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Sample records for pryor mountain burnt

  1. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Ransom, Jason I.; Coates-Markle, Linda; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Wild horses (Equus caballus) at Pryor Mountain were studied by direct observation from 1993 through 2007. All horses present were individually identifiable on the basis of coat coloration, head and leg markings, gender, and band associations. Of the 609 horses either present prior to foaling in 1993 or born since, ages were precisely known for 491 (observed as a foal). Ages for 52 horses were estimated through tooth eruption and wear patterns, and for the remaining 66 horses through body size, morphology, and anecdotal evidence concerning when they were present on the range. At varying intensities, never less than 30 days per year, all horses were inventoried and their band associations noted. Foals were paired with dams based on observations of attachment during the early days and weeks of life. Year of death was determined by identification of the carcass where possible. In the absence of finding a carcass, an animal that was not observed for 2 years was considered to have died in the year that it went missing. Animals that were removed from the herd and mares that were part of a contraception study were excluded from calculations of survival and foaling rates, respectively, as appropriate. The average prefoaling population over the 15 years of the study was 148.8 animals (range = 120-187), and the annual foal crop averaged 32.1 (range = 23-40). Large removals (19-60 animals) in four years helped maintain the herd at this level; apparent growth rate (calculated as though removals had not occurred) was 9.6 percent annually (? = 1.096, range = 0.977-1.220). This annual growth rate is relatively low compared to that for many western horse herds, at least in part because of a decline in foal survival. Sex ratio of the foal crop varied widely among years, but pooled across years did not differ from 50:50. Sex ratio in the herd changed mostly as a result of removals. The average age of both males and females in the herd increased during the course of the study. Annual

  2. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  3. Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available gases. These, makes the study of wildfires important. The study of fires is in three phases. Firstly it is forecasting, which uses Fire Danger Index (FDI), secondly it is the mapping of active fires and thirdly, the mapping of burnt areas to access...

  4. SOLID BURNT BRICKS’ TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Maroušková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental testing of solid burnt bricks and mortar in pure (axial tension. The obtained working diagrams will be further use for a detailed numerical analysis of whole brick masonry column under concentric compressive load. Failure mechanism of compressed brick masonry column is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks in masonry units (bricks passing in the direction of principal stresses and is accompanied by progressive growth of horizontal deformations. These cracks are caused by contraction and interaction between two materials with different mechanical characteristics (brick and mortar. The aim of this paper is more precisely describe the response of quasi-brittle materials to uniaxial loading in tension (for now only the results from three point bending test are available. For these reasons, bricks and mortar tensile behavior is experimentally tested and the obtained results are discussed.

  5. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  6. Postfire Burnt-Wood Management Affects Plant Damage by Ungulate Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the effect of post-fire burnt wood management on herbivore attack on a woody plant species (Ulex parviflorus. Two experimental plots of ca. 20 hectares were established at two elevations in a burnt area in a Mediterranean mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain. Three replicates of three treatments differing in post-fire burnt wood management were established per plot: “no intervention” (NI, all trees remained standing, “partial cut plus lopping” (PCL, felling the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ, and “salvage logging” (SL; removal of logs and elimination of woody debris. Risk of herbivory and damage intensity were monitored for two years. The pattern of attack by ungulate herbivores varied among treatments and years. In any case, there was an overall reduction in the risk of herbivory in the PCL treatment, presumably because the highest habitat complexity in this treatment hampered ungulate movement and foraging. As a result, the burnt logs and branches spread over the ground acted as a physical barrier that protected seedlings from herbivores. This protection may be used for the regeneration of shrubs and trees, and it is of interest for the regeneration of burnt sites either naturally or by reforestation.

  7. [King Injo's disease and burnt needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy and King Injo's disease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign) to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 in King Injo's reign), right before his death, King Injo was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have?Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon ear, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease. The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mothe Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant rebellions and treasons threatened King Injo. The king suspected that Queen Mother

  8. King Injo's Disease and Burnt Needle Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy(번침 and King Injo'sdisease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 King in Injo's reign, right before his death, King Injo(인조 was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik(이형익, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have? Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon era, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease.  The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong(정명공주 derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok(인목대비. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun(광해군 or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mother Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant

  9. Power System Assessment for the Burnt Mountain Seismic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    monocrystalline cells and 15- 20% for polycrystalline cells. Less expensive cells, such as copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride, have...solar cells are recommended. The silicon solar cells themselves are very reliable, however the reliability of panels and systems for field use can...is composed of four solar-cell panels each measuring 48 inches X 21 inches. The four panels in the array module are arranged, electrically, as two

  10. Layout Guide for Burnt and Un-burnt Tropical Forest: The Diversity of Forest Plants and Insetcs for Sustainable Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watiniasih, N. L.; Tambunan, J.; Merdana, I. M.; Antara, I. N. G.

    2018-04-01

    Forest fire is a common phenomenon in tropical forest likes in Indonesia. Beside the effect of soaring heat and lack of rain during dry season due to the tropical climate, farming system is also reported as one reason of forest fire in Indonesia. People of surrounding areas and neighbouring countries are suffering from the effect of forest fire. Plants and animals are the most suffer from this occurrence that they cannot escape. This study aimed to investigate the effect of previously burnt and un-burnt tropical forest in Borneo Island on the plant and insect diversity of the tropical forest. The result of the study found that the plants in previously burnt forest area was dominated by one species, while higher and more stable plant diversity was found in un-burnt forest. Although the number of individual insects was higher in previously burnt tropical forest, but the insects was more diverse in un-burnt tropical forest. The alteration of environmental conditions in previously burnt and un-burnt forest indicate that the energy held in natural forest support higher number and more stable insects than previously burnt forest.

  11. Burning Down the House: the Burnt Building V6 at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...

  12. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the court...

  13. Store for radioactive waste and burnt-up fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, H.; Rox, R.; Peschl, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a concrete storage block in which there are several vertical storage and cooling ducts for radioactive waste and burnt-up fuel elements. The storage block is assembled from several square concrete blocks. Several vertical ducts are made in these. The square blocks are placed on a concrete baseplate. The aligned ducts of several square blocks placed above each other form storage and cooling ducts for tubular storage containers. An annular gap is left for cooling air between the outside wall of the storage containers and the inside wall of the storage and cooling ducts. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Store for burnt-up fuel elements of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.

    1981-01-01

    Burnt-up fuel elements of nuclear reactors have to be cooled during storage. For this reason the boxes which surround the fuel elements can have cooling air flowing round them in natural flow. This air is taken through the walls of a storage building through zones of parallel pipes, whose diameter and spacing are in the ratio of 1 : 0.5 to 1 : 2. The pipes have dust filters. Prefilters with fan drive are situated in parallel with the inlet pipe zones. (orig.) [de

  15. Deadwood Decay in a Burnt Mediterranean Pine Reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Molinas-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood remaining after wildfires represents a biological legacy for forest regeneration, and its decay is both cause and consequence of a large set of ecological processes. However, the rate of wood decomposition after fires is still poorly understood, particularly for Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed deadwood decomposition following a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeast Spain. Three plots were established over an elevational/species gradient spanning from 1477 to 2053 m above sea level, in which burnt logs of three species of pines were experimentally laid out and wood densities were estimated five times over ten years. The logs lost an overall 23% of their density, although this value ranged from an average 11% at the highest-elevation plot (dominated by Pinus sylvestris to 32% at an intermediate elevation (with P. nigra. Contrary to studies in other climates, large-diameter logs decomposed faster than small-diameter logs. Our results provide one of the longest time series for wood decomposition in Mediterranean ecosystems and suggest that this process provides spatial variability in the post-fire ecosystem at the scale of stands due to variable speeds of decay. Common management practices such as salvage logging diminish burnt wood and influence the rich ecological processes related to its decay.

  16. Random Forest Variable Importance Spectral Indices Scheme for Burnt Forest Recovery Monitoring—Multilevel RF-VIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornkitja Boonprong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Burnt forest recovery is normally monitored with a time-series analysis of satellite data because of its proficiency for large observation areas. Traditional methods, such as linear correlation plotting, have been proven to be effective, as forest recovery naturally increases with time. However, these methods are complicated and time consuming when increasing the number of observed parameters. In this work, we present a random forest variable importance (RF-VIMP scheme called multilevel RF-VIMP to compare and assess the relationship between 36 spectral indices (parameters of burnt boreal forest recovery in the Great Xing’an Mountain, China. Six Landsat images were acquired in the same month 0, 1, 4, 14, 16, and 20 years after a fire, and 39,380 fixed-location samples were then extracted to calculate the effectiveness of the 36 parameters. Consequently, the proposed method was applied to find correlations between the forest recovery indices. The experiment showed that the proposed method is suitable for explaining the efficacy of those spectral indices in terms of discrimination and trend analysis, and for showing the satellite data and forest succession dynamics when applied in a time series. The results suggest that the tasseled cap transformation wetness, brightness, and the shortwave infrared bands (both 1 and 2 perform better than other indices for both classification and monitoring.

  17. Reactivity Measurements On Burnt And Reference Fuel Samples In LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Luethi, A.; Van Geemert, R.; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    During the year 2002, the PROTEUS research reactor was used to make a series of reactivity measurements on Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) burnt fuel samples, and on a series of specially prepared standards. These investigations have been made in two different neutron spectra. In addition, the intrinsic neutron emissions of the burnt fuel samples have been determined. (author)

  18. Analysis of burnt nuclear fuel elements by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-spectrometry allows a non-destructive determination of the fission and activation product content of spent nuclear fuel. The concentration of some of these products depends significantly on the so-called fuel parameters which describe the irradiation history and the fuel composition. The use of these dependences for deriving ''unknown fuel parameters'' from measured fission product activities is investigated in this work. Relevant application fields are burnup determination, fuel testing and inspections within the nuclear materials safeguards programme. The present thesis investigates how these dependences can be used to derive unknown fuel parameters. The possibilities and basic limitations of deriving information from a measured gamma spectrum are considered on principle. The main conclusion is that only ratios of fission product activities allow the development of an interpretation method which is generally applicable to all types of fuel from different reactors. The dependence of activity ratios on cooling time, irradiation time, integrated and final neutron flux, fuel composition, as well as fission and breeding rates are then investigated and presented graphically in a way suitable for applicaton. These relationships can be used for the analysis of spent fuel, and the detailed procedures, which depend on the applicaton field, are worked out in this work. In order to test the interpretation methods, samples of nuclear fuel have been irradiated and the gamma spectra analysed. The methods developed in this work can be applied successfully to the analysis of burnt fuel in the frame of fuel testing programmes and to safeguards verification purposes. If however, apart from a gamma spectrum, no information on the investigated fuel is available, the above-mentioned parameters can be derived with low accuracy only. (author)

  19. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiéry, Vincent; Bourdot, Alexandra; Bulteel, David

    2015-01-01

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements

  20. Mapping the recovery of the burnt vegetation by classifying pre- and post-fire spectral indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Peña

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the state of recovery of the burnt vegetation in the National Park of Torres del Paine between December, 2011 and March, 2012. The calculation and comparison of the NVDI (normalized difference vegetation index of the burnt area throughout a time series of 24 Landsat images acquired before, during and after the fire (2009- 2015, showed the temporal variation in the biomass levels of the burnt vegetation. The subsequent classification and comparison of the spectral indices: NDVI, NBR (normalized burnt ratio and NDWI (normalized difference water index on a full-data available and phenologically matched pre- and post-fire image pair (acquired in October 2009 and 2014, enabled to analyze and mapping the state of recovery of the burnt vegetation. The results show that the area of the lowest classes of all the spectral indices of the pre-fire date became the most dominant on the post-fire date. The pre- and post- fire NDVI class crossing by a confusion matrix showed that the highest and most prevailing pre-fire NDVI classes, mostly corresponding to hydromorphic forests and Andean scrubs, turned into the lowest class in 2014. The remaining area, comprising Patagonian steppe, reestablished its biomass levels in 2014, mostly exhibiting the same pre-fire NDVI classes. These results may provide guidelines to monitor and manage the regeneration of the vegetation impacted by this fire.

  1. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 'Like Playing with Fire Under a Hut' - You Will Get Burnt If You Do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Like Playing with Fire Under a Hut' - You Will Get Burnt If You Do Not Adjust: Reflections of Social Work Students on Adjusting to University Life. ... High dropout rates in first year and the enculturation into the academic literacies essential in promoting a successful academic adjustment are some of the challenges faced by ...

  3. Letters and Viewpoints Potentials of Using Waste Burnt Clay as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of waste burnt clay were collected from various parts of the country to study their pozzolanic properties. The samples were ground into fine powder and taken for chemical tests. Results from the chemical tests on all the samples showed high silica content. In fact the combined percentages of Silica (SiO2), Alumina ...

  4. Identification and application of the valid wavelength bands for burnt area detection and fire severity classification using Landsat/TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, M.; Tamura, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firstly, by using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery before and after forest fire, the valid wavelength bands for detecting burnt areas were examined and compared to NDVI. Secondly, by using the valid wavelength bands, mapping of burnt area and classification of fire severity were examined. The results show that (a) channel 4 and 7 were more sensitive than other channels for detecting burnt area, (b) BAI (Burnt Area Index) [(ch. 4-ch. 7)/(ch. 4+ch. 7)] was more useful than NDVI for detecting burnt areas, and (c) BAI imagery was more useful for classification of burn severity than NDVI imagery

  5. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, human activities, improving the management of forest areas and raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger.

  6. Recycling of organic wastes in burnt soils: combined application of poultry manure and plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, M C; Petrikova, V; Díaz-Raviña, M; Carballas, T

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a post-fire land management practice, including plant cultivation (Lolium perenne) combined with poultry manure addition, for restoring the protective vegetation cover in soils degraded by high intensity wildfires. The greenhouse experiment was performed with three burnt pine forest soils with added poultry manure at two doses of application and comparing the data with those obtained using NPK fertilizer. A significant effect of the amendment, soil properties and the interaction between amendment and soil properties on vegetation cover (phytomass production, nutrient content) was detected, but often the amendment treatment explained most of the variance. Changes induced by the organic amendment were more marked than those induced by inorganic fertilization. The increase of phytomass and nutrient uptake with poultry manure addition indicated the beneficial effects of this soil management practice. These findings can serve to develop field experiments and burnt soils reclamation technology.

  7. A system for 3D representation of burns and calculation of burnt skin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, María Felicidad; Acha, Begoña; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Fondón, Irene; Serrano, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    In this paper a computer-based system for burnt surface area estimation (BAI), is presented. First, a 3D model of a patient, adapted to age, weight, gender and constitution is created. On this 3D model, physicians represent both burns as well as burn depth allowing the burnt surface area to be automatically calculated by the system. Each patient models as well as photographs and burn area estimation can be stored. Therefore, these data can be included in the patient's clinical records for further review. Validation of this system was performed. In a first experiment, artificial known sized paper patches were attached to different parts of the body in 37 volunteers. A panel of 5 experts diagnosed the extent of the patches using the Rule of Nines. Besides, our system estimated the area of the "artificial burn". In order to validate the null hypothesis, Student's t-test was applied to collected data. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and a value of 0.9918 was obtained, demonstrating that the reliability of the program in calculating the area is of 99%. In a second experiment, the burnt skin areas of 80 patients were calculated using BAI system and the Rule of Nines. A comparison between these two measuring methods was performed via t-Student test and ICC. The hypothesis of null difference between both measures is only true for deep dermal burns and the ICC is significantly different, indicating that the area estimation calculated by applying classical techniques can result in a wrong diagnose of the burnt surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of reforestation on burnt areas in Western Russia using Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobev, Oleg; Kurbanov, Eldar

    2017-04-01

    Forest fires are main disturbance factor for the natural ecosystems, especially in boreal forests. Monitoring for the dynamic of forest cover regeneration in the post-fire period of ecosystem recovery is crucial to both estimation of forest stands and forest management. In this study, on the example of burnt areas of 2010 wildfires in Republic Mari El of Russian Federation we estimated post-fire dynamic of different classes of vegetation cover between 2011-2016 years with the use of time series Landsat satellite images. To validate the newly obtained thematic maps we used 80 test sites with independent field data, as well Canopus-B images of high spatial resolution. For the analysis of the satellite images we referred to Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Tasseled Cap transformation. The research revealed that at the post-fire period the area of thematic classes "Reforestation of the middle and low density" has maximum cover (44%) on the investigated burnt area. On the burnt areas of 2010 there is ongoing active process of grass overgrowing (up to 20%), also there are thematic classes of deadwood (15%) and open spaces (10%). The results indicate that there is mostly natural regeneration of tree species pattern corresponding to the pre-fire condition. Forest plantations cover only 2% of the overall burnt area. By the 2016 year the NDVI parameters of young vegetation cover were recovered to the pre-fire level as well. The overall unsupervised classification accuracy of more than 70% shows high degree of agreement between the thematic map and the ground truth data. The research results can be applied for the long term succession monitoring and management plan development for the reforestation activities on the lands disturbed by fire.

  9. Reactivity and neutron emission measurements of highly burnt PWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Brogli, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H.-D.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel rods with burnup values beyond 50 GWd/t are characterised by relatively large amounts of fission products and a high abundance of major and minor actinides. Of particular interest is the change in the reactivity of the fuel as a function of burnup and the capability of modern codes to predict this change. In addition, the neutron emission from burnt fuel has important implications for the design of transport and storage facilities. Measurements have been made of the reactivity effects and the neutron emission rates of highly burnt uranium oxide and mixed oxide fuel rod samples coming from a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The reactivity measurements have been made in a PWR lattice in the PROTEUS zero-energy reactor moderated in turn with: water, a water and heavy water mixture and water containing boron. A combined transport flask and sample changer was used to insert the 400 mm long burnt fuel rod segments into the reactor. Both control rod compensation and reactor period methods were used to determine the reactivities of the samples. For the range of burnup values investigated, an interesting exponential relationship has been found between the neutron emission rate and the measured reactivity

  10. Nuclear reactor with a fixed system of neutron poison, which can be burnt up, introduced into the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.; Roegler, H.J.; Wickert, M.

    1985-01-01

    The fixed system consists of neutron poison which can be burnt up, in an uneven distribution, and with adjustable absorber rods for output control, which are driven into the reactor core from the side along the fuel elements. There is an excess of neutron poison which can be burnt up, overall, on the side of the reactor core away from the absorber rods. The reactor core is free of neutron poison which can be burnt up on the side where the absorber rods are driven in, so that the ratio of maximum to mean power density with reference to a possible absorber rod positions is less than for homogeneous distribution of the neutron poison which can be burnt up. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Burnt souls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medwedew, G.

    1991-01-01

    This is a realistic portrayal of the days before and after the accident. The conformism of those acting and the careless, work and negligence of the nuclear power plant's strategie services are strongly criticized. The judgment on those politically responsible is scathing. The book is full of compassion for the sorrows of the population within the vicinity of the plant and for the victims in the hospitals. The catastrophe's chronicle is depressing and bitter. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  13. A delayed neutron technique for measuring induced fission rates in fresh and burnt LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.A., E-mail: kajordan@gmail.co [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Behaviour, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Behaviour, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-04-01

    The LIFE-PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institut is being undertaken to characterize the interfaces between burnt and fresh fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. Techniques are being developed to measure fission rates in burnt fuel following re-irradiation in the zero-power PROTEUS research reactor. One such technique utilizes the measurement of delayed neutrons. To demonstrate the feasibility of the delayed neutron technique, fresh and burnt UO{sub 2} fuel samples were irradiated in different positions in the PROTEUS reactor, and their neutron outputs were recorded shortly after irradiation. Fission rate ratios of the same sample irradiated in two different positions (inter-positional) and of two different samples irradiated in the same position (inter-sample) were derived from the measurements and compared with Monte Carlo predictions. Derivation of fission rate ratios from the delayed neutron measured signal requires correcting the signal for the delayed neutron source properties, the efficiency of the measurement setup, and the time dependency of the signal. In particular, delayed neutron source properties strongly depend on the fissile and fertile isotopes present in the irradiated sample and must be accounted for when deriving inter-sample fission rate ratios. Measured inter-positional fission rate ratios generally agree within 1{sigma} uncertainty (on the order of 1.0%) with the calculation predictions. For a particular irradiation position, however, a bias of about 2% is observed and is currently under investigation. Calculated and measured inter-sample fission rate ratios have C/E values deviating from unity by less than 1% and within 2{sigma} of the statistical uncertainties. Uncertainty arising from delayed neutron data is also assessed, and is found to give an additional 3% uncertainty factor. The measurement data indicate that uncertainty is overestimated.

  14. Export of solids and nutrients from burnt areas: effects of fire severity and forest type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Nelson; Morais, Inês; Silva, Vera; Malvar, Mauxa C.; Prats, Sérgio; Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades, the number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including Portugal. Besides a range of direct impacts, wildfires can significantly alter the geomorphological and hydrological processes during a period commonly referred to as the "window-of-disturbance". It is now increasingly recognized that these indirect wildfire effects depend strongly on fire severity, i.e. the heating-induced changes in vegetation and litter cover as well as in topsoil properties such as infiltration capacity, aggregate stability and soil water repellency. Nonetheless, the exact role of fire severity in post-fire hydrological and erosion processes is still poorly quantified in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Another important gap in fire-related research stills to be the impacts of wildfire on soil fertility losses, in particular through erosion by runoff. Both research gaps were addressed in this study, following a wildfire that took place in July 2013 in Talhadas (Sever do Vouga, Aveiro) and burnt circa 815 ha. In the burnt area and the surrounding unburnt areas, six study sites were selected and, immediately after the fire, instrumented with slope-scale runoff plots. Two of the sites were long-unburnt, two were burnt at low severity and the other two were burnt at high severity; for all of them one being covered by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation and the other by a Pinus pinaster plantation. Following the instrumentation of the sites, runoff was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals and, whenever possible, runoff samples were collected for subsequent analysis in the laboratory with respect to total suspended sediments content and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The results obtained in this study showed that the severity of the fire played a more important role in the loss of nutrients and solids than the type of vegetation. While the occurrence of fire markedly increased soil (fertility) losses, this effect

  15. Post-Fire Soil Respiration in Relation to the Burnt Wood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón Jiménez, Sara; Castro, J.; Kowalski, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, B.; Sancez-Canete, Ep; Zamora, R.

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires are the main cause of forests and understory destruction in Mediterranean areas. One of the most dramatic consequences is the perturbation of carbon fluxes. A high percentage of the CO2 emitted by the ecosystem after a wildfire is due to soil respiration, which represents the most important uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. In this study we have quantified the soil respiration and its seasonal variability in reforested pine forests in the National and Natural Park of Sierra Nevada which were burned in September of 2005. Measurement campaigns were carried out along two years in two experimental plots at different altitudinal levels (1500 and 2200 m a.s.l.), in which three post-fire silvicultural treatments of burned wood were established: 1) "Non-Intervention" (NI), leaving all of the burnt trees standing. 2) "Cut plus Lopping" (CL), a treatment where most of the trees were cut and felled, with the main branches also lopped off, but leaving all the cut biomass in situ covering partially the ground surface 3) "Salvage Logging" (SL), all trees were cut and the trunks and branches were removed. Soil respiration was highly determined by the effects derived of the altitudinal level, with the highest values at the lowest altitude. The seasonal precipitation regime had also a key role. Soil respiration kept a basal level during the summer drought, during this period the response to the altitudinal level and post-fire treatments were reduced. On the other hand, soil respiration boosted after rain events, when the differences between treatments became more pronounced. In general, especially under these conditions of absence of water limitation, the post-fire burnt wood treatment with the highest CO2 fluxes was that in which all the burnt wood biomass remained covering partially the soil surface ("Cut plus Lopping") while the lowest values were registered in the treatment in which the soil was bared ("Salvage Logging"). Results of this study are especially

  16. An automated procedure for themoluminescence dating of pottery and burnt stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1982-01-01

    An automated procedure for dating of quartz and feldspar inclusions in pottery has been developed and tested in a comprehensive programme comprising material from a number of well-dated Danish sites. The results indicate that TL dating of pottery can now be carried out on a routine basis with an accuracy of about 5%. Experiments on dating of large grains of alkali feldspars extracted from burnt stones are described. The results are encouraging and show that the method may enable a reduction of some of the uncertainties associated with the conventional inclusion technique. (author)

  17. Soils of Mountainous Forests and Their Transformation under the Impact of Fires in Baikal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Yu. N.

