Sample records for prussian reform movement

  1. The Prussian Reform Movement: A Case Study in Defense Reform (United States)


    trans. B. Battershaw, Westview Press, 1985. Goethe , J.W., Faust , trans. W. Kaufmann, Doubleday, 1963. Gordon, M.R., "Bush Pact Would Affect Only Older...time a "’people’s army’ had defeated the old order." Although the immediate csults appeared less than noteworthy. Goethe . accompanying the Prussians

  2. Prussian Blue (United States)

    ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & ... Prussian blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...

  3. The Movement Strategy in Taiwan’s Judicial Independence Reform

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    Chin-shou Wang


    Full Text Available Judicial independence reform in Taiwan was pioneered by a group of reform-spirited judges from Room 303 of the Taichung (台中, Taizhong District Court, in 1993. Rather than joining the mass movement that was unfolding on the streets, the reformers formed a coalition with other judges to trigger reform from within the judiciary. The reformers appealed to the rule of law and democracy as a movement strategy for mobilization. As a result, the movement strategy turned out to be a great success, and Room 303 became the chief engine for further judicial reforms in subsequent years. However, the movement strategy in itself also presents some limitations. This paper examines why the movement strategy was successful and how its limitations eventually created problems that hinder further judicial reforms in Taiwan.

  4. The Movement Strategy in Taiwan’s Judicial Independence Reform


    Chin-shou Wang


    Judicial independence reform in Taiwan was pioneered by a group of reform-spirited judges from Room 303 of the Taichung (台中, Taizhong) District Court, in 1993. Rather than joining the mass movement that was unfolding on the streets, the reformers formed a coalition with other judges to trigger reform from within the judiciary. The reformers appealed to the rule of law and democracy as a movement strategy for mobilization. As a result, the movement strategy turned out to be a great success, an...

  5. Health Care Reform and Social Movements in the United States (United States)

    Hoffman, Beatrix


    Because of the importance of grassroots social movements, or “change from below,” in the history of US reform, the relationship between social movements and demands for universal health care is a critical one. National health reform campaigns in the 20th century were initiated and run by elites more concerned with defending against attacks from interest groups than with popular mobilization, and grassroots reformers in the labor, civil rights, feminist, and AIDS activist movements have concentrated more on immediate and incremental changes than on transforming the health care system itself. However, grassroots health care demands have also contained the seeds of a wider critique of the American health care system, leading some movements to adopt calls for universal coverage. PMID:12511390

  6. [Prussian reformers and the Polish question: Hermann von Boyen and Carl von Clausewitz and the Polish November rebellion of 1830/31]. (United States)

    Rothe, Hans


    The article tries to avoid the common opinion of German liberal acclamation to the "heroic Poles" of 1830 by showing that these liberals did not see what the governments were faced with. It informs about the memories of Clausewitz and Boyen; analyses the early essays of Boyen, 1794/95; gives first knowledge about the late memoire of 1830, which unveils a quite different meaning on a Polish state; informs about the Polish state Boyen knew, describes his reaction and his continuing thinking as a liberal reformer of Prussia; tries to explain what was - incorrectly - called his "about-turn" ("Frontweschsel"); gives information on Boyens comparing Poland and Germany; mentions briefly Boyens proposal of an independent Poland and makes sure the actuality of the problem.

  7. Global Trends in Early Childhood Practice: Working within the Limitations of The Global Education Reform Movement

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    Elena Nitecki


    Full Text Available Introduction to Global Education Review: Global Trends in Early Childhood Practice:  Working within the Limitations of  The Global Education Reform Movement. The Global Education Reform Movement, also known as GERM, is rooted in economic theory and neoliberal thinking. The trends associated with GERM – such as the standardization of teaching and learning, over-emphasis of core subjects of mathematics and literacy, test-based high-stakes accountability and testing, prescribed curriculum, privatization, parental choice, and increased control over students and teachers – have infiltrated the everyday practice of teachers and practitioners in the field and remain a deep cause for concern.

  8. Sustainable Administrative Reform Movements Policy in Joko Widodo's Administration

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    Yogi Suprayogi Sugandi


    Full Text Available Joko Widodo (Jokowi is a leader that is widely expected to transform Indonesia into a better country. Hopes and wishes were rising when he was elected as the president of Indonesia. This paper will describe various innovations undertaken before and after his presidential inauguration as well as the assorted innovations made in reforming the administration of his cabinet. As the president of Indonesia, Joko Widodo is required to realize the aspirations of the people in freeing the government from corruption, collusion, and nepotism. The management of ministerial and non-ministerial institutions becomes the very first crucial issue undertaken by Joko Widodo. This led to a polemic in regards to reducing or increasing the number of institutions, as the Jokowi administration actually increased the amount. In Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's administration, several policies were made systematically and based on legislations that had been approved by the lagislature. Joko Widodo's administration in more partial in nature. The administrative reform program that is highly anticipated is the continuation of the Public Service Act. This law is a step forward from the administrative reform program that aims at the creation of good governance. Changes is career path, salary system, pension and benefits for civil servants, performance-based staffing are various efforts of sustainability carried out by Joko Widodo's administration.

  9. Radicalizing University Reform. The Revolutionary Faction of the Argentinean Student Movement, 1918-1922

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    Natalia Bustelo


    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the intervention of a series of Argentinean student groups and magazines that attempted to link the burgeoning University Reform movement to the international revolutionary wave triggered by Russia and, therefore, to the local Bolshevik Left between 1918 and 1922. By highlighting the students’ revolutionary enthusiasm, the article seeks to show that the well-known Latin American and anti-imperialist identity of the Reform, as characterized by the historiography on the subject, only takes shape after 1923. The study also pursues the following objectives: on the one hand, to qualify the thesis according to which the Argentinean student movement held a moderate political position during the first decades of the 20th century, and, on the other, to contribute with new clarifications to studies on the reception of the Russian Revolution and the cartography of Argentinean leftist movements.

  10. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation? (United States)

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie


    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  11. Prussian Reform: The Recovery of a Nation (United States)


    Frederician traditions.7 With the defeats, the king was now more than willing to set aside the traditions of his predecessors and the desires of his court...desire to cling to the traditions of earlier times held sway. The army was led by a group of men who were well past their prime and at their core

  12. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century]. (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung


    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  13. Institutional reforms in the system of regulation of capital movements when stimulated import substitution

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    E. R. Zakirova


    Full Text Available Large-scale structural reform of the socio-economic system of the country require a detailed institutional analysis of the national economy. Different interpretations of institutional reforms are analyzed, the improved definition of institutional reforms is given. The problems of the capital movement in the economy and the industrial sector are viewed. It was found that a change in capital structure causes the change of reproduction processes, including through import substitution. The author analyzed modern interpretations of import substitution, five scientific approaches to the definition of this concept are identified. The main characteristics of the import substitution are determined. The author gives a comprehensive definition of import substitution as a qualitative change in the economy, contributing to the development of production of goods similar to imported from abroad, and causing the increase of competitiveness of their products, domestic producers and the entire state in order to achieve innovative growth. The author reveals that economic growth stimulation should focus on the optimization of resource substitution in sectors which has a low dependence on imports, and to take into account the modified optimum Pareto in areas with a high or critical levels of import dependence. Federal programs for technical upgrading and modernization are not able to accelerate the pace of economic growth, however, can provide an acceptable level of economic security in the region and create conditions for the innovative development of the country and improving the competitiveness of the national economy. The advantages and disadvantages of import substitution are systematized. The author concludes that successful import substitution policy requires detailed and comprehensive program of import substitution which implementation will accelerate the country's economic growth.

  14. In the arc of history: AIHA and the movement to reform the Toxic Substances Control Act. (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P


    Dr. Michael P. Wilson of UC Berkeley delivered his keynote address before the general assembly of the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exhibition (AIHce) in Portland, Oregon, in May 2011. Here, Dr. Wilson again discusses the political and economic drivers of occupational disease in the United States and proposes a role for AIHA in helping to highlight and resolve them. He proposes that until these underlying drivers are acknowledged and ameliorated, the toll of occupational disease will persist, despite the hard work of industrial hygienists in the workplace. Among these drivers, Dr. Wilson points to the decline of labor rights and unionization; economic inequality; economic insecurity; political resistance to public health protections for workers, notably the OSHA and NIOSH programs; and weaknesses in the Federal Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA). Of these, Dr. Wilson calls on the AIHA to participate in the historic effort to rewrite TSCA. He points to weaknesses in TSCA that have produced a chemicals market dominated by the function, price, and performance of chemicals, with little attention given to their health and environmental effects. Under these conditions, he argues, hazardous chemicals have remained economically competitive, and innovation in inherently safer chemicals-in green chemistry-has been held back by a lack of market transparency and public accountability in the industry. TSCA reform has the potential to shift the market toward green chemistry, with long-term implications for occupational disease prevention, industrial investment, and renewed energy in the industrial hygiene profession. Dr. Wilson proposes that, like previous legislative changes in the United States, TSCA reform is likely to occur in response to myriad social pressures, which include the emergence of the European Union's REACH regulation; recent chemicals policy actions in 18 U.S. states; growing support from downstream businesses; increasing public awareness

  15. The Global Education Reform Movement and Its Effect on the Local African American Community (United States)

    Rushek, Kelli A.


    This conceptual research paper explores educational reformation through the theoretical work of Appadurai (1996) and Castells (2000) in the flows and connectivity of global networks. It discusses the global, national, and local effects of the neoliberal ideological reformations in education and their effects on the African American student…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN)6}x H2O) and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1) and high negative entropy of activation (-231 ...

  17. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

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    Oleg Y. Plenkov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  18. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action (United States)

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike


    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  19. “Festive Customs” and “Everyday Beauty”. The Agenda and Self-Conception of the Nordic Life Reform Movement

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    Atli Magnus Seelow


    Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century, a wave of modernization, industrialization and urbanization swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (“festvanor” and “Everyday Beauty” (“vardagsskönhet”—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.

  20. 21. The Franco-Prussian War


    Blamires, David


    During the last three decades of the nineteenth century the number of new German children’s books that were translated into English declined, although earlier books continued to be reissued. Germany did not cease to be of interest, but the interest was expressed in different ways. What I want to discuss in this chapter is the way in which British writers dealt with contemporary Germany through novels centred on the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). This may seem an unlikely subject for British c...

  1. Land Reform and Sustainable Development


    Elizabeth Stanton; Peter Rosset; James Boyce


    Land reform, equitable distribution, economic development, environmental quality, land reform strategies, Brazil, Landless Workers’ Movement, East Asia, rural poverty, land productivity, sustainable agriculture, comparative advantage, small farms.

  2. Abortion and politics in Nicaragua: the women's movement in the debate on the Abortion Law Reform 1999-2002. (United States)

    Heumann, Silke G


    This paper analyses discussion on a proposed reform to the abortion law in Nicaragua between 1999 and 2002, as a struggle between different actors - politicians, religious leaders, doctors and feminists - over the meaning of abortion, motherhood and sexuality, and ultimately the value of women's lives. It shows how the interplay of gender discourses and political practices shaped the process of discussion: on one hand by making a broad alliance against abortion possible, on the other by highlighting the contradictory role of the women's movement in this discussion, between a dominant leadership and a low mobilizing capacity. The paper argues for the need of an inwards oriented process within the women's movement, that departs from the recognition of the personal issues at stake for women in order to break the silence surrounding abortion, such as prevailing feelings of fear and guilt. This entails recognition of the limits of the liberal feminist claim to 'abortion as a free choice', as a discourse of rights that is disconnected from the everyday life conditions and constraints under which women make choices and develop their notions of rights.

  3. Toward a Healthy High Schools Movement: Strategies for Mobilizing Public Health for Educational Reform (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity. PMID:20634448

  4. Toward a healthy high schools movement: strategies for mobilizing public health for educational reform. (United States)

    Ruglis, Jessica; Freudenberg, Nicholas


    Although research shows that education and health are closely intertwined, health professionals have difficulty using this evidence to improve health and educational outcomes and reduce inequities. We call for a social movement for healthy high schools in the United States that would improve school achievement and graduation rates; create school environments that promote lifelong individual, family, and community health and prevent chronic illness, violence, and problems of sexual health; and engage youths in creating health-promoting environments. Achieving these goals will require strengthening and better linking often uncoordinated efforts to improve child health and education. Only a broad social movement has the power and vision to mobilize the forces that can transform educational and health systems to better achieve health and educational equity.

  5. Savant officials in the Prussian mining administration. (United States)

    Klein, Ursula


    In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly 'hybrid' experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural inquiry. Among these savant experts there was a particular sub-group that is at the centre of this paper: mining officials who were also recognized as mineralogists, geologists and chemists. The paper describes and analyses the training and the varied technical and scientific activities of these 'savant officials'. At the centre of attention are the travels of inspection of the mineralogist and mining official Carl Abraham Gerhard (1738-1821) in the late 1760s. I argue that Gerhard's travels of inspection were at the same time geological travels and that savant officials like Gerhard made a significant contribution to the fledgling science of geology.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

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    R.K. Adhikamsetty


    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  7. Sultan Birinci Mahmud Dönemi (1730-1754 Islahat Hareketleri Sultan Mahmud Period (1730-1754 Reform Movements

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    Full Text Available This research of the reform movements performed during the eraof one of the important rulers of XVIII. Century, Sultan I. Mahmud who ruled for 24 years between 1730 and 1754, basically aims to shed lighton an important stage in the modernization of a society. According tothis, the Ottoman Empire who dominated Europe kept its traditionalstructure until the XVIII. Century and did not feel the need to change.However, when the European nations that developed in economic,political, cultural and technical fields began to win battles against theOttomans, the state began to question the situation it was in. Theunderstanding of accepting the superiority of the west which startedespecially with the Tulip Era was continued during the reign of Sultan I.Mahmud and western reforms were made particularly in the militaryfield. Thanks to these reforms that Sultan I. Mahmud continued duringhis 24 year reign, the state recovered significantly and recordedimportant military victories during his era. Again during the rule ofSultan I. Mahmud, with his special emphasis on the reconstruction ofthe city, Istanbul flourished with the architectural activities conductedduring his time. For all these reasons, in order to understand the era ofSultan I. Mahmud which marked a period in the Ottoman history,knowing the military and political events of this time is not enough. Thereform and transformation movements of the era have to be known aswell. This study has been prepared along these goals and objectives. Inthe study, focus has been on the reasons and general characteristics ofthe reforms. The basic idea was to identify the effects of thesemovements on the Ottoman State and their imprint on the nextreformists. XVIII. yüzyılın önemli padişahlarından birisi olan ve 1730-1754yılları arasında 24 yıl hükümdarlık yapan Sultan I. Mahmuddöneminde yapılan ıslahat hareketlerinin incelendiği bu araştırma,genel anlamıyla bir toplumun modernleşme sürecinin

  8. Rights, politics and power: the struggle over the 2006 abortion reform and the women’s movement in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kruk (Katherine)


    textabstractThe domestic and international response to the 2006 abortion law reform in Nicaragua has gone largely unnoticed. This paper considers the 2006 Nicaraguan abortion law reform by looking at the situation in the country, with special attention to women’s rights, in particular,

  9. Characterization and utilization of Prussian blue and its pigments. (United States)

    Grandjean, Fernande; Samain, Louise; Long, Gary J


    This review deals with our long-range goal of determining why the Prussian blue pigments, typically either the "soluble" KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6]·xH2O or the alternative "insoluble" Fe[Fe(II)(CN)6]3·xH2O compounds, used by artists from shortly after the discovery of Prussian blue in 1704 and well into the early twentieth century, often fade when exposed to light. In order to achieve this goal it was decided that first, for comparison purposes, we had to prepare and fully characterize Prussian blues prepared by various, often commercially successful, synthetic methods. The characterization has employed a large variety of modern methods to determine both the stoichiometry of the Prussian blues and the arrangement of the voids found in the latter "insoluble" Prussian blues. The refinement of synchrotron radiation derived X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for a formally soluble and an insoluble Prussian blue required refinement in the Pm3[combining macron]m space group and lead to the K1.9[FeFe(CN)18]·{1.9 OH + 7.0H2O}, 1, and FeFe(CN)18·11.0H2O, 2, stoichiometries. The former compound, 1, exhibits an apparently random iron(ii) long-range void arrangement, whereas 2 exhibits a more non-random long-range arrangement, however, a pair distribution function analysis indicates a short-range ordering of the voids in both compounds. After further detailed characterization of many Prussian blue samples, painted samples on linen canvas, were subjected to accelerated light exposure for up to 800 hours either as pure Prussian blues or mixed with (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2, ZnO or TiO2, the white pigments often used by artists to lighten the intense Prussian blue colour. The results indicate that the first two of these white pigments play a significant role in the fading of the colour of Prussian blues. In order to achieve our long-range goal, several Prussian blue samples were prepared from "ancient" recipes published in 1758 and 1779. These so-called "ancient" samples, painted in a

  10. Thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue: implications for prebiotic chemistry. (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José Angel; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino


    The complex salt named Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 x 15 H2O, can release cyanide at pH > 10. From the point of view of the origin of life, this fact is of interest, since the oligomers of HCN, formed in the presence of ammonium or amines, leads to a variety of biomolecules. In this work, for the first time, the thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue was studied. To establish the influence of temperature and reaction time on the ability of Prussian Blue to release cyanide and to subsequently generate other compounds, suspensions of Prussian Blue were heated at temperatures from room temperature to 150 degrees at pH 12 in NH3 environment for several days. The NH3 wet decomposition of Prussian Blue generated hematite, alpha-Fe2O3, the soluble complex salt (NH4)4[Fe(CN6)] x 1.5 H2O, and several organic compounds, the nature and yield of which depend on the experimental conditions. Urea, lactic acid, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and several amino acids and carboxylic acids were identified by their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. HCN, cyanogen (C2N2), and formamide (HCONH2) were detected in the gas phase by GC/MS analysis.

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Prussian Blue networked nanocomposites for electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    There has been a great deal of interest recently in Prussian blue functional graphene. Due to they displayed advantage of both Prussian blue and graphene, we presented a one-pot and green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue nanocomposites. Considering that graphene oxide (GO) ....... This kind materials displaying high performance when was used for electrocatalytic reduction H2O2....

  12. Impact of English on Education Reforms in China: With Reference to the Learn-English Movement, the Internationalisation of Universities and the English Language Requirement in College Entrance Examinations (United States)

    Sun, James Jian-Min; Hu, Ping; Ng, Sik Hung


    When China liberalised its economy and opened up to the (Western) world, it actively promoted the English language at schools and universities on a massive scale. This learn-English movement, riding on the back of English as the dominant international language, has powered English into China's education reforms. We outline the movement and discuss…

  13. The Prussian Academy of Sciences during the Third Reich (United States)

    Notzoldt, Peter; Walther, Peter Th.


    In 1933, the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Humanities was an exclusive learned society, out of touch with modern methods and funding, which had also failed to re-establish itself as a "centre of research". During the Nazi regime, it was at best peripherally involved in the restructuring of German academia. While some of its members…

  14. From Reform to Revolution: A Critical Reading of the Political Discourse and Actions of the Islamic Movement in Egypt

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    Louay M. Safi


    Full Text Available In over a century of discourse and action, the Islamic movement has grown and expanded markedly. The once elitist movement today commands the support of an increasing segment of society, yet important questions regarding the nature of the Islamic society and the correct strategy for achieving it are still unsettled. The dispute between reformists and traditionalists regarding the characteristics of the ideal Islamic society continues to be a source of sharp division between the two groups. The following discussion explores the major trends in the Islamic movement, and examines the main ideas and strategies advanced by its leaders

  15. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    as electrochemicalcatalysts and supercapacitor electrode materials. Those nanocomposites were systematically characterizedby AFM, SEM, TEM and XPS. The results confirmed all PB nanostructures were well combined withgraphene nanosheets. Furthermore, PB nanostructure functionalized graphene materials were fabricatedinto......Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors...... to energytechnologies. In this presentation, we have explored the combination of redox active Prussian Blue (PB)nanostructures (e.g., core-shell Gold@Prussian Blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs) and interlocked PBnanocubes) with chemically exfoliated graphene to prepare multifunctional composites...

  16. Prussian Blue: A Potential Material to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Peng, Yueying; Li, Bing; Wang, Yunhui; He, Xinyi; Huang, Jianxing; Zhao, Jinbao


    The Prussian blue, as a potential adsorbent of polysulfides to suppress the dissolution and shuttle of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries, has been studied in this work. Our results show that Prussian blue improves the electrochemical reaction kinetics during discharge/charge processes. More importantly, the cathode with Prussian blue exhibits better cycling stability and higher discharge capacity retention (722 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 100 cycles) than the one without Prussian blue (151 mAh g-1). These improvements of electrochemical performances are ascribed to the fact that Prussian blue is very effective in suppressing the dissolution of polysulfides into liquid electrolyte by chemical adsorption.

  17. Towards bottom-up nanopatterning of Prussian blue analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgile Trannoy


    Full Text Available Ordered nanoperforated TiO2 monolayers fabricated through sol–gel chemistry were used to grow isolated particles of Prussian blue analogues (PBA. The elaboration of the TiO2/CoFe PBA nanocomposites involves five steps. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS all along the synthesis process. Selected physico-chemical parameters have been varied in order to determine the key steps of the synthesis process and to optimize it. This study is an important step towards the full control of the fabrication process.

  18. Evaluation of the relationship between education and sustainability in peasant movements: The experience of the National Education Program in Agrarian Reform. (United States)

    Camacho, Rodrigo Simão; Sobreiro Filho, José; Sobreiro, Vinicius Amorim; Mariano, Enzo Barberio


    Brazil is one of the largest agricultural producers in the world. However, its agrarian composition is based on two markedly different production models, particularly in relation to sustainability: a peasant family agriculture, which plays an important role in food production for domestic consumption and advocates agro-ecological practises; and agribusiness, the politically and economically hegemonic model that produces commodities for export based on monoculture and intensive use of pesticides. Therefore, in order to create the means to develop peasant lands, social movements and peasants have engaged themselves politically and defended an education model grounded in sustainable practises of production and social organisation. Taking this into account, the main purpose of this paper is to analyse and assess the Brazilian experience of integration between education and sustainability, in the National Education Program in Agrarian Reform (PRONERA). To accomplish this aim, a survey with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among teachers, students, monitors, and coordinators of the course offered by PRONERA. The surveys showed that the courses are promoting the concepts of sustainability among peasants. However, many adjustments need to be taken into consideration during the planning process for the next courses offered by PRONERA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adsorption mechanism of radioactive cesium by Prussian blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Chan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk [Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC), Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Chang Hyun [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, University of Science Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant, Prussian blue (PB) has attracted increasing attention as a material for use in decontaminating the environment. We have focused the fundamental mechanism of specific Cs{sup +} adsorption into PB in order to develop high-performance PB-based Cs{sup +} adsorbents. The ability of PB to adsorb Cs varies considerably according to its origin such as what synthesis method was used, and under what conditions the PB was prepared. It has been commonly accepted that the exclusive abilities of PB to adsorb hydrated Cs{sup +} ions are caused by regular lattice spaces surrounded by cyanido-bridged metals. Cs{sup +} ions are trapped by simple physical adsorption in the regular lattice spaces of PB. Cs{sup +} ions are exclusively trapped by chemical adsorption via the hydrophilic lattice defect sites with proton-exchange from the coordination water. Prussian blue are believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of {sup 1}3{sup 7C}s contaminated water around nuclear facilities and/or after nuclear accidents.

