the role and effects of tourism middlemen such as travel agencies, tour operators, and tour wholesalers cannot be denied in the promotion of a destination. Mountain tourism can be accepted and classified as one of these mentioned alternative and newly developed types of tourism in many destinations. Therefore, mountain tourism could be one of the best alternative tourism opportunities for many destinations if they have sufficient resources, namely naturally attractive mountains and related infra and/or superstructure.

  12. Plague Studies in California: A Review of Long-Term Disease Activity, Flea-Host Relationships and Plague Ecology in the Coniferous Forests of the Southern Cascades and Northern Sierra Nevada Mountains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles R. Smith; James R. Tucker; Barbara A. Wilson; James R. Clover

    2010-01-01

    ... in the northern Sierra Nevada and the Southern Cascade mountains of northeastern California. We identify rodent hosts and their fleas and document long-term plague activity in each habitat type...

  13. VT Green Mountain National Forest Roadless Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Revising the 2006 Green Mountain National Forest's Land and Resource Management Plan included a requirement to evaluate opportunities for...

  14. No end to heavy metal pollution in the Harz mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikora, G.

    1982-06-11

    In a four-year study carried out on behalf of the Social Minister of Lower Saxony scientists have proved that fears of excess lead and cadmium concentrations in the Harz mountains have been well founded. Countermeasures will take some time.

  15. The Moss Flora (Musci) of the Sündiken Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    SAVAROĞLU, Filiz; TOKUR, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Sündiken Mountains, 83 taxa were identified by the authors. These belong to 21 families and 42 genera of bryophytes. Of these, 64 taxa are new for the B7 grid-square adopted by Henderson.

  16. Small mammals of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania | Stanley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the staggering degree of biodiversity, how little we know about the biota of the EAM and the rapid degradation of the remaining montane forests of these mountains, we are studying the natural history and biogeography of the small mammals (shrews and rodents) of this archipelago. We are also interested in ...

  17. Herpetological Habitat Relations in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle L. Crosswhite; Stanley F Fox; Ronald E. Thill

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - We studied habitat relationships of the herpetofauna inhabiting managed pine-oak woodlands of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. We used drift fence arrays with pitfall and double-ended funnel traps to sample two replications each of three treatments: young clearcuts, selectively harvested stands, and late-rotation untreated controls. Our...

  18. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature trends; maximum temperature warming; variability; regime shift; mountain stations; central. Himalayas. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 122, No. ... as signals of anthropogenic climate change. How- ever, studies by Fowler and Archer ... recorded values are outliers or true events, regres- sion through the origin was performed.

  19. Herpetofauna of the Eastern Region of the Amanos Mountains (Nur)

    OpenAIRE

    UĞURTAŞ, Üsmail Hakkİ; YILDIRIMHAN, Hikmet Sami

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Herpetofauna of the eastern region of t he Amanos mountains in Turkey was investigated. A total of 319 samples were collected and 27 species from 17 amphibian and reptile families were described. Two of these species are urodeles, three are anurans, two are turtles, eleven are lizards and eight are snakes.

  20. Honey production in Harenna Forest of Southern Bale mountains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey production in Harenna Forest of Southern Bale mountains National Park, Ehtiopia: Economic and conservation perspectives. ... Annual need of food consumption, the price of wheat /barley, traditional techniques of hive preparation and management and trends of production were also investigated. The study results ...

  1. Activity patterns shown by mountain zebra Equus zebra Hartmannae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free-living mountain zebra at the Daan Viljoen Game Reserve, Khomas Hochland, were studied over a two-year period. Attention was given to nutritional, social, comfort and excretory activities and the various activity patterns were determined. Different macro-climatic factors that mav influence this behaviour were ...

  2. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  3. Ontogeny of Pentaphylloides fruticosa low shrub in the Mountain Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta K. Komarevtseva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of Pentaphylloides fruticosa (L. O. Schwarz on the alpine degraded meadow in the Mountain Altai has been studied. In these conditions life form of the species has changed from shrub to vegetation-mobile low shrub.