    2018-04-01

    Data on postpyrogenic dynamics of soils under mountainous taiga cedar ( Pinus sibirica) and pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests and subtaiga-forest-steppe pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forests in the Baikal region are analyzed. Ground litter-humus fires predominating in this region transform the upper diagnostic organic soil horizons and lead to the formation of new pyrogenic organic horizons (Opir). Adverse effects of ground fires on the stock, fractional composition, and water-physical properties of forest litters are shown. Some quantitative parameters of the liquid and solid surface runoff in burnt areas related to the slope gradient, fire intensity, and the time passed after the fire are presented. Pyrogenic destruction of forest ecosystems inevitably induces the degradation of mountainous soils, whose restoration after fires takes tens of years. The products of soil erosion from the burnt out areas complicate the current situation with the pollution of coastal waters of Lake Baikal.

  18. A comparison of carcass decomposition and associated insect succession onto burnt and unburnt pig carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Craig S; Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

    2017-05-01

    The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition. Insect species identified on carcasses were consistent between treatment groups; however, a statistically significant difference in insect succession onto remains was evident between treatments (PERMANOVA F (1, 224)  = 14.23, p < 0.01) during an 8-day period that corresponds with the wet stage of decomposition. Differences were noted in the arrival time of late colonisers (Coleoptera) and the development of colonising insects between treatment groups. Differences in the duration of decomposition stages and insect assemblages indicate that burning has an effect on both rate of decomposition and insect succession. The findings presented here provide baseline data for entomological casework involving burnt remains criminal investigations.

  19. The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verhegghen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2 optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1 satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1 of the other.

  20. Investigation of soils affected by burnt hospital wastes in Nigeria using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim P, Inyang; Ita, Akpan; Eusebius I, Obiajunwa

    2013-12-01

    Improper management of hospital waste has been reported to be responsible for several acute outbreaks like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In spite of these challenges, hospital wastes are sometimes not properly handled in Nigeria. To date, there has not been an adequate study on the effect and fate of burnt hospital waste on agricultural soil. The effect of burnt hospital wastes on the agricultural soil was conducted on soils sampled around farm settlement near Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria. PIXE technique was employed with a 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem Pelletron accelerator available at Centre for Energy Research and Development O.A.U Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Eleven elements- Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr and Pb were detected and their concentrations and enrichment factors determined. The presence of Pb and Cl at the elevated concentrations range of (77.8 ± 3.5 - 279.6 ± 97.6 and 102.2 ± 37.4 -167.2±17.43) ppm respectively in this study, is of serious health concern because of the agricultural practices in the neighborhoods of the study sites. There is a need for proper handling of hospital and other related hazardous wastes because of the possibility of such posing serious environmental pollution problems.

  1. Amplification of wildfire area burnt by hydrological drought in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Muh; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Jones, Philip D.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Borneo's diverse ecosystems, which are typical humid tropical conditions, are deteriorating rapidly, as the area is experiencing recurrent large-scale wildfires, affecting atmospheric composition and influencing regional climate processes. Studies suggest that climate-driven drought regulates wildfires, but these overlook subsurface processes leading to hydrological drought, an important driver. Here, we show that models which include hydrological processes better predict area burnt than those solely based on climate data. We report that the Borneo landscape has experienced a substantial hydrological drying trend since the early twentieth century, leading to progressive tree mortality, more severe than in other tropical regions. This has caused massive wildfires in lowland Borneo during the past two decades, which we show are clustered in years with large areas of hydrological drought coinciding with strong El Niño events. Statistical modelling evidence shows amplifying wildfires and greater area burnt in response to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strength, when hydrology is considered. These results highlight the importance of considering hydrological drought for wildfire prediction, and we recommend that hydrology should be considered in future studies of the impact of projected ENSO strength, including effects on tropical ecosystems, and biodiversity conservation.

  2. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  3. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  4. Burnt sugarcane harvesting - cardiovascular effects on a group of healthy workers, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Galvão Barbosa

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane. Harvest is predominantly manual, exposing workers to health risks: intense physical exertion, heat, pollutants from sugarcane burning.Panel study to evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on blood markers and on cardiovascular system.Twenty-eight healthy male workers, living in the countryside of Brazil were submitted to blood markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, sympathetic nerve activity evaluation and forearm blood flow measures (venous occlusion plethysmography during burnt sugarcane harvesting and four months later while they performed other activities in sugar cane culture.Mean participant age was 31 ± 6.3 years, and had worked for 9.8 ± 8.4 years on sugarcane work. Work during the harvest period was associated with higher serum levels of Creatine Kinase - 136.5 U/L (IQR: 108.5-216.0 vs. 104.5 U/L (IQR: 77.5-170.5, (p = 0.001; plasma Malondialdehyde-7.5 ± 1.4 µM/dl vs. 6.9 ± 1.0 µM/dl, (p = 0.058; Glutathione Peroxidase - 55.1 ± 11.8 Ug/Hb vs. 39.5 ± 9.5 Ug/Hb, (p<0.001; Glutathione Transferase- 3.4±1.3 Ug/Hb vs. 3.0 ± 1.3 Ug/Hb, (p = 0.001; and 24-hour systolic blood pressure - 120.1 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 117.0 ± 10.0 mmHg, (p = 0.034. In cardiopulmonary exercise testing, rest-to-peak diastolic blood pressure increased by 11.12 mmHg and 5.13 mmHg in the harvest and non-harvest period, respectively. A 10 miliseconds reduction in rMSSD and a 10 burst/min increase in sympathetic nerve activity were associated to 2.2 and 1.8 mmHg rises in systolic arterial pressure, respectively.Work in burnt sugarcane harvesting was associated with changes in blood markers and higher blood pressure, which may be related to autonomic imbalance.

  5. Usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions from engineering codes in Monte-Carlo code calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I.

    2015-01-01

    A burn-up calculation of VVER's cores by Monte-Carlo code is complex process and requires large computational costs. This fact makes Monte-Carlo codes usage complicated for project and operating calculations. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to use for the Monte-Carlo code (MCU) calculations of different states of VVER's core with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are proposed to calculate by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by engineering codes (TVS-M, PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FA and VVER with infinite height are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The MCU calculation data were compared with the data which were obtained by engineering codes.

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of burnt cherts from the Alice Boer site (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, M. da C.M.C.; Enriquez, C.R.; Danon, J.; Zuleta, E.

    1983-01-01

    More than 40 culturally burnt cherts from the Alice Boer site near Rio Claro, Sao Paulo State, have been studied by thermoluminescence (TL). Nine of these were found to be sufficiently heated by early man to reset the TL clock to zero and thereby be suitable for TL dating. These cherts define, for the upper half of the uppermost cultural layer (layer III), a time scale for the presence of man from 2,220 to 11,000 years. This time range is in essential agreement with the geological-paleoclimatological age estimate for the end of deposition of this layer, as well as with radiocarbon dates. In particular, it lends support to a radiocarbon age of 14,000 BP for a deeper level. The overall geochronologic results are not in contradiction with earlier statements that the deepest cultural layer (layer V) at Alice Boer might have been deposited at least 20,000 years ago. (Author) [pt

  7. Research on a dispersing solution for burnt crude oils: Aegean Sea oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Morales, N.; Dominguez, F.

    1993-01-01

    The oil tanker Aegean Sea spilled oil when it grounded during severe storm conditions near La Coruna, Spain. Much of the oil burned after an explosion was caused by the hull breaking apart. Oil which contaminated several beaches was affected by both combustion and weathering. Experiments were conducted on oil sampled from the beaches to investigate dispersion of the oil using Beep Enersperse 1990 at different shaking speeds. Biodegradation experiments were also conducted in the presence of Beep Enersperse 1990 but with seawater absent. Although emulsification of the burnt and weathered oil was very difficult, good dispersion and biodegradation were obtained. After 42 d in a stirred reactor, biodegradation of the oil reached at least 80%. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Recent fire history of the Table Mountain National Park and implications for fire management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forsyth, GG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available . In addition, not every fire record was complete. Not all fire records were accompanied by a full date (day, month and year), and fires covering 19.7% of the total area burnt were Figure 1 Mean fire return periods per decade in the Table Mountain National... to fire in the Table Mountain National Park (Bond, Le Roux & Erntzen 1990, Cowling & Gxaba 1990, Moll & Gubb 1981, Thuiller et al. 2007, Yeaton & Bond 1991). Of the 40 extant species of Proteaceae in the park, at least 9 (in the genera Protea...

  9. Characterization of Burnt Clays by X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Chemical Analysis and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Eva; Neděla, Vilém

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1862-1863 ISSN 1431-9276 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : burnt clays * pozzolanic activity * amorphous phase * environmental scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  10. Post-fire vegetation behaviour in large burnt scars from 2005 fire season in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have a wide diversity of impacts on landscape which, in turn, depend on the interaction of fire regimes (e.g. intensity, extent, frequency) and the response of vegetation to them in short and long-terms. The increase in erosion rates and the loss of nutrients by runoff in the first months following the fire are among the major impacts of wildfires. A minimum of 30% of vegetation cover is enough to protect soils against erosion but vegetation may require a long period to reach this threshold after severe fires. Since erosion risk is strongly linked to vegetation recovery rates, post-fire vegetation monitoring becomes crucial in land management. Fire regimes in the Mediterranean have been changing in the past decades due to modifications in both socio-economic and climate patterns. Although many vegetation species in Mediterranean ecosystems are adapted to wildfires, changes in fire regime characteristics affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. In Spain, fire is an important driver of changes in landscape composition, leading to dominance of shrubland following fire and to a major decrease of pine woodlands (Viedma et al., 2006). Remote sensing is a powerful tool in land management, allowing vegetation monitoring on large spatial scales for relatively long periods of time. In order to assess vegetation dynamics, monthly NDVI data from 1998-2009 from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the Iberian Peninsula were used. This work focuses on 2005 fire season in Spain, which registered the highest amount of burnt area since 1994, with more than 188000 ha burnt. Burnt scars in this fire season were identified by cluster analysis. Post-fire vegetation recovery was assessed based on the monoparametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) that was applied to four large scars located in different geographical settings with different land cover characteristics. While the two northern regions presented fast recovery, in the

  11. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  12. Validation of radiosterilization dose of human skin dressings for burnt treatment: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Due to the need for better materials to treat burnt patients, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) and the Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo Tissue Bank are collaborating for developing human skin dressings. Skin was procured from living donors, who surgically were performed a dermolipectomy. Exclusion criteria, stated by the Peruvian Organization for Transplant and Donation were observed. Glycerolized human skin dressings were processed at the tissue bank and sent to IPEN, where the gamma irradiation sterilizing dose was determined. The purpose of this work is to validate the radiation sterilization dose delivered to human skin dressings using the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A batch of human skin dressings was tested. Average values of bioburden present in ten samples was 30 UFC/item, obtaining a sub-sterilization dose of 4 kGy. Irradiations were performed in the GammacellExcel 220. Sterility tests performed fulfilled the requirements established by the Code, achieving a validated dose value of 19.7 kGy. This preliminary study, that should be repeated in two other batches of processed human skin, allows to diminish 25 kGy the sterilizing dose to the stated above dose value, in a frame of a quality assurance system that also comprises the processes held at tissue banks previous irradiation. It also permit the availability of these materials in Peruvian hospitals. (Author)

  13. Reactivity and neutron emission measurements of burnt PWR fuel rod samples in LWR-PROTEUS phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Brogli, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H. D.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the reactivity effects and the neutron emission rates of uranium oxide and mixed oxide burnt fuel samples having a wide range of burnup values and coming from a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). The reactivity measurements have been made in a PWR lattice moderated in turn with: water, a water and heavy water mixture, and water containing boron. An interesting relationship has been found between the neutron emission rate and the measured reactivity. (authors)

  14. Differences between Whole Otolith and Broken-Burnt Otolith Ages of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) Sampled from the Black Sea (Samsun, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Nazmi; BOSTANCI, Derya; YILMAZ, Savaş

    2005-01-01

    Different bony structures as scales, vertebrae, otoliths, opercles and subopercles of 156 red mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927) sampled from the Black Sea were removed for age determination. Otoliths were read once by two experienced readers. However, due to the difficulty of interpretation of annuli on the otolith edge, the broken-burnt method was applied to the 61 otoliths. Broken-burnt otoliths were also read once by the same two experienced readers. When whole otolith and br...

  15. Equilibrium cycle of 18 months at 120% of the original nominal power with optimized fuel discharge burnt for the CLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Hernandez, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J.; Hernandez, H.; Castillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Commission of Electricity carries out works at the moment related with the one increase from the power to original 120% of the nominal one in the rectors of water in boil (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV). In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the fuel recharge derived of this increase. As option in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of fuel assemble that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was diminished the LPPF of the power cells from 1.43 to 1.24. It was verified, with the recently acquired CMS codes system that the use of fuel assemble GE12 type with cells of low peak of local power and low gadolinia concentration (ININ4) they are suitable for cycles of 18 months at 120% of the original nominal power in the reactors of the CLV. It was decreased the recharge from 148 to 140 when using the ININ4 fuel assemble instead of one conventionally designed. This brings itself appreciable economic savings. However, the above mentioned brought itself an increase of the dispersion in the burnt of definitive fuel discharges. All this when it had already been fulfilled the goals and requirements imposed in the design of the balance cycle. It was necessary to establish a principle with base to the one which it was developed a method that allowed to reduce in efficient form the dispersion of the burnt of discharge and at the same time to already have a low impact in the operational parameters reached. The method was applied in the cycle of balance of 18 months to 120% of the original nominal power using the fuel assemble of low peak of local power being achieved the following results; it was decreased the dispersion of the burnt of definitive discharge from 5.4% to 2.2%, the maximum burnt of discharge was diminished from 50.694 GWD/M to 47.443 GWD/TM, it was increased the minimum burnt of discharge from 41.369 GWD/TM to 42

  16. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Scholze

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878 the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795. Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ~1% for ANN and ~6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  18. Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of fission rate ratios between fresh and burnt fuel following irradiation in a zero-power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kröhnert, H., E-mail: hanna.kroehnert@ensi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Perret, G.; Murphy, M.F. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-01-11

    The gamma-ray activity from short-lived fission products has been measured in fresh and burnt UO{sub 2} fuel samples after irradiation in a zero-power reactor. For the first time, short-lived gamma-ray activity from fresh and burnt fuel has been compared and fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios have been derived. For the measurements, well characterized fresh and burnt fuel samples, with burn-ups up to 46 GWd/t, were irradiated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. Fission rate ratios were derived based on the counting of high-energy gamma-rays above 2200 keV, in order to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the burnt fuel. This paper presents the measured fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios based on the {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV) high-energy gamma-ray lines. Comparisons are made with the results of Monte Carlo modeling of the experimental configuration, carried out using the MCNPX code. The measured fission rate ratios have 1σ uncertainties of 1.7–3.4%. The comparisons with calculated predictions show an agreement within 1–3σ, although there appears to be a slight bias (∼3%).

  19. Analysis of reactivity worths of highly-burnt PWR fuel samples measured in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Peter; Murphy, Michael F.; Jatuff, Fabian; Seiler, Rudolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The reactivity loss of PWR fuel with burnup has been determined experimentally by inserting fresh and highly-burnt fuel samples in a PWR test lattice in the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme. Seven UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR plant with burnups ranging from approx40 to approx120 MWd/kg and four MOX samples with burnups up to approx70 MWd/kg were oscillated in a test region constituted of actual PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rods in the centre of the PROTEUS zero-power experimental facility. The measurements were analyzed using the CASMO-4E fuel assembly code and a cross section library based on the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The results show close proximity between calculated and measured reactivity effects and no trend for a deterioration of the quality of the prediction at high burnup. The analysis thus demonstrates the high accuracy of the calculation of the reactivity of highly-burnt fuel. (authors)

  20. Utilization of freshly induced high-energy gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in re-irradiated burnt UO{sub 2} fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. F.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Krohnert, H.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of the LIFE-PROTEUS (Large-scale Irradiation Fuel Experiments at PROTEUS) program, a measurement technique is being developed to measure fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. In the presented approach, the fission rates are estimated by measuring high energy gamma-rays (above 2000 keV) emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. Due to their high energies, these gamma-rays can be discriminated against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, which reaches energies up to 2000 keV. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, fresh and burnt fuel samples (with burn-ups varying from 36 to 64 MWd/kg) were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institut, and their emitted gamma-ray spectra were recorded shortly after irradiation. It was possible, for the first time, to detect the short-lived gamma-ray activity in the high-energy region, even in the presence of the intrinsic gamma-ray background of the burnt fuel samples. Using the short-lived gamma-ray lines {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), 95Y (2632 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV), relative fission rates between different core positions were derived for a fresh sample as well as for a burnt sample with a burn-up of 36 MWd/kg. It was shown that, for both the fresh and burnt fuel samples, the measured fission rate ratios agreed well, i.e. within the statistical uncertainties, with calculation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  3. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto-Vazquez, A.; Gonzalez-Prieto, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (United States) and burnt soil with 2 l m -2 of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquimica RFC-88 at 1% (BS + Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS + Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS + Ap). At t = 1 day, soil pH increases in the order US 15 N decreased in all burnt soils (significatively in BS + Ap) due to the inputs of 15 N depleted ashes from leguminous vegetation. Compared with US, soil δ 15 N increased significantly in all burnt plots between t = 90 days (30 days in BS + Ap) and t = 365 days, suggesting a medium-term fire-triggered increment of N outputs ( 15 N depleted). As is habitually the case, there was a transient post-fire increase of NH 4 + -N levels (significative for BS + FFC plots) that lasted for 30 (BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi) to 90 days (BS + Ap). The high initial NH 4 + -N levels in BS + Ap (200x that of US; 9-18x those of BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi), and its persistence can delay the post-fire vegetation recovery due to the toxicity of NH 4 + to seeds and seedlings. NO 3 -N levels changed significantly only in BS + Ap between t = 30 and t = 90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH 4 + -N pool. Except in BS + Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t = 1 days) and 10-20x (t = 365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS + FFC was not significatively higher than in US. The concentrations of available cations in BS and BS + FFC were higher (not always significatively, except for K) than in US until t = 90 days, likely due to ashes- and FFC-derived cations. Contrarily to divalent cations, monovalent cations (more soluble and easily leached) decreased slowly until t = 90 days

  4. Effects of curing time and line addition on the microstructure and physical properties of hydrated burnt clay-lime mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, M.; Mleza, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The change of the microstructure of hydrated burnt illitic-kaolinitic clay-lime blends as a fonction of curing time and line addition were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The relation between physical properties - bending strenght, density and water absorption - and the operating factors were formulated using response surface methodology. It was found that floculation-agglomeration, carbonation and hydrates formation where the main happening transformations. The pozzolanic reactions essentially involved metakaolin, derived from heated kaolinite. Based on the RSM results, both factors had positive effects on the strength and their interactions were synergistic. However, they manifested opposite effects and significant antaginistic interactions on density and water absorption

  5. Environmental Monitoring Supported by Aerial Photography – a Case Study of the Burnt Down Bugac Juniper Forest, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatmári József

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire poses a serious risk in several regions of the world threatening urban, agricultural areas and natural ecosystems as well. Nature conservation has important role to be prepared for the management of postfire environmental degradation and restoration for protected areas preserving valuable ecosystems. The improving temporal and spatial resolution of remote sensing and GIS methods significantly contributes to map the changes for accelerating management steps of restoration. In this study a severe wildfire and its impacts were assessed in case of a protected area of the Kiskunság National Park in Hungary, which was partly burnt down in 2012. The aim of this research was to efficiently and accurately assess the damages and to plan and execute the restoration works using remote sensing tools. Aerial data collection was performed one month, and one year after the fire. In 2014 the regenerated vegetation was surveyed and mapped in the field. Using the aerial photographs and the field data, the degree and extent of the fire damages, the types and the state of the vegetation and the presence and proportion of the invasive species were determined. Semi-automatic methods were used for the classification of completely, partially damaged and undamaged areas. Based on the results, the reforestation of the burnt area is suggested to prevent the overspreading of white poplar against common junipers and to clean the area from the most frequent invasive species. To monitor the regeneration of the vegetation and the spreading of the invasive species, further aerial photography and field campaigns are planned.

  6. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  7. Guide for the estimation of the α and β coefficients in the Average enrichment equation as burnt function by fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes T, J.L.; Cortes C, C.C.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the report is to determine manually or by means of a calculation sheet, the coefficients α and β of the average enrichment equation as function of the fuel burnt (B) using the Lineal Reactivity Pattern, with information generated by the RECORD code of the FMS package. (Author)

  8. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  9. [Predictive factors of mortality of the burnt persons: study on 221 adults hospitalized between 2004 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafssaoui, S; Hami, H; Mrabet, M; Bouaiti, E; Tourabi, K; Quyou, A; Soulaymani, A; Ihrai, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study is the evaluation of the predictive factors of mortality to a troop of Moroccan grown-up serious burnt persons. Variables analyzed in the study are: the age, the sex, the localization of the burn, the degree of burn, indicates Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), indicate Unit of Standard Burn (UBS) and the indication of leases, sepsis and the medical histories (tobacco, diabetes). Factors associated significantly to a mortality raised at the burned patients were the female genital organ, the localization of the burn at the level of the head, the sepsis, one TBSA greater or equal to 20%, an UBS greater or equal to 200 and an indication of leases greater or equal to 75. Other factors such as the age, the degree of burn and the histories did not show a significant difference. An evaluation and a good knowledge of factors associated to a high risk of death allow an adequate coverage of this category of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. National Scale Operational Mapping of Burnt Areas as a Tool for the Better Understanding of Contemporary Wildfire Patterns and Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleimon Xofis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an operational nationwide burnt area mapping service realized over Greece for the years 2007–2011, through the implementation of the so-called BSM_NOA dedicated method developed at the National Observatory of Athens for post-fire recovery management. The method exploits multispectral satellite imagery, such as Landsat-TM, SPOT, FORMOSAT-2, WorldView and IKONOS. The analysis of fire size distribution reveals that a high number of fire events evolve to large and extremely large wildfires under favorable wildfire conditions, confirming the reported trend of an increasing fire-severity in recent years. Furthermore, under such conditions wildfires affect to a higher degree areas at high altitudes, threatening the existence of ecologically significant ecosystems. Finally, recent socioeconomic changes and land abandonment has resulted in the encroachment of former agricultural areas of limited productivity by shrubs and trees, resulting both in increased fuel availability and continuity, and subsequently increased burnability.

  11. Monte-Carlo code calculation of 3D reactor core model with usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions, obtained by engineering codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of large systems by Monte-Carlo code (MCU) is complex process and it requires large computational costs. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to be used for the Monte-Carlo code calculations of different system states with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are calculated by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by the engineering codes (TVS-M, BIPR-7A and PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FAs from a 3-D reactor core are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The separate conditions of the burnt core are observed. The results of MCU calculations were compared with those that were obtained by engineering codes.