  20. Tanzimat Hareketleri Karşısında Aşık Seyrani Ashik Seyrânî Against Tanzimat (Reform Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp AKMAN


    Full Text Available Ashik Seyrani lived between the years1800 and 1866. He was originally from Develi, Kayseri. He saw three thrones in this whole life. These are; III. Selim, II.Mahmut and Abdulmecit. His teenage and adulthood ages were in last two ones. Seyrani, expressed the emotions of the society against the innovation and westernization movements which were developed in II.Mahmut era and formalized with political reforms in Abdulmecit era. Moreover, he didn’t hesitate to depict faults and irregularities that he saw in the society without any fear from the sultan. Seyrani is considerably successful in the literary genre which is called “irony” in the classical literature and “satire” in the folk literature. This is somewhat related to his nature and character. Having come to Istanbul to pursue his profession, Seyrani, like his contemporaries, had a yearning for joining the poet-singers of the court. But, his desire did not come true. That was most probably the reason why he severely satirized the court officials, particularly the grand viziers. Another reason why Seyrani had such a firm stand against the court was the disbandment of the Janissaries. Like the other Bektashi poets, Seyrani who had a tendency towards Bektashism could not accept the disbandment of the Janissaries, and therefore took a negative stand against the court. Social and economic life of the nineteenth century is likely to be seen in the poems of Seyrani. The situation of the country after the Reform movements, extravagant spendings of the court, people’s failure in keeping up with the newnesses, Sultans’ personally adopting a Western way of living, and corruption of the judiciary due to judge’s involvement in bribery were particularly satirized in the poems of Seyrani. In this study, Reform movements and how these movements reflected on the society will be put into words with reference to poems of Seyrani and the era will be evaluated. Âşık Seyrani, 1800-1866 y

  1. Sacred Choices: Adolescent Relationships and Sexual Ethics--The Reform Movement's Response to the Need for Faith-Based Sexuality Education (United States)

    Winer, Rabbi Laura Novak


    "Sacred Choices: Adolescent Relationships and Sexual Ethics" is a sexual ethics curriculum for middle school and high school students developed by the Union for Reform Judaism. Sacred Choices strives to teach Reform Jewish teens that their bodies are gifts from God and that Judaism provides relevant guidance on how to use and care for that gift…

  2. Viral capsids as templates for the production of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Escosura, A; Verwegen, M.; Sikkema, F.D.; Comellas Aragones, M.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, T.; Nolte, Roeland; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    The use of a viral template has allowed the synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles with a diameter of 18 ± 1.7 nm and their organization into hexagonal patterns on mica and hydrophilic carbon surfaces.

  3. Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Diana Deere


    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e em grande medida isso foi um subproduto do esforço para acabar com a discriminação contra as mulheres em todos as suas dimensões. A conquista das igualdades formais, contudo, não levou a um aumento na parcela de mulheres beneficiárias da reforma, a qual permaneceu baixa até a metade da década de 1990. Isso aconteceu principalmente porque garantir na prática os direitos da mulher à terra não estava entre as prioridades dos movimentos sociais rurais. Além disso, o principal movimento social a determinar o passo da reforma agrária, o (MST, considerava classe e gênero questões incompatíveis. Próximo ao final da década de 1990, entretanto, havia uma consciência crescente de que deixar de reconhecer os direitos da mulher à terra era prejudicial ao desenvolvimento e à consolidação dos assentamentos da reforma agrária e, portanto, para o movimento. O crescente consenso, entre todos os movimentos sociais rurais, sobre a importância em assegurar o direito da mulher à terra, junto com um lobby efetivo, encorajou o Estado em 2001 a adotar mecanismos específicos para a inclusão de mulheres na reforma agrária.This article examines the evolution of the demand for women's land rights in the Brazilian agrarian reform through the prism of the three main rural social movements: the landless movement, the rural unions and the autonomous rural women's movement. Most of the credit for raising the issue of women's land rights rests with

  4. A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun


    A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to Prussian white nanoparticles leading to a decrease of the absorption spectrum, was chosen as the target. And we were able to determine the concentration of sulfite in aqueous solution with a low detection limit and a broad linear relationship.A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to

  5. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective (United States)

    Green, J.


    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  6. Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents. (United States)

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin


    A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion with Fe(3+) ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H(2)O(2) reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H(2)O(2) formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 μM to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 μM and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm(-2) M(-1). The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.

  7. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson


    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  8. The Reform of Law-Enforcement Agencies in Kyiv in Terms of Growth and National Revolutionary Movement in the Post-Reform Period of Second Half 19th— Early 20th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Biliavska


    Full Text Available The article analysis the reorganization of law-enforcement agencies in Kyiv in the period of reforming of the entire state apparatus of the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th ct. Kyiv was elected as one of the largest administrative, industrial and cultural centers of Russia. The growth of economic and trade potential of the city in this period led to a significant increase in its population, the emergence of new classes of representatives of the bourgeoisie, the working class and intellectuals. It is the last two and become a major force in the revolutionary and national liberation struggle against the autocracy. The author attempted to identify the reasons for the example of Kyiv of the tsarist government reform, to pay attention on its positive results in the fight against crime to high, and deficiencies, mistakes that led to failure of law-enforcement agencies to ensure the stability of public life, to prevent the overthrow of the autocracy. The aim of this publication is the study, analysis of attempts to reform the law-enforcement authorities of Kyiv in a growing crisis in the society.

  9. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang


    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  10. Prussian Blue-coated interdigitated array electrodes for possible analytical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, M.; Grabner, E.W.; Bergveld, Piet


    Thin films of iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) (Prussian Blue) were electrochemically deposited on interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes, yielding systems which can be considered as chemiresistors in sensing alkali metal ion concentrations in an adjacent electrolyte. This is due to the fact that the

  11. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, Marta, E-mail: [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Tian Faming [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: {center_dot} An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. {center_dot} Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. {center_dot} CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. {center_dot} Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. {center_dot} The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N{sup 6}-side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  12. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin


    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing toxic agents. High quality Prussian blue nanocubes with no or little coordinated water were generated simultaneously. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was thus functionalized by Prussian blue nanocubes via chemical bonding to form a kind of interlocked microstructure with high stability and good conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg(-1), with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance catalysis towards electroreduction of H2O2 with a high sensitivity of 1.5Acm(-2)M(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical charactization of Prussian Blue by using the E-MOSFET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet


    Prussian Blue (PB) is the mixed-valent compound, ferric ferrocyanide which can be used in electrocatalytic, electrochromic and charge storage applications. Observations of the electrochemical properties of PB have been done by different methods, e.g. electrochemical and optical. In this paper,

  14. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab


    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...

  15. Fashion as Argument: Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform. (United States)

    Torrens, Kathleen M.


    Examines the place of the body in the dress-reform movement, a social movement that focused on fashion as a vehicle for achieving social and political equality. Discusses how fashion became one arena in which definitions of gender were contested. Suggests the dress-reform movement's failure in redefining femininity indicates the depth of…

  16. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo


    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  17. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS


    Full Text Available In this work, edged plane pyrolytic graphite electrode EPPGE was modified with functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes and Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB). The modified electrode was characterised by techniques such as TEM, FTIR, XPS, EDX...

  18. The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Gehart, Diane R


    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and substance abuse issues. By formally adopting and promoting a recovery orientation to severe mental illness, the United States followed suit with other first-world nations that have also adopted this approach based on two decades of research by the World Health Organization. This movement represents a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of severe mental health, a shift that is more closely aligned with the nonpathologizing and strength-based traditions in marriage and family therapy. Furthermore, the recovery movement is the first consumer-led movement to have a transformational effect on professional practice, thus a watershed moment for the field. Part I of this article introduces family therapists to the concept of mental health recovery, providing an overview of its history, key concepts, and practice implications. Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  20. Colour changes due to the fading of Prussian blue in Danish Golden Age paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Buti, David; Vila, Anna


    Examination of oil paintings by artists from the so-called Danish Golden Age in the first half of the nineteenth century indicates that a significant degree of deterioration and fading has occurred in a number of cases in some of the blue coloured areas. The occurrence was initially suggested...... by the different appearance of the paint along the edges of the paintings where they had been protected from the light. Technical examination of paintings from the Statens Museum for Kunst collection, by artists such as Christen Købke, Nicolai Abildgaard and C.W. Eckersberg, revealed the presence of Prussian blue......, mixed with lead white and calcium carbonate as a component of the paint in the affected areas. Due to its high tinting strength, Prussian blue was often used – mostly in moderate proportions - mixed with other compounds and pigments. It has been demonstrated by experimental studies that the durability...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyzes the course of the recent negotiations between the Colombian Government and the FARC guerrilla: its historical background that led to the first version of the agreement, its plebiscite procedure, the victory of the “No” and the proposals for modification, to the New version of the peace agreement. From a case of study method and different theoretical approaches, the document analyzes the contributions of different social movements to solidify a better peace agreement and the persistent challenges in its implementation.

  2. The Big Ideas behind Whole System Reform (United States)

    Fullan, Michael


    Whole system reform means that every vital part of the system--school, community, district, and government--contributes individually and in concert to forward movement and success, using practice, not research, as the driver of reform. With this in mind, several "big ideas", based on successful implementation, informed Ontario's reform…

  3. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos. (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Harald


    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  4. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shouqing, E-mail: [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Cheng Shi; Feng Lianrong; Wang Xiaomei; Chen Zhigang [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China)


    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R{sub K} > R > R{sub Na} > R{sub Rb} > R{sub Cs}, which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  5. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics......, in this way, can be seen as a practice which mobilises and optimises this humanistic legacy, reproducing and transforming it into a new pedagogical desire....

  6. The Profession Speaks: Educator Perspectives on School Reform (United States)

    Murphy, Brett Gardiner


    An educator, who compiled teachers' stories of accountability era reforms into a book, explains why teacher voice is central. The book, "Inside Our Schools: Teachers on the Failure and Future of Education Reform," is organized around the recurring buzzwords the mainstream education reform movement has used to define its policies:…

  7. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline


    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  8. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson


    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  9. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...... supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory...

  10. Prussian Blue Modified Solid Carbon Nanorod Whisker Paste Composite Electrodes: Evaluation towards the Electroanalytical Sensing of H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Siimenson


    Full Text Available Metallic impurity free solid carbon nanorod “Whiskers” (SCNR Whiskers, a derivative of carbon nanotubes, are explored in the fabrication of a Prussian Blue composite electrode and critically evaluated towards the mediated electroanalytical sensing of H2O2. The sensitivity and detection limits for H2O2 on the paste electrodes containing 20% (w/w Prussian Blue, mineral oil, and carbon nanorod whiskers were explored and found to be 120 mA/(M cm2 and 4.1 μM, respectively, over the concentration range 0.01 to 0.10 mM. Charge transfer constant for the 20% Prussian Blue containing SCNR Whiskers paste electrode was calculated, for the reduction of Prussian Blue to Prussian White, to reveal a value of 1.8±0.2 1/s (α=0.43, N=3. Surprisingly, our studies indicate that these metallic impurity-free SCNR Whiskers, in this configuration, behave electrochemically similar to that of an electrode constructed from graphite.

  11. Synthesis of gold coated magnetic microparticles and their application for electrochemical glucose sensing by the enzymatically precipitated prussian blue. (United States)

    Jung, Hye Young; Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun


    An enzyme stimulated deposition of prussian blue onto the gold-coated magnetic microparticles is described. We propose to synthesize the continuous outer gold layer on the magnetic particle for a gold working electrode and its superparamagnetic property. In-depth characterization of the gold shell formation was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry. The gold-coated magnetic microparticles offered adhesive layer for the immobilization of glucose oxidase catalyzing the generation of prussian blue in the presence of glucose. The assembled prussian blue on the gold shell surfaces was detected with electrochemical measurements depending on the glucose concentration. With accomplishing the linear response range from 0.2 mM to 10 mM of glucose, this approach successfully proposed the applicability of the magnetic core-gold shell structures to the electrochemical bioassay area.

  12. Slab reformer (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.


    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  13. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade


    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  14. Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for the Enrichment of Radioactive Cesium in Solutions - 13275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles in different form were studied for the adsorptive enrichment of Cs in solutions. Water dispersible nano-PB was found to be highly effective on removing trace level Cs in stagnant waters. The nano-PB loaded filters were effective on collecting Cs in flow systems like river water, thus provides a big relief on controlling the environmental mobility of Cs and its entry to the productive lands via water. Water insoluble nano-PB adsorbent possesses high Cs loading capacity and selectivity and it is found to be the ultimate option for the systems containing high concentration Cs. (authors)

  15. Reforming Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Penner


    Full Text Available Steam and dry reforming of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane or propane, alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol or glycerol or bio-compounds is one of the most promising and effective routes to enhanced hydrogen production and for the production of synthesis gas likewise.[...

  16. Alkali Cation Potential and Functionality in the Nanoporous Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo


    Full Text Available Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials is utilized in lithium-ion secondary battery, ion exchange, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, molecular filters, and so on. Here, we performed ab initio total energy calculation to derive the alkali cation potential in the Prussian blue analogues, AxM[Fe(CN6]zH2O (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; M=Co, Ni, Mn, and Cd, with jungle-gym-type nanoporous framework. The potential curves of larger cations, that is, K+, Rb+ and Cs+, exhibit a barrier at the window of the host framework, while those of the smaller cations, that is, Li+ and Na+, exhibit no barrier. We will discuss the useful functionalities observed in the Prussian blue analogues, that is, (a battery properties mediated by Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation, (b electrochromism mediated by Na+ transfer in all solid device, and (c the elimination of Cs+ from aqueous solution by precipitation, in terms of the alkali cation potentials.

  17. Neurology and Neurologists during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier


    The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) ended with the firm establishment of the French Republic and with German unity under Prussian leadership. After describing the events leading to the war, we explain how this conflict was the first involving the use of machine guns; soldiers were struck down by the thousands. Confronted with smallpox and typhus epidemics, military surgeons were quickly overwhelmed and gave priority to limb injuries, considering other wounds as inevitably fatal. Here, we present detailed descriptions of spinal and cranial injuries by Léon Legouest and of asepsis prior to trepanning by Ernst von Bergmann. Both the war and the Commune had disastrous effects on Paris. Jean-Martin Charcot continued to work intensely through the conflict, caring for numerous patients at La Salpêtrière Hospital according to his son Jean-Baptiste's account, which we've also excerpted below. As for young Dejerine, he treated the wounded from France who had taken refuge in Switzerland. Désiré-Magloire Bourneville also took heroic initiatives, as did Charles Lasègue, Alfred Vulpian, Alix Joffroy and Victor Cornil. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung


    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release. (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J


    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  20. Buccal Mucosa Exfoliative Cell Prussian Blue Stain Co-Relates with Iron Overload in β-Thalassemia Major Patients. (United States)

    Gajaria, Pooja K; Maheshwari, Ujwala M; Borkar, D B; Dhar, Reeta; Pancholi, Varsha


    Thalassemics require regular blood transfusion therapy leading to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. We hereby attempted to measure this iron overload by means of exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique. The aims and objectives of our study were: 1. To detect iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl's Prussian blue stain in β-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate staining positivity with serum ferritin levels. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 50 β-thalassemia major patients (who had taken more than 12 transfusions) and 25 healthy subjects of the same age group as controls. Smears were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Blood samples were taken from the study group for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Grading criteria were defined for assessing the Prussian blue positivity. Perl's positivity was observed in 49 out of 50 of thalassemic patients (98%). 1 patient had Grade 0, 7 patients had Grade I, 5 had Grade II, 12 had Grade III, 14 had Grade IV while 11 patients had Grade V positivity. Spearman Rank's Correlation Co-efficient was 0.38, signifying a weak positive correlation between positivity of buccal smears for Perl's Prussian blue staining and respective serum ferritin levels. Perl's Prussian blue staining of exfoliated cells from buccal mucosa can be used to assess iron overload in β-thalassemia major patients, as a screening as well as diagnostic tool. With the grading system we can give a semi-quantitative assessment of the same.

  1. Graphene Paper Doped with Chemically Compatible Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Nanohybrid Electrocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Han, Shuang; Gan, Shiyu


    Along with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), water soluble Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, around 6 nm) are synthesized and broadly characterized. These two types of highly stable, low‐cost and chemically compatible nanomaterials are exploited as building ingredients to prepare electrically...... oxidation and detection of glucose. The present work demonstrates a facile and highly reproducible way to construct free‐standing and flexible graphene paper doped with electroactive catalyst. Thanks to high stability, low‐cost and efficient electrocatalytic characteristics, this kind of nanohybrid material...... enhanced and functionally endorsed nanohybrid electrocatalysts, which are further transformed into free‐standing graphene papers. PBNPs doped graphene papers show highly efficient electrocatalysis towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide and can be used alone as flexible chemical sensors for potential...

  2. A glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue/chitosan hybrid film. (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gu, Haifang; Yin, Fan; Tu, Yifeng


    Based on electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and chitosan (CS) directly on gold electrode, a hybrid film of PB/CS has been prepared. PB in this film shows a good stability compared with pure PB film when it worked in neutral and weak alkalescent solution and can act as redox mediator. It provides the potential application of such film in biosensor fabrication. A glucose biosensor was fabricated by electrodepositing glucose oxidase (GOD)/CS film on this PB/CS modified electrode. The optimum experimental conditions of biosensor for the detection of glucose have been studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, a linear dependence of the catalytic current upon glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2x10(-6) to 4x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 3.97x10(-7)M. The resulting biosensor could be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment.

  3. Simultaneous identification of historical pigments Prussian blue and indigo in paintings by electrospray mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Papoušková, Barbora; Sulovský, Petr; Lemr, Karel


    A new analytical protocol for identification of Prussian blue (PB) and indigo was proposed. Pigments useful for dating of artworks were detected by flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after alkalization of their suspensions in water, decomposition of PB to iron (III) hydroxide and hexacyanoferrate (II) and reduction of indigo to soluble leucoindigo using sodium dithionite. Limits of detection (PB 47 pg, indigo 59 pg) complied with requirements for analysis of microsamples of historical paintings. Potential of the developed method was proven in analysis of blue samples of two oil paintings from the 20(th) century. Further, PB was confirmed in a microsample from a painting of 'Crucifixion', St. Sebestian church on St. Hill in Mikulov, Czech Republic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo


    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  5. Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Intercalated into Diamagnetic Mg–Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Zhang


    Full Text Available A heterostructure of diamagnetic magnesium‒aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg‒Al LDHs and photomag‐ netic cobalt‒iron Prussian Blue analogue (Co‒Fe PBA was designed, synthesized and then designated as LDH‒PB. The cyanide-bridged Co‒Fe PBA was two-dimensionally intercalated into the Mg‒Al LDH template by the stepwise anion exchange method. LDH‒PB showed ferrimagnetic properties with in-plane antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, as well as small photo-induced magnetization by visible light illumination due to the low dimensional structures and the characteristic photo-induced electronic states of the mixed valence of FeIII(low spin, S = 1/2‒CN‒ CoII(high spin, S = 3/2‒NC‒FeII (low spin, S = 0.

  6. Planar Amperometric Glucose Sensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Immobilized by Chitosan Film on Prussian Blue Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyou Chen


    Full Text Available A planar amperometric glucose microsensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized by chitosan film on Prussian Blue layer has been developed. The experimental results show that the optimum detection potential is 50 mV (versus Ag/AgCl and the optimum pH is 6.5. Under the selective conditions the sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity of 98 nA/M and a linear range of 0.1-6.0 mM. The apparent Michanelis-Menten constant of the sensor is 21 mM. The response time is less than 60 seconds. No apparent change in the response to glucose was observed during one month. Foremost, the interference of ascorbic and uric acids can be avoided due to selective permeability of chitosan film and electrocatalysis of PB layer to H2O2. The sensor has been applied to detect glucose in human blood serum.

  7. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina


    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  8. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles


    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe


    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentrati...

  9. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan


    The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs....... In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  10. A Postmodern Perspective on Current Curriculum Reform in China (United States)

    Jin, Yu-le; Li, Ling


    This article examines the curriculum reform of basic education in China from 2001 to 2008. We first discuss postmodern features of the social background in which the curriculum reform movement takes place: (1) the political ideal of innovation, open-endedness, and harmony; (2) the economic ideal of ecological, stable, and sustainable development;…

  11. The Oversoul of Reform: Horace Greeley and New England Transcendentalism. (United States)

    Whitby, Gary

    Entries in the New York "Tribune" suggest that editor Horace Greeley and his writing were part of New England transcendentalism. This was manifested in Greeley's interest in poetry, newspaper publishing, reform, and an overall practical social idealism. He was long associated with both literary figures and reform movements, and as a…

  12. Reforming Again: Now Teachers (United States)

    Marx, Ronald W.


    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  13. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio. (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M


    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Core-shell hybrid nanomaterial based on prussian blue and surface active maghemite nanoparticles as stable electrocatalyst. (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Salviulo, Gabriella; Polakova, Katerina; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Kaslik, Josef; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio


    A novel core-shell nanomaterial based on prussian blue (PB) coating on peculiar surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), was developed. The synthetic process involves the direct crystallization of Fe(II)(CN)6(4-) onto the surface of SAMNs by simple incubation in water at controlled pH, demonstrating the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) on nanoparticle surface. The coating reaction occurs in a narrow pH range and the synthetic procedure was optimized. The resulting SAMN@PB hybrid nanostructures were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Mössbauer, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The nanomaterial, characterized by high stability in alkaline media, behave as excellent electro-catalyst for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The stability of SAMN@PB hybrid has been investigated as a function of pH, showing excellent stability up to pH 9.0 and demonstrating the feasibility of SAMNs, superficially derivatized with prussian blue, to produce an efficient and extremely stable nanostructured material. This maghemite supported nanostructured prussian blue was applied to develop a sensor, based on a simple carbon paste electrode, which was able to catalyze the electro-reduction of hydrogen peroxide, in aqueous solutions, buffered at pH 7.0, at low applied potentials (0.0 V vs. SCE). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. China at the Crossroads: Reform after Tiananmen. (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven M.


    This publication analyzes the reform movement in China before and after the Tiananmen Square demonstrations of 1989. In the aftermath of the cold war and because of recent mutual hostility, U.S.-Chinese relations are at a critical juncture. The events leading up to and encompassing the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and the brutal manner in…

  16. Prussian Blue Analogue Mesoframes for Enhanced Aqueous Sodium-ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Sun


    Full Text Available Mesostructure engineering is a potential avenue towards the property control of coordination polymers in addition to the traditional structure design on an atomic/molecular scale. Mesoframes, as a class of mesostructures, have short diffusion pathways for guest species and thus can be an ideal platform for fast storage of guest ions. We report a synthesis of Prussian Blue analogue mesoframes by top-down etching of cubic crystals. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the surfaces of the cubic crystals were selectively removed by HCl, leaving the corners, edges, and the cores connected together. The mesoframes were used as a host for the reversible insertion of sodium ions with the help of electrochemistry. The electrochemical intercalation/de-intercalation of Na+ ions in the mesoframes was highly reversible even at a high rate (166.7 C, suggesting that the mesoframes could be a promising cathode material for aqueous sodium ion batteries with excellent rate performance and cycling stability.

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics. (United States)

    Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei


    A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy.