  4. Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

  5. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  6. The epidemiology of injury in mountaineering, rock and ice climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Volker; Morrison, Audry; Schöffl, Isabelle; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Climbing and mountaineering sports are gaining more and more public interest. This chapter reviews scientific studies on injuries and accidents in climbing and mountaineering sports to evaluate the danger of these sports and their specific injuries and preventive measures. An initial PubMed query was performed using the key words 'rock climbing', 'sport climbing', 'mountaineering', 'alpine injuries' and 'climbing injuries'. More than 500 extracted papers were analyzed which gave information on injury, mortality/fatality, prevention and risk factors. Cross-references were also scanned according to the above given criteria. Also the data sources of the UIAA and IFSC Medical Commissions were analyzed. Overall, alpine (traditional) climbing has a higher injury risk than sport climbing, especially indoor climbing. Alpine and ice climbing have more objective dangers which can affect climber safety. Overall injury rates are low, nevertheless fatalities do occur in all climbing disciplines. Altitude-related illnesses/injuries also occur in mountaineering. Most injuries in sport climbing are overstrain injuries of the upper extremity. In alpine climbing, injuries mostly occur through falls which affect the lower extremity. Objective reporting of the injury site and severity varied in most studies according to the injury definition and methodology used. This creates differences in the injury and fatality results and conclusions, which in turn makes inter-study comparisons difficult. In future studies, the UIAA MedCom score for mountain injuries should be used to guarantee inter-study comparability. Evidence in preventive measures is low and further studies must be performed in this field. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Environment of ore deposition in the Creede mining district, San Juan Mountains, Colorado; Part IV, source of fluids, from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    also oxygen shifted meteoric waters but were some 40 per mil lower in deuterium content than the sphalerite and illite/chlorite waters.We propose that the quartz fluids entered the vein system from reservoirs beneath the mountainous areas to the north in the vicinity of the present Continental Divide, but that the sphalerite and illite/chlorite fluids entered the vein system from a topographically low area to the south along the structural moat of the Creede caldera. The difference in delta D between the two meteoric waters may reflect differences in altitude of the recharge areas for the two reservoirs or may be clue to isotopic evolution of the closed-basin lake and interstitial waters in the moat surrounding the Creede caldera.

  8. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  9. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  10. Stand development and population dynamics of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) woodlands in Utah's Bear River Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth A. Ex; Robert DeRose; James N. Long

    2011-01-01

    Curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) is a little-studied woodland tree that occurs in pure stands throughout the Intermountain West. Stand development and population dynamics of this species are poorly understood, despite their relevance to management. We describe here the development of stand age structures and population dynamics of mahogany...

  11. Acute mountain sickness in Iranian pilgrims around to Damavand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabchi F "

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute mountain sickness (A - AMS in pilgrims. Although it is well known that western trekkers suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS in other mountains, not much is documented about the incidence of AMS in the Damavand Mountains, Iranian population that go to high altitude and its related contributing factors. Materials and Methods: The design was a cross sectional study. During six weeks (in summer 2000 a population of 459 pilgrims was studied. The period of the study was six weeks in summer AMS symptoms, were assessed by an extensively used standard questionnaier (Lake Louise, applied at 2900 m, after than arrive at 4200 m above sea level, and during descent from summit Damavand (at 4200 m at Damavand in Iran Alborz Mountain. Results: The overall incidence of A.M.S. was 60.8 percent. Climbers had 13-71 years and 67.8 percent of the study population was men. Men did not differ significantly higher rate of AMS from women. The incidence being increased in those who residence at an altitude below 600 m, climbed fast, amateur climbers, a previous AMS experience or high altitude illness, a history of AMS at ascent to Damavand and ascent time at night (6pm-6am. It was weakly dependent to rate of ascent (from 2800 m up 4200 m less that 4 hours and sleep in 4200 m. The incidence of AMS was unrelated to sex, age, body mass index (BMI, height, weight, smoking, to the load carried and knapsack and spent more than 15 hours in shelter (at 4200 m. So it was independent of rate of ascent in the higher altitude (from 4200 m to 5671 m, speed of descent and family history of AMS. Conclusions: Data show a strong relation between experiences mountaineer, history of AMS, ascent time at night and the incidence of acute mountain sickness in 459 climbers studied at high altitudes that didn’t report previously.

  12. Word images as policy instruments: Lessons from the Yucca Mountain Controversey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conary, J.S.; Soden, D.L.; Carns, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    A study is described which explores word images which have developed about nuclear issues by Nevadans. The study is based on results of a survey conducted regarding issues related to the Yucca Mountain repository.

  13. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  14. Ecological Notes On The Floristic Composition And Endemic Species Of Saint Catherine Mountains, South Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Abdel-Raouf A. [عبد الرؤوف عبد الرحمن مصطفى; Kamel, Wafaa M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study is aimed at (1) giving complete list of all plant speciec growing in Saint Catherine mountains, (2) studying the relationship between species number and the amount of precipitation at the time of study (1992 -1994), and (3) reporting on the geographical distribution of the ten most endangered and endemic species in the study area. Presence / absence tests were applied to forty-five stands distributed in Saint Catherine mountains. Distribution and ecological data (including a...

  15. Mountain prophecies | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... Looking to the mountains may give us an early indication of what's in store for the entire planet. For many people, the United Nations' designation of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains may seem an unlikely choice. After all, 60 per cent of the world's population lives within 500 km of a coastline.

  16. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  17. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  18. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...