  12. Advances in global mountain geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Embleton-Hamann, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Three themes in global mountain geomorphology have been defined and reinforced over the past decade: (a) new ways of measuring, sensing, and analyzing mountain morphology; (b) a new emphasis on disconnectivity in mountain geomorphology; and (c) the emergence of concerns about the increasing influence of anthropogenic disturbance of the mountain geomorphic environment, especially in intertropical mountains where population densities are higher than in any other mountain region. Anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change increases geomorphic hazards and risks but also provides new opportunities for mountain landscape enhancement. Each theme is considered with respect to the distinctiveness of mountain geomorphology and in relation to important advances in research over the past decade. The traditional reliance on the high energy condition to define mountain geomorphology seems less important than the presence of unique mountain landforms and landscapes and the distinctive ways in which human activity and anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change are transforming mountain landscapes.

  13. Yucca Mountain digital database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudt, C.R.; Hinze, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Yucca Mountain Digital Database (DDB) which is a digital, PC-based geographical database of geoscience-related characteristics of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository site of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was created to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) and its staff with a visual perspective of geological, geophysical, and hydrological features at the Yucca Mountain site as discussed in the Department of Energy's (DOE) pre-licensing reports

  14. Education and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines a middle school social studies curriculum taught in Nevada. The curriculum was designed to educate students about issues related to the Yucca Mountain project. The paper focuses on the activities used in the curriculum

  15. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect.

  16. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  17. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  18. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Liming in the sugarcane burnt system and the green harvest practice affect soil bacterial community in northeastern São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Moraes, Silvana Pompeia; de Macedo, Helena Suleiman; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pereira, Rodrigo Matheus; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Mendes, Lucas William; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Barretto; La Scala, Newton; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-12-01

    Here we show that both liming the burnt sugarcane and the green harvest practice alter bacterial community structure, diversity and composition in sugarcane fields in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used to analyze changes in soil bacterial communities. The field experiment consisted of sugarcane-cultivated soils under different regimes: green sugarcane (GS), burnt sugarcane (BS), BS in soil amended with lime applied to increase soil pH (BSL), and native forest (NF) as control soil. The bacterial community structures revealed disparate patterns in sugarcane-cultivated soils and forest soil (R = 0.786, P = 0.002), and overlapping patterns were shown for the bacterial community structure among the different management regimes applied to sugarcane (R = 0.194, P = 0.002). The numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the libraries were 117, 185, 173 and 166 for NF, BS, BSL and GS, respectively. Sugarcane-cultivated soils revealed higher bacterial diversity than NF soil, with BS soil accounting for a higher richness of unique OTUs (101 unique OTUs) than NF soil (23 unique OTUs). Cluster analysis based on OTUs revealed similar bacterial communities in NF and GS soils, while the bacterial community from BS soil was most distinct from the others. Acidobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla across the different soils with Acidobacteria Gp1 accounting for a higher abundance in NF and GS soils than burnt sugarcane-cultivated soils (BS and BSL). In turn, Acidobacteria Gp4 abundance was higher in BS soils than in other soils. These differential responses in soil bacterial community structure, diversity and composition can be associated with the agricultural management, mainly liming practices, and harvest methods in the sugarcane-cultivated soils, and they can be detected shortly after harvest.

  1. Post-processor for simulations of the ORIGEN program and calculation of the composition of the activity of a burnt fuel core by a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval V, S.

    2006-01-01

    The composition calculation and the activity of nuclear materials subject to processes of burnt, irradiation and decay periods are of utility for diverse activities inside the nuclear industry, as they are it: the processes design and operations that manage radioactive material, the calculation of the inventory and activity of a core of burnt nuclear fuel, for studies of type Probabilistic Safety Analysis (APS), as well as for regulation processes and licensing of nuclear facilities. ORIGEN is a program for computer that calculates the composition and the activity of nuclear materials subject to periods of burnt, irradiation and decay. ORIGEN generates a great quantity of information whose processing and analysis are laborious, and it requires thoroughness to avoid errors. The automation of the extraction, conditioning and classification of that information is of great utility for the analyst. By means of the use of the post-processor presented in this work it is facilitated, it speeds up and wide the capacity of analysis of results, since diverse consultations with several classification options and filtrate of results can be made. As illustration of the utility of the post-processor, and as an analysis of interest for itself, it is also presented in this work the composition of the activity of a burned core in a BWR type reactor according to the following classification criteria: by type of radioisotope (fission products, activation products and actinides), by specie type (gassy, volatile, semi-volatile and not volatile), by element and by chemical group. The results show that the total activity of the studied core is dominated by the fission products and for the actinides, in proportion four to one, and that the gassy and volatile species conform a fifth part of the total activity of the core. (Author)

  2. Short-term nitrogen losses by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Machado, A I; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Santos, L F; Taboada-Castro, M T; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected extensive areas of the Mediterranean region with negative impacts on the environment. Most of the studies on fire-affected areas have focused on sediment losses by overland flow, whereas few have addressed post-fire nutrient export. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing nitrogen (nitrate and total nitrogen) losses by overland flow in a recently burnt area in north-central Portugal. To this end, three burnt slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire on a 1- to 2-weekly basis, after which this study had to be cancelled due to bench terracing of some of the sites. A peak in total nitrogen concentrations was observed in burnt areas immediately after the first post-fire rainfall event as a response to the erosion of the N-enriched ash layer. After this initial peak, smaller peaks were observed throughout the study period, mainly as a response to overland flow and/or erosion events. Nitrogen export differed strikingly between the two types of forests on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than at the pine site, due to the lack of a protective soil layer. Parent material did not play an important role on nitrogen export by overland flow since no significant differences were found between the eucalypt sites on granite and schist. The present study provides some insight into the differences in post-fire soil fertility losses between forest types and parent materials in the Mediterranean region, which is crucial information for defining post-fire land management measures to reduce soil degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Producers among Non-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Burnt Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi Vala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Hakemi Vala M, Hallajzadeh M, Fallah F, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H. Characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers among non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria isolated from burnt patients. Arch Hyg Sci 2013;2(1:1-6. Background & Aims of the Study: Extended-spectrum beta-Lactamases (ESBLs represent a major group of beta-lactamases which are responsible for resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam and currently being identified in large numbers throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize ESBL producers among non-fermenter gram-negative bacteria isolated from burnt patients. Materials & Methods: During April to July 2012, 75 non-fermenter gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 240 bacterial cultures collected from wounds of burnt patients admitted to the Burn Unit at Shahid Motahari Hospital (Tehran, Iran. Bacterial isolation and identification was done using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method for all strains against selected antibiotics and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by microdilution test. The ability to produce ESBL was detected through double disk synergy test among candidate strains. Results: Of 75 non-fermenter isolates, 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 28 Acinetobacter baumannii were identified. The resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to tested antibiotics in antibiogram test were 100% to cefpodoxime, 82.98% to ceftriaxone, 78.73% to imipenem, 75% to meropenem, 72.72% to gentamicin, 69.23% to ciprofloxacin and aztreonam, 67.57% to cefepime, 65.95% to ceftazidime, and 61.53% to piperacillin. The results for Acinetobacter baumannii were 100% to ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefpodoxime, and cefotaxim, 96.85% to gentamicin, 89.65% to ceftriaxone, 65.51% to aztreonam, and 40% to piperacillin. Double disk synergy test showed that 21 (28% of non

  4. Mountain Biking Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza

    With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.

  5. Preliminary studies on the relationship between Tuber melanosporum and vesicular arbuscular mycorrizhae in the "burnt-places"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosell Armengol, Alexis

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of the herbaceous plants living inside and outside the "burnt- places" caused by Tuber melanosporum Vitt. was examined in order to determine whether the fungus may interfere with endomycorrhizal formation. When plants surviving in the burnt-out areas were compared to those in surrounding ground, a clear reduction in growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization were observed; additionally a reduction in the number of endogonaceous spores occurring in me soil was detected. These results suggest mat T. melanosporum produces substances also inhibitive to endomycorrhizal fungi.

    S'ha examinat l'estat de les micorrizes vessículo-arbusculars de les plantes herbácies que viuen dins i fora deis tofoners deguts a Tuber melanosporum Vitt., a fi de determinar si el fong interfereix en la formació endomicorrízica. Quan varen comparar-se les plantes que sobrevivien als tofoners amb les del terreny del voltant, es va observar una clara reducció en llur creixement i en la micorrizació vessículo-arbuscular; i, a més, es va detectar una reducció notable en el nombre d'espores endogàmiques presents al sòl. Tot això suggereix que T. melanosporum produeix substancies inhibents també respecte als fongs endomicorrízics.

  6. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  7. Injuries in mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulrapp, H; Weber, A; Rosemeyer, B

    2001-01-01

    Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474 athletes, 36% of whom regularly participated in competitions. The incidence of injuries in mountain biking is comparable to that in other outdoor sports, the majority of injuries being minor. Mountain biking athletes were found to have an overall injury risk rate of 0.6% per year and 1 injury per 1000 h of biking. The main risk factors included slippery road surface, cyclist's poor judgement of the situation, and excessive speed, representing personal factors that could be altered by preventive measures. Of all injuries 14% were due to collision with some part of the bike, especially the pedals and the handlebar. While 75% of the injuries were minor, such as skin wounds and simple contusions, 10% were so severe that hospitalization was required. A breakdown of the injuries according to body site and frequency of occurrence is presented.

  8. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  9. Rocky Mountain High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  10. Mountains: top down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, George M

    2004-11-01

    Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration.

  11. Exploring the Influence of Topographic Correction and SWIR Spectral Information Inclusion on Burnt Scars Detection From High Resolution EO Imagery: A Case Study Using ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Yahia A.; Petropoulos, George; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2014-05-01

    Information on burned area estimates is of key importance in environmental and ecological studies as well as in fire management including damage assessment and planning of post-fire recovery of affected areas. Earth Observation (EO) provides today the most efficient way in obtaining such information in a rapid, consistent and cost-effective manner. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of topographic correction to the burnt area delineation in conditions characteristic of a Mediterranean environment using ASTER high resolution multispectral remotely sensed imagery. A further objective was to investigate the potential added-value of the inclusion of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands in improving the retrievals of burned area cartography from the ASTER data. In particular the capability of the Maximum Likelihood (ML), the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) classification techniques has been examined herein for the purposes of our study. As a case study is used a typical Mediterranean site on which a fire event occurred in Greece during the summer of 2007, for which post-fire ASTER imagery has been acquired. Our results indicated that the combination of topographic correction (ortho-rectification) with the inclusion of the SWIR bands returned the most accurate results in terms of burnt area mapping. In terms of image processing methods, OBIA showed the best results and found as the most promising approach for burned area mapping with least absolute difference from the validation polygon followed by SVM and ML. All in all, our study provides an important contribution to the understanding of the capability of high resolution imagery such as that from ASTER sensor and corroborates the usefulness particularly of the topographic correction as an image processing step when in delineating the burnt areas from such data. It also provides further evidence that use of EO technology can offer an effective practical tool for the

  12. DOE's Yucca Mountain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers thinkhigh-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies

  13. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ''holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state

  14. ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most likely pathophysiological causes of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS, also known as altitude sickness, its pulmonary form i.e. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE, and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE. These diseases constitute extraordinary environmental hazards because they are directly connected with low atmospheric pressure, and thus low partial oxygen pressure. The above adverse atmospheric conditions start to affect humans already at an altitude of 2,500 meters above the sea level and, coupled with extreme physical exertion, can quickly lead to respiratory alkalosis, which is not present under any other conditions in the lowlands. Mountaineering above 4,500 m a.s.l. leads to hypoxia of internal organs and, primarily, reduced renal perfusion with all its consequences. The above adverse changes, combined with inadequate acclimatization, can lead to a situation of imminent danger to life and health. This paper describes in detail the consequences of acute mountain sickness, which can ultimately lead to the development of AMS and one of severe forms of HACE and/or HAPE.

  15. Generation of the ECP database (ECP01.DAT) of the cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde with burnt of 1377 MWD/MT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia C, R.

    1992-10-01

    In order to carrying out a comparison among the results provided by the Program of Estimate of the ECP Critical Position and the Shutdown/Startup produced in the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, it was generated the base of the ECP program, following the outlines settled down in the Procedure 'Generation of ECP Database for Laguna Verde' (IT.SN/DFR-074). Next the data sheets filled when being generated the ECP01.DAT database with a burnt of 1377 MWD/MT are provided. In the report IT.SN/DFR-079 'Adjustment and Preliminary Evaluation of the Predictions of Criticity of the ECP Program with Reported Data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde', the results of the comparison among those estimates of the ECP program using the ECP01.DAT database with the real data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde are presented. (Author)

  16. Parâmetros físico-químicos e cromatográficos em aguardentes de cana queimada e não queimada Physicochemical and chromatographic parameters in sugar cane brandies from burnt and non-burnt cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Masson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as concentrações de furfural, álcoois superiores, ésteres, aldeídos, cobre, acidez volátil, metanol e grau alcoólico de aguardentes obtidas de cana, com e sem queima prévia. Foram utilizadas amostras de aguardente artesanal de cana queimada e não queimada, fermentadas com a mesma levedura e destiladas no mesmo destilador; amostras de produtor de aguardente industrial de cana queimada e amostras obtidas de outro produtor artesanal de cana não queimada. As análises físico-químicas e cromatográficas (CG foram realizadas no Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente - LAFQA/DQI na Universidade Federal de Lavras. As concentrações de furfural apresentaram diferença significativa (PThis work was intended to evaluate the concentrations of furfural, higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes, copper, volatile acidity methanol and alcoholic degree of sugar cane brandies obtained from sugar cane both with and without previous burning. Samples of artisanal brandies from burnt and non-burnt cane, fermented with the same yeast and distilled in the same still, samples of burnt cane from an industrial brandy producer and samples of non-burnt cane obtained from another artisanal producer were utilized. The physicochemical and chromatographic (CG analyses were accomplished in the Sugar Cane Brandy Physicochemical Analysis Laboratory at the Federal University of Lavras. The concentrations of furfural showed significant differences (P<0.01 among the groups of artisanal brandies obtained from sugar cane with and without previous burning, coming from the same manufacturing process with means of 1.48 mg.100mL-1 ethanol and 0.63mg.100mL-1 ethanol, respectively, although they have been bellow the maximum limit (5.0 mg.100mL-1 ethanol allowed. The other components of the brandies studied were not affected significantly by the previous burning of sugar cane.

  17. Salvage logging versus the use of burnt wood as a nurse object to promote post-fire tree seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J.; Allen, Craig D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from “no intervention” (NI, all trees left standing) to “partial cut plus lopping” (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and “SL” (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition.

  18. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  19. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  20. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  1. SP mountain data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet

  3. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  4. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  5. The Yucca Mountain tours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, N.F.; Champagne, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    In 1978, Mderthaner et al. observed that opposition to nuclear facilities was lowest near the facility. This suggested that opposition decreased as familiarity with the facility increased, with distance from the facility as an inverse measure of familiarity. In this paper, the authors analyze data from the literature supporting this hypothesis and examine a poll of 1200 public visitors to the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in March through June 1991. The tour poll and independent pools show that most Nevadans support the present scientific investigation of the site while opposing the repository. Among the visitors, support for the investigation increased from 66 to 90 percent, which we attribute to increased familiarity

  6. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  7. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  8. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  9. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  10. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  11. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project's public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site

  12. Decision tree analysis as a supplementary tool to enhance histomorphological differentiation when distinguishing human from non-human cranial bone in both burnt and unburnt states: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, T; Goodburn, B; Singhrao, S K

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study was undertaken to describe and record the histological characteristics of burnt and unburnt cranial bone fragments from human and non-human bones. Reference series of fully mineralized, transverse sections of cranial bone, from all variables and specimen states, were prepared by manual cutting and semi-automated grinding and polishing methods. A photomicrograph catalogue reflecting differences in burnt and unburnt bone from human and non-humans was recorded and qualitative analysis was performed using an established classification system based on primary bone characteristics. The histomorphology associated with human and non-human samples was, for the main part, preserved following burning at high temperature. Clearly, fibro-lamellar complex tissue subtypes, such as plexiform or laminar primary bone, were only present in non-human bones. A decision tree analysis based on histological features provided a definitive identification key for distinguishing human from non-human bone, with an accuracy of 100%. The decision tree for samples where burning was unknown was 96% accurate, and multi-step classification to taxon was possible with 100% accuracy. The results of this feasibility study strongly suggest that histology remains a viable alternative technique if fragments of cranial bone require forensic examination in both burnt and unburnt states. The decision tree analysis may provide an additional but vital tool to enhance data interpretation. Further studies are needed to assess variation in histomorphology taking into account other cranial bones, ontogeny, species and burning conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  14. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  15. Mountain biking injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Mountain biking is a fast, exciting adventure sport with increasing numbers of participants and competitions. A search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, DH data, and Embase databases was performed using the following keywords: mountain, biking and injuries. This revealed 2 review articles, 17 case controlled studies, 4 case series and 5 case reports. This review summarises the published literature on mountain biking injuries, discusses injury frequency and common injury mechanisms. Riders are quick to adopt safety measures. Helmet usage is now increasingly common and handlebar adaptations have been discontinued. Although the sport has a reputation for speed and risk with research and awareness, injury prevention measures are being adopted making the sport as safe as possible.

  16. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  17. Afforestation, subsequent forest fires and provision of hydrological services: a model-based analysis for a Mediterranean mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Naranjo Quintanilla, Paula; Santos, Juliana; Serpa, Dalila; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Rocha, João; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes have experienced extensive abandonment and reforestation in recent decades, which should have improved the provision of hydrological services, such as flood mitigation, soil erosion protection and water quality regulation. However, these forests are fire-prone, and the post-fire increase in runoff, erosion and sediment exports could negatively affect service provision. This issue was assessed using the SWAT model for a small mountain agroforestry catchment, which was monitored between 2010 and 2014 and where some eucalypt stands burned in 2011 and were subsequently plowed for replanting. The model was calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment yield and erosion in agricultural fields and the burnt hillslopes, showing that it can be adapted for post-fire simulation. It was then used to perform a decadal assessment of surface runoff, erosion, and sediment exports between 2004 and 2014. Results show that the fire did not noticeably affect flood mitigation but that it increased erosion by 3 orders of magnitude, which subsequently increased sediment yield. Erosion in the burnt forest during this decade was one order of magnitude above that in agricultural fields. SWAT was also used to assess different fire and land-use scenarios during the same period. Results indicate that the impacts of fire were lower without post-fire soil management, and when the fire occurred in pine forests (i.e. before the 1990s) or in shrublands (i.e. before afforestation in the 1930s). These impacts were robust to changes in post-fire weather conditions and to a lower fire frequency (20-year intervals). The results suggest that, in the long term, fire-prone forests might not provide the anticipated soil protection and water quality regulation services in wet Mediterranean regions.

  18. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  19. When do children get burnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verey, Frances; Lyttle, Mark D; Lawson, Zoe; Greenwood, Rosemary; Young, Amber

    2014-11-01

    Burns are a cause of more than 5000 paediatric hospital admissions per year in England and Wales. Injury prevention and service provision may be better planned with knowledge of burn timing. Prospectively collected records from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011 were analysed. All episodes involving patients less than 16 years of age reviewed by the South West Children's Burns Centre were included. Data was collected from 1480 records to investigate seasonal, weekly, and daily variation. Day to day analysis showed significantly more burns occurred on Saturday and Sunday than Monday-Friday (p10% body surface area), 38% occurred after 19:00. There was no statistically significant variation in the monthly (p=0.105) or seasonal (p=0.270) distribution of burns. Bank holidays did not cause a statistically significant increase in numbers. Injury prevention strategies are likely to have most volume impact by increasing awareness of the peak time for burns in children, enabling parents at home with young children to modify any risky behaviour and by targeting older children and their behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  1. A ranking system for prescribed burn prioritization in Table Mountain National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Carly Ruth; Cheney, Chad

    2017-04-01

    To aid prescribed burn decision making in Table Mountain National Park, in South Africa a priority ranking system was tested. Historically a wildfire suppression strategy was adopted due to wildfires threatening urban areas close to the park, with few prescribed burns conducted. A large percentage of vegetation across the park exceeded the ecological threshold of 15 years. We held a multidisciplinary workshop, to prioritize areas for prescribed burning. Fire Management Blocks were mapped and assessed using the following seven categories: (1) ecological, (2) management, (3) tourism, (4) infrastructure, (5) invasive alien vegetation, (6) wildland-urban interface and (7) heritage. A priority ranking system was used to score each block. The oldest or most threatened vegetation types were not necessarily the top priority blocks. Selected blocks were burnt and burning fewer large blocks proved more effective economically, ecologically and practically due to the limited burning days permitted. The prioritization process was efficient as it could be updated annually following prescribed burns and wildfire incidents. Integration of prescribed burn planning and wildfire suppression strategies resulted in a reduction in operational costs. We recommend protected areas make use of a priority ranking system developed with expert knowledge and stakeholder engagement to determine objective prescribed burn plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-time phosphorus losses by overland flow in burnt pine and eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected vast areas of Mediterranean ecosystems leading to a variety of negative on- and off-site environmental impacts. Research on fire-affected areas has given more attention to sediment losses by fire-enhanced overland flow than to nutrient exports, especially in the Mediterranean region. To address this knowledge gap for post-fire losses of phosphorus (P) by overland flow, a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal was selected and instrumented immediately after a wildfire. Three slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Micro-plots were monitored over a period of six months, i.e. till the construction of terraces for reforestation obliged to the removal of the plots. During this 6-month period, overland flow samples were collected at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall. Total P and PO4-P losses differed markedly between the two types of forests on schist, being lower at the pine site than at the eucalypt site, probably due to the presence of a protective layer of pine needle cast. Parent material did not play an important role in PO4-P losses by overland flow but it did in TP losses, with significantly lower values at the eucalypt site on granite than that on schist. These differences in TP losses can be attributed to the coarser texture of granite soils, typically promoting infiltration and decreasing runoff. The present findings provided further insights into the spatial and temporal patterns of post-fire soil nutrient losses in fire-prone forest types during the initial stages of the window-of-disturbance, which can be useful for defining post-fire emergency measures to reduce the risk of soil fertility losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C...

  4. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  5. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  6. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type spec...

  7. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport.

  8. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  9. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  12. Processo de cuidar da criança queimada: vivência de familiares Procedimiento para el cuidado de los niños quemados: experiencia en familia Burnt children care procedure: experience in family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Chianca Gomes Varela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a vivência de familiares no cuidado da criança que sofreu queimadura. Foi realizado um estudo exploratório, em um hospital de emergência na cidade de João Pessoa - PB, com dez acompanhantes de crianças hospitalizadas, vítimas de queimadura. Os resultados mostraram que os agentes térmicos foram os maiores causadores das queimaduras nas crianças. O discurso dos participantes revela que a maioria dos acidentes ocorreu na presença do cuidador, menciona algumas condutas erradas após a ocorrência do acidente e alguns consideram a experiência de cuidar da criança queimada como negativa, o que evidencia a necessidade de orientação da população em geral e a participação no cuidar da criança queimada.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la experiencia de la familia en el cuidado de los niños que han sufrido quemaduras. Un estudio exploratorio fue realizado en un hospital de emergencia en la ciudad de João Pessoa - PB, con diez compañeros de los niños hospitalizados por quemaduras. Los resultados enseñaron que los agentes térmicos fueron la principal causa de quemaduras en los niños. El discurso de los participantes indica que la mayoría de los accidentes se produjo en presencia del cuidador, menciona algunos procedimientos equivocados después del accidente, mientras que algunos consideran que la experiencia de cuidar de los niños quemados es negativa, destacando la necesidad de orientación para la población general y participación en el cuidado de los niños quemados.This study aimed to describe the family experience in the care of the child who got burnt. An exploratory study was conducted in a hospital emergency room in the city of João Pessoa - PB, with ten companions of hospitalized burnt children. The results showed that the thermal agents were the biggest cause of children's burns. The speech of the participants shows that most accidents occurred in the presence of the

  13. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  14. Spiders in mountain habitats of the Giant Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Vaněk, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2012), s. 341-347 ISSN 1067-4136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, Karkonosze) * spider s * anemo-orographic systems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0k5g721q1155r146/fulltext.pdf

  15. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified

  16. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  17. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  18. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  19. Mountain Plant Community Sentinels: AWOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain plant communities are thought to be sensitive to climate change. Because climatic gradients are steep on mountain slopes, the spatial response of plant communities to climate change should be compressed and easier to detect. These expectations have led to identifying mountain plant communities as sentinels for climate change. This idea has, however, been criticized. Two critiques, for alpine treeline and alpine tundra, are rehearsed and supplemented. The critique of alpine treeline as sentinel is bolstered with new model results on the confounding role of dispersal mechanisms and sensitivity to climatic volatility. In alpine tundra, for which background turnover rates have yet to be established, community composition may reflect environmental gradients only for extremes where effects of climate are most indirect. Both plant communities, while primarily determined by energy at broad scales, may respond to water as a proximate driver at local scales. These plant communities may not be in equilibrium with climate, and differently scaled time lags may mean that ongoing vegetation change may not signal ongoing climate change (or lack thereof). In both cases a double-whammy is created by scale dependence for time lags and for drivers leading to confusion, but these cases present opportunities for insights into basic ecology.