  18. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Radiocesium Decorporation by a Prussian Blue Treatment and Stockpiling. (United States)

    Rump, Alexis; Stricklin, Daniela; Lamkowski, Andreas; Eder, Stefan; Port, Matthias


    In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL). Treatment costs were based on the market price of PB in Germany. Moreover we considered the holding costs of stockpiling. The benefit of PB treatment increases with its duration up to about 90 days. If treatment initiation is delayed, the maximum achievable benefit is decreased. For a VSL of 1.646 million €, the net benefit of a 90-days treatment started 1 day after the incorporation remains positive up to a stockpiling duration of 10 years. If starting PB treatment as late as the 180th day after incorporation, the costs will surpass the benefit. We conclude that a prompt decision making and early treatment initiation greatly impacts on the medical but also economic efficiency of a PB treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Application of Prussian blue nanoparticles for the radioactive Cs decontamination in Fukushima region. (United States)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Yoshino, Kazunori; Funahashi, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Osada, Mitsuo; Kawamoto, Tohru


    Cs decontamination efficiencies of the composites of iron hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were investigated in comparison with commercial Prussian blue and natural zeolite. In pure water solution, the adsorption rate varied with sizes. In ash extract, where Cs adsorbing ability of zeolite was sharply dropped due to its poor selectivity, the impact of coexisting ions was negligible for FeHCF. FeHCF-n11, having the finest primary and secondary particle size, resulted the highest distribution coefficient, which was comparable to the high efficiency analogues, CoHCF or NiHCF. This observation suggested the possibility of preparing the high performance FeHCF by particle size and composition adjustment. FeHCF nanoparticle in bead form was tested for the removal of radioactive Cs in pilot scale. Due to larger secondary particle size, pronounced effect of solution temperature on the Cs adsorption kinetics on FeHCF bead was observed. Adjusting the mass of the adsorbent for the given solution temperature is recommended for achieving high decontamination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe


    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicating the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.

  1. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan


    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte


    the penal code of Mali. Anti-slavery activists not only address their claims to their national governments but also intend to initiate change at local level. In that respect the democratic decentralization reforms were significant because they allowed educated anti-slavery activists to appeal their brethren...... to unite, mobilize and struggle. Members of anti-slavery movements with slave origins accessed power positions through peaceful electoral processes in Benin, mali, Niger and Mauritania. People of slave origins gained ground in local politics of a number of municipalities. In localities where anti...

  3. Kristeva's Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver


    Full Text Available In my brief remarks, I consider what it means to return and rebind—that is to say, the significance of the re for Kristeva’s thought.  Kristeva does not just talk about binding or birth, or unbinding or death, but rather rebinding and rebirth, suggesting that it is a retrospective return rather than an original moment that is crucial.  The most significant moment, then, is not the moment of imaginary plenitude, nor the moment of originary loss, but rather the moment of rebirth that comes through rebinding after the loss of plenitude.  Indeed, Kristeva’s insistence on re-turning suggests that there is no originary moment of plenitude nor of castration or loss, but rather a constant movement of compensation for a recurrent loss.  By emphasizing rebinding and rebirth, she underscores not the loss as cutting wound but rather the healing power of signification, always already inherent within loss.  The flip-side of separation is reattachment.  And rather than just focus on the separation or cut, Kristeva looks to that which allows us to rebind and reattach in order to create relations that sustain us.  Both unbinding and binding are necessary for rebinding.  Thus, by focusing on rebinding, Kristeva insists on the process of unbinding and binding, and the oscillation between them.

  4. Anchors for Education Reforms (United States)

    Alok, Kumar


    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  5. Reforming Special Education. (United States)

    Fishkin, Anne S.; Sullivan, Michael

    This paper describes education reform as an integrated effort to modify not only the structure and elements of the education system but also the culture or belief structure of that system. Central to any discussion of school reform are the elements of restructuring, empowerment, and change. Current reform efforts in restructuring revolve around a…

  6. Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen. Zum vergessenen Beitrag der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohn- und Siedlungsreform im frühen 20. Jahrhundert Making the Invisible Visible—On a Forgotten Contribution to the Early German Women’s Movement: Housing Reform at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wucherpfennig


    Full Text Available Der Wohnungs- und Städtebau der Moderne gilt weitgehend als eine „Männerdomäne”. In ihrer Schrift Die Wohnungsfrage ist Frauensache! zeigen Ulla Terlinden und Susanna von Oertzen demgegenüber die vielfältigen und einflussreichen Beiträge der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohnungsreform des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts und zum Neuen Bauen auf.The building of apartments and cities in modernity is seen often as a “male domain.” In the text The Apartment Question is Women’s Work! (Die Wohungsfrage ist Frauensache!, Ulla Terlinden and Susanna von Oertzen present the multiple and influential contributions of the early German women’s movement to housing reform at the beginning of the twentieth century as well as to Neues Bauen, an architectural style of the 1920s.

  7. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode. (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining


    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  8. Prussian blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in humans and beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A


    Prussian blue was used to enhance the elimination of {sup 137}Cs from 46 individuals contaminated in an accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987. PB dosages administered to the victims varied from 1 to 3 g.d{sup -1} for children and from 3 to 10 g.d{sup -1} for adolescents and adults. To complement human data in the evaluation of the effectiveness of PB and its relation to age, a 41 day study was conducted using immature (4.7 months old), young adult (2.4 years old) and aged (13.5 years old) male beagle dogs. The mean biological half-times for the Goiania people under PB treatment were 24 {+-} 3 days, 30 {+-} 12 days and 25 {+-} 11 days, for children, adolescents and adults, respectively. The mean reductions of half-times were 43%, 46% and 69%, respectively. The effect of PB was shown to be independent of age and the administered dose. Similar results were found in dogs: the mean biological half-times related to the second component of the equation were 11, 15 and 13 days for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively, indicating a reduction of the clearance half-times of 45%, 45% and 63%. The experiment in dogs has shown that when the PB is administered immediately after caesium intake, its effectiveness is greater in immature than in aged dogs. The percentages of the initial body burden remaining 41 days after caesium intake were 4%, 12% and 8% for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively. This age-related effect correlates with the increased fraction of {sup 137}Cs eliminated with the fast clearance half-time, and was greater in immature than in aged dogs. (author)

  9.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  10. Prussian *Grubrius ‘god of spring and vegetation’ in perspective of the Italic pantheon 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Blažek


    Full Text Available The god originally called *Grubrius (or merely *Grubius, worshipped by Old Prussians in connection with vegetation, seems originally to bear a name of a specific tree species. The etymological analysis suggests a relation to the Slavic dendronym *grabъ & *grabrъ "hornbeam".The Latin and German chronicles recorded his name together with the prefix per / par "for" that was part of the name of the festival dedicated to this god. In the level of theonyms, the closest cognate appears in the Umbrian theonym *Grā̌bovius, serving as an epithet of three Umbrian gods, Vofionos, Mars, and especially Iove (Iuppiter, the thunder-god.

  11. The indonesia’s Police Reform Police in the Reform Era New Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.

  12. Bowel Movement (United States)

    ... passes through the large intestine too slowly. Bowel incontinence is a problem controlling your bowel movements. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  13. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.


    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  14. Critical Evaluation for Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Waters


    Full Text Available The school reform movement has done little to provide an accurate analysis of the production of inequality or the reproduction of social injustice in the public schools or the larger social order. The ideology that influences this movement has often prevented the realization of any notion of an egalitarian ideal, the elimination of inequality, or the improvement of those who are least well-off. I ask educators and evaluators of education reform efforts to reconsider critically their roles in social science research, to reclaim the battleground of public school reform by focusing on the democratic purpose of public schooling, and the institutional problems in educational programs and practice that often inhibit action toward this ideal. The first part of this article includes an extensive argument explaining the "why" of critical evaluation. The theoretical literature on inquiry in science and social science, the ideology of critical theory, critical social psychology, and Freirean pedagogy are consulted as additional tools for augmenting the practice, policies, and responsibilities of evaluators in education. I review three contemporary perspectives of evaluation in order to begin rethinking the purposes and functions that evaluation serves in education. It also demonstrates how mainstream and contemporary evaluations can be used to serve a particular set of social and political values. The second part of this article begins a preliminary journey toward describing the "how" of critical evaluation. Critical evaluators can fight for social justice by combining the merit criteria of state and federal public education law, and the methods of an adversary oriented evaluation in order to transform educational environments that serve the future potentials of all children. Therefore education involves the practice of freedom, the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the

  15. Making the Cut: Using Status-Based Countertactics to Block Social Movement Implementation and Microinstitutional Change in Surgery


    Kellogg, Katherine C.


    Much of the change that social movements try to accomplish requires changing practices inside organizations, yet reform implementation is difficult to achieve. This comparative case study of two hospitals demonstrates that implementing reform inside organizations may require internal reformers not only to mobilize with one another but also to stand up to internal defenders' countertactics in everyday encounters. Because reformer alliances across identity lines often require reformers with dif...

  16. Rhodium-Prussian Blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane Midori


    Full Text Available Prussian Blue was deposited at carbon paste electrode surface from a solution containing 2.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 K3[Fe(CN6], 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 FeCl3 and 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 HCl using two controlled potentials. To improve the stability of the modified electrode it was 50 times cycled in a solution containing 1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 RhCl3, 0.50 mol L-1 KCl and 0.010 mol L-1 HCl in the potential range from - 0.40 V to 0.60 V at 60 mV s-1. The Rh - Prussian Blue carbon paste modified electrode (Rh-PBMCPE showed good stability during amperometric catalytic determination of H2O2 at 0.040 V, without ascorbic and uric acids interferences. The current changed linearly with H2O2 concentrations in the range of 5.0 x 10-5 - 8.6 x 10-4 mol L-1. The estimated detection limit was 2.8 x 10-5 mol L-1 with sensibility changing from 1.32 to 0.96 A mol-1 L cm-2 along five days (180 determinations.

  17. "Japanese Fiscal Reform: Fiscal Reconstruction and Fiscal Policy"



    This paper evaluates the recent movement of Japanese fiscal reform. We first summarize fiscal policy in 1990s. Then, we investigate several relevant topics of fiscal policy such as the macroeconomic impact of government debt and the ustainability problem. We then consider dynamic properties of fiscal reconstruction process by analyzing the dynamic game among various interest groups. This paper points out that the long-run structural reform is more important than the short-run Keynesian policy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ignatovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of economy reformation on process of its modernization and possibilities of movement to postindustrial society in Ukraine. The features of western economy modernization and distinctions of economy transformations factors and motivations are considered in Ukrainian and Western economies. The necessity of Ukrainian economy neoindustrialization is shown. Causes of economic reforms negative results in Ukraine are analyzed, conditions of its removal are defined.

  19. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  20. [Stereotypic movements]. (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  1. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie


    , the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public...... and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina


    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  3. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu


    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  4. In Situ Growth of Prussian Blue Nanostructures at Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Modified Platinum Electrode for Synergistic Methanol Oxidation. (United States)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Kang, Inhak; Kim, Kyuwon


    Herein, we report a facile synthetic strategy for the in situ growth of Prussian blue nanostructures (PB NSs) at the amine-functionalized silicate sol-gel matrix (TPDT)-RGO composite via the electrostatic interaction. Subsequently, Pt nanostructures are electrodeposited onto the preformed ITO/TPDT-RGO-PB electrode to prepare the RGO/PB/Pt catalyst. The significance of the present method is that the PB NSs are in situ grown by interconnecting the RGO layers, leading to 3D cage-like porous nanostructure. The modified electrodes are characterized by FESEM, EDAX, XRD, XPS, and electrochemical techniques. The RGO/PB/Pt catalyst exhibits synergistic electrocatalytic activity and high stability toward methanol oxidation. The porous nature of the TPDT and PB and unique electron-transfer mediating behavior of PB integrated with RGO in the presence of Pt nanostructures facilitated synergistic electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  5. Eduard Hitzig's experiences in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): the case of Joseph Masseau. (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J


    It is well known that Fritsch and Hitzig published the results of their experiments on cortical stimulation in 1870, the year in which the Franco-Prussian War (FPW) broke out. Several tall stories are found about Hitzig's role in the FPW; stories that have not been well documented. During this war, he worked at the military hospital in Nancy, where he was allowed to admit to his ward soldiers with head wounds. He made a close observation of the 20-year-old French soldier Joseph Masseau, who suffered from a right-sided cerebral abscess following a gunshot wound sustained during the Loire campaign on December 10, 1870 and was looked after in the military hospital of Nancy in January and February 1871. Hitzig related the clinical and autopsy observations to his recent experimental findings. A translation into English of part of the case report is provided.

  6. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  7. Prussian blue nanocubes: multi-functional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Cook, Jason R.; Dumani, Diego S.; Kubelick, Kelsey P.; Luci, Jeffrey; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.


    Imaging modalities utilize contrast agents to improve morphological visualization and to assess functional and molecular/cellular information. Here we present a new type of nanometer scale multi-functional particle that can be used for multi-modal imaging and therapeutic applications. Specifically, we synthesized monodisperse 20 nm Prussian Blue Nanocubes (PBNCs) with desired optical absorption in the near-infrared region and superparamagnetic properties. PBNCs showed excellent contrast in photoacoustic (700 nm wavelength) and MR (3T) imaging. Furthermore, photostability was assessed by exposing the PBNCs to nearly 1,000 laser pulses (5 ns pulse width) with up to 30 mJ/cm2 laser fluences. The PBNCs exhibited insignificant changes in photoacoustic signal, demonstrating enhanced robustness compared to the commonly used gold nanorods (substantial photodegradation with fluences greater than 5 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the PBNCs exhibited superparamagnetism with a magnetic saturation of 105 emu/g, a 5x improvement over superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. PBNCs exhibited enhanced T2 contrast measured using 3T clinical MRI. Because of the excellent optical absorption and magnetism, PBNCs have potential uses in other imaging modalities including optical tomography, microscopy, magneto-motive OCT/ultrasound, etc. In addition to multi-modal imaging, the PBNCs are multi-functional and, for example, can be used to enhance magnetic delivery and as therapeutic agents. Our initial studies show that stem cells can be labeled with PBNCs to perform image-guided magnetic delivery. Overall, PBNCs can act as imaging/therapeutic agents in diverse applications including cancer, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmology, and tissue engineering. Furthermore, PBNCs are based on FDA approved Prussian Blue thus potentially easing clinical translation of PBNCs.

  8. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  9. Catalytic reforming methods (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes


    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  10. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.


    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  11. State marionettes, phantom organisations or genuine movements? : The paradoxical emergence of rural social movements in post-socialist Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); O. Visser (Oane)


    textabstractOf all the rural social movements in the world, those in post-socialist Russia have been considered to be among the weakest. Nevertheless, triggered by the neo-liberal reforms in the countryside, state attention to agriculture and rising land conflicts, new social movement organisations

  12. Understanding reform in Latin America


    Alvaro Forteza; Mario Tommasi


    This paper provides an overview of the pro-market reform process in eight Latin American countries, based on country studies undertaken within the Understanding Reform project of the Global Development Network. After a brief presentation of the reform in Latin America and in the eight countries in the project, the paper addresses some key themes on the political economy of reform. We review the initial conditions of reform; the role played by technocrats and stakeholders; political participat...

  13. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam


    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  14. Reform, Resistance, . . . Retreat? The Predictable Politics of Accountability in Virginia (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.


    In the 1990s, Virginia launched one of the nation's most ambitious standards-based reform efforts. Encouraged by a budding national accountability movement and motivated by conservative distrust of the public school establishment, state officials sought to clarify what students needed to know and to hold students and educators accountable for…

  15. Selective transport of ions and molecules across layer-by-layer assembled membranes of polyelectrolytes, p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes and Prussian Blue-type complex salts. (United States)

    Tieke, Bernd; Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin


    Our recent studies in the field of ultrathin membranes prepared upon layer-by-layer assembly of various polyionic compounds such as polyelectrolytes, calixarenes and polyelectrolytes, and metal hexacyanoferrate salts such as Prussian Blue are reviewed. It is demonstrated that polyelectrolyte multilayers can be used (a) as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes suitable for water softening and seawater desalination and (b) as molecular sieves and ion sieves for size-selective separation of neutral and charged aromatic compounds. Furthermore, hybrid membranes of p-sulfonato-calixarenes and cationic polyelectrolytes showing specific host-guest interactions with permeating ions are described. The membranes exhibit high selectivities for distinct metal ions. Finally, it is demonstrated that purely inorganic membranes of Prussian Blue (PB) and analogues can be prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of transition metal cations and hexacyanoferrate anions. Due to the porous lattice of PB, the membranes are useful as ion filters able to separate cesium from sodium ions, for example.

  16. One-pot green synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes decorated reduced graphene oxide using mushroom extract for efficient 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ruixue; Zhang, Qiuping; Gu, Yue; Tang, Liu; Li, Cong; Zhang, Zhiquan


    Highlights: • Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide was synthesized by mushroom extract. • This methodology avoids toxic reagents. • Detects 4-nitrophenol with low detection. - Abstract: One-pot green approach to the synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/RGO) nanocomposite had been attempted. It was based on the extract of mushroom with K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] and graphene oxide (GO) as precursors, where the reduction of GO and the deposition of PBNCs occurred simultaneously. The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. With the introduction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), the β-CD/PBNCs/RGO system showed linear behavior in the range from 0.01 to 700 μM for 4-nitrophenol with a low detection limit of 2.34 nM (S/N = 3)

  17. Chemical consequences of the nuclear reactions 58Fe(n,γ)59Fe and 57Co(EC)57Fe in soluble Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jes; Maddock, A. G.; Siekierska, K. E.


    KFe[Fe(CN)6],H2O was prepared with 58Fe in either the cation or the complex, and both samples were neutron-irradiated and analysed for free and complexed 59Fe. Parallel experiments were performed on K4[Fe(CN)6],3H2O. In Prussian Blue the retention in the hexacyano-complex is ca. 5% and can be inc...

  18. The Translation and Sedimentation of Accounting Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate

    Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant and progressive movement away from the traditional Public Administration (PA) systems, in favour of NPM-type accounting tools and ideas inspired by the private sector. More recently, a new focus on governance systems, under the banner Public...... with different administrative regimes (the UK, Italy and Austria), we examine public sector accounting and budgeting reforms and the underlying discourses put forward in order to support the change. We investigate the extent to which the actual content of the reforms and the discourses they are embedded within...... are decided gradually, and only after they have been announced well in advance in the political debate. We find that in all three countries the new ideas and concepts layer and sediment above the existing ones, rather than replace them. Although all three countries underwent similar accounting and budgeting...

  19. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  20. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: From synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Barré, Y. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Vincent, T. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Taulemesse, J.-M. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Center des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Robitzer, M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt – UMR5253, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, ICGM-MACS-R2M2, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, F-34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Guibal, E., E-mail: [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France)


    Highlights: • Prussian blue microparticles incorporated in chitin sponges. • Efficient Cs(I) sorption after water absorption by dry hybrid sponge. • Water draining after sorption for metal confinement and water decontamination. • High decontamination factors and distribution coefficients for Cs(I) and {sup 137}Cs(I). • Effect of freezing conditions on porous structure and textural characterization. - Abstract: Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zgurschi


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations of Folpan 80 WDG (30x10-5g Folpan 80 WDG /l water, 6x10-4g Folpan 80WDG /l water and 1‰ thiourea on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency on prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch 1782. The subacute and acute toxicity of Folpan 80 WDG fungicide and thiourea was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. Folpan 80 WDG produced, in all organized experimental variants a decrease in respiratory frequency and consumption of oxygen in the case of prussian carp, the more powerful the higher the concentration of the toxic was. Prussian carp anemia could be due to hypoxia that was induced by injuring the gills, as the red-pink colour of the gills became red-white, and at high concentrations the gills completely lost their red colour, while abundant secretions of mucus and even mucosal detachment with abundant bleeding could be observed. The antitoxic action of thiourea manifests itself by the fact that Folpan 80WDG are blocked by SH- groupings isothiourea, the mixture between Folpan 80WDG and thiourea produced no significant changes on the parameters physiological.

  2. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia


    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  3. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  4. Health care reforms. (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina


    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  5. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan


    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  6. Rorty the Reformer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Cormier


    Full Text Available Rorty should be read as a reformer, rather than a revolutionary transformer. While the reformer aims to improve what is already good, the revolutionary transformer seeks to dispense with the merely good in a quest for the absolutely best. For Rorty this choice was a bad choice. In order to make the case that Rorty was a reformer,we explicate Rorty’s views on truth. These views argue that we can obtain consensus about what is worth preserving and improving without reference to either rightness, truth, or objectivity. For after all, there is no way for philosophers to get outside the circle of language within which we debate about what we take to be authoritative and aceptable.

  7. Post-Reformation Reformed sources and children | Neele | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... education and parenting of children. This interest not only continued, but intensified during the sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation when much thought was given to the subject matter. This article attempts to appraise the aim of post-Reformation Reformed sources on the topic “children.” HTS Theological Studies Vol.

  8. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft


    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  9. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  10. Transfers, Taxes, and Welfare Reform


    Haveman, Robert; Scolex, John Karl


    Discusses the need inability of past administrations to pass any welfare reform and gives an overview of an antipoverty policy. Shows that the poverty problem goes beyond tax reform and includes education, crime and violence.

  11. Education under the Heel of Caesar: Reading UK Higher Education Reform through Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" (United States)

    Ward, Sophie


    UK higher education reform (BIS, ) has been presented as a common-sense movement towards efficiency. This article will argue that, in reality, the marketisation of higher education is a movement towards negative freedom, defined after Berlin (2007) as unrestricted choice. Using Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" as a means to explore…

  12. Teachers' Views on an ICT Reform in Education for Social Justice (United States)

    Tarman, Bülent; Baytak, Ahmet; Duman, Harun


    FATIH project (Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology) is an information and communication technologies (ICT) project to promote social justice for all schools in Turkey. The educational movements and reforms in Turkish Educational System (TES) are not new but this project has a purpose to integrate the newest technologies…

  13. Amperometric immunosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue/nanogold-modified electrode for determination of α-fetoprotein. (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yin, Bing


    In this article, a conspicuously simple and highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor based on the sequential electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface is proposed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). By comparison with PB, the MWCNT/PB composite film had been proven to show much better electrochemical stability and a larger response current. The electrodeposited GNP film can be used not only to immobilize biomolecules but also to avoid the leakage of PB and to prevent shedding of MWCNT/PB composite film from the electrode surface. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor for AFP was observed with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) equal to 3 pg/ml (at 3δ), and the linear working range spanned the concentrations of AFP from 0.01 to 300 ng/ml. Moreover, the immunosensor, as well as a commercially available kit, was examined for use in the determination of AFP in real human serum specimens. More significant, the assay mentioned here is simpler than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an excellent correlation of levels of AFP measured was obtained, indicating that the developed immunoassay could be a promising alternative approach for detection of AFP and other tumor markers in the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma


    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  15. Glucose biosensor based on three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue bicomponent film. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Tian, Rong; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng


    In this paper, a three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue (3DOM SPAN/PB) bicomponent film was fabricated via the inverted crystal template technique using step-by-step electrodeposition. In this bicomponent film, PB not only acted as a redox mediator, but also presented increased stability in neutral or weak alkaline solution by the protection of SPAN layer on the top. A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated based on the large active surface area and excellent conductivity possessed by the 3DOM SPAN/PB film. The applying experimental conditions of the glucose biosensor have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a wide linear range over three orders of magnitude in glucose concentrations (from 2 to 1600 μM) and a low detection limit of 0.4 μM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited short response time, high selectivity and excellent operation stability, which can be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Impact of EDTA Chelating Effect on some Macro- and Microminerals in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Chelators are used in chemical analysis, in medical aplications, as water softeners, as decontamination agents on radioactive surfaces and they are ingredients in many commercial products such as shampoos and food preservatives. Such a synthetic chelator is EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is considered one of the tools that promises to control the heavy metal pollution in aquaculture. EDTA attaches itself to heavy metals and carries the metals from the fish body. EDTA can also slow free-radical activity produced by heavy metals in the body. Because its ability to sequester metal ions, we tried to estimate the potential risks of a chronic exposure to EDTA on tissue mobilization of some metals which have an essential role in realization of different cell functions in Prussian carp specimens. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. Mn and Cu, were the mineral elements we have targeted in this study. It was found that these minerals have a trend of their tissues distribution and concentration in the body of the control specimens (higher or lower related to other similar works and EDTA presence in water led to a significant decreasing of their level in all tissues analyzed in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. In-situ secondary growth of nanocube-based Prussian-blue film as an ultrasensitive biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available A regular nanostructure has been widely confirmed to result ina marked improvement in material performance in biosensing applications. In the present study, a regular nanostructured Prussian blue (PB film with two heterogeneous crystal layers was synthesized in-situ using a secondary growth method. A PB seed layer was first controlled to form uniform cube-like crystal nuclei through an ultrasonic reaction with a single reactant. Then, well-defined 100 nm PB nanocubes were further crystallized on this seed layer using a self-assembly approach. In order to accelerate the electron transfer rate during the enzyme reaction for glucose detection, the graphene was used as the main cross-linker to immobilize glucose oxidase on the PB film. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited high electrocatalysis and electron conductivity for the detection of trace glucose with a sensitivity of 141.5 μA mM−1 cm−2, as well as excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid under a low operation potential of −0.05 V.

  18. Spontaneous Deposition of Prussian Blue on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Application in an Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Keung Shiu


    Full Text Available A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT materials. Formation of PB deposits was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. The surface morphology of the PB particles deposited on the substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CNT/PB composite modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited an electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide reduction. These modified electrodes exhibited a high sensitivity for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, probably due to the synergistic effect of CNT with PB. Then, CNT/PB modified electrodes were further developed as amperometric glucose biosensors. These biosensors offered a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.1 to 0.9 mM with good selectivity, high sensitivity of 0.102 A M−1 cm−2 and short response time (within 2 s at a negative operation potential of −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  19. Electrochemical immunosensor based on hydrophilic polydopamine-coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon for the rapid screening of 3-bromobiphenyl. (United States)

    Sun, Zihong; Luo, Zhigang; Gan, Cuifen; Fei, Shidong; Liu, Yingju; Lei, Hongtao


    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for 3-bromobiphenyl (3-BBP) detection was constructed by employing a new polydopamine coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon (PDOP/PB/CMK-3) nanocomposite as the substrate platform and multi-horseradish peroxidase-double helix carbon nanotubes-secondary antibody (multi-HRP-DHCNTs-Ab2) as the signal label. PB/CMK-3 was firstly successfully in-situ synthesized with the aid of the CMK-3 reduction, which was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. By using PDOP/PB/CMK-3 as the substrate, it can effectively enhance the specific surface for antigen loading due to the three-dimensional structure of the nanocomposites, while large amount of PB that fixed inside or outside the pore of CMK-3 successfully improved the electrochemical response and the PDOP film can provide a biocompatible environment to maintain the activity of antigen availability. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor shows a good current response to 3-BBP in a linear range from 5 pM to 2 nM with a detection limit of 2.25 pM. In addition, the specificity, reproducibility and stability of the immunosensor were also proved to be acceptable, indicating its potential application in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flow injection amperometric determination of persulfate in cosmetic products using a Prussian Blue film-modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R. Stradiotto


    Full Text Available A flow-injection system with a glassy carbon disk electrode modified with Prussian Blue film is proposed for the determination of persulfate in commercial samples of hair bleaching boosters by amperometry. The detection was obtained by chronoamperometric technique and the sample is injected into the electrochemical cell in a wall jet configuration. Potassium chloride at concentration of 0.1 mol L-1 acted as sample carrier at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min-1 and supporting-electrolyte. For 0.025 V (vs. Ag/AgCl applied voltage, the proposed system handles ca. 160 samples per hour (1.0 10-4 - 1.0 10-3 mol L-1 of persulfate, consuming about 200 μL sample and 11 mg KCl per determination. Typical linear correlations between electrocatalytic current and persulfate concentration was ca. 0.9998. The detection limit is 9.0 10-5 mol L-1 and the calculated amperometric sensibility 3.6 103 μA L mol-1. Relative standard deviation (n =12 of a 1.0 10-4 mol L-1 sample is about 2.2%. The method was applied to persulfate determination in commercial hair-bleaching samples and results are in agreement with those obtained by titrimetry at 95% confidence level and good recoveries (95 - 112% of spiked samples were found.

  1. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White. (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong


    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  2. Unseen Political Spaces: Gender and Nationhood in the Berlin and Paris Fashion Press during the Franco-Prussian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Looft


    Full Text Available The fashion press, and women’s magazines in general, are presumed to be spaces of political neutrality preoccupied with the trivialities of domesticity. Yet it is these very spaces that more easily evade political scrutiny that are often most powerful in reaching a broad audience on matters of politics and social change. This article explores how two Berlin and Paris fashion periodicals participated in the international dialogue on gender, nation-building, patriotism, and consumerism during a critical time between these two nations, namely during the Franco-Prussian war (July 1870 - May1871. A look at images and texts published in the Berlin-based Der Bazar and the Paris-based La Mode Illustrée during this critical time period in their shared history reveals how the fashion press contributed in complex and meaningful ways to an evolving understanding of Self, nationhood, gender, and the public versus private in nineteenth-century Europe.

  3. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania. (United States)

    Whitehead, Joan


    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  4. Prospects for Health Care Reform. (United States)

    Kastner, Theodore


    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  5. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick


    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  6. Curriculum Reform in Romania. (United States)

    Crisan, Alexandru

    This document defines curriculum reform in Romania as the elaboration and progressive setting up of a new educational paradigm unaltered by the outlooks and consequences of the Communist era. Although the strategic and technical aspects of implementing the new reality are still at the stage of advanced working hypotheses, the essential objective…

  7. Teenagers and Welfare Reform. (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  8. Reforming Underperforming High Schools (United States)

    MDRC, 2013


    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  9. Accomplishing Districtwide Reform (United States)

    Sharratt, Lyn; Fullan, Michael


    This is a mystery story. It is about a district that apparently did the right things but seemed not to get commensurate results across all classrooms and schools. In this article, we look closely at the details and discover an important lesson about districtwide reform. The district is York Region District School Board, which is a large…

  10. Defense Spending and Reform (United States)


    Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION military spending is China with 7 percent, and United Kingdom comes in a distant third with 4 percent (see Table 2).8 Table 1 Adjusted

  11. Sex and School Reform. (United States)

    Cuban, Larry


    Predicts that reformers will not attack sex education as an inappropriate addition to otherwise rigorous academic programs. Examines (1) some of the political, social, and practical reasons behind this avoidance and (2) the ineffectiveness of existing programs in preventing teenage pregnancies. Suggests that sex education programs may even hinder…

  12. Need for Electoral Reform

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Need for Electoral Reform . Botswana. 'Mph0 G. Molomo *. Abstract. Botswana has been operating a First—Past-The-Post (FPTP) electoral system since her independence from Britain in 1965. Unlike other African countries, this system has not led to electoral violence or, political instability. The system is not without its ...

  13. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  14. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the Banks and Other Financial. Institutions Act of (BOFIA)1 1991 as amended, the CBN anchored the banking sector reform on a 13-point agenda involving (CBN, 2005: 16). Minimum bank capital base of N25 billion that must be met on or before 31st December, 2005: ♢. Consolidation through mergers and acquisition,.

  15. The Reform Game. (United States)

    Whitlock, Kelli


    A 3-year study of welfare reform in Ohio's 29 Appalachian counties surveyed human services agencies, county commissioners, poor families, and employers and found that rural barriers to employment included lack of jobs, lack of child care, poor health, lack of education and job skills, and transportation problems. Many former welfare recipients…

  16. The Changing Modes of Administrative Reform in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghee HAN


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the past two decades of administrative reform in South Korea and argue that the dominant models and theories in the fi eld, i.e., New Public Management (NPM, post-NPM, and traditional public administration have been in a state of fusion in implementing measures without a coherent reform model. We observe that the reform movements can neither challenge nor undermine the traditional bureaucracy and maintain that they are the result of a complex mix of both environmental events and contextual factors. We specifi cally examine the co ncrete change and development of administrative reform during the Kim Dae Jung (1998- 2003, Roh Moo Hyun (2003-2008, and Lee Myung Bak (2008-2013 administrations in South Korea. Among the cases being considered are the restructuring of government ministries, the executive agency system, and rationalization of public enterprises, as well as such performance management schemes as the evaluation system for government departments and the Open Position System. We conclude that the developmental state and the hierarchical bureaucracy are still salient in South Korea’s inconsistent administrative reform since the 1990s and that it is crucial to design a prudent reform strategy to achieve a more effective public sector.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Daniela Bosch Alessio


    Full Text Available This article analyzes Liborio Justo’s interpretations about the Latin American University Reform Movement during the period of 1920-1938, in order to demonstrate that his analyses show a transformation of his theoretical-ideological position. While his first analysis were based on the latinamericanist postulates of the New Generation movement, in 1938 Justo published the first Trotskyist interpretation of the University Reform movement, which shows how the petit bourgeois character of the process ended its progressive phase.

  18. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar


    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  19. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter


    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  20. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  1. Political Science, Political Scientists, and the Baccalaureate Reform Movement. (United States)

    Colarulli, Guy C.; D'Lugin, Victor F.

    This article reviews the Association of American Colleges' (AAC) report titled "Integrity in the College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community" in terms of its relevance to political science instruction at the undergraduate level. The report examines two issues: (1) political science as a core component of a general education curriculum;…

  2. The Political Science Major and the Baccalaureate Reform Movement: I. (United States)

    Colarulli, Guy C.; D'Lugin, Victor F.


    Reviews the Association of American Colleges (AAC) report, "Integrity in the College Curriculum," a comprehensive look at the role of the undergraduate major in political science. The place of political science in the core curriculum is also examined. (Author/BSR)

  3. Global Education Reform Movement: Challenge to Nordic Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ringsmose


    Full Text Available The international comparison and competitive focus on (academic performance, together with the growing awareness that early years impact children’s learning and development in education as well as over a lifetime, has resulted in heightened political interest in the learning of the youngest children. Politicians take action to achieve what they assume to be most effective approach, resulting in more centralized control, and more structured learning approaches introduced to children at still younger ages (Brogaard-Clausen, 2015: Brehony, 2000: Moss, 2013. In the Nordic countries1 there is a general concern for early years and the challenges facing early childhood education and care in an era of increasing globalization, with focus on accountability and academic competition (Ringsmose, Kragh-Müller, 2017. In Denmark, the social pedagogical tradition has been part of the culture of early childhood education for decades. In the social pedagogical tradition, relationships, play, and children’s influence are considered of key importance, and as the child’s natural way to learn about, and make sense of the world. It is considered that children learn and explore through play and participation embedded in the culture. Recently, the ministry of education has discussed more focused learning plans, and has tried out a program with more structured learning approaches. The gradual changes, together with the possible political action, are changes seriously threatening the social pedagogical tradition with more school-like, and more structured ways for children to interact. The purpose of this article is to present the Danish example as an alternative to the schoolification of early years that we see in many countries.

  4. States, Movements and the New Politics of Blackness in Colombia and Brazil


    Paschel, Tianna Shonta


    The 1990s marked a dramatic shift throughout Latin America from constitutions and state policies that hinged on ideas of colorblindness and mestizaje to targeted policies for black and indigenous peoples. This study analyzes the role black social movements played in this shift in Colombia and Brazil, two countries where the state adopted the most comprehensive reforms for black populations in the region. It also analyzes the impact of achieving such reforms on black movements' trajectories in...

  5. Occupy's predicament: the moment and the prospects for the movement. (United States)

    Gitlin, Todd


    Occupy Wall Street has stalled in its attempt to make a transition from a moment to a movement. It had a sizable impact upon the presidential election, driving America's political centre of gravity toward the left, but has been unable or unwilling to evolve beyond its original core into a 'full-service movement' that welcomes contributions from a wide range of activists at varying levels of commitment and skill and plausibly campaigns for substantial reforms. In contrast to earlier American social movements of the twentieth century, the Occupy movement began with a large popular base of support. Propped up by that support, its 'inner movement' of core activists with strong anarchist and 'horizontalist' beliefs transformed the political environment even as they disdained formal reform demands and conducted decisions in a demanding, fully participatory manner. But the core was deeply suspicious of the 'cooptive' and 'hierarchical' tendencies of the unions and membership organizations - the 'outer movement' - whose supporters made up the bulk of the participants who turned out for Occupy's large demonstrations. The 'inner movement's' awkward fit with that 'outer movement' blocked transformation into an enduring structure capable of winning substantial reforms over time. When the encampments were dispersed by governmental authorities, the core lost its ability to convert electronic communications into the energy and community that derive from face-to-face contact. The outlook for the effectiveness of the movement is decidedly limited unless an alliance of disparate groups develops to press for reforms within the political system. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  6. Metal-to-metal electron transfer and magnetic interactions in a mixed-valence Prussian Blue analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail:; Saha, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Koner, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ksenofontov, V. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Reiman, S. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Guetlich, P. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail:


    In search of a new Prussian Blue analogue exhibiting fascinating magnetic properties, potassium manganese hexacyanoferrate, K{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.66}{sup II}Mn{sub 1.44}{sup III}[Fe{sub 0.2}{sup II}Fe{sub 0.8}{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]O{sub 0.6}= {sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 1.32}], 7.6H{sub 2}O, has been synthesized. This compound undergoes a paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition at 10K. Temperature and magnetic field-dependent magnetization studies of this compound have revealed different spin alignments below and above 3K. The nature of possible magnetic interactions between the nearest neighbor magnetic centers has been discussed in order to explore the origin of the observed magnetic interactions. Moessbauer spectroscopic study at different temperatures demonstrates the presence of both Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} in low-spin states in this compound. Quantitative analysis of the Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} ions, and their temperature dependence exhibits the existence of an electron transfer phenomenon between Mn and Fe ions [Fe{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 5}, S=1/2)-CN-Mn{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 2}, S=5/2)]-bar [Fe{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 6}, S=0)-CN-Mn{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 1}, S=2)]. This electron transfer has been remarkably enhanced in the magnetically ordered region.

  7. Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini


    Full Text Available Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition. The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system.

  8. Prussian *Grubrius ‘god of spring and vegetation’ in perspective of the Italic pantheon


    Václav Blažek; Marta Eva Běťáková


    The god originally called *Grubrius (or merely *Grubius), worshipped by Old Prussians in connection with vegetation, seems originally to bear a name of a specific tree species. The etymological analysis suggests a relation to the Slavic dendronym *grabъ & *grabrъ "hornbeam".The Latin and German chronicles recorded his name together with the prefix per / par "for" that was part of the name of the festival dedicated to this god. In the level of theonyms, the closest cognate appears in the U...

  9. Surfactant-assisted fabrication of 3D Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel as a self-propelling motor for water treatment (United States)

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Tang, Jilin


    Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an ideal candidate for water treatment.Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an

  10. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging. (United States)

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D


    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K(0.94)Gd(0.02)Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Long-range interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis of molecular scale Prussian Blue nanoparticles linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces by different chemical contacting groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin


    We have explored interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of 5–6 nm Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immobilized on Au(111)-electrode surfaces via molecular wiring with variable-length, and differently functionalized thiol-based self-assembled molecular monolayers...... forming linker molecules. The interfacial ET rate constants were found to depend exponentially on the ET distance for distances longer than a few methylene groups in the chain, with decay factors (β) of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 per CH2, for SAMs terminated by −NH3+,–COO–, and–CH3, respectively. This feature...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sharamok


    Full Text Available Purpose. To detect the effect of elevated copper ion concentrations (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits on morphological and cytometric parameters of erythrocytes of age-2 Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 in experimental and natural conditions. Methodology. During the work, summarized results of studies performed in 2015-2016 were used. Morphological and cytometric parameters of Prussian carp erythrocytes were determined in the conditions of natural habitats (Zaporizhzhia reservoir and an experiment. Copper ion concentration both in the experiment and natural conditions was similar and was 0.01 mg/L (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits. Experimental studies were performed during 21 days. In the control aquarium, fish were kept in the settled tap water; while in the experimental aquaria, intoxication of fish with copper ions was modelled by introducing CuSO4 in water. Blood smears were examined under 40x and 100 x magnifications with the use of microphotography (digital camera Sciencelab T500 5.17 M. Findings. The performed hematological studies showed that under the conditions of experimental chronic intoxication with copper ions (0.01 mg/L, age-2 Prussian carp had an increase in the share of immature forms of erythrocytes, increase in the number of erythrocytes with pathological signs (cell wall destruction, atypical forms, increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ration, but the difference in cytometric parameters of erythrocytes between experimental and control fish was not significant. When comparing the morphometric parameters of erythrocytes of fish kept in experimental and natural conditions with similar copper ion concentrations (0.01 mg/L, a significant increase in the nucleus areas of mature erythrocytes was detected and, correspondingly, an increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of erythrocytes (by almost 30% in fish in experimental conditions compared to fish, which lived in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir. An increase

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael


    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  14. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...... (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs...

  15. Methanol partial oxidation reformer (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.


    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  16. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho


    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  17. 350 Years Reformed in South Africa: The contribution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan


    Full Text Available This paper traces the development in terms of its heritage and legacy of a Reformed Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa, from its beginnings in the Scottish Mission, to the present. It notes the oppressive role of missionary dominated Mission Councils throughout most of its history as well as the formative events of the formation of the PCSA and the Mzimba Secession. This led to the establishment of an independent, albeit not autonomous church in 1923. The RPCSA had a proud record of participation in the ecumenical movement and in socio-political issues, in particular in education.

  18. Movement disorders. (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J


    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Security Sector Reform in Albania


    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert


    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  20. She Wears the Pants: The Reform Dress as Technology in Nineteenth-Century America. (United States)

    Mas, Catherine

    This article examines the American dress-reform movement, detailing the ways in which reformers conceptualized clothing as a social and bodily technology. In the mid-nineteenth century, women began making and wearing the "reform dress"-a costume consisting of pants and shortened, lightweight skirts-as an alternative to burdensome feminine fashions. When ridiculed in public for wearing overtly masculine garments, dress reformers insisted their clothing was healthful, functional, and natural. This article discusses women's use of medical science and technical knowledge in their rejection of fashion, promotion of sexual equality, and efforts to change mainstream clothing practices. When approached from a technological perspective, the reform dress reveals broader tensions in an industrializing American society, such as changing gender relations and new understandings of the relationship between humans and technology.

  1. Civil Service Reform in The Philippines: Building Strong Governance


    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto


    The connection between administrative reform and civil society, was an issue on the agenda of the New Public Management (NPM) in the 1960's and 1970's. While reinventing government movement has stimulated both interest in and criticism of the impact on civil society of public sector entrepreneurship. Modernizing the civil service starts by \\bringing the citizens in". Therefore, a strong and sincere leadership in government's bureaucracy is needed. In the other words, building a strong and dem...

  2. Anyone for Social Security Reform?


    Sen, Partha


    A reform of a pay-as-you-go social security makes the pensioners worse off and the working generations better off in the period of the reform (in a dynamically efficient economy without altruism). The observed reluctance across all age groups to support such reforms is usually explained by the insurance properties of these schemes. I propose an alternative in a two sector setting. Since the old consume labor-intensive goods like healthcare etc., the reform causes labor demand to fall and redu...

  3. A resettable and reprogrammable biomolecular keypad lock with dual outputs based on glucose oxidase-Au nanoclusters-Prussian blue nanocomposite films on an electrode surface. (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Li, Menglu; Li, Tianrui; Zhou, Shuo; Liu, Hongyun


    In this work, electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) films were electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and a dispersion mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD), chitosan (CS) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) was then cast on the PB surface to form CS-AuNC-GOD/PB nanocomposite film electrodes. The blue PB component in the films could be changed into its colourless reduced form of Prussian white (PW) upon application of -0.2 V. The addition of glucose to the solution would produce H2O2 with the help of GOD in the films and oxygen in the solution, which could oxidize PW back to PB. In the meantime, the fluorescence emission signal of the AuNCs in the films was greatly influenced by the form of PB/PW. Based on these properties, the amperometric current, fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance of the film electrodes demonstrated potential- and glucose-sensitive ON-OFF behaviors. Thus, a 2-input/3-output biomolecular logic gate system with 3 different types of output signals and a 2-to-1 encoder were developed. Furthermore, a resettable and reprogrammable 3-input biomolecular keypad lock was established with fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance as dual outputs, which greatly enhanced the security level of the keypad lock. This work reported for the first time an enzyme-based keypad lock with dual outputs, which might open a new avenue to design more complicated biomolecular keypad lock systems.

  4. Radiation damages during synchrotron X-ray micro-analyses of Prussian blue and zinc white historic paintings: detection, mitigation and integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, Claire [Bern University of the Arts, Bern (Switzerland); Thoury, Mathieu [IPANEMA, USR 3461 CNRS/MCC, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Reguer, Solenn; Gueriau, Pierre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mass, Jennifer [Winterthur Museum and Country Estate, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)


    High-flux synchrotron techniques allow microspectroscopic analyses of artworks that were not feasible even a few years ago, allowing for a more detailed characterization of their constituent materials and a better understanding of their chemistry. However, interaction between high-flux photons and matter at the sub-microscale can generate damages which are not visually detectable. We show here different methodologies allowing to evidence the damages induced by microscopic X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy analysis (μXANES) at the Fe and Zn K-edges of a painting dating from the turn of the twentieth century containing Prussian blue and zinc white. No significant degradation of the pigments was noticed, in agreement with the excellent condition of the painting. However, synchrotron radiation damages occurred at several levels, from chemical changes of the binder, modification of crystal defects in zinc oxide, to Prussian blue photoreduction. They could be identified by using both the μXANES signal during analysis and with photoluminescence imaging in the deep ultraviolet and visible ranges after analysis. We show that recording accurately damaged areas is a key step to prevent misinterpretation of results during future re-examination of the sample. We conclude by proposing good practices that could help in integrating radiation damage avoidance into the analytical pathway. (orig.)

  5. A choline oxidase amperometric bioassay for the detection of mustard agents based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe


    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (-50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  6. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini


    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  7. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining. (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk


    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  8. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob


    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  9. Cultivating curricular reform. (United States)

    Guze, P A


    Since the 1960s there has been pressure to reform medical education in a more humanistic direction. One reason this has been difficult is that most medical schools have been forced to maintain themselves on resources allocated to support research and the technology of specialized tertiary care. Nevertheless, many people believe that medical education can still change because of changes taking place outside the sciences, such as a redefinition of the meaning of health and the need to provide better health care to the U.S. population at a lower cost. Taking this optimistic view will help strengthen reformers' resolve for curricular change and the incorporation of important areas such as family violence into medical students' education. There are numerous barriers to curricular change. Yet there are useful principles that can guide reform efforts, such as having an explicit rationale for the desired change, focusing on educational goals rather than on resources for their implementation, recruiting support from the departmental and school leadership, anticipating negative reactions, and recognizing the need for negotiation. There are also principles to foster successful implementation, the most important of which is to have everyone involved agree on the goals of the new program and participate in the process. The way to increase an emphasis on family violence issues is to find areas in the curriculum where these issues can be integrated with current teaching. Finally, a medical school curriculum on family violence does not need to be all-inclusive, but instead should prepare a good foundation so that students can expand their knowledge and skills during residency training and medical practice.