  20. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  1. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  2. Seaside, mountain and... wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several courts have given a ruling considering that the law 'Montagne' (January 9., 1985) and the law 'Littoral' (January 3., 1986) are opposable to the building license of wind turbines. The law 'Littoral' imposes that any new construction in seaside areas has to be built in continuity of existing villages or hamlets. The law 'Montagne' imposes similar constraints to avoid the construction of isolated buildings in mountain areas but, contrary to the law 'Littoral', it allows some impairment for instance for the construction of certain public equipment. (A.C.)

  3. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project

  4. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  5. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  6. Mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    89 x 110 mm. Woodburytype. A half-length portrait of a seated man from the village of Prodromos. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). It is annotated: 'The villagers are a robust race, as may be gathered from the two following photographs, the first of which represents one of the chief people of the place, a man who deserves to be rendered famous for the kind manner in w...

  7. Mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    84 x 107 mm. Woodburytype. A posed portrait of a man from Prodromos. The portrait appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). It is annotated: 'Another Highlander figures in the second plate - a tall, bony man of a most obligingly good-natured disposition. He, however, looked a bold, determined character, whose massive hands and muscular frame would stand him in good stead in carrying out ...

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  9. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  10. Impact of Hypoxia on Man on Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kislitsyn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available External respiratory function was studied in those engaged in mountaineering. A negative correlation was found between the intensity of exercise and the changes in vital capacity under mountainous conditions. Changes occurring in the levels of glucose and cholesterol were considered in tourists.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  13. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request for continued waiver of Standards of Conduct. Any...

  14. El soporte nutrimental y su relación con algunos indicadores pronósticos del niño quemado Nutritional support and its relation to some prognostic indicators of burnt child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Torres Amaro

    2011-12-01

    between the nutritional support established during the firsts hours after resuscitation with some prognostic indicators in burnt children. Methods: an analytical and retrospective study was conducted including 252 children admitted in the burn service of the "Juan Manuel Márquez" Teaching Children Hospital of Marianao in La Habana with a stay higher of 7 days during the decade of 2000 to 2009. From the audit of medical records it was obtained the following prognostic indicators of burnt child: burnt body surface, stay time, weight loss percentage and mortality. Likewise it was possible to obtain information about the type of metabolic nutritional support used during treatment. Results: the above mentioned more used support was mixed where is combined the peripheral enteral and parenteral modality covering the 52 % of treated patients. The children with less percentage of weight loss (under 10 % received the exclusive enteral way (53,1 % of treated cases and in the 37,4 % the support was mixed, but using the peripheral modality of parenteral use. Conclusions: the nutritional strategy used in burnt child may to modify some prognostic indicators and must to be a therapeutical priority to prevent the clinical deterioration of these patients.

  15. Device for controlling the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine. Einrichtung zur Regelung der Zusammensetzung des in den Brennraeumen einer Brennkraftmaschine zur Verbrennung kommenden Betriebsgemisches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latsch, R; Bianchi, V

    1986-07-31

    The purpose of the invention is to create a device by which the extent of the reaction to the control of the composition of the mixture burnt in the combustion spaces of an internal combustion engine can be measured in a sensitive, responsive and safe way, where the position of the elements detecting the reaction should have a relatively small effect on the accuracy of the measurement and the extent of measurement. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the use of 2 thermal sensors connected to a control device (photo-electric diode, photo-electric transistor), one of which acts catalytically and causes the parts of the gas mixture there to react. The thermal sensor output signals are periodically integrated via the piston work and are entered in the control device. The measured temperature is a measure of how far the method of operation of the internal combustion engine has approached its limits. (HWJ).

  16. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  17. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  18. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece

  19. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  20. Mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Ingrid O; DeClementi, Camille; Guenther, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) toxicosis in a dog, including case management and successful outcome. A dog presented for vomiting, hematochezia, bradycardia, weakness, and ataxia, which did not improve with supportive treatment. Mountain laurel ingestion was identified as cause of clinical signs after gastrotomy was performed to remove stomach contents. Supportive treatment was continued and the dog made a full recovery. This report details a case of mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog, including management strategies and outcome, which has not been previously published in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  1. Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces 237 Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 x 10 6 years. Consequently, the transport of 237 Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry

  2. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/

  3. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  4. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  5. Radioecological situation in the Khibiny mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedova, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Radioecological situation in the Khibiny Mountains is considered. Two former areas of engineering nuclear explosions are monitored. The accumulation and migration of radionuclides in soil, vegetation and snow are examined.

  6. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  7. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  8. Mountain Wave Analysis Using Fourier Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, John R

    2007-01-01

    ...) their requirements for only a coarse horizontal background state. Common traits of Fourier mountain wave models include use of the Boussinesq approximation and neglect of moisture and Coriolis terms...

  9. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  10. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Congress designated Yucca Mountain, NV, as the nation's sole candidate site for a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site-selection process...

  11. Alternative transportation study : Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report provides an assessment of historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in southwest Oklahoma. The study defines transportation-related goals ...

  12. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  13. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  14. CURRENT MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN HIGH MOUNTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    KURT HANSELMANN; MUNTI YUHANA

    2006-01-01

    Remote and normally unpolluted high mountain lakes provide habitats with no or very limited anthropogenic influences and, therefore, their hydrodynamics are mostly regulated by the natural c onditions. Researches in high mountain lakes deal with measuring and modeling the response of the habitats to environmental changes especially correlated to acid deposition, pollutants influx and climatic variability. The microbial world has also become a focus in many studies of these extreme ecosystem...

  15. AHP 35: An Abandoned Mountain Deity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limusishiden (Li Dechun 李得春

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasizi are cairns where mountain deities dwell, and the same word also refers to the deities that dwell in these cairns. There are many lasizi in Tu areas in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province. The most famous are: Chileb, located in the north part of both Danma Town and Donggou Township Durizang, located in the northern part of Wushi Town Lawa, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Wushi Town. The mountain is referred to as Lawa Lasizi. Lawa Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's west side, which is within Danma Town territory. Tughuan Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's east side, which belongs is within Wushi Town jurisdiction. Sughua, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Dongshan Township. The mountain is locally known as Sughua Lasizi. Qighaan Dawa Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's west side, which is part of Dongshan Township. Sughua Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's east side, which is part of belongs Danma Town. Walighuan, located atop a mountain in Hongyazigou Township and Sunduu, located on the border between Songduo and Bazha (two autonomous Tibetan townships in Huzhu County and Ledu Region. ...

  16. Scientific progress at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is moving forward with studies to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would be a suitable site for the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository; however, the DOE's Congressionally mandated task of characterizing the site has been severely delayed by a lack of cooperation from the state of Nevada. The state has refused to issue the appropriate permits that must be obtained before surface disturbing studies can proceed; therefore, an extensive surface-based drilling and trenching program and construction of underground exploration facilities are on hold until pending litigation between the DOE and Nevada has been resolved. Despite this major impasse, significant scientific progress has been made, and the DOE is aggressively pursuing investigations that can be conducted without the state-issued permits. Additionally, the DOE is developing a high-quality technical and management structure as well as equipment, plans, and quality assurance procedures, so that the scientific investigation program can proceed without delay once the appropriate permits are obtained

  17. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield

  18. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  19. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  20. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  1. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  2. THE DETERMINATION THE POLLUTION EMISSIONS OF SO2, NOX, CO, CO2 AND O2 FROM THE CHANNELS OF BURNT GAS ON BOILER OF 420 T/H - STEAM, IN THE SIGHT APPLICATION PROCEEDING TO REDUCE OF THESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedeff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The work present the results obtained after dynamic analyze the pollution emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 on evacuation channels of burnt gas on boiler of 420 t/h steam, having right the basic combustible the lignite, and auxiliary combustible the fuel oil and the natural gas. The values of pollution emission was analyze beside the admissible maxims values required by European legislation for Romania in the year 2005. The conclusion elaborated it adverted to: the values of oxides azoth, carry they frame in the limits provide in Environmental Authorization, under 60 mg/Nmc on 6% oxygen, the concentration values of SO2 which was bigger in report with one authorized comprised between 3500-3900 mg/Nmc confronted by 3400 mg/Nm. For integration in the foresee Government Decision 541/2003 aren't sufficient just proceeding of below reduce SO2, must take and another measures such as: get the fuel with quantity of sulphur 0.5% and with a content of ash below 35%.

  3. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  4. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  5. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  6. Wildfires in Siberian Mountain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Antamoshkina, O.

    2017-12-01

    The annual burned area in Russia was estimated as 0.55 to 20 Mha with >70% occurred in Siberia. We analyzed Siberian wildfires distribution with respect to elevation, slope steepness and exposure. In addition, wildfires temporal dynamic and latitudinal range were analyzed. We used daily thermal anomalies derived from NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS satellites (1990-2016). Fire return intervals were (FRI) calculated based on the dendrochronology analysis of samples taken from trees with burn marks. Spatial distribution of wildfires dependent on topo features: relative burned area increase with elevation increase (ca. 1100 m), switching to following decrease. The wildfires frequency exponentially decreased within lowlands - highlands transition. Burned area is increasing with slope steepness increase (up to 5-10°). Fire return intervals (FRI) on the southfacing slopes are about 30% longer than on the north facing. Wildfire re-occurrence is decreasing exponentially: 90% of burns were caused by single fires, 8.5% by double fires, 1% burned three times, and on about 0.05% territory wildfires occurred four times (observed period: 75 yr.). Wildfires area and number, as well as FRI, also dependent on latitude: relative burned area increasing exponentially in norward direction, whereas relative fire number is exponentially decreasing. FRI increases in the northward direction: from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle, and to 300 years at the northern limit of closed forests ( 71+°N). Fire frequency, fire danger period and FRI are strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.81 - 0.95). In 21-s century, a positive trend of wildfires number and area observed in mountain areas in all Siberia. Thus, burned area and number of fires in Siberia are significantly increased since 1990th (R2 =0.47, R2 =0.69, respectively), and that increase correlated with air temperatures and climate aridity increases. However, wildfires are essential for supporting fire

  7. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  8. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  9. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  10. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs

  13. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  14. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  15. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  16. Succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kerbler-Kefo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the hypothesis that the offi cial statistical data does not refl ect actual succession status on mountain farms in Slovenia and also on Slovene farms in general, since the census criteria defi ning succession are still incomplete. With the purpose of confi rming our assumption, we formulated more accurate criteria and also determined as to what is the real status of succession on mountain farms in Slovenia. It has proved to be more favourable, than it is presented by the offi cial statistics.

  17. Risk management among mountain bikers in selected clubs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management among mountain bikers in selected clubs in Malaysia. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... is more risky. Keywords: mountain biking, risk management, event management, Malaysia ...

  18. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  19. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  20. Eastern Arc Mountains and their national and global importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Arc Mountains comprise a chain of separate mountain blocks running from southern Kenya through Tanzania in a crescent or arc shape. In Tanzania, the Eastern Arc consists of North and South Pare, East and West Usambaras, Nguru, Ukaguru, Rubeho, Uluguru, Udzungwa and Mahenge Mountains.

  1. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  2. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  3. Hydrologeologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located

  4. Mountain prophecies | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... ... of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains may seem an unlikely choice. ... streams) is begging new questions about how best to preserve this crucial ... In addition, there are the ever-looming hazards of avalanches, ...

  5. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Krier

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached

  6. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.

  7. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovcharuk V and Todorova O

    Odessa State Environmental University, Ukraine. Received: 03 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2016 / Published online: 01 May 2016. ABSTRACT. This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of the Crimean Mountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean ...

  8. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  9. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [de

  10. [Mountain biking : Breezy ups and traumatic downs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, G

    2010-05-01

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing.The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided.

  11. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  12. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  13. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  15. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  16. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  17. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  18. Thunder Mountain School Is Something Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Thunder Mountain School, operated year round by the Newton Board of Education under a special use permit granted by the National Park Service. The center includes sports facilities, nature preserves, a farm, and historic sites for use by residential and day students, kindergarten through college. (SJL)

  19. MOUNTAIN NATURAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Tishkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High biodiversity and degree of endemism of mountain biota strengthen the mountain regions’ status for the territorial nature conservation. Analysis of the protected areas’ representativeness in various mountain regions of Russia shows some discrepancy between their quantity, square and regional biodiversity originality. The biggest divergences are marked for the Northern Caucasus. The main problems: small area of the protected territories and also cluster character of their spatial distribution, mostly in the high mountains are not supposed to conform with the highest values of the regional flora’s and fauna’s uniqueness, to compensate representativeness of the protected biota and, in anyway, to correspond with the purpose of nature protection frame—the protected territories ecologic network’s forming. The situation in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East seems to be better. The large areas of the protected territories are in general agreement with the high originality of the nature ecosystems. Nevertheless each concrete case needs analysis of the regional biota’s and ecosystems’ biodiversity distribution within the protected areas, including character and (or unique elements of the regional biodiversity to be held. The development of the effectual territorial conservation of mountain regions needs differential approach. The creation of the large representative parcels of nature landscapes in the key-areas has the considerable meaning in the low-developed regions, difficult to access. And well-developed regions have the necessity of nature protected territories’ network development and the planning of the ecological frame’s forming. The territorial biodiversity conservation, including the system of federal, regional and local levels with protective conservation of the rare species has to be combined with ecosystem’s restoration, especially in the zones disturbed by erosion, recreation and military actions. Also it is

  20. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  1. ARCOS Network: A Sustainable Mountain Development Hub for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Muvunankiko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is endowed with mountains of high productivity, biodiversity, endemism, and cultural diversity. African mountain ecosystems play an important role in economic development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. However, climate change and extreme events, as well as human activities, alter the capacity of mountains to provide such services to millions of Africans who depend on them. Since the creation in 1995 of the Albertine Rift Conservation Society (ARCOS, mountains have been at the core of its programs, and collaboration among stakeholders is a key aspect of its search for sustainable solutions to threats affecting African mountains.

  2. Floristic analysis of the wanda mountain in north eastern china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Xu, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The plants of the Wanda Mountain area were investigated between 2009 to 2013. The results show that Wanda Mountain has 95 families of seed plants distributed in 334 genera and 705 species. A geographical component analysis shows that in addition to a small number of cosmopolitan species, cold, temperate and tropical species account for 14.9%, 77.3% and 4.4% of the total species, respectively, indicating that the flora of the Wanda Mountains exhibits a significant temperate nature and includes a small number of tropical components and certain cold components. In addition, the Wanda Mountains show a remarkable level of endemism and are geographically related to other regions in East Asia, particularly Japan. Furthermore, the Wanda Mountains present a complicated species composition, with a total of 14 distribution patterns and 10 variants. The coefficient of similarity between the flora of the Wanda Mountain area and the flora of the Changbai Mountain area is 43.1%, and the coefficient of similarity between the flora of the Wanda Mountain area and the flora of the Lesser Xingan Mountain area is 49.2%, indicating that the plants of the Wanda Mountain area are more common to those of the Lesser Xingan Mountain area. (author)

  3. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A

    1995-09-01

    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  4. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area

  5. Stoneflies (Plecoptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA TYUFEKCHIEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes both literature and new data on the fauna of Plecoptera (Insecta of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains, Bulgaria. A total of 20 species and seven subspecies are known from the mountain. The recorded stoneflies belong to 12 genera and seven families. They represent 25% of the 108 stoneflies currently known from Bulgaria. Among the 27 species that have been recorded, two are Critically Endangered (CR, one –Endangered (EN and ten – Vulnerable (VU. From a zoogeographical point of view, one subspecies and four species from the Plecoptera, recorded in Vrachanska Planina Mts., are Balkan endemics: Capnopsis schilleri balcanica Zwick, 1984, Leuctra balcanica Rauser, 1965, Leuctra hirsuta Bogoescu, Tabacaru, 1960, Nemoura braaschi Joost, 1970 and Isoperla belai Illies, 1963. Four of the recorded species are rare for Bulgaria.

  6. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  7. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  8. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  10. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  11. The Olympic Mountains Experiment for GPM (OLYMPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houze, R.; McMurdie, L. A.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2016-12-01

    The GPM satellite has made it possible to observe the amount and nature of precipitation in remote areas of midlatitudes, including oceans and mountain ranges. OLYMPEX conducted over the Olympic Mountains on the northwest coast of Washington State was designed to provide the means for evaluating the physical basis of the algorithms used to convert GPM satellite measurements to determine the amount and nature of precipitation in midlatitude extratropical cyclones. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature. In the tropics, the domain of the TRMM satellite, the temperature profile varies only slightly. GPM algorithms, however, must account for the strong horizontal variation of temperature profiles in baroclinic storms systems of midlatitudes and for the variations of precipitation mechanisms caused by passage of these storms over mountains. The OLYMPEX scientific strategy was: 1) collect a statistically robust set of measurements in midlatitude cyclones upstream of, over, and downstream of a midlatitude mountain range that can be used to improve GPM satellite algorithms; 2) determine how the physics and dynamics of the mechanisms affecting precipitation formation in relation to storm structure and terrain. To accomplish these goals 3 aircraft, 4 scanning dual polarization Doppler radars, supplemental soundings, and sophisticated surface instruments were deployed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, where Pacific frontal systems produce seasonal precipitation of 2000-4000 mm. 13 storms were observed. 3 of these were atmospheric rivers. The NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft overflew the storms with instruments similar to those on GPM. The U. North Dakota Citation sampled hydrometeors in situ. Preliminary analysis indicates that one of the primary modes of orographic enhancement is low-level moist flow rising over the lower windward slopes and producing many very small drops. Ice-phase processes producing

  12. Infantry Small-Unit Mountain Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    should be on the uphill side of grass tussocks, small talus, and other level spots to avoid twisting an ankle or straining an Achilles tendon...should be extremely cautious while traveling on the side of a hill. During side-hill travel personnel are more vulnerable to twisted ankles , back injury...installation in the mountains is the fixed rope system. A fixed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist Soldiers in movement over difficult terrain

  13. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ascent:. Mountain Biking Meets Mandelbrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  15. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years

  16. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  18. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  19. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  20. Man-induced transformation of mountain meadow soils of Aragats mountain massif (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers issues of degradation of mountain meadow soils of the Aragats mountain massif of the Republic of Armenia and provides the averaged research results obtained for 2013 and 2014. The present research was initiated in the frames of long-term complex investigations of agroecosystems of Armenia’s mountain massifs and covered sod soils of high mountain meadow pasturelands and meadow steppe grasslands lying on southern slope of Mt. Aragats. With a purpose of studying the peculiarities of migration and transformation of flows of major nutrients namely carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus in study mountain meadow and meadow steppe belts of the Aragats massif we investigated water migration of chemical elements and regularities of their leaching depending on different belts. Field measurement data have indicated that organic carbon and humus in a heavily grazed plot are almost twice as low as on a control site. Lysimetric data analysis has demonstrated that heavy grazing and illegal deforestation have brought to an increase in intrasoil water acidity. The results generated from this research support a conclusion that a man’s intervention has brought to disturbance of structure and nutrient and water regimes of soils and loss of significant amounts of soil nutrients throughout the studied region.

  1. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  2. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  3. A lineament analysis of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 was signed into law on January 7, 1983. It specifies procedures for the Department of Energy in the selection of a high level nuclear waste repository. Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards require adequate isolation of waste from the biosphere for 10,000 years. The law considers such geologic factors as tectonic stability, igneous activity, hydrologic conditions and natural resources to be of primary concern. Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada is one of three sites selected for further consideration in the site characterization process. The Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) within the Agency for Nuclear Projects of the State of Nevada is conducting an independent scientific assessment of the proposed site. The remote sensing technical assessment is one of seven task groups conducting review and research into the suitability of Yucca Mountain. The study undertaken by the Remote Sensing Group was that of a lineament analysis with regard to the site's structural relationship within a regional tectonic framework. Lineaments mapped from synoptic imagery may prove to represent structural zones of weakness. These zones may provide pathways for the infiltration of groundwater, conduits for the extrusion of magma or be reactivated as stress conditions change. This paper describes the methodology for a lineament analysis of the Yucca Mountain area

  4. Physiological demands of downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jamie F; Drury, C Taylor; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2012-12-01

    Mountain biking is a popular recreational pursuit and the physiological demands of cross-country style riding have been well documented. However, little is known regarding the growing discipline of gravity-assisted downhill cycling. We characterised the physiological demands of downhill mountain biking under typical riding conditions. Riding oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured on 11 male and eight female experienced downhill cyclists and compared with data during a standardised incremental to maximum (VO(2max)) exercise test. The mean VO(2) while riding was 23.1 ± 6.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) or 52 ± 14% of VO(2max) with corresponding heart rates of 146 ± 11 bpm (80 ± 6% HRmax). Over 65% of the ride was in a zone at or above an intensity level associated with improvements in health-related fitness. However, the participants' heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion were artificially inflated in comparison with the actual metabolic demands of the downhill ride. Substantial muscular fatigue was evident in grip strength, which decreased 5.4 ± 9.4 kg (5.5 ± 11.2%, P = 0.03) post-ride. Participation in downhill mountain biking is associated with significant physiological demands, which are in a range associated with beneficial effects on health-related fitness.

  5. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, J.J.