  10. Filling carbon nanotubes with Prussian blue nanoparticles of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity for colorimetric chemo- and biosensing. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Fu, Yingchun; Chai, Liyuan; Chao, Long; Bu, Lijuan; Meng, Yue; Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo


    Facile filling of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity was performed to develop novel colorimetric sensing protocols for assaying H2O2 and glucose. Fine control of PBNP growth was achieved by modulating the concentration ratio of K3 [Fe(CN)6] and FeSO4 precursors in an acidic solution containing ultrasonically dispersed MWCNTs, and thus size-matched PBNPs could be robustly immobilized in the cavities of the MWCNTs (MWCNT-PBin). Unlike other reported methods involving complicated procedures and rigorous preparation/separation conditions, this mild one-pot filling method has advantages of easy isolation of final products by centrifugation, good retention of the pristine outer surface of the MWCNT shell, and satisfactory filling yield of (24±2) %. In particular, encapsulation of PBNPs of poor dispersibility and limited functionality in dispersible and multifunctional MWCNT shells creates new and valuable opportunities for quasihomogeneous-phase applications of PB in liquid solutions. The MWCNT-PBin nanocomposites were exploited as a peroxidase mimic for the colorimetric assay of H2O2 in solution by using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as reporter, and they gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 nM. Moreover, glucose oxidase (GOx) was anchored on the outer surface of MWCNT-PBin to form GOx/MWCNT-PBin bionanocomposites. The cooperation of outer-surface biocatalysis with peroxidase-like catalysis of interior PB resulted in a novel cooperative colorimetric biosensing mode for glucose assay. The use of GOx/MWCNT-PBin for colorimetric biosensing of glucose gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.0 mM and an LOD of 200 nM. The presented protocols may be extended to other multifunctional nanocomposite systems for broad applications in catalysis and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co

  11. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L


    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  12. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  13. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  14. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik


    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  15. Recent University Reform in Mexico. (United States)

    Ornelas, Carlos; Post, David


    Examination of recent reforms at three Mexican public universities suggests that university administrators have had little will or power to regulate expansion in the face of growing social demand for higher education. Discusses "populist" and "modernist" conceptions of university reform, which focus on social needs and economic…

  16. Ageing-Driven Pension Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common

  17. Education Finance Reform in Tennessee. (United States)

    Green, Harry A.


    The Education Improvement Act instigated funding allocation reform, equalization and equity, system accountability, systemwide report cards, value-added assessment, and governance reform. The most dissatisfied educators are those in large, wealthier urban systems. Horizontal equity, accountability, and test results have improved throughout the…

  18. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon (United States)

    Buxton, Bruce


    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  19. Ageing-driven pension reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, Lex; Ponds, Eduard; Westerhout, Ed

    This paper stems from the observation that there are two world-wide trends, pension reform and population ageing, and asks whether the two may be related. Exploring the cases of pension reform in different countries, we find that, although they are very different, the cases share a common

  20. Pension Reform in China. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li


    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  1. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson


    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  2. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  3. Evolution of the antipsychiatry movement into mental health consumerism. (United States)

    Rissmiller, David J; Rissmiller, Joshua H


    This essay reviews the history and evolution of the antipsychiatry movement. Radical antipsychiatry over several decades has changed from an antiestablishment campus-based movement to a patient-based consumerist movement. The antecedents of the movement are traced to a crisis in self-conception between biological and psychoanalytic psychiatry occurring during a decade characterized by other radical movements. It was promoted through the efforts of its four seminal thinkers: Michel Foucault in France, R. D. Laing in Great Britain, Thomas Szasz in the United States, and Franco Basaglia in Italy. They championed the concept that personal reality and freedom were independent of any definition of normalcy that organized psychiatry tried to impose. The original antipsychiatry movement made major contributions but also had significant weaknesses that ultimately undermined it. Today, antipsychiatry adherents have a broader base and no longer focus on dismantling organized psychiatry but look to promote radical consumerist reform.

  4. “A Shmita Manifesto”: a radical sabbatical approach to Jewish food reform in the United States


    Adrienne Krone


    A revolutionary movement recently cropped up with a vision to revitalize American Jewish environmentalism through food reform. This movement implemented shmita (sabbatical) year practices, which Jewish law mandates only inside the land of Israel, in the United States during the shmita year that began in September 2014. This article offers a brief historical overview of shmita and then utilizes the main texts of the shmita movement to explore how the Shmita Project connects- the diverse worlds...

  5. Local government reform: problematic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Sharov


    Full Text Available In the article the actual problems aspects of realization of reform of local self-government are worked up, namely: reformation of institute of local state administrations, creation of executive branches of local Rada, «technology» of realization of administrative-territorial device, place and role of strategic and project approaches, statutory and regulatory support of integrative forms of territorial communities activity, modern forms of professional communication of local government’s personal, using the potential of associations of local government’s practitioners; directions of development of human factor of reform and administrative system are analyzed in local self-government on principles of management achievements.

  6. The Economists of the Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Eaton


    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the teaching of the Protestant Reformers (Luther, Calvin, and the Puritans toward issues of wealth, work, interest, and calling. The purpose is to highlight some of the teachings that could be said to lead to a “Protestant Work Ethic.” The Reformers were not uniform in their views of economic matters and in some cases their views of economic matters were influenced by the society around them. While much of the teaching continued in the Catholic tradition, the reformers did elevate the views of calling and work; what had been toil was elevated to Divine calling and service to God.

  7. Pension reform in Latin America : quick fixes or sustainable reform?


    Aiyer, Sri-Ram


    Because of better health and higher standards of living, people are living longer. By 2030, more than 16 percent of the world's population will be older than 60, compared with 9 percent today. As a result, pension systems will need reform. Most current systems have substantial unfunded liabilities that will impose significant financial burdens onfuture generations without providing adequate protection for older individuals and lower-income workers. Pension reform is inevitable because of demo...

  8. Color Transformation and Fluorescence of Prussian Blue–Positive Cells: Implications for Histologic Verification of Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frank


    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles, either modified or in combination with other macromolecules, are being used for magnetic labeling of stem cells and other cells to monitor cell trafficking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in experimental models. The correlation of histology to MRI depends on the ability to detect SPIO-labeled cells using Prussian blue (PB stain and fluorescent tags to cell surface markers. Exposure of PB-positive sections to ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 365 nm commonly used fluorescence microscopy can result in color transformation of PB-positive material from blue to brown. Although the PB color transformation is primarily an artifact that may occur during fluorescence microscopy, the transformation can be manipulated using imaging process software for the detection of low levels of iron labeled cells in tissues samples

  9. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer of graphene/Prussian blue toward simultaneous electrochemical and SPR detection of H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Wang, Wei


    A new type of chemically converted graphene sheets, cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid decorated graphene sheets (PFIL–GS) composite, was synthesized and characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found...... that the presence of PFIL enabled the formation of a very stable aqueous dispersion due to the electrostatic repulsion between PFIL modified graphene sheets. With respect to the excellent dispersibility of this material, we have fabricated a novel PFIL–GS/Prussian blue (PB) nanocomposite multilayer film via classic...... layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. The assembly process was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which showed linear responses to the numbers of the deposited PFIL–GS/PB bilayers. Moreover, the as-prepared composite films were used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H...

  10. High-performance complementary electrochromic device based on WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT and prussian blue electrodes (United States)

    Yue, Yanfang; Li, Haizeng; Li, Kerui; Wang, Jinmin; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Chen, Pei


    The device assembly plays an important role in affecting the electrochromic (EC) performance of an electrochromic device (ECD). Here, WO3·0.33H2O films are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and then PEDOT:PSS are spin-coated on the surface of WO3·0.33H2O films. Finally, the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT films are assembled with electrodeposited prussian blue (PB) to fabricate the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT-PB complementary electrochromic devices (ECDs). Compared with pure WO3·0.33H2O and WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT single-active-layer structure ECDs, the complementary ECD exhibits higher optical modulation, higher coloration efficiency and faster response time, which would provide a promising platform for energy-saving smart (ESS) window.

  11. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun


    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  12. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.


    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  13. Structural Reforms in Latin America under Scrutiny


    Lora, Eduardo; Panizza, Ugo


    The future of structural reforms in Latin America is under discussion. The purpose of this document is to synthesize the facts and opinions that underlie this debate. The first section shows that although the reform process has not ground to a halt, it has been incomplete and uneven, both across countries and different areas of reform. The greatest progress has been made in reforming the trade and financial sectors. In terms of tax reform and privatization, the record has been mixed across co...

  14. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers


    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley


    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  15. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)


    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  16. Child Mortality under Chinese Reforms


    Christopher GRIGORIOU; Patrick GUILLAUMONT


    This paper looks for the impact of the Chinese economic reforms on its health performance. From an appropriate health outcomes indicator, it appears that while still being one of the most performing countries, China’s relative advance decreased during the reforms. Consistent with the fact that the health system had to rely more and more on private expenditures, we find an increasing impact of income on infant survival. We also show that relative prices matter for infant survival: for a given ...

  17. Misrecognition and science education reform (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.


    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  18. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response (United States)


    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t REFORMING DISASTER AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE BY COLONEL MARK D. JOHNSON United States Army...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has focused too much on day- to-day disasters , from snow storms to forest fires, tripling the number

  19. Indonesia : Budget Reform Strategy Priorities


    Allen, R.; Eckardt, S.; Jacobs, D; Kristensen, J; Lienert, I.; Schiavo-Campo, S.


    This report is designed to assist the authorities develop an overall road map for reforming budget preparation. A specific focus is on the steps to be taken to introduce a medium-term framework for the central government's budget and a performance-based budget. These reforms require important preconditions to be in place, and a substantial change in the culture, incentives and behavior of ...

  20. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah


    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  1. Addressing Educational Reform: Exploring PE Metrics as a System to Measure Student Achievement in Physical Education (United States)

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn; Carbonneau, Kira


    The current educational reform movement in the United States is focused on measuring the effectiveness of teachers. One component of teacher effectiveness is student achievement. The effectiveness of using PE Metrics as a measure of student achievement in a physical activity setting with a low socioeconomic, culturally diverse population was…

  2. From the Pedestal to PR: Women Reformers and Public Relations, 1910-1920. (United States)

    McBride, Genevieve G.

    Analysis of the Wisconsin woman suffrage campaign of 1910-1920 suggests that public relations belonged not only to political or business practices, but was equally a process by which the masses achieved their own best interests in nineteenth and early twentieth century social reform movements. Woman suffragists were led by women, and the public…

  3. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.


    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  4. The Land Act (1998) and Land Tenure Reform in Uganda | Okuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Land Act (1998), which aims at reforming land tenure relations in Uganda, is therefore one of the most far-reaching legislation enacted by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) government. The new tenure system aims at supporting agricultural development through the functioning of a land market, establishing ...

  5. Some considerations on the reform of the international monetary and financial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper discusses different views on the reform of the International Monetary System. It illustrates the most recent antecedents of the current debate, focusing on criteria, determinants and effects of the choice among different exchange regimes and discussing in particular the relationship between fixed exchange rates and financial crises, and the relationship between exchange rates and worldwide freedom of capital movements.

  6. What is 'reform'? Approaches to a problematic term in African Muslim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution looks at the emergence of new concepts of 'reform' in Muslim countries in the early 20th century and will address the question of how we can ... of international networks and media-based representations, these movements must also be interpreted in terms of how they are situated in their local contexts.

  7. Examining the Effects of Turkish Education Reform on Students' TIMSS 2007 Science Achievements (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Atar, Burcu


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of some of the changes such as student centered learning (i.e. inquiry science instruction), outfitting classrooms with latest technology and computers that the reform movement has brought about on students' TIMSS 2007 science achievements. Two-staged stratified sampling was used in the selection…

  8. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn


    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion...... of ethanol over the most active catalysts at the applied conditions. At these temperatures the offgas composition was close to the thermodynamical equilibrium. Operation at high temperatures, 700 °C and 750 °C, gave the lowest carbon deposition corresponding to 30–60 ppm of the carbon in the feed ending...

  9. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective. (United States)

    Smith, Laura


    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Reforming Preschools and Schools. (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J


    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tectonic Plate Movement. (United States)

    Landalf, Helen


    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  12. Stereotypic movement disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  14. Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming (United States)

    Krebs, John F.


    Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2-based power generation, via reforming, is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2-enriched product stream, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC's). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2-rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

  15. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  16. Linking Literacy and Movement (United States)

    Pica, Rae


    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  17. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  18. Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O for hydrogen storage. (United States)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Banerjee, Seemita; Anwar, Sharmistha; Mukadam, Mayuresh D; Meena, Sher Singh; Yusuf, Seikh M


    Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O has been synthesized using a core of Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O, surrounded by a shell of Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O compound. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study confirms the core-shell nature of the nanoparticles with an average size of ∼25 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern reveals that the core-shell compound has a face-centered cubic crystal structure with space group Fm3m. The observation of characteristic absorption bands in the range of 2000-2300 cm(-1) in IR spectra corresponds to the CN stretching frequency of Mn(II)/Ni(II)-N≡C-Cr(III) sequence, confirming the formation of Prussian blue analogues. Hydrogen absorption isotherm measurements have been used to investigate the kinetics of molecular hydrogen adsorption into core-shell compounds of the Prussian blue analogue at low temperature conditions. Interestingly, the core-shell compound shows an enhancement in the hydrogen capacity (2.0 wt % at 123 K) as compared to bare-core and bare-shell compounds. The hydrogen adsorption capacity has been correlated with the specific surface area and TGA analysis of the core-shell compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the hydrogen storage properties of core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet that could be useful for hydrogen storage applications.

  19. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever! (United States)

    Keigher, Sharon M.


    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valdecantos Alcaide


    Full Text Available The university reforms undertaken after the 1999 Bologna Declaration do not constitute a strictly academic phenomenon, but also a social reform at a high level, that affects the concept itself of society and the role of intellectual freedom in the whole Freedom System of the liberal thought and ideology. Contrary to the basics of this tradition, it is maintained that the intellectual sphere must be included in the economic sphere and that institutions in which intellectual freedom could be practised must be considered -even with a certain amount of independence- as a part of the market. The purpose of this article is to show that present university reform is against what has been the usual way of constructing the idea of society from the 18th century onwards.

  1. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan


    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F


    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  3. Intelligence Reform: A Question of Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bansemer, John D


    .... The 9/11 Report renewed calls for reform of the intelligence community (IC), continuing a long series of intelligence reform efforts that began shortly after the National Security Act of 1947 laid the foundation of the modern IC...

  4. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst (United States)

    Parent, Yves O [Golden, CO; Magrini, Kim [Golden, CO; Landin, Steven M [Conifer, CO; Ritland, Marcus A [Palm Beach Shores, FL


    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  5. Arktisk Reform i Ukraines Skygge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon


    USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål.......USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål....

  6. Study of oxidation states of the transition metals in a series of Prussian blue analogs using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States); Hartl, M., E-mail: [European Spallation Source ESS AB, 22100, Lund (Sweden); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Daemen, L. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830 (United States); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Fohtung, E.; Nakotte, H. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States)


    Highlights: • Systematic XANES measurements on Prussian blue analogs shows oxidation state of transition metals. • Cobal-iron bimetallic hexacyanometallates show unexpected oxidation states. • Iron(II) ions in hexacyanometallates(III) show varying spin state depending on their bond to the “N” end or “C” end of the cyanide ligand. • Thermal expansion coefficients have been linked to the XANES results. - Abstract: There have been renewed interests in metal-organic framework classes of materials such as Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) due to their potential usage in energy storage applications. In particular, due to their high surface areas, controllable structures and excellent electrochemical properties, PBAs such as hexacyanometalates M{sup II}{sub 3}[A{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; A = Co, Fe, Cr; n = no. of water molecules present), M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and mixed hexacyanometalates(III) (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 3}[B{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75; B = Co, Fe) could have possible usage as a new class of cathode and even anode materials for rechargeable batteries. Detailed knowledge of the oxidation states of the transition metals in PBAs is required to improve efficiency and durability of such devices. Furthermore, a link between the thermal expansion observed in these materials and the oxidation state of the transition metal is of interest to synthesize materials with a desired thermal expansion behavior, Here we demonstrate the use of Synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to identify transition metal oxidation states. Our analysis reveals the presence of divalent, trivalent and/or mixed valence transition metals in the materials as well as high-spin and low-spin complexes.

  7. Dual lanthanide role in the designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination (Prussian Blue analogue) nanocages with large internal cavity and mesoporous cage (United States)

    McHale, Ronan; Liu, Yibo; Ghasdian, Negar; Hondow, Nicole S.; Ye, Sunjie; Lu, Yun; Brydson, Rik; Wang, Xiaosong


    Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies entirely on the periphery coordination event occurring prior to the ester hydrolysis surfactant removal step. Crucially, this one-pot sequential synthesis was achieved using a newly developed metallo-surfactant designed to have a reduced ester hydrolysis rate. Syntheses of this innovative metallo-surfactant, intermediary PB analogue coordination polymer organo-nanoshells and the subsequent conversion to hollow metal coordination nanocages are fully characterised using a wide variety of techniques, including TEM, SEM, EFTEM, EDX, TGA, WAXD, NMR, N2 adsorption, etc., and represent the first designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination nanocages containing a large nanoscale cavity (wall of hollow nanosphere is mesoporous; hence nanocage).Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies

  8. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform (United States)

    Hurley, Stephen


    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions…

  9. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform. (United States)

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I


    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Improving Competition: Reforming the Requirements Process (United States)


    45 Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 Improving Competition Reforming the Requirements Process Roy Wood, Ph.D. Wood is the Acting Vice President...professional. T ypical acquisition reform efforts have been focused in the margins, achiev­ ing marginal results. The evidence of decades of...acquisition reform indicates that the marginal reforms typically taken are not making the funda­ mental changes needed by the Department of Defense (DoD

  11. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen (United States)

    Beshty, Bahjat S.


    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about to about 1, F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  12. The Labor Supply Effects of Welfare Reform


    Bartik, Timothy J.


    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estima...

  13. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new credit...

  14. General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment (United States)

    Fuess, Scott M., Jr.; Mitchell, Nancy D.


    General education reform provides strategic opportunities for departments. This article analyzes reform at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, illustrating how departments could use the reform process to clarify their strategic planning, align with institutional goals, and steer the university closer to departmental objectives. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia (United States)

    Santos, Ana


    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  16. Large-Scale Reform Comes of Age (United States)

    Fullan, Michael


    This article reviews the history of large-scale education reform and makes the case that large-scale or whole system reform policies and strategies are becoming increasingly evident. The review briefly addresses the pre 1997 period concluding that while the pressure for reform was mounting that there were very few examples of deliberate or…

  17. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms. (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School…

  18. Plant nuclear photorelocation movement. (United States)

    Higa, Takeshi; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu


    Organelle movement and positioning are essential for proper cellular function. A nucleus moves dynamically during cell division and differentiation and in response to environmental changes in animal, fungal, and plant cells. Nuclear movement is well-studied and the mechanisms have been mostly elucidated in animal and fungal cells, but not in plant cells. In prothallial cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and leaf cells of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, light induces nuclear movement and nuclei change their position according to wavelength, intensity, and direction of light. This nuclear photorelocation movement shows some common features with the photorelocation movement of chloroplasts, which is one of the best-characterized plant organelle movements. This review summarizes nuclear movement and positioning in plant cells, especially plant-specific nuclear photorelocation movement and discusses the relationship between nuclear photorelocation movement and chloroplast photorelocation movement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  19. The practice of nature-study: What reformers imagined and what teachers did (United States)

    Doris, Ellen Elizabeth

    The nature-study movement was an attempt to reform elementary education in America. It took place from about 1890 to 1930. Nature-Study, as envisioned by reformers, featured outdoor work and first-hand observation of common plants, animals and phenomenon. It stressed self expression and independent thinking. It also emphasized emotions and aesthetics, aiming to help children develop both knowledge of nature and an enduring love for it. Nature-study's advocates encouraged the expansion of school subject matter beyond the "three Rs." They also challenged the traditional pedagogy that revolved around rote memorization, recitation, and quiet classrooms. My investigation of the nature-study movement is focused on the practice of nature-study in schools. I first consider practice as it was imagined by reformers. I review the many specific suggestions they made, as well as more general statements about nature-study's aims, to learn what reformers hoped teachers would do. I then look at how nature-study was actually carried out. I use accounts written by teachers, children and observers, together with photographs, correspondence and reproductions of children's work to discover the range of ways in which nature-study materialized as teachers took up the subject with pupils. I also look closely at two particular versions of nature-study: one that developed in Chicago under the influence of Wilbur Jackman, and another that was promoted in New York State by faculty from Cornell's College of Agriculture. As a result of focusing in this way, I develop a detailed picture of what nature-study's advocates expected of teachers. I also describe what teachers, in specific instances, did. In addition, I offer some general conclusions about how nature-study was conceived of and carried out. I discuss how these conclusions relate to previous interpretations of the movement, and consider the relevance of the nature-study movement for contemporary educators, particularly those concerned

  20. Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Soko


    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  1. Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Soko


    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  2. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn


    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by...

  3. Tax Reform and Higher Education. (United States)

    Franck, Gail


    The effect of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on college and university revenues and expenditures is reviewed. Institutional revenues are derived primarily from five sources: tuition, charitable contributions, debt financing, endowment income, and governmental appropriations. The effect of the new law on family and student income, savings, student…

  4. Assessing Institutionalization of Educational Reforms (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Kalayci, Serpil Sezer


    This study aims to assess the institutionalization of a major reform in the faculties of education in Turkey in the 1990s. A survey was administered to faculty members in eight faculties of education in the academic year 2005-2006. Factor analysis, t-tests and ANOVAs, and OLS regressions were used. Findings indicate that the most problematic area…

  5. Forest policy reform in Brazil (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage


    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  6. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming (United States)

    Golombok, Michael


    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  7. Reforming Dutch occupational pension schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradus, R.H.J.M.; Bovenberg, A.L.


    In many countries, occupational plans are being reformed away from defined-benefit (DB) to defined-contribution (DC) designs. This paper explores the case of the Netherlands, which features a particularly high ratio of occupational pension assets to GDP. Dutch occupational DB plans suffer from a

  8. (milbank) and reformational philosophy (dooyeweerd)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reformational Philosophy (RP). One of these concerns is their rejection of the dogma of the autonomy of reason. Milbank (2006b:22) investigates the theological critique of Hamann,. Jacobi, Wizenmann and Herder – “of philosophy construed as the autonomy of reason”. In the Introduction to Radical Orthodoxy, Milbank.

  9. reforming unit using pinch analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 19, 2012 ... _ i , I _, p ' ABSTRACT, H { __;_~ -_~ Energy Integration of Catalytic Reforming Unit (CRU), of 'KadunalRefin'ery' and Petrochemical , . Company Kaduna Nigeria was carried out usingPinch Technology. The'pinch analysis waishcarried ' out using Maple. Optimum minimum approach temperature of 20 °C ...

  10. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)


    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  11. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform. (United States)

    Griffin, Colin


    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  12. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain]. (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J


    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  13. Teacher Empowerment and School Reform (United States)

    Thornburg, Devin G.; Mungai, Anne


    Teachers in high-needs settings working with diverse populations are typically cited as a central element for school improvement yet are often described as resistant to such efforts. We sought to investigate the reasons behind teachers' views and beliefs about school reform within the context of collaboration and professional development, rather…

  14. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910. (United States)

    Chavigny, Katherine A


    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Local court reforms and ‘global’ law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mohr


    Full Text Available This study considers court reform programmes sponsored by the IMF and World Bank in Indonesia and Venezuela. It aims to broaden the frame of reference of ‘globalisation’ in law beyond the two traditional sites of human rights and trade. Drawing on a tradition of legal pluralism, it investigates the various sources of ‘global’ or universalising pressures on the law. The sources and impacts of these efforts may derive from and benefit or disadvantage specific groups in various locations. They will also promote or inhibit particular political, social or economic projects. The study concludes that various constituencies and impulses to reform refer to different versions of the ‘universal’ for their conception of right and legitimacy. These are neither inherently local nor unambiguously global. Local religious or egalitarian movements may refer to universal religious or political values just as interests in fair commercial dealing can call on international legal norms. In contrast to the local sites where law is performed, these universal sites exist in a multitude of indigenous, religious, political and legal imagined communities, each of which may be invoked in attempts to reform local practice.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal


    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  17. Stabilization of Prussian blue with polyaniline and carbon nanotubes in neutral media for in vivo determination of glucose in rat brains. (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Guo, Deyin; Ye, Jianshan; Zhang, Meining


    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical microbiosensor for selective in vivo monitoring of glucose in rat brains. The microbiosensor is prepared by using Prussian blue (PB)/polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction and determination of H2O2 generated from the glucose oxidase (GOx)-based enzymatic catalytic reaction. PANI and MWNTs are used to stabilize PB nanoparticles in physiological solutions. As a result, the as-formed three-dimensional (3D) PB/PANI/MWNT nanostructure exhibits a stable and large electrochemical response compared to the PB-modified electrode. The use of PB/PANI/MWNTs in this work to replace "natural peroxidase" (i.e., horseradish peroxidase) used in the existing microbiosensors enables the method developed here to be facile but selective for in vivo measurements of glucose virtually interference-free from ascorbic acid and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. This property, along with the good linearity and stability toward glucose, makes this microbiosensor competent for continuous in vivo monitoring of the changes of glucose in rat brains during intraperitoneal injection of insulin. The method demonstrated here can be applied to develop other oxidase-based microbiosensors for other neurochemicals, which would be helpful for understanding the chemical process involved in some physiological and pathological events.

  18. Facile Synthesis of a MoS2-Prussian Blue Nanocube Nanohybrid-Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Hydrogen Peroxide and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection. (United States)

    Su, Shao; Han, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zaiwei; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Dan; Chao, Jie; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui


    Herein, an electrochemical detection platform was designed based on a Prussian blue nanocube-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2-PBNCs) nanocomposite. Shape-controlled and high-dispersion PBNCs were supported on the MoS2 nanosheet surface, which would be simply controlled by varying the experimental conditions. Expectedly, such obtained MoS2-based nanocomposites possessed excellent electrocatalytic ability, which could be employed to construct an electrochemical sensor for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. More interestingly, MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposites could be utilized to construct a sensor for label-free detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The electrochemical response of the MoS2-based immunosensor was linear with the CEA concentration ranging from 0.005 to 10 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.54 pg mL(-1). The acceptable selectivity and high stability made such immunosensors detect CEA in human serum with satisfactory results. All data indicated that this MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposite may be a promising electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of chemical and biological molecules.

  19. Prussian blue-Au nanocomposites actuated hemin/G-quadruplexes catalysis for amplified detection of DNA, Hg2+ and adenosine triphosphate. (United States)

    Wang, Guangfeng; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Yanhong; He, Xiuping; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Xiaojun


    In this paper, horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) and Prussian blue (PB)-gold (Au) nanocomposites were designed as versatile electrochemical sensing platforms for the amplified detection of DNA, Hg(2+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By the conjugation of the target probe with the capture probe, a conformational change resulted in the formation of HRP-DNAzyme on the PB-Au modified electrode. The redox of HRP-DNAzyme (red) was efficiently carried out in the presence of H2O2, in which PB acted as a mediator stimulating the biocatalytic functions of HRP-DNAzyme and actuated a catalytic cycle bringing an amplified signal. Specific recognition of the target DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP allowed selective amperometric detection of the target molecule. The detection limits of DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP were 50 nM, 30 pM and 3 nM, respectively. The highlight of this work is that the catalytic cycle between PB-Au nanocomposites and HRP-DNAzyme was adequately utilized in the amplification platform for versatile sensing. The novel electrocatalytic biosensor involving only one-step incubation exhibited a wide linear range, low detection limit, and satisfactory selectivity and operational stability. The proposed approach provided an ease-of-use and universal reporting system with a simple design and easy operations.

  20. Prussian Blue Nanocubes with an Open Framework Structure Coated with PEDOT as High-Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Cortie, Michael; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Guoxiu


    It is shown that Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) can be a very competitive sulfur host for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur stored in the large interstitial sites of a PBA host can take advantage of reversible and efficient insertion/extraction of both Li+ and electrons, due to the well-trapped mobile dielectron redox centers in the well-defined host. It is demonstrated that Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ] has a large open framework, and as a cathode, it both stores sulfur and acts as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor based on the Lewis acid-base bonding effect. The electrochemical testing shows that the S@Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite achieves excellent reversibility, good stability, and fast kinetics. Its outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to the internal transport of Li+/e- , maximizing the utilization of sulfur. Moreover, the open metal centers serve as the Lewis acid sites with high affinity to the negatively charged polysulfide anions, reducing the diffusion of polysulfides out of the cathode and minimizing the shuttling effect. The fundamental basis of these exceptional performance characteristics is explored through a detailed analysis of the structural and electrochemical behavior of the material. It is believed that the PBAs will have a useful role in ensuring more effective and stable Li-S batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo


    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on graphite oxide, Prussian blue, and PTC-NH2 for the detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in human serum. (United States)

    Gao, Liuliu; He, Junlin; Xu, Wailan; Zhang, Jing; Hui, Junmin; Guo, Yanlei; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Chao


    α2,6-Sialylated glycans are crucial molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and clinical research. In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on a graphite oxide (GO), Prussian blue (PB), and PTC-NH2 (an ammonolysis product of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) nanocomposite for the selective detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. To increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were immobilized on a GO-PB-PTC-NH2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sambucus nigra agglutinins (SNAs), which specifically bind with α2,6-sialylated glycans, were covalently immobilized on GNPs for the sensitive detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in serum. This proposed method can be applied to human serum, and it worked well over a broad linear range (0.1 pg mL(-1)-500 ng mL(-1)) with detection limits of 0.03 pg mL(-1). Moreover, recovery of the spiked samples ranged from 100.2% to 105.0%, suggesting that this excellent electrochemical biosensor can be used for the practical detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-assembly mechanism of nanoparticles of Ni-based Prussian Blue analogues at the air/liquid interface: a synchrotron X-ray reflectivity study. (United States)

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Brezesinski, Gerald


    Prussian Blue analogue (PBA) nanoparticles can be self-assembled at air/liquid interfaces to build novel materials with interesting magnetic features. Herein, we study the influence of the size of PBA Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 and K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles on the self-assembly behavior by synchrotron X-ray reflectivity. Both nanoparticles show similar Z-potential values. The phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and the amino surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium have been used as Langmuir monolayers to anchor the PBA nanoparticles and study the interplay of forces directing the self-assembly of the nanoparticles at the surfactant/liquid interface. Whereas Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 nanoparticles with a diameter of 8 nm form an incomplete layer at the surfactant/water interface, the larger K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm generate complete layers that can be stacked to one another. The size of the PBA nanoparticles is the main parameter determining the final arrangement at the air/liquid interface, due to the different extent of interparticle interaction. This study aims at the rationale design of PBA nanoparticles for an effective interfacial self-assembly, ultimately leading to functional materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Coated Prussian Blue for MR/PA Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Photothermal-Chemotherapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Su, Yunyan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yunlei; Tang, Yuxia; Ni, Qianqian; Liu, Wenfei; Dang, Meng; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Junjie; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming


    Complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. In this work, an imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy strategy for TNBC is developed for the first time based on a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coated Prussian blue (PB@PMO) nanoplatform. The PB@PMOs have organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks, uniform diameter (125 nm), high surface area (866 m(2) g(-1)), large pore size (3.2 nm), excellent photothermal conversion capability, high drug loading capacity (260 µg mg(-1)), and magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging abilities. The MR and PA properties of the PB@PMOs are helpful for imaging the tumor and showing the accumulation of the nanoplatform in the tumor region. The bioluminescence intensity and tumor volume of the MDA-MB-231-Luc tumor-bearing mouse model demonstrate that TNBC can be effectively inhibited by the combined photothermal-chemotherapy than monotherapy strategy. Histopathological analysis further reveals that the combination therapy results in most extensive apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumor without inducing obvious side effect to major organs.

  5. Light-induced magnetization changes in a coordination polymer heterostructure of a Prussian blue analogue and a Hofmann-like Fe(II) spin crossover compound. (United States)

    Gros, Corey R; Peprah, Marcus K; Hosterman, Brian D; Brinzari, Tatiana V; Quintero, Pedro A; Sendova, Mariana; Meisel, Mark W; Talham, Daniel R


    Coordination polymer thin film heterostructures of the Prussian blue analogue Ni(II)b[Cr(III)(CN)6](0.7)·nH2O (NiCr-PBA) and the 3D Hofmann-like spin crossover compound Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O {azpy = 4,4'-azopyridine} have been developed, and spin transition properties have been characterized via SQUID magnetometry and Raman spectroscopy. The magnetic response of the ferromagnetic NiCr-PBA layer (T(c) ≈ 70 K) can be altered by inducing the LIESST effect (light-induced excited spin state trapping) in the coupled paramagnetic Fe(II) spin crossover material. Whereas an increase in magnetization is measured for the single-phase Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O, a decrease in magnetization is observed for the heterostructure. These results indicate the LIESST effect alone cannot account for the sign and magnitude of the magnetization change in the heterostructure, but the temperature profile of the magnetization shows that significant changes in the NiCr-PBA network are correlated to the spin state of the Hofmann-like SCO network.

  6. Porous Structured Ni-Fe-P Nanocubes Derived from a Prussian Blue Analogue as an Electrocatalyst for Efficient Overall Water Splitting. (United States)

    Xuan, Cuijuan; Wang, Jie; Xia, Weiwei; Peng, Zongkai; Wu, Zexing; Lei, Wen; Xia, Kedong; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Deli


    Exploring nonprecious metal electrocatalysts to replace the noble metal-based catalysts for full water electrocatalysis is still an ongoing challenge. In this work, porous structured ternary nickel-iron-phosphide (Ni-Fe-P) nanocubes were synthesized through one-step phosphidation of a Ni-Fe-based Prussian blue analogue. The Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit a rough and loose porous structure on their surface under suitable phosphating temperature, which is favorable for the mass transfer and oxygen diffusion during the electrocatalysis process. As a result, Ni-Fe-P obtained at 350 °C with poorer crystallinity offers more unsaturated atoms as active sites to expedite the absorption of reactants. Additionally, the introduction of nickel improved the electronic structure and then reduced the charge-transfer resistance, which would result in a faster electron transport and an enhancement of the intrinsic electrocatalytic activities. Benefiting from the unique porous nanocubes and the chemical composition, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit excellent hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction activities in alkaline medium, with low overpotentials of 182 and 271 mV for delivering a current density of 10 mA cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes show outstanding stability for sustained water splitting in the two-electrode alkaline electrolyzer. This work not only provides a facile approach for designing bifunctional electrocatalysts but also further extends the application of metal-organic frameworks in overall water splitting.

  7. Synthesis of acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and comparison for targeting atherosclerotic plaques: evaluation by MRI, quantitative MPS, and TEM alternative to ambiguous Prussian blue iron staining. (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Kratz, Harald; Wiekhorst, Frank; Warmuth, Carsten; Schnorr, Jörg; Genter, Gesche; Ebert, Monika; Mueller, Susanne; Schellenberger, Eyk


    To further optimize citrate-stabilized VSOPs (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) for identification of atherosclerotic plaques, we modified their surface during synthesis using eight other acids for electrostatic stabilization. This approach preserves effective production for clinical application. Five particles were suitable to be investigated in targeting plaques of apoE(-/-) mice. Accumulation was evaluated by ex vivo MRI, TEM, and quantitatively by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS). Citric- (VSOP), etidronic-, tartaric-, and malic-acid-coated particles accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques with highest accumulation for VSOP (0.2‰ of injected dose). Targets were phagolysosomes of macrophages and of altered endothelial cells. In vivo MRI with VSOP allowed for definite plaque identification. Prussian blue staining revealed abundant endogenous iron in plaques, indistinguishable from particle iron. In apoE(-/-) mice, VSOPs are still the best anionic iron oxide particles for imaging atherosclerotic plaques. MPS allows for quantification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in such small specimens. The presence of vulnerable plaques in arteries is important for the prediction of acute coronary events. VSOP (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) have been shown to be very sensitive in identifying atherosclerotic plaques. The authors studied here further modification to the surface of VSOP during synthesis and compared their efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana Biţu


    Full Text Available Herbicides are chemical substances with selective toxic action (limited for some vegetal species or general (for any species, used to fight against weeds in the crops, fruit and grapes-growing fields, parks etc. The administration of herbicides though has complex effects on the biocenosis. In the aquatic environment, they have proved to be toxic not only for the aimed plants, but also for numerous species of animals. The deterioration of the aquatic environment is accentuated by the fact that plants that had died due to the treatment decompose themselves in a rapid manner, leading to the decrease of the oxygen level in the water, the final consequence being the increase in the death rate of the animals. This paper has studied the action of the Dual Gold 960 EC herbicide in different concentrations on some physiological indicators for the Prussian carp (Carassiusauratusgibelio Bloch 1782. The herbicide has had an inhibitive effect on the researched parameters for all the used concentrations.

  9. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages. (United States)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng; Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian; Wang, Qingxiang


    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H2O2. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H2O2 concentrations from 5μM to 1mM with a fast response time (less than 3s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H2O2 released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sleep related movement disorders]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi


    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  11. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn


    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  12. Nursing leadership and health sector reform. (United States)

    Borthwick, C; Galbally, R


    The political, technological and economic changes that have occurred over the past decade are increasingly difficult to manage within the traditional framework of health-care, and the organisation of health-care is seen to need radical reform to sweep away many of the internal barriers that now divide one form of health-care, and one profession, from another. Nursing must equip itself with skills in advocacy and political action to influence the direction the system will take. Nursing currently suffers from a weakness in self-concept that goes hand in hand with a weakness in political status, and nursing leadership must build the foundations for both advocacy for others and self-advocacy for the nursing movement. The profession faces tensions between different conceptions of its role and status, its relationship to medicine, and its relationship to health. Health indices are tightly linked to status, and to trust, hope, and control of one's own life. Can nurses help empower others when they are not particularly good at empowering themselves? What will the role of the nurse be in creating the information flows that will guide people toward health? Nursing's long history of adaptation to an unsettled and negotiated status may mean that it is better fitted to make this adaptation than other more confident disciplines.

  13. The mathematics of movement (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.


    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  14. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  15. The 1970-1976 education reform in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto González Villarreal


    Full Text Available This article examines the education reform enacted in the earlier half of the 1970s in Mexico, as a paradigmatic case of the effect of criticism and social movements on the formation of government programs. The historical process is reconstructed on the basis of the concept of regimes of governmentality, developed by Foucault (1991 and the so-called Anglo-Foucauldian scholars Burchel, Gordon and Miller (1991; Rose (1999; Dean (1999; and Rose, O’Malley and Valverdes (2006. The text discusses the formation and development of a mentality of government that reflects on the educational movements of 1968 and 1971 as expressions of the growing illegitimacy of the institutions of political control, school, family and political authority. In response to that burgeoning rejection, it became necessary to overhaul and refashion the intervening authorities, the purposes, media and institutions of biopolitical control. In particular, the educational reform of 1973 was an attempt to reshape the processes of subjectivation that had been being employed since the 1968 crisis, and to integrate controls over citizens’ daily lives into the powers of the State security apparatus.

  16. [Dance/Movement Therapy. (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  17. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  18. Narrative medicine and healthcare reform. (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley E


    Narrative medicine is one of medicine's most important internal reforms, and it should be a critical dimension of healthcare debate. Healthcare reform must eventually ask not only how do we pay for healthcare and how do we distribute it, but more fundamentally, what kind of healthcare do we want? It must ask, in short, what are the goals of medicine? Yet, even though narrative medicine is crucial to answering these pivotal and inescapable questions, it is not easy to describe. Many of its core claims go against the grain of common sense thinking about medicine. This article argues that the best way to understand narrative medicine is to tell a story that puts its emergence in historical context.

  19. Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer. (United States)

    Khatri, Parinda


    In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities.

  20. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy


    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  1. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak


    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  2. Public Pension Reform and Teacher Turnover: Evidence from Washington State. CEDR Policy Brief. WP #2015-8 (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian


    Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension systems in many states face large funding shortfalls. Movement toward defined contribution (DC) pension structures may reduce the likelihood of future shortfalls, but there is concern that such reforms may have the undesirable effect of increasing employee turnover. In studying patterns of employee turnover…

  3. Implementation of O.A. Igelstrom’s Reforms in the Steppe of Orenburg Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Dmitry Valentinovich


    Full Text Available The article describes the process of implementing the reforms by O.A. Igelstrom in the Small Kazakh Horde. The author briefly acquaints with the main content of reforms of governance of the Orenburg part of the Kazakh steppe in the 1870. The main motives and the purposes of regional administration in carrying out administration reforms in the region and the necessity to take local traditions of the organization of the power into consideration are reflected. The reasons of O.A. Igelstrom’s reforms failure are revealed and discussed. The author studies the issue related to the authority and the influence of the khan’s power among the Kazakhs and the government measures on the restriction of this power. Attempts of the imperial government to manipulate with elections of new khans are described in the article. Reaction of the Kazakh elite on those actions is shown. The special attention is paid to the movement of Syrym Datov and to the way the Russian government took the advantage of this movement under various political circumstances. Winning round the Kazakh opposition and pushing it away under the changed circumstances, the Russian administration steadily solved one of the main political tasks to replace the elected head by a person or an institution loyal to the emperor and suitable for carrying out the requirements of the Russian regional administration. But it was impossible to solve the problem in the conditions of O. Igelstrom’s reforms. The way to achieve the desired goal was opened with M. Speransky’s reforms of 1820.

  4. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  5. Building a Social Movement for Education in England: Responses to Richard Hatcher (United States)

    Harris, Richard; Little, Gawain


    In "FORUM" 57(3), 2015, Richard Hatcher outlined how it was necessary to build a social movement against government education policy and in support of an alternative reform agenda. We, the editors, believe this is an important, and complex, debate. As a contribution to developing further discussion around Richard's ideas we present two…

  6. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education (United States)

    Zhang, Ke


    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  7. The Membership Intake Movement of Historically Black Greek-Letter Organizations. (United States)

    Kimbrough, Walter M.


    Reviews the history of pledging and the recent movements for reform of this practice among historically Black fraternities and sororities. Describes the membership intake process that has been adopted and its resultant problems. Suggests that the national leadership should emphasize founding ideals as a means of overcoming resistance to change.…

  8. Auxin and chloroplast movements. (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina


    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  10. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences. (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L


    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Music and movement


    Nasev, Lence


    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  12. Intrinsic work motivation and pension reform acceptance


    Heinemann, Friedrich; Hennighausen, Tanja; Moessinger, Marc-Daniel


    Although demographic change leaves pay-as-you-go pension systems unsustainable, reforms, such as a higher pension age, are highly unpopular. This contribution looks into the role of intrinsic motivation as a driver for pension reform acceptance. Theoretical reasoning suggests that this driver should be relevant: The choice among different pension reform options (increasing pension age, increasing contributions, cutting pensions) can be analyzed within the framework of an optimal job separatio...

  13. PLA Reforms and Chinas Nuclear Forces (United States)


    dual goals of tightening political control and improving the military’s ability to conduct joint operations. Among the major steps is the creation the reforms. PLA-Wide Reforms The Rocket Force’s creation did not occur in isolation, but in the context of reforms that affected the missions...Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and a Research Intern in the Center for the Study of Chinese Military Affairs, Institute for

  14. The Failure of Muslim Reformation: "Jadidism" in Eastern Europe, 1699-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataullah Bogdan Kopanski


    Full Text Available The advent of Western influence has led to a number of responses in the Muslims, one of them being an attempt to "reform" Islam-Jadidism. This study examines the influence (lf such movements from the early eighteenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth century, in eastern European countries, particularly relating to Polish, Crimean, Turkish and Tatar Muslims. It is shown that all such attempts resulted in cultural decay, and loss of identity and power.

  15. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform. (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F


    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  16. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  17. Movements and feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fernandez Poncela


    Full Text Available This text reviews the theory of recognition and focuses on the study of the role of emotions in collective action and social movements. It shows how emotion becomes feeling and creates a need to be met, leading to action. Anger, for example, as emotion, moves on to the feeling of indignation, and it is expressed in many forms, including the pursuit of justice and recognition. This point lands and deepens the study with the experience of the student movement in Mexico #YoSoy132 in 2012. The research is based on interviews with members of the movement. The presence and importance of feelings in collective action and social movements through the proposed case study is finally shown.

  18. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  19. [Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?]. (United States)

    Mitjavila, Myriam; Fernandez, José; Moreira, Constanza


    This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs) nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive restructuring (i.e., reform by default). In this context and given the system's built-in inequities, the current trend is towards an even more regressive distribution of goods and services. The authors use qualitative and quantitative techniques to show that inequities in expenditure, access, and quality have resulted from long-term developments and adaptive movements of an IAMC system in fiscal stress and the public system's declining quality. Thus, in the absence of changes in state policy that redefine the actors' power or in the absence of system collapse, the country should expect this same regressive trend to deepen.

  20. Why Reform Sometimes Succeeds: Understanding the Conditions That Produce Reforms That Last (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; Mehta, Jal D.


    Counter to narratives of persistently failed school reform, we argue that reforms sometimes succeed and seek to understand why. Drawing on examples from the founding of public schools to the present, we find that successful system-wide reforms addressed problems that teachers thought they had by being consistent with prevailing norms and values,…

  1. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  2. Spiraldynamik - intelligent movement


    Wippert, Jens


    Spiraldynamik ® is an anatomically based movement and therapy concept. It was founded by the physiotherapist Yolanda Deswarte, and Dr. med. Christian Larsen. During the time that he was professionally active as a pediatrician, Christian Larsen repeatedly wondered: “is the universal principle of organization, the spiral, also embodied in man?” Observing the babies and toddlers that he worked with inspired him to research further into movement sequences. International interdisciplinary research...