    1990-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on the Yucca Mountain Project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1988 through December 1989. This supplement also includes a new section which provides information about publications on the Energy Data Base that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Indexes are provided for Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context. All entries in the Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies are searchable online on the NNW database file. This file can be accessed through the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Technical reports on the Yucca Mountain Project are on display in special open files at participating Nevada Libraries and in the Public Document Room of the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, in Las Vegas

  6. Yucca Mountain and the environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    The scientists and engineers who work on the Yucca Mountain Project keenly feel their responsibility - to solve an important national environmental issue. Addressing the issue of nuclear waste disposal may also help keep the nuclear option viable. Under congressional mandate, they are working to find that solution despite tough opposition from the state of Nevada. Nevada and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been litigating the issue of environmental permits for almost 2 years now, and the court decisions have all favored DOE. The DOE's site characterization efforts are designed to determine whether Yucca Mountain can safely store spent nuclear fuel for the next 10,000 yr. DOE is studying the rocks, the climate, and the water table to make sure that the site is suitable before anything is built there. The success of the Yucca Mountain Project is vital to settling existing environmental issues as well as maintaining the viability of nuclear energy. Through efforts in Congress and outreach programs in Nevada, DOE hopes to inform the public of the mission and begin the process of site characterization

  7. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  8. Post-processor for simulations of the ORIGEN program and calculation of the composition of the activity of a burnt fuel core by a BWR type reactor; Post-procesador para simulaciones del programa ORIGEN y calculo de la composicion de la actividad de un nucleo de combustible quemado por un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: sandoval@iie.org.mx

    2006-07-01

    The composition calculation and the activity of nuclear materials subject to processes of burnt, irradiation and decay periods are of utility for diverse activities inside the nuclear industry, as they are it: the processes design and operations that manage radioactive material, the calculation of the inventory and activity of a core of burnt nuclear fuel, for studies of type Probabilistic Safety Analysis (APS), as well as for regulation processes and licensing of nuclear facilities. ORIGEN is a program for computer that calculates the composition and the activity of nuclear materials subject to periods of burnt, irradiation and decay. ORIGEN generates a great quantity of information whose processing and analysis are laborious, and it requires thoroughness to avoid errors. The automation of the extraction, conditioning and classification of that information is of great utility for the analyst. By means of the use of the post-processor presented in this work it is facilitated, it speeds up and wide the capacity of analysis of results, since diverse consultations with several classification options and filtrate of results can be made. As illustration of the utility of the post-processor, and as an analysis of interest for itself, it is also presented in this work the composition of the activity of a burned core in a BWR type reactor according to the following classification criteria: by type of radioisotope (fission products, activation products and actinides), by specie type (gassy, volatile, semi-volatile and not volatile), by element and by chemical group. The results show that the total activity of the studied core is dominated by the fission products and for the actinides, in proportion four to one, and that the gassy and volatile species conform a fifth part of the total activity of the core. (Author)

  9. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  10. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  11. Stratigraphic and structural framework of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Fox, K.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, ∼140 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and 50 km northeast of Death Valley, California. The mountain consist of a series of long, linear, north-trending volcanic ridges that approach an 1800-m maximum elevation near The Prow. The broad intermontane alluviated valleys of Crater Flat, the Amargosa Desert, and Jackass Flats, averaging 800 to 1100 m in elevation, form the western, southern, and eastern margins of Yucca Mountain, respectively. North of The Prow, Yucca Mountain merges with other volcanic highlands that flank the southern rim of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex. The stratigraphy and structure of the area are discussed. Future geologic studies will attempt to determine if faults extend beneath Yucca Mountain, and, if present, their potential effects on the hydrologic and tectonic regimes

  12. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-09-01

    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems

  13. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  14. Conservation of biodiversity in mountain ecosystems -- At a glance

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, K.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record Mountains are especially important for biodiversity conservation since many harbor unique assemblages of plants and animals, including high levels of endemic species. Mountain biodiversity and natural habitats bestow multiple ecosystem, soil conservation, and watershed benefits. Mountains are often centers of endemism, where species are prevalent in or peculiar to a particular region, and Pleistocene refuges, which are hypothesized to have high levels of diversity wher...

  15. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  16. Mountaineering and photography. Contacts between 1880 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andorno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the nineteenth century, the photograph produced in high altitude mountain (mountaineering photography gives rise to peculiar images that do not belong to the tradition of landscape painting. Mountaineering is similar to the art of performance, if we talk about physical and mental commitment. Therefore, photos taken during the ascent of a peak shows both conceptual and formal values.

  17. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991

  18. Mountain tourism development in Serbia and neighboring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas with their surroundings are important parts of tourism regions with potentials for all-season tourism development and complementary activities. Development possibilities are based on size of high mountain territory, nature protection regimes, infrastructural equipment, provided conditions for leisure and recreation as well as involvement of local population in processes of development and protection. This paper analyses the key aspects of tourism development, winter tourism in high-mountain areas of Serbia and some neighboring countries (Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Common determinants of cohesion between nature protection and mountain tourism development, national development policies, applied models and concepts and importance of trans-border cooperation are indicated.

  19. Turonian Radiolarians in the Section of Ak Mountain, Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, L. G.

    2018-01-01

    In the sections from the western and eastern peaks of Ak Mountain, the Patellula selbukhraensis Zone (upper part of the lower Turonian), which is established for the first time in the southwestern Mountainous Crimea, is traced. The first data on the radiolarian distribution in the section of the eastern peak of Ak Mountain, which is stratotypical of the Phaseliforma turovi (middle Turonian, without the upper part) and Actinomma (?) belbekense (upper part of the middle Turonian-upper Turonian) zones, are presented. These zones are also traced in the parallel section of the western peak of Ak Mountain.

  20. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  1. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  2. Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, Y.; Hartley, J.; Scott, J.

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public

  3. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2004-01-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  4. Mountaineering-induced bilateral plantar paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kyle K; Parker, Justine; Heinking, Kurt P

    2014-07-01

    Flat feet (pes planus) have been implicated in multiple musculoskeletal complaints, which are often exacerbated by lack of appropriate arch support or intense exercise. To investigate the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on a patient (K.K.H.) with mountaineering-induced bilateral plantar paresthesia and to assess the association of pes planus with paresthesia in members of the mountaineering expedition party that accompanied the patient. A patient history and physical examination of the musculoskeletal system were performed. The hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot, big toe, and distal toes were evaluated for neurologic function, specifically pin, vibration, 10-g weight sensitivity, and 2-point discrimination during the 4-month treatment period. To determine if OMT could augment recovery, the patient volunteered to use the contralateral leg as a control, with no OMT performed on the sacrum or lower back. To determine if pes planus was associated with mountaineering-induced paresthesia, a sit-to-stand navicular drop test was performed on members of the expedition party. Osteopathic manipulative treatment improved fibular head motion and muscular flexibility and released fascial restrictions of the soleus, hamstring, popliteus, and gastrocnemius. The patient's perception of stiffness, pain, and overall well-being improved with OMT. However, OMT did not shorten the duration of paresthesia. Of the 9 expedition members, 2 experienced paresthesia. Average navicular drop on standing was 5.1 mm for participants with no paresthesia vs 8.9 mm for participants with paresthesia (t test, Pparesthesia. Early diagnosis of pes planus and treatment with orthotics (which may prevent neuropathies)--or, less ideally, OMT after extreme exercise--should be sought to relieve tension and discomfort. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  5. Winter severity and snowiness and their multiannual variability in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Richterová, Dáša; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Zusková, Ilona; Pawliczek, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses winter severity and snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains and examines their long-term trends. The analysis used modified comprehensive winter snowiness (WSW) and winter severity (WOW) indices as defined by Paczos (1982). An attempt was also made to determine the relationship between the WSW and WOW indices. Measurement data were obtained from eight stations operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB), from eight stations operated by the Czech Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (CHMI) and also from the Meteorological Observatory of the University of Wrocław (UWr) on Mount Szrenica. Essentially, the study covered the period from 1961 to 2015. In some cases, however, the period analysed was shorter due to the limited availability of data, which was conditioned, inter alia, by the period of operation of the station in question, and its type. Viewed on a macroscale, snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains (in similar altitude zones) are clearly more favourable on southern slopes than on northern ones. In the study area, negative trends have been observed with respect to both the WSW and WOW indices—winters have become less snowy and warmer. The correlation between the WOW and WSW indices is positive. At stations with northern macroexposure, WOW and WSW show greater correlation than at ones with southern macroexposure. This relationship is the weakest for stations that are situated in the upper ranges (Mount Śnieżka and Mount Szrenica).

  6. SNL Yucca Mountain Project data report: Density and porosity data for tuffs from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, B.M.

    1990-02-01

    Yucca Mountain, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, is being evaluated as a potential site for underground disposal of nuclear wastes. At present, the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of tuffaceous rocks from Yucca Mountain are being determined as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents experiment data, which have been obtained by Sandia National Laboratories or its contractors, for the density and porosity of tuffaceous rocks that lie above the water table at Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Holocene vegetation and climate history of the northern Bighorn Basin, southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M.E.; Betancourt, J.L.; Jackson, S.T.

    2002-01-01

    Records of Holocene vegetation and climate change at low elevations (treeline indicates wetter conditions between 4400 and 2700 14C yr B.P. Increased aridity after 2700 14C yr B.P. initiated expansion of J. osteosperma from the east to west side of the Pryor Mountains. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  8. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process

  9. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D.

    1991-01-01

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants

  10. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  11. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  12. Runoff formation in a small mountainous catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Lichner, Ľ.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-270 ISSN 1335-6291 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3060001; GA AV ČR IBS2060104; GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Grant - others:Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 2/7065/20; 5th EC Framework Programme(XE) IST-2000-28084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : hydrology * rainfall-runoff relationship * small mountainous catchment Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  14. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  15. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas

    1946-01-01

    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  16. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project (Madera County, California) lies... vegetation. Currently, vegetation within the Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project has changed from...

  17. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen

    2014-11-01

    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  18. Restructured site characterization program at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.R.; Vawter, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994 and the early part of 1995, the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office (YMSCO) and its parent organization, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) underwent a significant restructuring. Senior Department officials provided the leadership to reorient the management, technical, programmatic, and public interaction approach to the US High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Program. The restructuring involved reorganizing the federal staff, conducting meaningful strategic planning, improving the management system, rationalizing contractor responsibilities, focusing upon major products, and increasing stakeholder involvement. The restructured program has prioritized technical and scientific activities toward meeting major regulatory milestones in a timely and cost-effective manner. This approach has raised concern among elements of technical, scientific, and oversight bodies that suitability and licensing decisions could be made without obtaining sufficient technical information for this first-of-its-kind endeavor. Other organizations, such as congressional committees, industrial groups, and rate payers believe characterization goals can be met in a timely manner and within the limitation of available funds. To balance these contrasting views in its decision making process, OCRWM management has made a special effort to communicate its strategy to oversight bodies, the scientific community and other stakeholders and to use external independent peer review as a key means of demonstrating scientific credibility. Site characterization of Yucca Mountain in Nevada is one of the key elements of the restructured program

  19. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  20. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Krier

    2005-01-01

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event

  1. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  2. AHP 40: Review: Mountains, Monasteries, and Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Zeisler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ladakh is famous among trekkers for her mountains and among other tourists also for her association with Tibetan Buddhism. Most visitors, however, neglect that half or more of the population follow a different religion, and hardly anybody comes to Ladakh specifically for her mosques. While the title of the volume under review is somewhat misleading – none of the articles deals specifically with monasteries or mosques, and only one, the last, with (sacred mountains – it aptly highlights that Islam has become an essential part of Ladakhi culture, and cannot be ignored. Nevertheless, the volume is again heavily biased towards Buddhism and the middle class Ladakhi. Only two of the fifteen articles deal with Islam, and a further one with a Muslim trader. In contrast, five articles engage with ritualistic aspects within the Buddhist fold, and a sixth with a Buddhist community. The remaining six articles, actually constituting the first part of the volume, deal with trade and other aspects of Buddhist or general history, of which four also involve neighbouring regions: Spiti, Bashar, Kinnaur, and Kangra. ...

  3. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, 'Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative', was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding

  4. Mountain biking injuries in rural England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeys, L M; Cribb, G; Toms, A D; Hay, S M

    2001-06-01

    Off road mountain biking is now an extremely popular recreation and a potent cause of serious injury. To establish the morbidity associated with this sport. Data were collected prospectively over one year on all patients presenting with an injury caused by either recreational or competitive off road mountain biking. Eighty four patients were identified, 70 males and 14 females, with a mean age of 22.5 years (range 8-71). Most accidents occurred during the summer months, most commonly in August. Each patient had an average of 1.6 injuries (n = 133) and these were divided into 15 categories, ranging from minor soft tissue to potentially life threatening. Operative intervention was indicated for 19 patients (23%) and several required multiple procedures. The commonest injuries were clavicle fractures (13%), shoulder injuries (12%), and distal radial fractures (11%). However, of a more sinister nature, one patient had a C2/3 dislocation requiring urgent stabilisation, one required a chest drain for a haemopneumothorax, and another required an emergency and life saving nephrectomy. This sport has recently experienced an explosion in popularity, and, as it carries a significant risk of potentially life threatening injury across all levels of participation, the use of protective equipment to reduce this significant morbidity may be advisable.

  5. Seismic monitoring of the Yucca Mountain facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbin, H.D.; Herrington, P.B.; Kromer, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Questions have arisen regarding the applicability of seismic sensors to detect mining (re-entry) with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). Unlike cut and blast techniques of mining which produce impulsive seismic signals, the TBM produces seismic signals which are of long duration. (There are well established techniques available for detecting and locating the sources of the impulsive signals.) The Yucca Mountain repository offered an opportunity to perform field evaluations of the capabilities of seismic sensors because during much of 1996, mining there was progressing with the use of a TBM. During the mining of the repository's southern branch, an effort was designed to evaluate whether the TBM could be detected, identified and located using seismic sensors. Three data acquisition stations were established in the Yucca Mountain area to monitor the TBM activity. A ratio of short term average to long term average algorithm was developed for use in signal detection based on the characteristics shown in the time series. For location of the source of detected signals, FK analysis was used on the array data to estimate back azimuths. The back azimuth from the 3 component system was estimated from the horizontal components. Unique features in the timing of the seismic signal were used to identify the source as the TBM

  6. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  7. Using science soundly: The Yucca Mountain standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fri, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Using sound science to shape government regulation is one of the most hotly argued topics in the ongoing debate about regulatory reform. Even though no one advaocates using unsound science, the belief that even the best science will sweep away regulatory controversy is equally foolish. As chair of a National Research Council (NRC) committee that studied the scientific basis for regulating high-level nuclear waste disposal, the author learned that science alone could resolve few of the key regulatory questions. Developing a standard that specifies a socially acceptable limit on the human health effects of nuclear waste releases involves many decisions. As the NRC committee learned in evaluating the scientific basis for the Yucca Mountain standard, a scientifically best decision rarely exists. More often, science can only offer a useful framework and starting point for policy debates. And sometimes, science's most helpful contribution is to admit that it has nothing to say. The Yucca mountain study clearly illustrates that excessive faith in the power of science is more likely to produce messy frustration than crisp decisions. A better goal for regulatory reform is the sound use of science to clarify and contain the inevitable policy controversy

  8. Mineral waters from the Tanzawa Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Tajima, Y; Hirano, T; Ogino, K; Hirota, S; Takahashi, S; Kokaji, F; Moriya, M; Sugimoto, M

    1964-11-01

    Mineral waters from the depths of the Tanzawa mountains are briefly characterized as having high pH values ranging from 9.5 to 10.0. The origin of the mineral waters is discussed in relation to zeolites extensively developed along fractures and joints throughout the Tanzawa mountains. Thermal water (33/sup 0/C) of the Nakagawa spa may be regarded as evidence of past strong geothermal activity. Measurement of geothermal gradient at two locations, Nakagawa (12.6/sup 0/C/100m) and Higashi-sawa (5.55/sup 0/C/100m) also supports the presence of weak thermal activity in the depths. Chemical analysis of the mineral waters indicates that the pH of the system is chiefly controlled by the ratio of CO/sub 3//sup - -//HCO/sub 3//sup -/. The following reaction with zeolites promotes an increase of the pH: HCO/sub 3//sup -/ + (Ca/Na) zeolites reversible CO/sub 3//sup - -/ + H-type (Ca/Na) zeolites + (Ca/sup + +//Na/sup +/).

  9. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropolitan actors, are decisive in shaping contemporary “mountain realities”. Developments in transportation, resource extraction and tourism that serve state and international agendas can increase rather than reduce risks for mountain populations, and undermine pre-existing strategies to minimise environmental dangers. Above all, we see rapid urbanisation in mountains generally and the Himalaya in particular as highly implicated in exacerbating risks and creating new types of vulnerabilities. Enforced displacement, and concentration of people in urban agglomerations, is a major part of the modern history of mountain lands that invites more careful exploration. Rapid expansion of built environments and infrastructure, without due regard to hazards and structural safety, introduce new and complex risks, while altering older equations with and to the land and sapping people’s resilience. In the lives of mountain people, environmental hazards are mostly subordinate to other, societal sources of risk and vulnerability, and to the insecurities these involve. Basically we conclude that “marginalisation” of mountain lands is primarily an outcome of socio-economic developments in which their condition is subordinated to strategic planning by state, metropolitan and global actors.Cet article aborde la question des risques et des catastrophes en montagne. Il vise non pas à dissocier mais plutôt à replacer ces concepts au cœur des questions de s

  10. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  11. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  12. GEOLOGICAL ANDGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF MOUNTAIN ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of geological and geomorphological mapping of archaeological monument, mainly Paleolithic age, the location of which is confined to low-mountain spaces of the Mountain Altai. Using this mapping would greatly clarify the sequence of relief habitat of ancient people and more objectively determine the age characteristics of archaeological monument. 

  13. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  14. Sustainability and Mountain Tourism: The Millennial’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies illustrates the different points of view through which sustainability and mountains have been studied over the years. Nowadays, interest in Millennials is increasing but no research has compared Millennials and sustainability in the mountain context. This study aims at defining sustainability with reference to Millennial perception of both winter and summer mountain sports. By analysing data gathered from a sample of 2292 Millennials (Piedmont area, the authors confirm their high degree of sensitivity towards sustainable issues and, above all, discover that there are differences in the sustainable perception Millennials have of both mountain winter and summer sports. More specifically, Millennial perception is deeply influenced by the place where they are used to living―mountains or cities―and by their gender. From a managerial point of view, results have direct implications on the administrators of mountain institutions who can implement appropriate initiatives in order to correctly sensitise Millennials towards mountain sports. Moreover, from a theoretical perspective, the study opens a new scenario on two important topics linked to sustainability, namely Millennials and mountain sports.

  15. Personal and professional profile of mountain medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and describe the personal and professional profile of mountain medicine physicians including general physical training information and to include a detailed overview of the practice of mountain sports. A group of physicians participating in a specialized mountain medicine education program filled out a standardized questionnaire. The data obtained from this questionnaire were first analyzed in a descriptive way and then by statistical methods (chi2 test, t test, and analysis of variance). Detailed results have been provided for gender, age, marital status, general training frequency and methods, professional status, additional medical qualifications, memberships in professional societies and alpine clubs, mountain sports practice, and injuries sustained during the practice of mountain sports. This study has provided a detailed overview concerning the personal and professional profile of mountain medicine physicians. Course organizers as well as official commissions regulating the education in mountain medicine will be able to use this information to adapt and optimize the courses and the recommendations/requirements as detailed by the UIAA-ICAR-ISMM (Union Internationale des Associations Alpinistes, International Commission for Alpine Rescue, International Society for Mountain Medicine).

  16. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  17. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-1181; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-36] Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at... View, AR. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Wilcox NDB and the...

  18. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  19. Refresher Course on Mountain Hydrology and Climate Change

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-01-29

    Jan 29, 2016 ... The programme focuses on hydrology of mountains, which provide water around 40 % of the world population. Changes in temperature and precipitation have in recent years led to the retreat of glaciers in mountains. Climatic changes do not only affect glaciers or the nival zone; a change in climatic ...

  20. Overview of the status of the Cheat Mountain salamander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas K. Pauley

    2010-01-01

    Plethodon nettingi, the Cheat Mountain salamander, is endemic to the high elevations of the Allegheny Mountains in eastern West Virginia. In 1938, N.B. Green named the species from specimens collected at Barton Knob, Randolph County, in honor of his friend and colleague Graham Netting.

  1. Copper Mountain, Wyoming, a uranium district--rediscovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, R.T.; Yellich, J.A.; Kendall, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The Copper Mountain area is physiographically located along the Owl Creek Mountains. Economic uranium mineralization was delineated in the late 1950's with production of approximately 500,000 pounds from 1961-1970. Continued exploration and research has discovered additional resources. 20 refs

  2. Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Wohl; Kathleen Dwire; Nicholas Sutfin; Lina Polvi; Roberto Bazan

    2012-01-01

    Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that...

  3. Baboquivari Mountain plants: Identification, ecology, and ethnobotany [Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2011-01-01

    The Sky Islands of southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico make up a region that is rich, both biologically and culturally. These isolated mountain ranges, separated by desert "seas," contain a unique and diverse flora and have long been home to indigenous peoples of the southwestern US. This book, Baboquivari Mountain Plants: Identification, Ecology, and...

  4. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  5. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located

  6. Wild mountains, wild rivers: Keeping the sacred origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2007-01-01

    For many indigenous peoples in North America, wild mountains and rivers and other natural formations exist as physical beings formed as part of a whole by forces that interconnect people with them. This perspective frames a discussion around an idea that expresses time and space as wrapped up in the mountain. If time is within the being of place and space within the...

  7. Upland forest vegetation of the Ozark Mountains in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative data on structure and composition of all strata of vegetation were collected from 20 study sites in the Boston Mountains Subsection of the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas in June 2004. All study sites were located at upper slope or ridgetop positions and occurred at elevations > 457 m. Oaks (Quercus spp.) were dominants in...

  8. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff

  9. Mountain geomorphosites in Odle Group (Dolomites, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The area, considered in the present study, is located in the north-eastern sector of the Gardena valley, in the Odle Group, a popular destination of summer and winter tourism (more than 3000 m a.s.l.). The area has a strong hiking-tourism vocation thanks to its spectacular high-mountain landscape and a dense network of hiking tracks. The well-developed network of hiking paths and slopes for many different climbing skills offers a lot of possibilities for high-mountain excursions. Permanent dwelling-places are absent with the exceptions of a few tourist structures nearby opened during certain periods of the year. This area, as all Dolomites, which became UNESCO Word Heritage Site in 2009, represent landscape mosaics, which express the summation of landscape histories and processes offering an almost complete educational open-air laboratory due to the variety and complexity of phenomena and processes taking place during present climate conditions and during recent geological periods. These mountains, due to the aggregation of relict, recent and active landforms constitute an outstanding geoheritage, suitable for educational and tourist purposes. Landforms typical of past morphoclimatic conditions (inherited geomorphosites) share the stage with forms and processes active in the current morphoclimatic conditions (active geomorphosites); their spatial and geometrical relationships may be sufficient to trace a relative time-line of the geomorphological history of the area. Several glacial landforms testify for the presence and the activity of a glacial tongue hosted in the valley during the Lateglacial, mainly located in the northern sector of the area, where altitudes range from about 2000 m to about 2300 m a.s.l. Among these, worth of note are the well-preserved glacial cirques of Val dla Roa and those located at the southern margin of the Odle Group. Quite well preserved moraine ridges are present at a mean altitude of some 2000 m at the Alpe di Cisles as well as

  10. Can nuclear waste be stored safely at Yucca mountain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987 the federal government narrowed to one its long-term options for disposing of nuclear waste: storing it permanently in a series of caverns excavated out of the rock deep below Yucca mountain in southern Nevada. Whether it makes sense at this time to dispose permanently of spent fuel and radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository is hotly disputed. But the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendements of 1987 decree that waste be consolidated in Yucca Mountain if the mountain is found suitable. Meanwhile the spent fuel continues to pile up across the country, and 1998 looms, adding urgency to the question: What can science tell us about the ability of the mountain to store nuclear waste safely? This paper discusses this issue and describes how studies of the mountain's history and geology can contribute useful insights but not unequivocal conclusions

  11. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2016-01-01

    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  12. Productivity of Mountain Reedbugk Redunca Fulvorufula (Afzelius, 1815 at the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D Skinner

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two adult mountain reedbuck Redunca fulvoru- fula were collected during four seasons, autumn, winter, spring and summer at the Mountain Zebra National Park mainly during 1975 and 1976. Body mass and carcass characteristics varied little with season, body mass varying from 24,0-35,5 kg for all buck shot and dressing percentage always exeeded 50. According to KFI animals were all in fair to good condition. Sixty four percent of all ewes were pregnant and 38,5 lactating. Females and males bred throughout the year but there was a peak in births during mid-summer. The species is highly productive, well adapted to the niche it occupies and lends itself to exploitation for meat production.

  13. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient......, focusing on changes in aggregate stability and particulate organic matter (POM). Methods. Four successional stages were investigated: managed grassland, two transitional phases in which grassland abandonment led to colonization by Picea abies (L.) Karst., and old mixed forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica L....... Results. The dimension of aggregates assessed by aggregate size fractionation tended to increase, whereas SOC allocation to stable aggregates assessed by sizedensity fractionation decreased following conversion of grassland to forest (e.g. from 81 to 59 % in the 0–5 cm layer). The amount of SOC stored...

  14. Environmental impact of Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2005-01-01

    Environmental impact of the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) has been quantitatively evaluated in terms of the radiotoxicity of transuranic (TRU) and fission-product radionuclides existing in the environment after released from failed packages. Inventory abstraction has been made based on the data published in Final Environmental Impact Statement published by US DOE. Mathematical model and computation code have been developed based on analytical solutions. Environmental impact from the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) packages is about 90% of the total impact including the contribution from defense waste (DW) packages. Impacts due to isotopes of Cm, Am, Pu and Np, and their decay daughters are dominant, compared with those from fission-product nuclides. Numerical results show that reduction of the TRU nuclides by a factor of 100 makes the impact from CSNF smaller than that from DW. (author)

  15. How hard were the Jura mountains pushed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D

    2008-09-15

    The mechanical twinning of calcite is believed to record past differential stress values, but validating results in the context of past tectonic situations has been rarely attempted. Using assumptions of linear gradients of stress components with depth, a stress gradient based on twinning palaeopiezometry is derived for the Swiss Molasse Basin, the indenter region to the Jura fold and thrust belt. When integrated into a model of the retrodeformed Jura-Molasse system, allowing horizontal stress concentration and conservation along the original taper geometry, the stress profile proves consistent with the position of the Jura-Molasse (ftb-indenter) transition. The model demonstrates mechanically why the Plateau Molasse portion of the Molasse Basin remained relatively undeformed when transmitting tectonic forces applied to the Jura mountains. (author)

  16. How hard were the Jura mountains pushed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, D.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical twinning of calcite is believed to record past differential stress values, but validating results in the context of past tectonic situations has been rarely attempted. Using assumptions of linear gradients of stress components with depth, a stress gradient based on twinning palaeopiezometry is derived for the Swiss Molasse Basin, the indenter region to the Jura fold and thrust belt. When integrated into a model of the retrodeformed Jura-Molasse system, allowing horizontal stress concentration and conservation along the original taper geometry, the stress profile proves consistent with the position of the Jura-Molasse (ftb-indenter) transition. The model demonstrates mechanically why the Plateau Molasse portion of the Molasse Basin remained relatively undeformed when transmitting tectonic forces applied to the Jura mountains. (author)

  17. Mountain building in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Masaru; Fukao, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Akihiko

    1989-04-01

    The Central Andes is the middle part of the Andean chain between about 13°S and 27°S, characterized by the parallel running high mountain chains (the Western and Eastern Cordilleras) at the edges of high plateaus with a height of about 4000 m and a width of 200 to 450 km (the Altiplano-Puna). From the examination of geophysical and geological data in this area, including earthquakes, deformation, gravity anomaly, volcanism, uplift history, and plate motion, we conclude that the continued plate subduction with domination of compressive stress over the entire arc system is the main cause of the tectonic style of the Central Andes. We propose that the present cycle of mountain building has continued in the Cenozoic with the most active phase since the Miocene, and that the present subduction angle (30°) is not typical in that period but that subduction with more shallowly dipping oceanic lithosphere has prevailed at least since the Miocene, because of the young and buoyant slab involved. This situation is responsible for the production of a broad zone of partial melt in the mantle above the descending slab. Addition of volcanic materials was not restricted to the western edge (where active volcanoes of the Western Cordillera exist) but extended to the western and central portion of the Altiplano-Puna. The western half of the Central Andes is essentially isostatic because the heat transferred with the volcanic activities softened the crust there. In the eastern edge, the thermal effect is small, and the crust is strongly pushed by the westward moving South American plate. This caused the shortening of crustal blocks due to reverse faulting and folding in the Eastern Cordillera and Amazonian foreland. The magmatism and crustal accretion are dominant at the western end of the mountain system and decrease eastward, while the compression and consequent crustal shortening are strongest at the eastern end and wane toward west. These two processes are superposed between

  18. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  19. Improvements in stabilizing control at Black Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidle, T.R.; Engelbrecht, P.C.; Koel, J.W.S.

    1986-01-01

    The process flows of the three flotation circuits at the concentrator of the Black Mountain Mineral Development Company (Pty) Ltd are described. Because of the complexity of the circuits and the associated reagent regime, the plant is equipped with a comprehensive range of control equipment. The different process-control strategies are discussed, and the modifications that have been necessary to the stabilizing control loops in the copper, lead, and zinc flotation circuits are shown in detail. It is concluded that the control strategies have continued to bring about benefits and improvements to the process. X-ray fluorescence analysis was employed in the control process. Data is also given on the accuracy of the technique

  20. Craniomandibular osteopathy in two Pyrenean mountain dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franch, J.; Cesari, J.R.; Font, J.

    1998-01-01

    Craniomandibular osteopathy was diagnosed in two Pyrenean mountain dogs with a history of mandibular swelling, pain, fever and, in dog 1, lameness. Radiographs demonstrated extensive, active new bone formation on the ventral aspect of the mandibular bodies of both dogs. Dog 2 responded well to treatment but dog 1 was euthanased owing to severe pain, dysphagia and unsuccessful treatment. The mandibles were examined by means of back-scattered scanning electron microscopy and a well arranged mineralised trabecular network of chondroid tissue and woven bone was observed. The mandibular cortical bone under the areas of periosteal proliferation was also affected, showing a looseness of the characteristic compact appearance of lamellar bone. This is the first report of craniomandibular osteopathy in this breed

  1. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  2. [Decompression problems in diving in mountain lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmann, A A

    1989-08-01

    The relationship between tolerated high-pressure tissue nitrogen and ambient pressure is practically linear. The tolerated nitrogen high pressure decreases at altitude, as the ambient pressure is lower. Additionally, tissues with short nitrogen half-times have a higher tolerance than tissues which retain nitrogen for longer duration. For the purpose of determining safe decompression routines, the human body can be regarded as consisting of 16 compartments with half-times from 4 to 635 minutes for nitrogen. The coefficients for calculation of the tolerated nitrogen-high pressure in the tissues can be deduced directly from the half-times for nitrogen. We show as application the results of 573 simulated air dives in the pressure-chamber and 544 real dives in mountain lakes in Switzerland (1400-2600 m above sea level) and in Lake Titicaca (3800 m above sea level). They are in accordance with the computed limits of tolerance.

  3. Interface management for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The subject of this report is selection of that portion of physical and informational interfaces that need to be controlled on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Physical interfaces are interactions between physical elements of the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the repository shafts will interface with the shafts in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), because the ESF shafts will eventually be absorbed into the repository as additional repository shafts. Informational interfaces are interactions involving an exchange of information between organizations working on the mined geologic disposal system; for example, the in situ testing contractor will interact with the site performance assessment contractor and will supply information regarding host rock behavior. This report describes the physical system interfaces that can be identified from analysis of a physical system structure. A discussion of informational interfaces can be found elsewhere. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  6. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning [Disposal Safety, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ``fresh-water head,`` a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface.

  7. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  8. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain shapes

  9. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Valentine

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', presents information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Many aspects of this work are aimed at resolution of the Igneous Activity Key Technical Issue (KTI) as identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1998, p. 3), Subissues 1 and 2, which address the probability and consequence of igneous activity at the proposed repository site, respectively. Within the framework of the Disruptive Events Process Model Report (PMR), this AMR provides information for the calculations in two other AMRs ; parameters described herein are directly used in calculations in these reports and will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Compilation of this AMR was conducted as defined in the Development Plan, except as noted. The report begins with considerations of the geometry of volcanic feeder systems, which are of primary importance in predicting how much of a potential repository would be affected by an eruption. This discussion is followed by one of the physical and chemical properties of the magmas, which influences both eruptive styles and mechanisms for interaction with radioactive waste packages. Eruptive processes including the ascent velocity of magma at depth, the onset of bubble nucleation and growth in the rising magmas, magma fragmentation, and velocity of the resulting gas-particle mixture are then discussed. The duration of eruptions, their power output, and mass discharge rates are also described. The next section summarizes geologic constraints regarding the interaction between magma and waste packages. Finally, they discuss bulk grain size produced by relevant explosive eruptions and grain

  10. Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.

  11. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  12. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  13. Winter Tourism and mountain wetland management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Mauz, I.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that of other ecosystems (MEA 2005). In mountains area, wetlands are small and scattered and particularly sensitive to global change. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of mountain wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, soil compression and erosion, etc. Since 2008, we have studied a high altitude wetland complex in the ski resort of Val Thorens. The aim of our study was to identify the impacts of mountain tourism development (winter and summer tourism) on wetland functioning and to produce an action plan designed to protect, rehabilitate and value the wetlands. We chose an approach based on multi-stakeholder participatory process at every stage, from information gathering to technical choices and monitoring. In this presentation, we show how such an approach can efficiently improve the consideration of wetlands in the development of a ski resort, but also the bottlenecks that need to be overcome. We will also discuss some of the ecological engineering techniques used to rehabilitate or restore high altitude degraded wetlands. Finally, this work has contributed to the creation in 2012 of a mountain wetland observatory coordinated by the conservatory of Haute-Savoie. The objective of this observatory is to estimate ecosystem services furnished by mountain wetlands and to find restoration strategies adapted to the local socio-economical context (mountain agriculture and mountain tourism).

  14. The Effect of Burnt and Un-burnt Land on Soil Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management. University of Nigeria ... Based on this, effects of fire on soil quality dynamics was examined ... Post-burn increases in soil ... (Edem et al., 2012) The native vegetation has been.

  15. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM)MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-08-24

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on

  16. MOUNTAIN-SCALE COUPLED PROCESSES (TH/THC/THM) MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.S. Wu

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic (TH), thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC), and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) models. These models provide technical support for screening of features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842], Section 2.1.1.1). The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Drift-Scale Abstraction) Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174842]). Model results are used to support exclusion of certain FEPs from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model on the basis of low consequence, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.342 [DIRS 173273]. Outputs from this report are not direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. All the FEPs related to the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ and SZ flow are discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of this report. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. The mountain-scale THC model evaluates TH effects on water and gas

  17. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of mildew, a vineyard... often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other areas. Pine..., these mountain soils include large amounts of sand and gravel. Pine Mountain soils are generally less...

  18. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1181; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-36] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport, Mountain View, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and...

  19. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  20. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  1. The development of mountain risk governance: challenges for application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S.; Stötter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity the management of mountain risks in the Alps has considerably increased since its institutionalisation in the late nineteenth century. In the history of approaches to dealing with mountain risks four successive paradigms can be distinguished on the basis of key indicators such as guiding principles, characteristic elements and typical instruments: "hazard protection", "hazard management", "risk management", and "risk governance". In this contribution, special attention is paid to the development of hazard zone planning and the growing importance of communication and participation over the course of this transformation. At present, the risk management paradigm has reached maturity. In the Alps, risk governance frameworks are not yet applied to risks from natural hazards. Based on a historical analysis, the suitability and applicability of general risk governance frameworks in the context of mountain risks are discussed. Necessary adaptations (e.g., in administration, educational, and legal structures) are proposed for the upcoming transformation towards mountain risk governance.

  2. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Reserves and State/National Forest in Beijing's mountainous area. This study presents .... and bottom, the rectangle cutting rings are 1 cm high at one side and have blade orifices ... vegetation ecosystem. Different diameters ...

  3. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  4. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Long Trail and Appalachian Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  5. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  6. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  7. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  8. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. .... Note: The topography is classified by using the SRTM3 digital elevation model (DEM), which ...... trends and flooding risk in the west of Scotland; Nordic.

  9. A SPECIAL FOEHN CASE IN NORTH-EASTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. TUDOSE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study for the 9-10 January 2015 period, when foehn processes were occurred on the eastern slope of the Apuseni Mountains. With a view to establishing the synoptic context in which the phenomenon was manifested, an analysis of the atmospheric fields was used, while for determining the intensity of the process several meteorological parameters (temperature, wind and relative humidity were analyzed along three west-east profiles across the Apuseni Mountains. The analysis points out the presence of foehn processes on the eastern part of the Apuseni Mountains, the highest thermal and hygric differences being recorded on the north-eastern part of the mountains. The most important effect of this synoptic situation was the reduction of the snow cover depth.

  10. Ecology of Land Cover Change in Glaciated Tropical Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mountains contain unique biological diversity, and are subject to many consequences of global climate change, exasperated by concurrent socioeconomic shifts. Glaciers are in a negative mass balance, exposing substrates to primary succession and altering downslope wetlands and streams. A review of recent trends and future predictions suggests a likely reduction in areas of open habitat for species of high mountains due to greater woody plant cover, accompanied by land use shifts by farmers and pastoralists along the environmental gradients of tropical mountains. Research is needed on the biodiversity and ecosystem consequences of successional change, including the direct effects of retreating glaciers and the indirect consequences of combined social and ecological drivers in lower elevations. Areas in the high mountains that are protected for nature conservation or managed collectively by local communities represent opportunities for integrated research and development approaches that may provide ecological spaces for future species range shifts.

  11. Subclinical microtraumatisation of the scrotal contents in extreme mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, F; Klauser, A; Hobisch, A; Pallwein, L; Stenzl, A

    2000-10-21

    Mountain bikers had a high frequency of extratesticular and testicular disorders, which were associated with clinical symptoms in half the bikers. Hence a high rate of repeated microtraumatisation of the scrotal contents must be assumed.

  12. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is an ever-increasing burden on the health sector. With reported incidences .... schedule to reduce the likelihood of AMS. The data ... of Health and. Multidisciplinary Board on Exercise to identify individuals who.

  13. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  14. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Southern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPS is a cartographic map product depicting the southern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  15. Thermally driven gas flow beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amter, S.; Lu, Ning; Ross, B.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled thermopneumatic model is developed for simulating heat transfer, rock-gas flow and carbon-14 travel time beneath Yucca Mountain, NV. The aim of this work is to understand the coupling of heat transfer and gas flow. Heat transfer in and near the potential repository region depends on several factors, including the geothermal gradient, climate, and local sources of heat such as radioactive wastes. Our numerical study shows that small temperature changes at the surface can change both the temperature field and the gas flow pattern beneath Yucca Mountain. A lateral temperature difference of 1 K is sufficient to create convection cells hundreds of meters in size. Differences in relative humidities between gas inside the mountain and air outside the mountain also significantly affect the gas flow field. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  17. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  18. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. VT Green Mountain Power Line Data (Overhead Only)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  20. VT Green Mountain National Forest National Recreation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset includes National Recreation Areas (NRAs) designated by Congress on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) as of 2006. There are...

  1. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  2. A vegetation description and floristic analyses of the springs on the Kammanassie Mountain, Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cleaver; L.R. Brown; G.J. Bredenkamp

    2004-01-01

    The Kammanassie Mountain is a declared mountain catchment area and a Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra population is preserved on the mountain. The high number of springs on the mountain not only provides water for the animal species but also contributes to overall ecosystem functioning. Long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. It was therefore decided that a classification, description and mapping of the spring veg...

  3. Combat Operations in Mountainous Terrain: Are United States Army Light Infantry Divisions Preparing Properly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    Mountain Division, Charles Hauptman, Comeany I. 97th Mountain Infantry Regiment by CPT George Earle, and PFC Hugh Graves (1945), and 10th Mountain...training in this country is believed to depend primarily ’Albert H. Jackman , "The Tenth Mountain Division, A Successful Experiment," The Algine Journal...44-48. Houston, Charles S., Dr. "Altitude Sickness and the Army," 112zard. 2d Qtr 1986: n.p. Jackman , Albert H. "The Tenth Mountain Division, A

  4. Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes (TH/THC/THM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the development of the Mountain-Scale Thermal-Hydrological (TH), Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical (THC), and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) Models and evaluate the effects of coupled TH/THC/THM processes on mountain-scale UZ flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This Model Report was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.12.7), and was developed in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. In this Model Report, any reference to ''repository'' means the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, and any reference to ''drifts'' means the emplacement drifts at the repository horizon. This Model Report provides the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses for analyzing mountain-scale hydrological/chemical/mechanical changes and predict flow behavior in response to heat release by radioactive decay from the nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The mountain-scale coupled TH/THC/THM processes models numerically simulate the impact of nuclear waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including a representation of heat-driven processes occurring in the far field. The TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature (together called the flow fields). The main focus of the TH Model is to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts. The TH Model captures mountain-scale three dimensional (3-D) flow effects, including lateral diversion at the PTn/TSw interface and mountain-scale flow patterns. The Mountain-Scale THC Model evaluates TH effects on water and gas chemistry, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and the resulting impact to UZ hydrological properties, flow and transport. The THM Model addresses changes in permeability due to mechanical and thermal disturbances in

  5. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  6. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater

  7. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grodek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales – Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel – both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand, which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources.

    This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1–4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc. generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively. During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant

  8. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei)

    OpenAIRE

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in s...

  9. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    OpenAIRE

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters i...

  10. Analysis of photo linear elements, Laramie Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo linear features in the Precambrian rocks of the Laramie Mountains are delineated, and the azimuths plotted on rose diagrams. Three strike directions are dominant, two of which are in the northeast quadrant. Laramide folds in the Laramie basin to the west of the mountains appear to have the same trend, and apparently have been controlled by response of the basement along fractures such as have been measured from the imagery.

  11. A radiological disadvantage for siting a repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1996-01-01

    At Yucca mountain, the disposal of large amounts of U-238, U-234, and Pu-238 will result in a long term build-up of Rn-222. In time, because of erosion, the repository horizon will move closer to the surface and large amounts of Rn-222 gas will be able to leak into the atmosphere. The area surrounding Yucca Mountain will become a site of high radioactive background. Sullivan and Pescatore have brought the issue to the attention of the DOE

  12. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  13. The retreat of mountain glaciers: what can satellites tell us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain glaciers are one of the best indicators of climate change and their rapid wastage make them a strong contributor to sea level rise. The estimated 160,000 mountain glaciers are spread all around the globe and remain difficult to access. Consequently, only a limited number (about 50 glaciers) are regularly monitored in the field. Today, high resolution satellite optical images are combined to some advanced methodologies to survey their fast and alarming evolution. (author)

  14. Geomorphic control on the δ15N of mountain forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, R. G.; Galy, A.; West, A. J.; Hovius, N.; Roberts, G.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mountain forests are subject to high rates of physical erosion which can export particulate nitrogen from ecosystems. However, the impact of geomorphic processes on nitrogen budgets remains poorly constrained. We have used the elemental and isotopic composition of soil and plant organic matter to investigate nitrogen cycling in the mountain forest of Taiwan, from 24 sites with distinct geomorphic (topographic slope) and climatic (precipitation, temperature) characteristics. The organic carbon...

  15. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Tingley, J.V.; Bonham, H.F. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site is underlain by a 1,500-m-thick Miocene volcanic sequence that comprises part of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Rocks of this sequence, which consists mainly of ash-flow tuff sheets with minor flows and bedded tuff, host precious metal mineralization in several areas as near as 10 km from the site. In two such areas, the Bullfrog and Bare Mountain mining districts, production and reserves total over 60 t gold and 150 t silver. Evidence of similar precious metal mineralization at the Yucca Mountain site may lead to mining or exploratory drilling in the future, compromising the security of the repository. The authors believe that most of the pyrite encountered by drilling at Yucca Mountain was introduced as pyroclastic ejecta, rather than by in situ hydrothermal activity. Pyritic ejecta in ash-flow tuff are not reported in the literature, but there is no reason to believe that the Yucca Mountain occurrence is unique. The pyritic ejecta are considered by us to be part of a preexisting hydrothermal system that was partially or wholly destroyed during eruption of the tuff units. Because it was introduced as ejecta in tuff units that occur at depths of about 1,000 m, such pyrite does not constitute evidence of shallow mineralization at the proposed repository site; however, the pyrite may be evidence for mineralization deep beneath Yucca Mountain or as much as tens of kilometers from it

  16. Slingram survey at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) data presented in this report is part of study by the US Geological Survey aimed at evaluating the Miocene and Pliocene Yucca Mountain Member of various units of the Paintbrush Tuff in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for nuclear wastes. The survey area is located about 97 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada on the Nevada Test Site. Data contained in this report were taken along the eastern edge of Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of this survey was to determine with EM methods, whether or not northwest-trending valleys in the Yucca Mountain area were fault controlled. Fault and fracture zones in the tuff units were expected to have a somewhat higher conductivity than the unfractured tuff. This is due to the greater porosity, clay and moisture content expected in the fault zones than in unfaulted rock. Depending upon a number of factors, such as the conductivity contrast between fault zones and unfaulted rock, and the depth and conductivity of the overburden, it may be possible to recognize fault zones from surface EM measurements. Several EM methods were tested to determine which one gave the best results in this environment. The methods tried included slingram, Turam and VLF (very low frequency). Slingram data proved to be most diagnostic in delineating a mapped fault on the east edge of Yucca Mountain, and hence was used in the survey traverses crossing the northwest valleys cutting into Yucca Mountain

  17. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN INCREASE IN HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Many middle-aged Turks go hiking in mountains to breathe some fresh air or to maintain fitness. Objective: This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude mountain climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Methods: Hematological and biochemical parameters were studied, as well as some hormonal values of 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers. Results: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was significantly lower (p<0.04 in mountaineers compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.001 and albumin (p<0.001 were lower, while the levels of ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Other hematological and biochemical parameters, i.e., erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our results show that regular exposure to high altitude increased the serum levels of some acute phase proteins with anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data

  19. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  20. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF (∼260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit (∼570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  1. Tourists’ perception of deadwood in mountain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pastorella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional forest management the non-living woody biomass in forests was perceived negatively. Generally, deadwood was removed during the silvicultural treatments to protect forests against fire, pests and insects attacks. In the last decades, the perception of forest managers regarding forest deadwood is changing. However, people’s opinions about the presence of deadwood in the forests have been few investigated. In view of this gap, the aim of the paper is to understand the tourists’ perception and opinions towards the deadwood in mountain forests. The survey was carried out in two study areas: the first one in Italy and the second one in Bosnia-Herzegovina. A structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of visitors (n=156 in Italy; n=115 in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The tourists’ preferences were evaluated through a set of images characterized by a different amount of standing dead trees and lying deadwood. The collected data were statistically analyzed to highlight the preferred type of forests related to different forms of management of deadwood (unmanaged forests, close-to-nature forests, extensive managed forests and intensive managed forests. The results show that both components of deadwood are not perceived negatively by tourists. More than 60% of respondents prefer unmanaged forests and close-to-nature managed forests, 40% of respondents prefer intensive managed forests in which deadwood is removed during the silvicultural treatments.