  3. Trying to Build a Classless Utopia in the Land of Racial Democracy: The Lack of Racial Discussion within the Educational Materials of the Brazilian Landless Rural Workers' Movement (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf


    The hegemonic ideology of racial democracy and rural cultural norms of racial silence continue to inform racial identities and national racial discourse in Brazil, in this case within the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST), a left-wing movement for agrarian reform. In this article I engage in textual analysis of a textbook from the MST's youth…

  4. Nuclear movement in fungi. (United States)

    Xiang, Xin


    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Righting wrongs and reforming rights. (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C


    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  6. “A Shmita Manifesto”: a radical sabbatical approach to Jewish food reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Krone


    Full Text Available A revolutionary movement recently cropped up with a vision to revitalize American Jewish environmentalism through food reform. This movement implemented shmita (sabbatical year practices, which Jewish law mandates only inside the land of Israel, in the United States during the shmita year that began in September 2014. This article offers a brief historical overview of shmita and then utilizes the main texts of the shmita movement to explore how the Shmita Project connects- the diverse worlds of Judaism, environmentalism, ethics, and food reform. The Shmita Project encapsulates a multivalent environmentalist strain of American Judaism that is deeply concerned with climate change, industrial agriculture, and food injustice. The unprecedented- observance- of an American shmita year, focused on land stewardship and food security, is emblematic- of this movement’s efforts towards sustainable agriculture, animal welfare, and repairing the American food system through practices that are inspired by Jewish tradition and values.

  7. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.


    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system (United States)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.


    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  9. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film]. (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J


    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  10. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.


    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  11. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper


    of discourses and policy networks that come to define the very need for reform. A policy network is identified across state ministries, powerful officials, banks and large scale industry that defined the need for fisheries reform within a ‘grand reform’ discourse. But inertia characterised the actual decision...

  12. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Aarts, P.; Wagemakers, J.; Kanie, M.; Geel, A.


    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other authors also support this point of view. Ernst observes a relationship between Reformed identity and the unity of the church, which we confess in the Apostolicum. The latter protects the former against “confessionalism or introverted denominationalism” (Ernst. 2003:93). A particular Reformed church confesses the truth ...

  14. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon


    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  15. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  16. Reformed Confessions and Scholasticism. Diversity and Harmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Andreas J.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complex relationship of Reformed confessions and Reformed orthodox scholasticism. It is argued that Reformed confessions differ in genre and method from Reformed scholastic works, although such differences between confessional and scholastic language should not be mistaken for representing different doctrines that are no longer in harmony with each other. What is more, it is precisely the scholastic background and training of the authors of such confessions that enabled them to place their confessional writings in the broader catholic tradition of the Christian church and to include patristic and medieval theological insights. Thus proper attention to their scholastic background helps to see that at least in some confessions the doctrine of predestination, for instance, is not as ‘rigid’ as one might think at first sight. In order to demonstrate that the doctrine of the Reformed confessions was much in line with the scholastic theology of Reformed orthodoxy, this paper discusses, after having explained the terms ‘Reformed orthodoxy’ and ‘scholasticism’, the early Reformed scholastic theologians Beza, Zanchi, and Ursinus, who also have written confessional texts. The paper also includes a more detailed discussion of the Belgic Confession and the scholastic background of the Canons of Dordt and the Westminster Confession, thereby focusing on the doctrines of God, providence, and predestination.

  17. Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System (United States)


    AGING PUBLIC SAFETY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY Testimony Reforming the American Military Officer Personnel System Bernard......For a long time, I have argued and written about the need to reform the career military structure by increasing the maximum years of service an

  18. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.


    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  19. The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform. (United States)

    Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

    Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

  20. Computer Modeling of Platinum Reforming Reactors | Momoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually, the reformate that is leaving any stage of the platinum reforming reactors in terms of hydrocarbon composition is assessed by laboratory analysis. The ideal composition can only be tested through theoretical means, which in most cases is avoided because of long computation time involved. This paper, instead of ...

  1. Comprehensive vs. incremental reform: the debate intensifies. (United States)

    Burke, M


    President Bush's health care reform proposal has intensified the current debate over whether the U.S. health care system requires incremental or comprehensive reform. But some analysts say that those terms are merely political instruments in a much broader debate on U.S. social policy.

  2. [On reform of the international patent classification ]. (United States)

    Nenakhov, G S; Bril', E M; Shpikalov, A M


    In this work, the data on reformed IPC are presented. In IPC the core and advanced levels of classification system are used. It is shown that the goal of the IPC reform is to make possible complete search using a single classification edition for all documents, regardless of their publication date.

  3. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.


    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement'

  4. Reforms of health care system in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bara, AC; van den Heuvel, WJA; Maarse, JAM; Bara, Ana Claudia; Maarse, Johannes A.M.

    Aim. To describe health care reforms and analyze the transition of the health care system in Romania in the 1989-2001 period. Method. We analyzed policy documents, political intentions and objectives of health care reform, described new legislation, and presented changes in financial resources of

  5. Health Care Reform: A Values Debate. (United States)

    Popko, Kathleen


    Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of…

  6. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform. (United States)

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others


    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  7. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.


    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural…

  8. Financial Reform of Basic Education in China. (United States)

    Tsang, Mun C.


    Assesses effects of the financial reform of China's basic education system, focusing on issues of structure, resource mobilization, equality, and efficiency. While decentralized funding reforms have succeeded in achieving structural change and resource mobilization, the current system is marked by glaring inequalities and significant…

  9. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne


    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  10. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069308187


    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal

  11. Accountability Issues in Ohio's Education Reform Bill. (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    Issues related to the Education Reform Bill of Ohio are discussed. Administration of norm-referenced achievement tests in reading, mathematics, language, and related school-ability tests is required for grades 4, 6, and 8 (effective by 1990) and grade 10 (effective by 1991). The reform bill specifies rewards and sanctions in addition to statewide…

  12. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines


    Clarete, Ramon L.


    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  13. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform). (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  14. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform (United States)

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.


    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  15. "Reform without change": update, 1998. (United States)

    Regan-Smith, M G


    As a result of the Flexner Report in 1910, proprietary medical schools disappeared and science taught by researchers became a part of every medical school curriculum. Medical research produced products that improved health and brought large profits to health-related industries. Research became the currency most valued within the organizational power structure of medical schools, overshadowing the educational mission. Almost 90 years and multiple calls for the educational reform of medical education have failed to bring about true change in medical education because of researchers' conflict of interest--that is, the time spent providing effective education equals time away from the research necessary to maintain their careers. Basic scientists have kept teaching in medical schools efficient by giving discipline-related lectures that allow them to maximize their research time. Planning for meaningful learning with integration of disciplines and small-group teaching requires an investment of time that researchers are unwilling to make because it does not further their careers. Separation of scientific research from medical school teaching is necessary for reform of medical education. Medical students need to be taught by teachers who are not researchers.

  16. Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform (United States)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

    Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

  17. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser


    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  18. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders (United States)

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille


    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  19. Pursuit Eye Movements (United States)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)


    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  20. Movement as utopia. (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián


    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  1. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  2. (milbank) and reformational philosophy (dooyeweerd)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    post‑secular”. This qualification reveals crucial ..... whole‑parts relation) reflects the core meaning of the aspect of space. The term constancy captures the kinematic meaning of uniform rectilinear movement. The term change, in turn, in its original ...

  3. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna


    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  4. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.


    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  5. Managing Movement as Partnership (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead


    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  6. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar


    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  7. Rhythm Training through Movement. (United States)

    Riveire, Janine H.


    Maintains that string playing, rhythm, pitch, and tone quality are all dependent on the movement and coordination of the player. Presents a rhythmic focus lesson plan for students who need improvement in rhythm skills. Includes a lesson plan diagram and suggested teacher resources. (CFR)

  8. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén


    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  9. The Mastery of Movement. (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  10. [Architecture and movement]. (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel


    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  11. Music, Movement, and Poetry. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  12. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao


    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  13. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick


    and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  14. Measuring Facial Movement (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.


    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  15. ICT and Public Administration Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR


    Full Text Available The advent of new ICTs brought a lot of new assumptions about radical changes in our society. In the context of the arrival of a new society, public administration was supposed to witness (and to address or implement changes at different levels, such as:• citizenship (citizens becoming participants in governance or even a shift to e-democracy;• the nature of public service jobs (in terms of skills, work processes and job design;• organizational changes (from a hierarchical to a more horizontal structure, to network or even virtual organizations; and• the entire government (from classic bureaucracy to New Public Management and to network and digital governance. Technological change cannot be judged outside the social, economic and political frameworks. The massive change in our society cannot be explained only by technological (especially ICT factors. Excluding other factors may help us predict easier (but not more accurately future evolutions but as a scientific effort it is a bad practice. Much of the assumptions about technological change came from hasty generalizations. The changing nature of some collective actions, jobs in certain areas of the economy or organizations were considered as optimal (and necessary paths for the entire society (from individual to national levels. Public administration reforms are far from being a consequence of new technologies. Moreover public administration reforms do not embed ICTs and do not have a happy marriage with e-government.

  16. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis


    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less...

  17. Academic health centers and health care reform. (United States)

    Miles, S H; Lurie, N; Fisher, E S; Haugen, D


    There is increasing support for the proposition that academic health centers have a duty to accept broad responsibility for the health of their communities. The Health of the Public program has proposed that centers become directly involved in the social-political process as advocates for reform of the health care system. Such engagement raises important issues about the roles and responsibilities of centers and their faculties. To address these issues, the authors draw upon the available literature and their experiences in recent health care reform efforts in Minnesota and Vermont in which academic health center faculty participated. The authors discuss (1) the problematic balance between academic objectivity and social advocacy that faculty must attempt when they engage in the health care reform process; (2) the management of the sometimes divergent interests of academic health centers, some of their faculty, and society (including giving faculty permission to engage in reform efforts and developing a tacit understanding that distinguishes faculty positions on reform issues from the center's position on such issues); and (3) the challenge for centers to develop infrastructure support for health reform activities. The authors maintain that academic health centers' participation in the process of health care reform helps them fulfill the trust of the public that they are obligated to and ultimately depend on.

  18. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform]. (United States)

    Yanuzova, M


    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  19. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie


    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  20. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis


    reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess......We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...

  1. Overlap of movement planning and movement execution reduces reaction time. (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Legrain, Valéry; Lefèvre, Philippe


    Motor planning is the process of preparing the appropriate motor commands in order to achieve a goal. This process has largely been thought to occur before movement onset and traditionally has been associated with reaction time. However, in a virtual line bisection task we observed an overlap between movement planning and execution. In this task performed with a robotic manipulandum, we observed that participants (n = 30) made straight movements when the line was in front of them (near target) but often made curved movements when the same target was moved sideways (far target, which had the same orientation) in such a way that they crossed the line perpendicular to its orientation. Unexpectedly, movements to the far targets had shorter reaction times than movements to the near targets (mean difference: 32 ms, SE: 5 ms, max: 104 ms). In addition, the curvature of the movement modulated reaction time. A larger increase in movement curvature from the near to the far target was associated with a larger reduction in reaction time. These highly curved movements started with a transport phase during which accuracy demands were not taken into account. We conclude that an accuracy demand imposes a reaction time penalty if processed before movement onset. This penalty is reduced if the start of the movement consists of a transport phase and if the movement plan can be refined with respect to accuracy demands later in the movement, hence demonstrating an overlap between movement planning and execution. In the planning of a movement, the brain has the opportunity to delay the incorporation of accuracy requirements of the motor plan in order to reduce the reaction time by up to 100 ms (average: 32 ms). Such shortening of reaction time is observed here when the first phase of the movement consists of a transport phase. This forces us to reconsider the hypothesis that motor plans are fully defined before movement onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter


    regime types. Ef- fects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong valley-of-tears effect of large reforms in republics, and monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative...

  3. Legal Sector Reform Pursuits in Ethiopia: Gaps in Grassroots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Justice System Reform Program (which includes legal sector reform and judicial reform) was very ambitious with exemplary levels of zeal, budgetary allocation and commitment. This seems to have been followed by the fragmentation of reform efforts in the midst of inadequate grassroots empowerment (in decision making ...

  4. Evaluating Large-scale National Public Management Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Morten Balle

    This article explores differences and similarities between two evaluations of large-scale administrative reforms which were carried out in the 2000s: The evaluation of the Norwegian NAV reform (EVANAV) and the evaluation of the Danish Local Government Reform (LGR). We provide a comparative analysis...... of the similarities and differences between the evaluations of the two reforms and discuss their pros and cons....

  5. The partisan politics of institutional welfare state reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggesen Klitgaard, M.; Schumacher, G.; Soentken, M.


    We propose theoretically that the government partisan effect on institutional welfare state reforms is significantly stronger than on policy reforms. Policy reforms impose losses or gains on electoral sub-constituencies and therefore are driven by an electoral logic. Institutional reforms

  6. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo


    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  7. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man


    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well. PMID:22319407

  8. Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer. (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man


    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  9. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.


    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  10. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms


    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer


    Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, ewll-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisation process. Policy change on a large sca...

  11. [Psychoanalysis and the "Kinderladen" movement. A view on four projects]. (United States)

    von Werder, Lutz


    Along with the reception of Critical Theory in the student movement of the 1960s, psychoanalytically influenced social criticism was spread by the SDS and the Argument-Club. This had prac tical consequences, especially for the development of antiauthoritarian education, often practiced by psychoanalytical autodidacts. The public outrage caused by antiauthoritarian education was overwhelming. Throughout the media excited reactions to "wild analysis" and "pedagogic experiments" were expressed. Conservative psychoanalysts, politicians and educationalists condemned each new approach to education and alleged oedipal acting-out and danger to the safety of the state and democracy. The emancipatory educational reform on the ground broke under the pressure of conservatism. Now is the time to draw a reasonable balance of the four year alliance between psychoanalysis and the student movement, especially as it seems that this alliance has not only a past but also a future.

  12. Medical education reform efforts and failures of U.S. medical schools, 1870-1930. (United States)

    Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M


    The dramatic decline in the number of US medical schools in the early twentieth century has been traced to a medical education reform movement that gained momentum after the Civil War. The major parties to reform-the universities themselves, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), state licensing boards, the American Medical Association (AMA), and Flexner-had different interests and strategies, however, and scholars have continued to debate the impact each had on the decline. To isolate the independent effects that the temporally intertwined forces for reform had on medical school failures, this study applies statistical survival analysis to an extensive and unique data set on medical schools operating in the United States between 1870 and 1930. Contrary to the views of some scholars, the results indicate that schools closed in response to critical evaluations published by the Illinois State Board of Health in the nineteenth century and the AMA and Flexner in the twentieth century. Additionally, the results indicate that schools were less likely to have failed if they adopted certain reforms implemented at leading schools or joined the AAMC, and were more likely to have failed if their state's licensing regulations mandated lengthier premedical and medical training.

  13. Effectiveness of the Health Complex Model in Iranian primary health care reform: the study protocol. (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hassanzadeh, Roya; Zakeri, Akram; Abedi, Leili


    Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran. An adaptive controlled design is being used in this research. The study is planned to measure multiple endpoints at the baseline and 2 years after the intervention. The assessments will be done both in a population covered by the HCM, as intervention area, and in control populations covered by the traditional health care system as the control area. Assessing the effectiveness of the HCM, as the Iranian PHC reform initiative, could help health system policy makers for future decisions on its continuation or modification.

  14. Mindfulness-Based Movement. (United States)

    Lucas, Alexander R; Klepin, Heidi D; Porges, Stephen W; Rejeski, W Jack


    Compelling evidence suggests that physical activity is an effective intervention for cancer survivors, including for those undergoing active cancer treatments. However, to date most evidence has emerged from interventions that have promoted moderate to vigorous physical activity. In this conceptual review, we argue that attention should be given to the entire continuum of physical activity from reducing sedentary behavior to increasing higher levels of physical activity when possible. In addition, considerable evidence in the cancer literature supports the value of mindfulness-based interventions as a means of helping patients and survivors cope with the variety of threats that accompany this disease. Based on the success of these two areas of research, we argue for conceptualizing and promoting physical activity as Mindfulness-Based Movement, using Polyvagal Theory as a theoretical framework to understand the role and value of Mindfulness-Based Movement as a potential intervention for cancer care and control.

  15. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders]. (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra


    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White


    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  17. Educational Reform Implementation: A Co-Constructed Process


    Datnow, Amanda; Hubbard, Lea; Mehan, Hugh


    We seek to understand the process by which a school incorporates or enacts an externally developed reform design. An externally developed school reform design is a model for school improvement that is developed by an outside design team. This team generally conceives the reform design; develops the principles, implementation strategy, and materials that accompany the reform; and sometimes provides training and supports that enable local schools to prepare educators to implement the reform. Wh...

  18. Main Reform on Higher Education Systems in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kyu Lee


    Full Text Available This article examines the main reform in current Korean higher education by briefly reviewing a historical perspective on higher education reform, then discussing the main issues of recent education reform since 1994 by focusing on legal and administrative system changes, reforms or innovations of university management, and reforms of organizational culture. Finally, the main challenges and visions of Korean higher education systems toward the 21 st century are presented.

  19. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine


    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s....... This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...... to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision and primarily succeeded in increasing the political and ad...

  20. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  1. Curriculum reform in Finnish pharmacy education. (United States)

    Katajavuori, Nina; Hakkarainen, Katja; Kuosa, Tiina; Airaksinen, Marja; Hirvonen, Jouni; Holm, Yvonne


    To improve pharmacy education through integrating theory and practice, coherent constructively aligned course entities, and enhanced deep-level learning. The reform was conducted collaboratively with faculty and staff members, students, and stakeholders in pharmacy. The curriculum, syllabus, and teaching methods were assessed through evaluations and research, conducting core content analyses, and measuring the workload of pharmacy education courses. The new curriculum, launched in August 2005, consists of 6 strands, comprised of different courses which run through the entire program. Three years after the introduction of the reformed curriculum, the results of the reform are being evaluated. Ongoing assessments of teaching and learning will reveal how the education at the faculty level has developed since the reform. These assessment procedures are an integral part of the faculty's quality assurance program. The integration of practical training and theoretical studies was improved with personal study plans introduced to enhance students' learning.

  2. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Consumer-oriented monitoring and environmental reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Mol, A.P.J.; Spaargaren, G.


    The monitoring of environmental flows is usually considered an important first step in realising environmental reform of production and consumption. When citizen-consumers are involved, monitoring is frequently associated with surveillance and social control by the powerful (governmental and

  4. Physician payments under health care reform. (United States)

    Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale


    This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. National Reform Programs in Local Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    with strategic intentions. First we present how the national reform program is translated into a local government by the evoking of historically produced and context dependent discourses. Next we show that locally produced discourses need to be evoked and re-attached to the national reform program in order......This paper investigates how discourse can be mobilized as a strategic resource when introducing a public sector reform program in a local government setting. We explore how actual day-to-day practices, contexts, and processes relate to the shaping and localizing of broad strategic discourses....... In particular, we emphasize the practices in which national strategic formulations are legitimized and accepted or abandoned by the actors involved. Building on a case study conducted over a two-year time span, we show how a local actor engages with and promotes a national reform program by evoking a discourse...

  6. The Translation and Sedimentation of Accounting Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate


    Governance (PG), has emerged. In this paper it is argued that reforms are not isolated events, but are embedded in more global discourses of modernisation and influenced by the institutional pressures present in a certain field at certain points in time. Using extensive document analysis in three countries...... with different administrative regimes (the UK, Italy and Austria), we examine public sector accounting and budgeting reforms and the underlying discourses put forward in order to support the change. We investigate the extent to which the actual content of the reforms and the discourses they are embedded within...... are connected over time; that is, whether, and to what degree, the reform "talk" matches the "decisions". The research shows that in both the UK and in Italy there is consistency between the debates and the decided changes, although the dominant discourse in each country differs, while in Austria changes...

  7. Research lacking on school discipline reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...: 215-898-9642,, Penn Graduate School of Education Research lacking on school discipline reforms Thin evidence on causes of and alternatives to suspensions, expulsions September 29, 2016--Since 2011, the Obama...

  8. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem


    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  9. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva


    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  10. UAVs and Patient Movement (United States)


    space.”62 UAVs were initially utilized for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance , and targeting missions.63 However, UAVs are now being designed...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY UAVs and PATIENT MOVEMENT by Brian R Blanchard, Major, USAF Doctor...time to care for wounded Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines lies in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs ) for patient transport. An

  11. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal


    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  12. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  13. Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Shipton


    Full Text Available Movement disorders are neurological conditions affecting speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Possible target sites for DBS include the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, and the subthalamic nucleus. High-frequency DBS leads to a kind of functional deafferentation of the stimulated structure and to the modulation of cortical activity. This has a profound effect on the efficiency of movement. Indications for the use of DBS include the need to improve function, reduce medication dependency, and avoid ablative neurosurgery. Appropriate patient selection is critical for success. The implantation technique is briefly described. Programming stimulation parameters are performed via telemetry. The adverse effects of DBS are discussed. The future should see the development of “closed-loop” systems. Its use has promoted interdisciplinary team work and provided an improved understanding of the complex neurocircuitry associated with these disorders. DBS is a highly effective, safe, and reversible surgical treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease, tremor, and dystonia. It is a useful therapeutic option in carefully selected patients that significantly improves motor symptoms, functional status, and quality of life.

  14. Agrarian reform in the Philippine banana chain


    De Los Reyes, Joy Hasmin; Pelupessy, Wim


    The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) of 1986 had been the most far reaching postwar institutional change in rural Philippines. To evaluate the dynamic impact of CARP in the banana sector, we have compared the development of smallholders in both the domestic market and export chains. For exports the reform introduced contract agriculture between cooperatives of small Cavendish banana growers and export firms. Small farmers of banana cultivars like Lakatan supply the crop individual...

  15. Health Care Service Reform in Colombia


    Loaiza Quintero, Osmar Leandro


    This paper aims to provide a general overview of the health care sector reform in Colombia, which introduced the market principles of competition into the sector functioning. Therefor, this article analyzes its antecedents, characteristics and consequences. Relying on the interpretation of the empirical evidence existing about this reform, the present analysis seeks to identify the key features on which it is based. The paper ends with some observations and criticism about the results and the...

  16. Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Spinal Cord Stimulation Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement Past Issues / Summer ... a lifelong sentence of permanent paralysis." Read More "Spinal Cord Stimulation" Articles Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement / Progress in ...

  17. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  18. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.


    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  19. Massachusetts health care reform: is it working? (United States)

    McAdoo, Joshua; Irving, Julian; Deslich, Stacie; Coustasse, Alberto


    Before 2006, Massachusetts had more than 500 000 residents who lacked health insurance. Governor Mitt Romney enacted landmark legislation requiring all residents to obtain health insurance. Also, the legislation established a health insurance exchange for the purpose of broadening the choices of insurance plans made available to individuals in the state. The purpose of this research was to assess the Massachusetts health care reform in terms of access, cost, and sustainability. The methodology used was a literature review from 2006 to 2013; a total of 43 references were used. Health reform resulted in additional overall state spending of $2.42 billion on Medicaid for Massachusetts. Since the 2006 reform, 401 000 additional residents have obtained insurance. The number of Massachusetts residents who had access to health care increased substantially after the health care reform was enacted, to 98.1% of residents. The Massachusetts health care reform has not saved money for the state; its funding has been covered by Federal spending. However, reform has been sustained over time because of the high percentage of state residents who have supported the state mandate to obtain health care coverage.

  20. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  1. Evaluering af politisk-administrative reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Morten Balle


    To af de største politisk-administrative reformer i Norden i 2000erne var reformen af arbejds- og velfærdsadministrationen i Norge (NAV-reformen) og kommunalreformen i Danmark. De to reformer har en række kendetegn til fælles – også med andre store politisk-administrative reformer. De blev vedtaget...... centralt af Stortinget/Folketinget, de berørte store dele af den offentlige sektor og befolkningen, de havde flere og samtidig - i nogen grad - vanskeligt forenelige målsætninger og de udviklede og forandrede sig over tid. De to reformer var også begge kendetegnet ved at formelle strukturændringer var...... centrale og berørte såvel central- som lokal- og regional administration. Sidst men ikke mindst er begge reformer blevet evalueret, hvilket internationale undersøgelser har peget på har været undtagelsen snarere end reglen for reformer af denne karakter. Det er derfor interessant at analysere de...

  2. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  3. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    Antiglobalization movements are transnational social movements that challenge what they perceive as a monolithic global laissez-faire economic regime. From the 1990s, these movements have accused global political and economic networks of delivering too much power to dominant elites at the expense...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  4. Eye movements when viewing advertisements


    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner


    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  5. Transforming Reform into Practice: The Enactment of Standards-Based Teacher Preparation and University School Partnerships in Clinical Practice Activity Settings (United States)

    Napoli, Deborah


    Those who work to prepare student teachers in the field have faced increasing demands due to the most recent reform effort to professionalize teacher education. Three notable changes brought about by the professionalization movement are: (1) standards-based professional education, (2) state mandated teacher performance assessments, and (3) the…

  6. A Share in the Future...Only for Those Who Become Like "Us"!: Challenging the "Standardisation" Reform Approach to Indigenous Education in the Northern Territory (United States)

    Spillman, David


    The global standardization reform movement in education has seduced many Indigenous education policy makers in Australia, providing a powerful neoliberal discourse to further consolidate their focus on Indigenous educational defcit. "A Share in the Future", the latest review of Indigenous education in the Northern Territory is an…

  7. Abortion law reform in Nepal. (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa


    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finance reform under local integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Seryohin


    Full Text Available Abstract Revealed the essence of local finance manifested in economic relations, and their structure is a combination of local budgets, special purpose budget funds; budget funds of local governments; public funds of funds banks if their share capital formed at the expense of local governments; fund municipal enterprises, institutions and organizations. The analysis on fundamental scientific research on local budgets.Defined-purpose local governments.Systematized theoretical definition of municipal finances. Formed impact of reform of local finance to ensure the improvement of socio-economic status of the region to the European Union for more confident of Ukraine’s integration into Europe. Found that implementing fiscal policy in terms of spending, local authorities are guided by the priorities of socio-economic development of the region or administrative unit in line with national principles defined government policy document. Discovered topical issues of local budgets as the existence of significant differences in the regulatory and legislative framework - the excessive centralization of local budgets unstable sources of local revenues inadequacy of intergovernmental relations. It was found that to radically change the existing system of functioning of local budgets, as required considerable time gap and improving the theoretical and methodological and regulatory framework of the local budgets.

  9. Health reform requires policy capacity. (United States)

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David


    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Diversity in Intercultural Educational Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Muñoz Cruz


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the implications of contemporary linguistic and cultural diversity concerning educational theory from three different perspectives: intercultural bilingual-education proposals; the demographical view in relation to language distribution and functionality; and the analysis of diversity within the framework of linguistic and cultural conflict. In recent searches for the meanings of diversity, sociolinguistic investigations have postulated that the consequences of the loss of diversity and its replacement by uniformity will be reflected in three important dimensions of social life: first, changes in communicative function and in cultural continuity; second, a more intense concentration of rationality or reflection on dominant linguistic and cultural models; and third, an intensification of the processes of diversification and specialization of subjects’ cultural skills pertaining to the needs of global projects. Multiculturalism and inequalities have erupted with such an impact on the sociopolitical platforms of global, national and ethnic projects that they have changed diversity and multidirectionality into fascinating but conflictive disclosures. Little by little these notions are giving support to a citizenship parameter for the society of the near future, when new national problems will arise, and new solutions, charged with participation and democratic meaning, will have to be devised. At the moment, the phenomena of interculturality, bilingualism and ethnodiversity are creating new parameters for the discussion of educational reform.

  11. On Bergson's Reformation of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Ansell-Pearson


    Full Text Available In this essay I focus on the text Creative Evolution (1907 and show that although Bergson intended to make a contribution to the science of biology and to the philosophy of life, the primary aim of the text is to show the need for a fundamental reformation of philosophy. Bergson wants to show how, through an appreciation of the evolution of life, philosophy can expand our perception of the universe. I examine in detail the two essential claims he makes in the text: first, that we have to see the theory of knowledge and the theory of life as deeply related; second, that there is a need to “think beyond the human condition” or human state. Indeed, Bergson conceives philosophy as the discipline that “raises us above the human condition” and makes the effort to “surpass” it. This reveals itself to be something of an extraordinary endeavour since it means bringing the human intellect into rapport with other kinds of consciousness. Moreover, if we do not place our thinking about the nature, character, and limits of knowledge within the context of the evolution of life then we risk uncritically accepting the concepts that have been placed at our disposal. It means we think within pre-existing frames. We need, then, to ask two questions: first, how has the human intellect evolved?, and second, how can we enlarge and go beyond the frames of knowledge available to us?

  12. Transnational social movement theory and the waning war on drugs: Case studies from UNGASS 2016. (United States)

    Mostyn, Ben; Gibbon, Helen


    The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs 1988 ("1988 Convention") expresses a strong normative preference for criminalising drug possession. Historically, the United Nations offices responsible for overseeing the treaties have held that decriminalisation of drug possession is contrary to the treaties. Leading up to and during UNGASS 2016, however, rather than emphasise criminalisation, the high-ranking officials from the drug control offices emphasised the treaties' allowance of alternatives to punishment for drug possession offences. This paper applies transnational social movement theory to analyse the political opportunity structure for drug law reform at the UN. Data was collected from documents created by important United Nations agencies in the lead up to UNGASS 2016. By analysing the statements of prominent UN officials within a social movement theory framework, we can assess whether those responsible for administering global drug policy are offering concession to drug law reform social movement and whether a political opportunity structure is opening up for drug law reformers to pursue further reforms. from the United Nations documents demonstrated significant reference to local drug law reforms and the benefits of non-punitive treatment of drug users. However, given the strong normative preference and mandatory language ("shall") in the 1988 Convention, policy leaders at the UN can only offer very moderate concessions to drug law reformers - primarily the advocacy of alternatives to incarceration. Such policies still suffer many problems caused by using the criminal justice system to funnel people into treatment. Indeed, many other offices at the UN explicitly drew attention to the problem of pre-trial punishment in their contributions to UNGASS 2016. A schism is developing at the UN as other UN offices are pointing out that advocating for alternatives to punishment is inadequate due to the many problems of "pre

  13. Pentecostalism & schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia 1996-2001; evidence from documentary sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jurgens Hendriks


    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the
    schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and
    2001. It analyzes the available documents to find an answer to the question why it
    happened. Pentecostal/charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited
    tradition of mainline churches in general and the RCZ in particular. Subsequently,
    Pentecostal/charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church
    between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the
    formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel
    Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  14. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900 (United States)


    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  15. John Dewey--Philosopher and Educational Reformer (United States)

    Talebi, Kandan


    John Dewey was an American philosopher and educator, founder of the philosophical movement known as pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and a leader of the progressive movement in education in the United States.

  16. The Role of State Departments of Education in Complex School Reform. The Series on School Reform. (United States)

    Lusi, Susan Follett

    State departments of education (SDEs) play a pivotal role in the implementation of state-level school reform. This role is examined using two models of statewide school reform in Kentucky and Vermont. How the departments implemented their plans and how such implementation affected the internal dynamics of the departments, as well as the external…

  17. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain (United States)

    Engel, Laura C.


    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.


    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  19. Diagnosing disconjugate eye movements (United States)

    Serra, Alessandro; Liao, Ke; Matta, Manuela; Leigh, R John


    Background: Saccades are fast eye movements that conjugately shift the point of fixation between distant features of interest in the visual environment. Several disorders, affecting sites from brainstem to extraocular muscle, may cause horizontal saccades to become disconjugate. Prior techniques for detection of saccadic disconjugacy, especially in internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO), have compared only one point in abducting vs adducting saccades, such as peak velocity. Methods: We applied a phase-plane technique that compared each eye’s velocity as a function of change in position (normalized displacement) in 22 patients with disease variously affecting the brainstem reticular formation, the abducens nucleus, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the oculomotor nerve, the abducens nerve, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles; 10 age-matched subjects served as controls. Results: We found three different patterns of disconjugacy throughout the course of horizontal saccades: early abnormal velocity disconjugacy during the first 10% of the displacement in patients with INO, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, and advanced extraocular muscle disease; late disconjugacy in patients with disease affecting the neuromuscular junction; and variable middle-course disconjugacy in patients with pontine lesions. When normal subjects made disconjugate saccades between two targets aligned on one eye, the initial part of the movement remained conjugate. Conclusions: Along with conventional measures of saccades, such as peak velocity, phase planes provide a useful tool to determine the site, extent, and pathogenesis of disconjugacy. We hypothesize that the pale global extraocular muscle fibers, which drive the high-acceleration component of saccades, receive a neural command that ensures initial ocular conjugacy. GLOSSARY Abd. = abducens; CN = cranial nerve; CPEO = chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia; EM = eye movement; H = horizontal; INO = internuclear

  20. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.


    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce....... The current focus on the head and lack of attention to the body unifies society to focus on cognitive learning. This has implications for the values created by this system. Learning Lab Denmark aims to examine new ways of reintroducing the body into learning....

  1. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob


    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...

  2. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil


    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...... research from the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) which has recently focused upon the investigation of materially active systems ranging from textile logics at architectural scale to bending active structures in both natural and synthetic fibre-based composites...... at the intersection between architecture (considered as both practice and spatial construct) and digital technologies....

  3. Stereotypic movement disorders. (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol


    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  5. Teachers' response to standards-based reform: Probing reform assumptions in Washington State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Loeb


    Full Text Available Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this paper focuses on the assumptions embedded in Washington state's approach. Survey data from a representative sample of teachers suggest that the state's program of high student learning standards, aligned assessments and an accountability system has shaped teachers' instructional practice and their students' learning in ways that the state's reform theory assumes. However, teachers' concerns about student achievement and instructional supports indicate problems with the inherent logic of the state's reform regarding how well it serves a diverse student population.

  6. Embodied health movements: new approaches to social movements in health. (United States)

    Brown, Phil; Zavestoski, Stephen; McCormick, Sabrina; Mayer, Brian; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Gasior Altman, Rebecca


    Social movements organised around health-related issues have been studied for almost as long as they have existed, yet social movement theory has not yet been applied to these movements. Health social movements (HSMs) are centrally organised around health, and address: (a) access to or provision of health care services; (b) health inequality and inequity based on race, ethnicity, gender, class and/or sexuality; and/or (c) disease, illness experience, disability and contested illness. HSMs can be subdivided into three categories: health access movements seek equitable access to health care and improved provision of health care services; constituency-based health movements address health inequality and health inequity based on race, ethnicity, gender, class and/or sexuality differences; and embodied health movements (EHMs) address disease, disability or illness experience by challenging science on etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. These groups address disproportionate outcomes and oversight by the scientific community and/or weak science. This article focuses on embodied health movements, primarily in the US. These are unique in three ways: 1) they introduce the biological body to social movements, especially with regard to the embodied experience of people with the disease; 2) they typically include challenges to existing medical/scientific knowledge and practice; and 3) they often involve activists collaborating with scientists and health professionals in pursuing treatment, prevention, research and expanded funding. This article employs various elements of social movement theory to offer an approach to understanding embodied health movements, and provides a capsule example of one such movement, the environmental breast cancer movement.

  7. Curbed enthusiasm for electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, E.; Howatson, A.; Hoover, G.; Rheaume, G.


    Recent global experiences in electricity restructuring were examined with particular emphasis on how policy decisions have contributed to the current uncertainties for investment in electricity generation and transmission. California, Ontario, Alberta, and the United Kingdom were among the jurisdictions mentioned. It was noted that improved public policies that reduce uncertainties would encourage and manage industry restructuring while achieving improved economics and environmental objectives. Reform of economic regulations has been characterized by the following 3 trends: (1) liberalization, in which prices are determined by competitive markets, (2) state retrenchment, in which activities previously restricted by regulatory barriers are returned to the private sector, and (3) new regulatory design, in which new regulations are introduced to motivate public interest in a more competitive framework. It was noted that electricity is unlike other commodities. It cannot be economically stored and the market is characterized by volatile spot prices. The supply is not inexhaustible either. The electricity market has been more difficult to restructure than any other market that was used as a model for deregulation. No one jurisdiction has been completely successful in electricity restructuring, but each has its own merits and drawbacks. This document also discussed the impact that electricity restructuring will have on the climate change challenge and Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. When a jurisdiction moves to competitive power generation, generators look for the least expensive generation options, which are not necessarily the most environmentally desirable ones. It was emphasized that there is a need for long-term, integrated planning that addresses policy objectives for market regulation, climate change, and air quality. 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina


    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  9. Supranuclear eye movement disorders. (United States)

    Lemos, João; Eggenberger, Eric


    This work reviews supranuclear ocular motor disorders, highlighting new data published during the past year. Perceptional adaptative mechanisms may explain recent research concerning the discrepancy between objective measurement of saccade abnormalities and their putative functional visual impairment. Eye movement classes seem to be selectively disrupted by different neurodegenerative disorders. Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease patients may improve pursuit deficits, highlighting the role of basal ganglia in the control of smooth pursuit. Subcortical optokinetic pathways seem to play an important role in maintaining the monocular nasotemporal optokinetic asymmetry seen in patients with infantile esotropia. Vergence-vestibular interaction has been further delineated in patients with idiopathic bilateral vestibular failure. Pharmacological treatment of central vestibular disorders with 4-aminopyridine has been extended to patients with ataxia-telangiectasia in whom it seems to reduce slow-phase velocity of nystagmus. Recent data derived from anatomic and functional imaging studies are providing new insights into supranuclear ocular motor circuitry. Novel pharmacological and surgical therapies may have future implications in visual and vestibular rehabilitation of patients with supranuclear eye movement disorders.

  10. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S


    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  11. Franco Basaglia and the radical psychiatry movement in Italy, 1961–78 (United States)

    Foot, John


    This article provides a short introduction to the life and work of Italian radical psychiatrist and mental health reformer Franco Basaglia. A leading figure in the democratic psychiatry movement, Basaglia is little known and often misunderstood in the English-speaking world. This article will seek to address this by highlighting Basaglia’s significant role in the struggle for both deinstitutionalisation and the human rights of those incarcerated in Italy’s asylums during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:25984302

  12. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century. (United States)

    Langer, W L


    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  13. [International overview of psychiatric reform]. (United States)

    Desviat, Manuel


    There has been an increased incidence of mental health problems around the world while psychiatry is experiencing a crisis that concerns its own identity and the definition of the scope of its work. After more than half a century of deinstitutionalized community policies, neoliberal globalization is leading to changes that undermine public attention on mental health, particularly of the disorders that require greater social attention. There have been changes in the responsibility of the state and changes in the type of demand and in the way of understanding disease and its treatment. At the time, compared to the medicalization of society that mediates the expression of needs in health, user movements are beginning to emerge demanding autonomy, full citizenship, empowerment, recovery and advocacy.

  14. Refocusing medical education reform: beyond the how. (United States)

    Salmon, Marla; Williams, David; Rhee, Kyu


    Integration of the basic and clinical sciences has been at the heart of medical education reform efforts for nearly a century. Neither the rate nor magnitude of actual progress suggests that reform is anywhere near completion, which presents a challenge to educators to seek ways to overcome significant obstacles to change. Robin Hopkins and colleagues, authors of the Perspective in this issue of Academic Medicine that has prompted this invited Commentary, are among those proposing interesting and useful answers to why integration has not been better achieved. This Commentary affirms the importance of finding better ways to accomplish curricular reform, while contending that real curricular reform must move well beyond the integration of basic and clinical sciences. Drawing from the 2014 report of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Commission to Build a Healthier America, the authors cite evidence of significant disparities and growing health challenges facing Americans today. They discuss three key recommendations from the report: attending to early childhood experiences, providing healthy choices within communities, and, particularly, rethinking the education of health professionals. Next, the authors detail the implications of these recommendations for medical education, stressing both the urgency and importance of moving to adopt these as directions for real reform that will address today's health care challenges.

  15. Medical education reform: the Asian experience. (United States)

    Lam, Tai Pong; Lam, Yu Ying Bess


    Medical education reform is taking place all over the world including Asia, which has 60% of the world's population. Confronted with diverse social and cultural needs as well as resource constraints, various regions in Asia have carried out medical education reform at different levels and directions. In this article, the authors describe the application of Western-inspired reforms and localization and adaptation of Western models to fit the cultural and community needs in the five different subregions of Asia: (1) Eastern Asia, (2) Southern Asia, (3) Southeastern Asia, (4) Central Asia, and (5) Western Asia. The article reviews whether the medical education reforms brought improvement to the medical curricula and effectively fulfilled the cultural and social needs of Asian countries. The authors also explore the establishment of medical education departments in many Asian medical schools and the incorporation of research findings into medical practice. Departments of medical education will facilitate localization and promote further development of medical education reform in Asia despite the challenges ahead.

  16. Rhetoric and Reform in Waiver States. (United States)

    Grogan, Colleen M; Singer, Phillip M; Jones, David K


    Seven states have used Section 1115 waivers to expand Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). While each state pursued a unique plan, there are similarities in the types of changes each state desired to make. Equally important to how a state modified their Medicaid programs is how a state talked about Medicaid and reform. We investigate whether the rhetoric that emerged in waiver states is unique, analyze whether the rhetoric is associated with particular waiver reforms, and consider the implications of our findings for the future of Medicaid policy making. We find that proponents in waiver states have convinced a conservative legislature that their reform is sufficiently innovative that they are not doing a Medicaid expansion, and not building on the traditional Medicaid program. Particularly striking is that none of these reforms are entirely new to the Medicaid program. While not new, the way in which waiver states have been allowed to implement many of the reforms is new and has become stricter. We find an emerging consensus utilized by conservative policy makers in framing the Medicaid expansion. Expansion efforts by conservative policy makers in other states have subsequently pushed this framing far to the right. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  17. Global development challenges and health care reform. (United States)

    Preker, A S


    Changes in the role of the state and private sector are seen as central to success of many health care reforms. The article argues for a more focused "stewardship" function of governments in securing equity, efficiency, and quality objectives through more effective policy making (steering), regulating, contracting, and ensuring that adequate financing arrangements are available for the whole population. At the same time, the author argues a strong case for greater private participation in providing health services (rowing). The article reviews related reform trends in health care financing, generation of inputs and service providers. It concludes that reforms often fail, not because of a flawed technical design, but because of other factors. These include a lack of political commitment to change, resistance from vested stakeholders who fear loosing some of their existing benefits, and a failure by policymakers to translate successful aspects of the reforms into something visible that ordinary people and the public can see with their own eyes when next they use the reformed services.

  18. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson


    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  19. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics. (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin


    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. YANG Bong-keun as a Health Reformer and a Pioneer of Social Medicine


    Shin, Young-Jeon; YOON Hyo-Jung


    YANG Bong-keun (1897-1982) had lived as a medical doctor and a social and public health reformer during the turbulent period of the opening of the port to the western society occupation by and liberation from Japan and the partition of the Korean Peninsular He actively participated in the March First Movement Shinganhoe and other activities for Korea’s liberation from Japan He also founded Bogunwoondongsa an organization for public health movement for Korean people and published Bogeunwoondon...

  1. The new architects of health care reform. (United States)

    Schaeffer, Leonard D


    Rising health care costs have been an issue for decades, yet federal-level health care reform hasn't happened. Support for reform, however, has changed. Purchasers fear that health care cost growth is becoming unaffordable. Research on costs and quality is questioning value. International comparisons rank the United States low on important health system performance measures. Yet it is not these factors but the unsustainable costs of Medicare and Medicaid that will narrow the window for health care stakeholders to shape policy. Unless the health care system is effectively reformed, sometime after the 2008 election, budget hawks and national security experts will eventually combine forces to cut health spending, ultimately determining health policy for the nation.

  2. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education. (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C


    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  3. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.


    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  4. Local Public Administration Reform. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Andrei


    Full Text Available The existence of an efficient and democratic administration is one of the main criteria of defining the modernity of a country. At this moment, Romania has not such an administration. That is why a major priority of Romania is to achieve, in a few years, a real reform through which the public administration in our country to achieve the European standards and to be defined by transparency, predictability, responsability, adaptability and effectiveness. As a fact, this is a profound reform. It is obvious that, in order to be successful, this reform cannot be performed exclusively through the effort and political will of more Governments. A joint and structural effort at the level of the entire society is necessary.

  5. Local Public Administration Reform. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Profiroiu


    Full Text Available The existence of an efficient and democratic administration is one of the main criteria of defining the modernity of a country. At this moment, Romania has not such an administration. That is why a major priority of Romania is to achieve, in a few years, a real reform through which the public administration in our country to achieve the European standards and to be defined by transparency, predictability, responsability, adaptability and effectiveness. As a fact, this is a profound reform. It is obvious that, in order to be successful, this reform cannot be performed exclusively through the effort and political will of more Governments. A joint and structural effort at the level of the entire society is necessary.

  6. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala


    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  7. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail:


    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC ( Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  8. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth


    in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  9. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  10. The movement ecology of seagrasses


    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos


    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and ...

  11. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Rosen, Lee J.; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.


    A commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor for producing a synthesis gas that improves the thermal coupling of reactively-driven oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalyst reforming tubes required to efficiently and effectively produce synthesis gas.

  12. Equity Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986


    Jane G. Gravelle


    The major goals of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 included an increase in the equity of the tax system. We will consider the effects of the tax reform on vertical equity, horizontal equity, and intergenerational equity.

  13. The Evolution Of Human Resource Management In Reforming The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic reforms across the country. The reform in all sectors aims at addressing dissatisfaction of the Nigerian populace restlessly desiring change for a better Nigeria. The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, (NEEDS), ...

  14. The Implications of Legal Reform in the Nigeria Power Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    analyze the implications of the reforms propounded by law and policy, the extent to which the said reforms have ... Company (NESCO) which started operations as an electricity utility company owing ..... Installed availability capability. 4,058mw.

  15. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform


    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen


    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  16. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn


    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  17. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn


    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  18. The tax reform experience of Kenya


    Karingi, Stephen Njuguna; Wanjala, Bernadette


    In evaluating tax reform in the developing countries, one first needs to determine what is the unique role of the tax system in each particular country. One of the key reasons for undertaking tax reforms in Kenya was to address issues of inequality and to create a sustainable tax system that could generate adequate revenue to finance public expenditures. In this respect, the tax modernization programme introduced in the country was to achieve a tax system that was sustainable in the face of c...

  19. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform (United States)


    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  20. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole


    -teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... but also according to the subject. The following teaching roles are identified: Organizer, participator, performer, observer, caregiver, classroom leader, mood creator and culture creator. Integrating movement activities in the everyday life in school not only seems to be a challenge it also seems...