  2. Transportation access to Yucca Mountain: Critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Souleyrette, R.R.; Bartolo, R. di

    1991-01-01

    Transportation planning for a repository at Yucca Mountain is complicated because of uncertainty about the modes and numbers of nuclear waste shipments and because of uncertainty about the routes which will be used. There could be as many as 76,000 truck shipments, or as few as 1,060 dedicated train shipments, during repository operations. The site lacks rail access. Three rail access options currently under study range in length from 120 miles to more than 400 miles. The site is more than 100 miles from the Interstate highway system. The UNLV Transportation Research Center has evaluated three rail and four highway routes using a broad range of impact measures. This preliminary evaluation found that the routing options differ significantly regarding resident and non-resident populations, environmentally sensitive areas, accident rates, and other factors. Crosscutting issues include impacts on Nevada Indian tribes, potential conflicts with US Air Force operations, and future population growth in southern Nevada. Considerable additional analysis will be required prior to environmental impact statement scoping

  3. BIOSPHERE MODELING AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NING LIU; JEFFERY, J.; TAPPEN, DE WU; CHAO-HSIUNG TUNG

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the biosphere modeling efforts are to assess how radionuclides potentially released from the proposed repository could be transported through a variety of environmental media. The study of these transport mechanisms, referred to as pathways, is critical in calculating the potential radiation dose to man. Since most of the existing and pending regulations applicable to the Project are radiation dose based standards, the biosphere modeling effort will provide crucial technical input to support the Viability Assessment (VA), the Working Draft of License Application (WDLA), and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In 1982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) was enacted into law. This federal law, which was amended in 1987, addresses the national issue of geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants, as well as defense programs during the past few decades. As required by the law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a site characterization project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, to determine if the site is suitable for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository

  4. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  5. Marine chronometry in the Neuchatel mountains (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Estelle

    The history and evolution of the Swiss marine chronometer industry are summarized. From the 18th century onwards, Neuchatel watchmakers strove to develop precision horology. First J. F. Houriet and later S. Mairet, L. Richard, W. Dubois and H. Grandjean introduced the marine chronometer in the Neuchatel mountains. Precision having become a necessity for the industry, they helped achive this by means of a complex system for the distribution and maintenance of exact time, which allowed optimal adjustment. These men of vision called for the building of a cantonal observatory and strove to have their art practiced in modern watchmaking schools. Under the guidance first of Ulysse and then of Paul David Nardin, the manufacture of marine chronometers began in Le Locle in 1876. In La Chaux-de-Fonds at the beginning of the 20th century, Paul Ditisheim built a number of improved marine, ship and pocket chronometers. Together with scientists and watchmakers, the chronometer makers perfected the regulating parts of the timekeepers and solved the problems of adjustment caused by the various external influences. The manufacturers, the watchmakers at their branches, the timers and the Neuchatel business all contributed to strengthening the position of the products of their region in the world market.

  6. Floristic study of Cheondeungsan Mountain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of native plants of Cheondeungsan Mountain (807 m, N 37°05'00“–37°05'30”, E 128°00'0“–128°02'0” in Chungcheongbuk-do was determined and the major flora were identified. During field investigations carried out from May 2011 to October 2011, 87 families, 254 genera, and 369 taxonomic groups (327 species, 4 subspecies, 33 varieties, and 5 forms were confirmed, and the distribution of 219 taxonomic groups was discovered for the first time. The distribution of four endemic plants of Korea, including Ajuga spectabilis Nakai and Salvia chanryoenica Nakai, and that of Penthorum chinense Pursh, a Grade V specific plant species, was found. There were 20 taxa of naturalized plants at Cheondeungsan; the growth and development of plants that are harmful to the ecosystem, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Eupatorium rugosum Houtt., and Aster pilosus Willd., was observed around the forest paths and lowlands.

  7. Table mountain observatory support to other programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) facilities include well equipped 24 inch and 16 inch telescopes with a 40 inch telescope (owned by Pomona College) due for completion during FY 89. This proposal is to provide operational support (equipment maintenance, setup, and observing assistnce) at TMO to other programs. The program currently most heavily supported by this grant is the asteroid photometry program directed by A. W. Harris. During 1987, about 20 asteroids were observed, including a near-earth asteroid, 1951 Midas. The photometric observations are used to derive rotation periods, estimate shapes and pole orientations, and to define the phase relations of asteroids. The E class asteroid 64 Angelina was observed, and showed the same opposition spike observed of 44 Jysa, last year. Comet observations are made with the narrow band camera system of David Rees, University College London. Observational support and training was provided to students and faculty from Claremont Colleges for variable star observing programs. Researchers propose to continue the asteroid program, with emphasis on measuring phase relations of low and high albedo asteroids at very low phase angles, and supporting collaborative studies of asteroid shapes

  8. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  9. Mountains of Our Future Earth: Defining Priorities for Mountain Research—A Synthesis From the 2015 Perth III Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H. Gleeson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Perth conferences, held every 5 years in Perth, Scotland, bring together people who identify as mountain researchers and who are interested in issues related to global change in mountain social-ecological systems. These conferences provide an opportunity to evaluate the evolution of research directions within the mountain research community, as well as to identify research priorities. The Future Earth Strategic Research Agenda provides a useful framework for evaluating the mountain research community's progress toward addressing global change and sustainability challenges. Using a process originally set up to analyze contributions to the 2010 conference, the abstracts accepted for the 2015 conference in the context of the Future Earth framework were analyzed. This revealed a continued geographic underrepresentation in mountain research of Africa, Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia but a more even treatment of biophysical and social science themes than in 2010. It also showed that the Perth conference research community strongly focused on understanding system processes (the Dynamic Planet theme of the Future Earth research agenda. Despite the continued bias of conference contributions toward traditional observation- and conservation-oriented research, survey results indicate that conference participants clearly believe that transdisciplinary, transformative research is relevant to mountains. Of the 8 Future Earth focal challenges, those related to safeguarding natural assets, promoting sustainable land use, increasing resilience and understanding the water-energy-food nexus received considerable attention. The challenges related to sustainable consumption, decarbonizing socioeconomic systems, cities, and health were considerably less well represented, despite their relevance to mountain socioeconomic systems. Based on these findings, we outline a proposal for the future directions of mountain research.

  10. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  11. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2017-01-01

    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  12. Reasons for decision in the matter of Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc. (formerly Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc.) : tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007 Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc. (now Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc.) submitted a series of applications to the National Energy Board for revisions to the Trans Mountain Tariffs. They were filed in response to apportionment concerns on the Trans Mountain pipeline. Four of the applications involved pronounced and contentious changes to the capacity allocation procedures on the pipeline system. For ease of reference, the Board amalgamated its 4 decisions on these applications into a single document. A map of the Trans Mountain pipeline system as a whole was presented along with a detailed map indicating the delivery locations served by the system in the lower mainland of British Columbia and the state of Washington. The issues considered by the Board in each of these decisions included capacity allocation for Westridge Dock; capacity allocations to export destinations; common carriage requirements; and the need for creating a new barge subcategory. Relevant sections of the National Energy Board Act referred to in the decisions were highlighted. This document also listed the Trans Mountain Tariffs that have introduced notable revisions to the capacity allocation procedures on the system since September 2003. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 appendices

  13. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  14. A Mountain-Scale Monitoring Network for Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry; Tsang, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    Confirmation of the performance of Yucca Mountain is required by 10 CFR Part 63.131 to indicate, where practicable, that the natural system acts as a barrier, as intended. Hence, performance confirmation monitoring and testing would provide data for continued assessment during the pre-closure period. In general, to carry out testing at a relevant scale is always important, and in the case of performance confirmation, it is particularly important to be able to test at the scale of the repository. We view the large perturbation caused by construction of the repository at Yucca Mountain as a unique opportunity to study the large-scale behavior of the natural barrier system. Repository construction would necessarily introduce traced fluids and result in the creation of leachates. A program to monitor traced fluids and construction leachates permits evaluation of transport through the unsaturated zone and potentially downgradient through the saturated zone. A robust sampling and monitoring network for continuous measurement of important parameters, and for periodic collection of agrochemical samples, is proposed to observe thermo-hydrogeochemical changes near the repository horizon and down to the water table. The sampling and monitoring network can be used to provide data to (1) assess subsurface conditions encountered and changes in those conditions during construction and waste emplacement operations; and (2) for modeling to determine that the natural system is functioning as intended

  15. Estimates of spatial correlation in volcanic tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1991-02-01

    The spatial correlation structure of volcanic tuffs at and near the site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is estimated using samples obtained from surface outcrops and drill holes. Data are examined for four rock properties: porosity, air permeability, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and dry bulk density. Spatial continuity patterns are identified in both lateral and vertical (stratigraphic) dimensions. The data are examined for the Calico Hills tuff stratigraphic unit and also without regard for stratigraphy. Variogram models fitted to the sample data from the tuffs of Calico Hills indicate that porosity is correlated laterally over distances of up to 3000 feet. If air permeability and saturated conductivity values are viewed as semi-interchangeable for purposes of identifying spatial structure, the data suggest a maximum range of correlation of 300 to 500 feet without any obvious horizontal to vertical anisotropy. Continuity exists over vertical distances of roughly 200 feet. Similar variogram models fitted to sample data taken from vertical drill holes without regard for stratigraphy suggest that correlation exists over distances of 500 to 800 feet for each rock property examined. Spatial correlation of rock properties violates the sample-independence assumptions of classical statistics to a degree not usually acknowledged. In effect, the existence of spatial structure reduces the ''equivalent'' number of samples below the number of physical samples. This reduction in the effective sampling density has important implications for site characterization for the Yucca Mountain Project. 19 refs., 43 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The revised potentiometric-surface map presented in this report updates earlier maps of the Yucca Mountain area using mainly 1988 average water levels. Because of refinements in the corrections to the water-level measurements, these water levels have increased accuracy and precision over older values. The small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain is contoured with a 0.25-meter interval and ranges in water-level altitude from 728.5 to 73 1.0 meters. Other areas with different water levels, to the north and west of Yucca Mountain, are illustrated with shaded patterns. The potentiometric surface can be divided into three regions: (1) A small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain, which may be explained by flow through high-transmissivity rocks or low ground-water flux through the area; (2) A moderate-gradient area, on the western side of Yucca Mountain, where the water-level altitude ranges from 775 to 780 meters, and appears to be impeded by the Solitario Canyon Fault and a splay of that fault; and (3) A large-gradient area, to the north-northeast of Yucca Mountain, where water level altitude ranges from 738 to 1,035 meters, possibly as a result of a semi-perched groundwater system. Water levels from wells at Yucca Mountain were examined for yearly trends using linear least-squares regression. Data from five wells exhibited trends which were statistically significant, but some of those may be a result of slow equilibration of the water level from drilling in less permeable rocks. Adjustments for temperature and density changes in the deep wells with long fluid columns were attempted, but some of the adjusted data did not fit the surrounding data and, thus, were not used

  17. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  18. Innumerable treasures of the Zheleznaya Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, Nikolai E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 in Russia one of sharp problems, concerning a public, was the problem of importation of the foreign irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), unloaded from atomic power stations, on long-term storage (with its possible reprocessing in the future). The problem was, that, not looking on availability for Russia of major practical experience and most advanced technologies, economic, social and ecological validity of sharing of the Russian nuclear enterprises in the international market of a storage and reprocessing INF, the importation foreign INF required change of the current Russian legislation. It insufficiently legibly defined state policy in the field of the management with INF. With the initiative of change of the current legislation in 1999 the group of the deputies of State Duma (SD) has acted. However this initiative has not found broad support both among the deputies and the public. In this connection in 2000 the broad PR campaign to provide an explanation of necessity of the legislative solution of all problems of the management with INF, including possibility of importation for long-term storage foreign INF, was conducted. The basic purpose of this company was to bring to Russian public, authority bodies an economic feasibility, ecological safety of a storage and reprocessing INF at the Russian nuclear enterprises. Video film 'Innumerable Treasures of the Zheleznaya Mountain' tells about one of PR - shares of this company, namely, about trip of the group of the deputies on Mining Chemical Combine (MCC), city Zheleznogorsk (former Krasnoyarsk - 26). On this trip the deputies could personally on site acquaint with modern technologies of storage and reprocessing INF, ecological safety and economic efficiency. For many from the deputies this visit on MCC was the first visit on the Russian nuclear complex enterprise. Plants of MCC itself, the acting INF depository, laid up construction of the PT-2 plant on processing INF are widely presented in the

  19. SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL INVESTIGATIONS IN SEMENIC MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. URDEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential Investigations in Semenic Mountains. The use of geophysical methods such as that of Spontaneous Potential (SP to investigate areas where the geomorphological processes occur, has the role to identify less visible processes as for example subcutaneous erosion or piping, subsoil water drainage and finding specific spatial differences of these processes. Comparative study of these sites allows correlation between geomorphological factors, soil and climate, but also to observe the evolution of subsurface erosion or underground water infiltration over time. During this investigation a series of mesh grids have been made in areas with different characteristics (lithology, pedology, slope, exposition, etc. at different time periods in order to spot and analyse the change in data in the chosen sites, various conditions given. Values expressed in millivolts (mV obtained by the Spontaneous Potential method have been put into an algorithm for interpolation looking to yield a pattern of values of what is happening in the soil during that period of time. Thus, in the autumn, the investigation site at the nivation niche Baia Vulturilor, returned values of between -22.6 mV and 65.6 mV, while in spring in the same site, values were within the range of -14.4 mV / 30.1 mV. On the other hand, on the site of the cryopediment under the Semenic peak, in the spring, return values ranged from -40.4 mV and -1.1 mV. A particular case is that of the glacis near Piatra Goznei peak; in this area anthropogenic electricity influences on soil can be found. Based on some models a trend of water movement in the soil could be established, this depending heavily on the amount of precipitation infiltration, local lithology, depth of soil and their structure, and evapotranspiration process. Water movement in the soil may be a correlation with sediment movement in soil horizons and instability manifested on the slopes.

  20. MOUNTAIN BIKE, MONITORING AND HEART RATE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Scotton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chi pratica sport, sia con obiettivi agonistici sia di fitness, cerca di mantenere il proprio stato di forma ad un livello che gli permetta di essere prestativo e contemporaneamente di prevenire eventi traumatici (Scotton et Al 2006; Viru, Viru 2002. L’atleta che compete, amatore o professionista, dovrebbe seguire scrupolosamente la periodizzazione (Scotton, Gollin 2006 e la programmazione più idonee ai propri scopi, privilegiando i mezzi e i metodi di allenamento più congeniali a lui e più utili per lo specifico periodo. E’ noto che quando si avvicinano le gare il tipo di allenamento seguito assomiglia sempre più alla tipologia di competizione. E’ abitudine consolidata per chi svolge una qualsiasi specialità sportiva (Scotton 2003 con finalità non agonistiche cercare di mantenere efficiente l’apparato locomotore ed i sistemi ad esso collegati (Wilmore, Costill 2005 per ottenere divertimento e, appunto, il fitness, senza considerare troppo le norme che regolano l’allenamento sportivo. Un soggetto, non professionista, indossando il cardiofrequenzimetro Polar S710i ha effettuato due sessioni di allenamento su una mountain bike da free-ride in due distinte giornate e sullo stesso percorso.Il software dello strumento consente di sovrapporre i files del medesimo giro evidenziando le somiglianze dei tratti principali delle sedute: la durata della salita e della discesa con le velocità ottenute e i km percorsi, le frequenze cardiache medie e massime relative alle singole frazioni dell’allenamento e nel totale.Obiettivo: Nel lavoro si propone di utilizzare i dati raccolti sul percorso “reale” per permettere all’atleta di replicarlo a casa o in palestra mantenendo le frequenze cardiache per il tempo indicato abbinando all’uso dei rulli, su cui è posizionata la bicicletta, anche l’impiego del cardiofrequenzimetro (Wirnitzer KC, Kornexl E 2008.

  1. Characteristics explaining performance in downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Joel B; MacGregor, Alexandra L; Martin, Caoimhe; Arthur, Calum A; Macdonald, Jamie H

    2015-03-01

    To identify physiological, psychological, and skill characteristics that explain performance in downhill (DH) mountain-bike racing. Four studies were used to (1) identify factors potentially contributing to DH performance (using an expert focus group), (2) develop and validate a measure of rider skill (using video analysis and expert judge evaluation), (3) evaluate whether physiological, psychological, and skill variables contribute to performance at a DH competition, and (4) test the specific contribution of aerobic capacity to DH performance. STUDY 1 identified aerobic capacity, handgrip endurance, anaerobic power, rider skill, and self-confidence as potentially important for DH. In study 2 the rider-skill measure displayed good interrater reliability. Study 3 found that rider skill and handgrip endurance were significantly related to DH ride time (β=-0.76 and -0.14, respectively; R2=.73), with exploratory analyses suggesting that DH ride time may also be influenced by self-confidence and aerobic capacity. Study 4 confirmed aerobic capacity as an important variable influencing DH performance (for a DH ride, mean oxygen uptake was 49±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 90% of the ride was completed above the 1st ventilatory threshold). In order of importance, rider skill, handgrip endurance, self-confidence, and aerobic capacity were identified as variables influencing DH performance. Practically, this study provides a novel assessment of rider skill that could be used by coaches to monitor training and identify talent. Novel intervention targets to enhance DH performance were also identified, including self-confidence and aerobic capacity.

  2. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  3. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  4. Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Saunders, R.S.; Boutin, R.J.; Harrington, P.G.; Lachman, K.D.; Trautner, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report

  5. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  6. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  7. Preliminary conceptual model for mineral evolution in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, C.J.

    1993-12-01

    A model is presented for mineral alteration in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, that suggests that the mineral transformations observed there are primarily controlled by the activity of aqueous silica. The rate of these reactions is related to the rate of evolution of the metastable silica polymorphs opal-CT and cristobalite assuming that a SiO 2(aq) is fixed at the equilibrium solubility of the most soluble silica polymorph present. The rate equations accurately predict the present depths of disappearance of opal-CT and cristobalite. The rate equations have also been used to predict the extent of future mineral alteration that may result from emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain. Relatively small changes in mineralogy are predicted, but these predictions are based on the assumption that emplacement of a repository would not increase the pH of water in Yucca Mountain nor increase its carbonate content. Such changes may significantly increase mineral alteration. Some of the reactions currently occurring in Yucca Mountain consume H + and CO 3 2- . Combining reaction rate models for these reactions with water chemistry data may make it possible to estimate water flux through the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member and to help confirm the direction and rate of flow of groundwater in Yucca Mountain

  8. Regional climate change: Precipitation variability in mountainous part of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Nina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyze temporal and spatial changes in monthly precipitation as well as extremely dry and wet months in mountainous part of Bulgaria. Study precipitation variability in mountainous part is very important because this part is the region where the rivers take its source from. Extreme values of monthly precipitation are important information for better understanding of the whole variability and trends in precipitation time series. The mean investigated period is 1951-2005 and the reference period is so called temporary climate - 1961- 1990. Extreme dry precipitation months are defined as a month whose monthly precipitation is lower than 10% of gamma distribution in the reference period 1961-1990. Extreme wet months are determined with respect to 90% percentiles of gamma distribution (monthly precipitation is higher than 90%. The result of the research show that in mountainous part of Bulgaria during 1950s and 1960s number of extremely wet months is higher than number of dry months. Decreasing of monthly precipitation is a feature for 1980s. This dry period continues till 2004. The years 2000 makes impression as driest year in high mountains with about 7 extremely dry months. The second dry year is 1993. The negative precipitation anomaly is most clearly determined during last decade at study area. The present research points out that fluctuation of precipitation in mountainous part of Bulgaria are coinciding with regional and global climate trends.

  9. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Novie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death. This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019. The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  10. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Novie; Susatyo, Nugroho W. P.; Rizkiyah, Ega

    2018-02-01

    In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death). This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females) participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019). The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  11. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  12. Glaciological studies near the Soer Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the area west of Mizuho Plateau, outflow of the ice sheet is hindered by a chain of mountains (Sor Rondane, Belgica and Yamato Mountains etc. lying along the coast of the continent and ice shelves are developing at the margin of the ice sheet. Therefore the ice sheet geomorphology and dynamical behavior in this area are quite different from those on the Mizuho Plateau. In order to describe the response of the East Antarctic ice sheet to climatic change, we need to know the influence of the presence of mountains on stability of the ice sheet. This glaciological study aims to investigate whether the ice sheet and the ice shelf in this area are now increasing or decreasing in size possibly, in response to atmospheric warming, how far this part of the ice sheet departs from a steady state, and how the influence of climatic change is left inside the ice sheet and the ice shelf. For this purpose the following studies were performed in 1988 and 1989. 1 A series of shallow drillings along a selected flow line upstream of the Sor Rondane Mountains to Breid Bay. 2 Surface flow velocity, strain and mass balance measurements on the flow line. 3 Monitoring of a valley glacier in the Sor Rondane Mountains.

  13. S-40: Acute Phase Protein Increse in High Altitude Mountaineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Erciyes Tigers” are an elite group of high altitude climbers. They have been climbing ErciyesMountain (3500 m, in Kayseri, Turkey once a week at least for ten years. When they climb Erciyes in winter, they also take a snow bath. This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Venous blood samples were taken to investigate hematological, biochemical parameters and some hormone values from 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers at resting condition. The neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio was calculated. The N/L was associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and it could provide a good measure of exercise stress and subsequent recovery. Most of the hematological and biochemical parameters i.e., erythrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values did not change significantly. The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio was significantly (p<0.04 decreased in the mountaineer compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.000 and albumin (0.001 were lower, while ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase levels (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Our results show that regular high altitude climbing increased serum levels of some acute-phase proteins and these increments were not transient.

  14. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  15. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited

  16. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  17. Modeling studies of mountain-scale radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-01-01

    We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated

  18. Dust control at Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissell, F.; Jurani, R.; Dresel, R.; Reaux, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests indicated that air leakage from the TBM head, the primary ventilation duct, and movement of the conveyor belt were all significant sources of dust. Conventional dust control approaches yielded no significant reductions in dust levels. A novel alternative was to install an air cleaning station on a rear deck of the TBM trailing gear. It filtered dust from the contaminated intake air and discharged clean air towards the front of the TBM. The practical effect was to produce dust levels below the exposure limit for all TBM locations except close to the head. In the Cross Drift, better ventilation and an extra set of dust seals on the TBM served to cut down the leakage of dust from the TBM cutter head. However, the conveyor belt was much dustier than the belt in the main loop drift. The problem originated with dirt on the bottom of the belt return side and much spillage from the belt top side. Achieving lower dust levels in hard rock tunneling operations will require new approaches as well as a more meticulous application of existing technology. Planning for dust control will require specific means to deal with dust that leaks from the TBM head, dust that originates with leaky ventilation systems, and dust that comes from conveyor belts. Also, the application of water could be more efficient if automatic controls were used to adjust the water flow

  19. ICESat laser altimetry over small mountain glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Treichler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using sparsely glaciated southern Norway as a case study, we assess the potential and limitations of ICESat laser altimetry for analysing regional glacier elevation change in rough mountain terrain. Differences between ICESat GLAS elevations and reference elevation data are plotted over time to derive a glacier surface elevation trend for the ICESat acquisition period 2003–2008. We find spatially varying biases between ICESat and three tested digital elevation models (DEMs: the Norwegian national DEM, SRTM DEM, and a high-resolution lidar DEM. For regional glacier elevation change, the spatial inconsistency of reference DEMs – a result of spatio-temporal merging – has the potential to significantly affect or dilute trends. Elevation uncertainties of all three tested DEMs exceed ICESat elevation uncertainty by an order of magnitude, and are thus limiting the accuracy of the method, rather than ICESat uncertainty. ICESat matches glacier size distribution of the study area well and measures small ice patches not commonly monitored in situ. The sample is large enough for spatial and thematic subsetting. Vertical offsets to ICESat elevations vary for different glaciers in southern Norway due to spatially inconsistent reference DEM age. We introduce a per-glacier correction that removes these spatially varying offsets, and considerably increases trend significance. Only after application of this correction do individual campaigns fit observed in situ glacier mass balance. Our correction also has the potential to improve glacier trend significance for other causes of spatially varying vertical offsets, for instance due to radar penetration into ice and snow for the SRTM DEM or as a consequence of mosaicking and merging that is common for national or global DEMs. After correction of reference elevation bias, we find that ICESat provides a robust and realistic estimate of a moderately negative glacier mass balance of around −0.36 ± 0.07

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Impacts of glacier recession and declining meltwater on mountain societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, Mark; Molden, Olivia C.; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    . It identifies four main areas of existing research: (1) socioeconomic impacts; (2) hydropower; (3) agriculture, irrigation, and food security; and (4) cultural impacts. The article also suggests paths forward for social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences research that could more accurately detect......, including irrigation, agriculture, hydropower, potable water, livelihoods, recreation, spirituality, and demography. Unfortunately, research focusing on the human impacts of glacier runoff variability in mountain regions remains limited, and studies often rely on assumptions rather than concrete evidence...... about the effects of shrinking glaciers on mountain hydrology and societies. This article provides a systematic review of international research on human impacts of glacier meltwater variability in mountain ranges worldwide, including the Andes, Alps, greater Himalayan region, Cascades, and Alaska...

  2. Differential parental care by adult Mountain Plovers, Charadrius montanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, S.J.; Knopf, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    We studied chick survival of the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) in Montana and found that chicks tended by females had higher survival rates than chicks tended by males, and that chick survival generally increased during the nesting season. Differences in chick survival were most pronounced early in the nesting season, and may be related to a larger sample of nests during this period. When compared to information about the nest survival of male- and female-tended plover nests, our chick data suggest a trade-off for adult plovers between the egg and chick phases of reproduction. Because Mountain Plover pairs have clutches at two nests at two different locations and show differential success between the sexes during the egg and chick phases, we offer that the Mountain Plover breeding system favours optimizing annual recruitment in a dynamic ecologic setting driven by annually unpredictable drought, grazing, and predation pressures.

  3. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  4. The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostler, W.K.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain

  5. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, J.J.; Stephan, P.M.

    1991-09-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1991 through June 1991. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  6. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

    2005-01-01

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region

  7. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  8. Characterization of a desert soil sequence at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertal, W.R.; Hofmann, L.L. Hudson, D.B.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. Hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is being conducted as an integrated set of surface and subsurface-based activities with a common objective to characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of water flux through the potential repository. Yucca Mountain is covered with a thin to thick layer of colluvial/alluvial materials, where there are not bedrock outcrops. It is across this surface boundary that all infiltration and all exfiltration occurs. This surface boundary effects water movement through the unsaturated zone. Characterization of the hydrologic properties of surficial materials is then a necessary step for short term characterization goals and for long term modeling

  9. Hydrogeology of the Besparmak (Pentadactilos) Mountains (TRNC) Karstic Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erduran, B.; Goekmenoglu, O.; Keskin, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Besparmak Mountains are located on the Nothern part of North Cyprus and lay paralel to the sea, 160 km 2 in length 10 km in width. Karstification, potential constituent and the hydro-dynamic structure of the Mesosoic aged carbonate rocks, located at high altitudes of the Besparmak Mountains have been investigated in this study. The Mesosoic aged carbonate rocks; dolomite, dolomitic limestones and recrytallized limestones are yhe units suitable for karstification in the exploration area. Surface area of the carbonate rocks is 84 km 2 . Chemical and isotopic samples have been collected, groundwater fluctuations have been observed and investigation wells have been openned for the definition of the karst aquifer. As the result of the geological, hydrogeological, drilling and geophysical investigations it was found that the Besparmak Mountains Karst Aquifer was formed of independent karstic systems and a total dynamic groundwater potential of aproximately 9 x 10 6 m 3 /year for these systems has been determined

  10. Mineralogic alteration history and paleohydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of paleohydrology to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project derives from the role water will play in radioactive-waste repository performance. Changes in hydrologic conditions during the lifetime of the repository may be estimated by investigating past hydrologic variations, including changes in the static water-level position. Based on the distribution of vitric and zeolitized tuffs and the structural history of the site, the highest water levels were reached and receded downward 11.6 to 12.8 myr ago. Since that time, the water level at central Yucca Mountain has probably not risen more than about 60 m above its present position. The history of the high potentiometric gradient running through northern Yucca Mountain may be partly elucidated by the study of tridymite distribution in rocks that have experienced saturated conditions for varying periods of time

  11. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1993, through June 30, 1993. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  12. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-10-02

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs.

  13. Tectonic stability and expected ground motion at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A workshop was convened on August 7-8, 1984 at the direction of DOE to discuss effects of natural and artificial earthquakes and associated ground motion as related to siting of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A panel of experts in seismology and tectonics was assembled to review available data and analyses and to assess conflicting opinions on geological and seismologic data. The objective of the meeting was to advise the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project about how to present a technically balanced and scientifically credible evaluation of Yucca Mountain for the NNWSI Project EA. The group considered two central issues: the magnitude of ground motion at Yucca Mountain due to the largest expected earthquake, and the overall tectonic stability of the site given the current geologic and seismologic data base. 44 refs

  14. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  15. The age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of all finishers significantly (P Bike Masters" appears to start earlier compared with other ultraendurance sports.

  16. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  17. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, January--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1990 through June 1990. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  18. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  19. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography, July--December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountains Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from July 1990 through December 1990. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers and articles are included in the sponsoring organizations list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  20. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  1. Age constraints on fluid inclusions in calcite at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    2001-01-01

    The(sup 207)Pb/(sup 235)U ages for 14 subsamples of opal or chalcedony layers younger than calcite formed at elevated temperature range between 1.88(+-) 0.05 and 9.7(+-) 1.5 Ma with most values older than 6-8 Ma. These data indicate that fluids with elevated temperatures have not been present in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain since about 1.9 Ma and most likely since 6-8 Ma. Discordant U-Pb isotope data for chalcedony subsamples representing the massive silica stage in the formation of the coatings are interpreted using a model of the diffusive loss of U decay products. The model gives an age estimate for the time of chalcedony formation around 10-11 Ma, which overlaps ages of clay minerals formed in tuffs below the water table at Yucca Mountain during the Timber Mountain thermal event

  2. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Mineralogic alteration history and paleohydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of paleohydrology to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project derives from the role water will play in radioactive waste repository performance. Changes in hydrologic conditions during the lifetime of the repository may be estimated by investigating past hydrologic variations, including changes in the static water-level position. Based on the distribution of vitric and zeolitized tuffs and the structural history of the site, the highest water levels were reached and receded downward 11.6 to 12.8 myr ago. Since that time, the water level at central Yucca Mountain has probably not risen more than about 60 m above its present position. The history of the high potentiometric gradient running through northern Yucca Mountain may be partly elucidated by the study of tridymite distribution in rocks that have experienced saturated conditions for varying periods of time

  4. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  6. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aswine K; Kairys, Steven W

    2009-07-06

    Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin. This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  7. DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS MAXIMAL RUNOFF MOUNTAIN RIVERS IN CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ovcharuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of theCrimeanMountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean Mountains, and on its southern coast. The largest of them: Belbek, Alma, Salgir, Su-Indol and others. To characterize the maximum runoff of rain floods (the layers of rain floods and maximum discharge of water on the rivers of the Crimean Mountains were used materials of observations for long-term period (from the beginning of observations to 2010 inclusive on 54 of streamflow station with using a the so-called «operator» model for maximum runoff formation.

  8. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    . Changes in labile soil C were assessed by carbohydrate and thermal analyses of soil samples and fractions. Forest expansion on mountain grasslands caused a decrease in SOC stocks within the mineral soil. The SOC accumulation within the organic layers following forest establishment could not fully...... and thermally labile to resistant components decreased from grassland to forest successional stages, and corresponded to decreased SOC protection within stable aggregates. This PhD thesis showed that mineral SOC stocks and physically protected SOC fractions decreased following forest expansion on mountain......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...

  9. Yucca Mountain Site characterization project bibliography, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Following a reorganization of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project was renamed Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The title of this bibliography was also changed to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Bibliography. Prior to August 5, 1988, this project was called the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This bibliography contains information on this ongoing project that was added to the Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Database from January 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. The bibliography is categorized by principal project participating organization. Participant-sponsored subcontractor resorts, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's list. Another section contains information about publications on the Energy Science and Technology Database that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it

  10. Modeling fluid-rock interaction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.

    1992-08-01

    Volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada aie being assessed for their suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Recent progress in modeling fluid-rock interactions, in particular the mineralogical and chemical changes that may accompany waste disposal at Yucca Mountain, will be reviewed in this publication. In Part 1 of this publication, ''Geochemical Modeling of Clinoptilolite-Water Interactions,'' solid-solution and cation-exchange models for the zeolite clinoptilolite are developed and compared to experimental and field observations. At Yucca Mountain, clinoptilolite which is found lining fractures and as a major component of zeolitized tuffs, is expected to play an important role in sequestering radionuclides that may escape from a potential nuclear waste repository. The solid-solution and ion-exchange models were evaluated by comparing predicted stabilities and exchangeable cation distributions of clinoptilolites with: (1) published binary exchange data; (2) compositions of coexisting clinoptilolites and formation waters at Yucca Mountain; (3) experimental sorption isotherms of Cs and Sr on zeolitized tuff, and (4) high temperature experimental data. Good agreement was found between predictions and expertmental data, especially for binary exchange and Cs and Sr sorption on clinoptilolite. Part 2 of this publication, ''Geochemical Simulation of Fluid-Rock Interactions at Yucca Mountain,'' describes preliminary numerical simulations of fluid-rock interactions at Yucca Mountain. The solid-solution model developed in the first part of the paper is used to evaluate the stability and composition of clinciptilolite and other minerals in the host rock under ambient conditions and after waste emplacement

  11. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Gregory Steve [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  12. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  13. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, Bruce M.; Perry, Frank V.; Valentine, Greg A.; Bowker, Lynn M.

    1998-01-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt ( than about 7 x 10 -8 events yr -1 . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption probability to the location of northeast boundaries of volcanic zones near the Yucca Mountain sit

  14. Cosine components in water levels at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.; Lehman, L.; Keen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Water-level records from wells at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed periodically to determine if they contain periodic (cosine) components. Water-level data from selected wells are input to an iterative numerical procedure that determines a best fitting cosine function. The available water-level data, with coverage of up to 5 years, appear to be representative of the natural water-level changes. From our analysis of 9 water-level records, it appears that there may be periodic components (periods of 2-3 years) in the groundwater-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, although some records are fit better than others by cosine functions. It also appears that the periodic behavior has a spatial distribution. Wells west of Yucca Mountain have different periods and phase shifts from wells on and east of Yucca Mountain. Interestingly, a similar spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain is reported by Matuska (1988). This suggests a physical cause may underlie the different physical and chemical groundwater conditions. Although a variety of natural processes could cause water-level fluctuations, hydrologic processes are the most likely, because the periodicities are only a few years. A possible cause could be periodic recharge related to a periodicity in precipitation. It is interesting that Cochran et al., (1988), show a crude two-year cycle of precipitation for 1961 to 1970 in southern Nevada. Why periods and phase shifts may differ across Yucca Mountain is unknown. Different phase shifts could indicate different lag times of response to hydrologic stimuli. Difference in periods could mean that the geologic media is heterogeneous and displays heterogeneous response to a single stimulus, or that stimuli differ in certain regions, or that a hydraulic barrier separates the groundwater system into two regions having different water chemistry and recharge areas. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Investigating a high ozone episode in a rural mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, A.; Strunk, A.; Carvalho, A.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Souto, J.; Casares, J.; Friese, E.; Elbern, H.

    2012-01-01

    A very high ozone episode with observed hourly values above 350 μg m −3 occurred in July 2005 at the Lamas d’Olo air quality monitoring station, located in a mountainous area in the north of Portugal. Aiming to identify the origin and formation of this ozone-rich episode, a statistical analysis and a modelling approach were applied. A cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain and a synoptic analysis of the meteorological and air quality time series were performed. In order to go further in this analysis, a numerical modelling approach was applied. The results indicate that the transport of ozone and its precursors is the main responsible for the high ozone concentrations. Together with the local mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, the sea-breeze circulation transporting pollutants from the coastal urban and industrialized areas that reach the site during late afternoon turn out to be the driving forces for the ozone peaks. - Highlights: ► A very high ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site of Portugal in 2004. ► Data cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain was performed. ► A numerical modelling approach was also applied. ► The sea-breeze circulation transported pollutants from the urban and industrialized coast. ► The mountain breeze and subsidence conditions were also driving forces for ozone peaks. - The sea-breeze transporting pollutants from the coast, the mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, were the driving forces for the ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site.

  16. Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.

  17. The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository From A Corrosion Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.H. Payer

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion is a primary determinant of waste package performance at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and will control the delay time for radionuclide transport from the waste package. Corrosion is the most probable and most likely degradation process that will determine when packages will be penetrated and the shape size and distribution of those penetrations. The general issues in corrosion science, materials science and electrochemistry are well defined, and the knowledge base is substantial for understanding corrosion processes. In this paper, the Yucca Mountain Repository is viewed from a corrosion perspective

  18. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  19. Copper Mountain conference on iterative methods: Proceedings: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This volume (one of two) contains information presented during the first three days of the Copper Mountain Conference on Iterative Methods held April 9-13, 1996 at Copper Mountain, Colorado. Topics of the sessions held these three days included nonlinear systems, parallel processing, preconditioning, sparse matrix test collections, first-order system least squares, Arnoldi`s method, integral equations, software, Navier-Stokes equations, Euler equations, Krylov methods, and eigenvalues. The top three papers from a student competition are also included. Selected papers indexed separately for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  1. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  2. [Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M P

    2005-05-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as well as the statistics from the Swiss accident insurance company SUVA are the basis for the data presented. The issue of mountain bike-related concussions is particularly discussed since this type of injury is a point of increasing concern in the recent sports traumatology literature.

  3. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs

  4. Copper Mountain conference on iterative methods: Proceedings: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This volume (the second of two) contains information presented during the last two days of the Copper Mountain Conference on Iterative Methods held April 9-13, 1996 at Copper Mountain, Colorado. Topics of the sessions held these two days include domain decomposition, Krylov methods, computational fluid dynamics, Markov chains, sparse and parallel basic linear algebra subprograms, multigrid methods, applications of iterative methods, equation systems with multiple right-hand sides, projection methods, and the Helmholtz equation. Selected papers indexed separately for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)

  6. 75 FR 49929 - Music Mountain Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13760-000] Music Mountain..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications August 9, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Music Mountain Hydro..., proposing to study the feasibility of the Music [[Page 49930

  7. The White Mountain Recreational Enterprise: Bio-Political Foundations for White Mountain Apache Natural Resource Control, 1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Tomblin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among American Indian nations, the White Mountain Apache Tribe has been at the forefront of a struggle to control natural resource management within reservation boundaries. In 1952, they developed the first comprehensive tribal natural resource management program, the White Mountain Recreational Enterprise (WMRE, which became a cornerstone for fighting legal battles over the tribe’s right to manage cultural and natural resources on the reservation for the benefit of the tribal community rather than outside interests. This article examines how White Mountain Apaches used the WMRE, while embracing both Euro-American and Apache traditions, as an institutional foundation for resistance and exchange with Euro-American society so as to reassert control over tribal eco-cultural resources in east-central Arizona.

  8. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  9. Raising the veil: mountains from a masculine and a feminine angle

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Context The present call for papers seeks to offer a feminine/masculine reading of mountains. Many works have already analysed the roles of human activity in mountain spaces, in agricultural production, the travel trade, the economy and the arts. But such investigation has often focused on the masculine side, revealing the practices, customs and narratives of men in the mountains. However the relations between humans and mountains do not all take a masculine form, their feminine side being eq...

  10. Policies for the environment and rural development in the mountain area of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorka, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    38th European Regional Science Association ? Congress 1998 Topic G: Environmental Management, Sustainability and Development Policies for the Environment and Rural Development in the Mountain Area of Austria (Abstract) by Gerhard Hovorka The cultural landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of mountain areas. Mountain agriculture bears the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system in the mountain areas and thereby maintaining the general living and working space as...

  11. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  12. Management of Multi-Casualty Incidents in Mountain Rescue: Evidence-Based Guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancher, Marc; Albasini, François; Elsensohn, Fidel; Zafren, Ken; Hölzl, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kyle; Wheeler, Albert R; Roy, Steven; Brugger, Hermann; Greene, Mike; Paal, Peter

    2018-02-15

    Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas. Details of MCI occurring in mountain areas related to mountaineering activities and involving organized mountain rescue were collected. A literature search using (1) PubMed, (2) national mountain rescue registries, and (3) lay press articles on the internet was performed. The results were analyzed with respect to specific aspects of mountain rescue. We identified 198 MCIs that have occurred in mountain areas since 1956: 137 avalanches, 38 ski lift accidents, and 23 other events, including lightning injuries, landslides, volcanic eruptions, lost groups of people, and water-related accidents. General knowledge on MCI management is required. Due to specific aspects of triage and management, the approach to MCIs may differ between those in mountain areas and those in urban settings. Mountain rescue teams should be prepared to manage MCIs. Knowledge should be reviewed and training performed regularly. Cooperation between terrestrial rescue services, avalanche safety authorities, and helicopter crews is critical to successful management of MCIs in mountain areas.

  13. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  14. Discussing the Future of U. S. Western Mountains, Climate Change, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz; Constance I. Millar

    2004-01-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, and are especially vulnerable to climate effects acting on many biotic systems and the physical settings. Because mountain regions serve as sources of needed natural resources (e.g.,water, forests) and as foundations for desired human activities (e.g., tourism, places to live),changes in mountain systems...

  15. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon..., Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and Bridge Canyon Wilderness Areas, Lake Mead... wilderness character; providing for reasonable use of Spirit Mountain and adjacent areas in a manner meeting...

  16. 76 FR 66629 - Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... explains. The petition states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of.... Southern storms often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other..., and very well to excessively well-drained. Also, these mountain soils include large amounts of sand...

  17. Modeling the Biophysical Impacts of Global Change in Mountain Biosphere Reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugmann, H.; Björnsen Gurung, A.; Ewert, F.; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, D.; Kääb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of

  18. 76 FR 24467 - Fire Mountain Lodge; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    .... The existing Fire Mountain Lodge project consists of: (1) A 265- foot-long earth and concrete filled... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1992-003] Fire Mountain.... Date filed: April 25, 2008. d. Applicant: Mr. Ken Willis. e. Name of Project: Fire Mountain Lodge. f...

  19. 75 FR 21343 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Round Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... INFORMATION: The Round Mountain Gold Corporation, which is a joint venture of Kinross Gold Corporation and Barrick Gold Corporation, proposes to expand its Round Mountain Mine, an existing open-pit gold mining and... about 66.2 acres between the Round Mountain area and the Gold Hill area. The primary method of...

  20. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  1. A life to risk: cultural differences in motivations to climb among elite male mountaineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Maher; Tom G. Potter

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the cultural differences and motivations to climb of elite, male mountaineers. The purpose of the study was to first determine the motivations of elite male mountaineers and then link these motivations to the culture in which the mountaineer lives or grew up in. Five co-researchers participated in the study: two Canadians, two Americans, and one...

  2. 75 FR 30282 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E airplanes. This AD requires you... reference of certain publications listed in this AD. ADDRESSES: Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. is in...

  3. Protecting the Sacred Water Bundle: Education about Fracking at Turtle Mountain Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Stacie

    2017-01-01

    Leaving the plains of North Dakota and entering the hills known as the Turtle Mountains, the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians (TMBCI) reservation is found. Located on the TMBCI reservation, Turtle mountain Community College (TMCC) has provided opportunities for all interested parties to learn about fracking and why the tribe banned it.…

  4. Automated Library of the Future: Estrella Mountain Community College Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community & Junior College Libraries, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Describes plans for the Integrated High Technology Library (IHTL) at the Maricopa County Community College District's new Estrella Mountain campus, covering collaborative planning, the IHTL's design, and guidelines for the new center and campus (e.g., establishing computing/information-access across the curriculum; developing lifelong learners;…

  5. Estrella Mountain Plan for Institutional Effectiveness, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella Mountain Community Coll., Avondale, AZ.

    This plan provides information on the efforts of Arizona's Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) to evaluate its effectiveness in achieving organizational mission and purpose. The plan contains the following information: (1) a discussion of EMCC's institutional effectiveness efforts to date, indicating that the college's Plan for…

  6. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  7. and its prey in the bale mountains national park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The three commonest species of rodents endemic to the Bale Mountains National Park are A. blicki, L. melanonyx and S. albicaudata (Sillero-Zubiri et al.,. 1995). They are the only small-sized rodents trapped in this study. S. albicaudata is a nocturnal species that has no significant contribution to the diet of C. simensis.

  8. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  9. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history

  10. Forested communities of the pine mountain region, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Floyd; Robert Carter

    2013-01-01

    Seven landscape scale communities were identified in the Pine Mountain region having a mixture of Appalachian, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain species. The diagnostic environmental variables included elevation, B-horizon depth, A-horizon silt, topographic relative moisture index, and A-horizon potassium (K).

  11. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  12. Common and uncommon sense about erosional processes in mountain lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1981-01-01

    Current knowledge of erosional processes in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional processes may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records

  13. Exchange Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Serafin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of heat, momentum, and mass in the atmosphere over mountainous terrain is controlled by synoptic-scale dynamics, thermally driven mesoscale circulations, and turbulence. This article reviews the key challenges relevant to the understanding of exchange processes in the mountain boundary layer and outlines possible research priorities for the future. The review describes the limitations of the experimental study of turbulent exchange over complex terrain, the impact of slope and valley breezes on the structure of the convective boundary layer, and the role of intermittent mixing and wave–turbulence interaction in the stable boundary layer. The interplay between exchange processes at different spatial scales is discussed in depth, emphasizing the role of elevated and ground-based stable layers in controlling multi-scale interactions in the atmosphere over and near mountains. Implications of the current understanding of exchange processes over mountains towards the improvement of numerical weather prediction and climate models are discussed, considering in particular the representation of surface boundary conditions, the parameterization of sub-grid-scale exchange, and the development of stochastic perturbation schemes.

  14. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  15. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris

    1958-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  16. Which nature? A case study of Whitetop Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2000-01-01

    Nature is socially constructed and many different environmental conditions can be considered natural. These assertions have profound implications for landscape design, planning, and management. In our case study of Whitetop Mountain, we found four discrete but closely related natures - ecotourism, romanticism, pastoralism, and ecologism...

  17. Plant invasions in mountains: global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith L. McDougall; Anzar A. Khuroo; Lloyd L. Loope; Catherine G. Parks; Anibal Pauchard; Zafar A. Reshi; Ian Rushworth; Christoph. Kueffer

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are...

  18. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  19. Multiscale thermohydrologic model: addressing variability and uncertainty at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T; Rosenberg, N D; Gansemer, J D; Sun, Y

    2000-01-01

    Performance assessment and design evaluation require a modeling tool that simultaneously accounts for processes occurring at a scale of a few tens of centimeters around individual waste packages and emplacement drifts, and also on behavior at the scale of the mountain. Many processes and features must be considered, including non-isothermal, multiphase-flow in rock of variable saturation and thermal radiation in open cavities. Also, given the nature of the fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, a dual-permeability approach is needed to represent permeability. A monolithic numerical model with all these features requires too large a computational cost to be an effective simulation tool, one that is used to examine sensitivity to key model assumptions and parameters. We have developed a multi-scale modeling approach that effectively simulates 3D discrete-heat-source, mountain-scale thermohydrologic behavior at Yucca Mountain and captures the natural variability of the site consistent with what we know from site characterization and waste-package-to-waste-package variability in heat output. We describe this approach and present results examining the role of infiltration flux, the most important natural-system parameter with respect to how thermohydrologic behavior influences the performance of the repository

  20. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (≥2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1–0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3–30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1–10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271