Sample records for prussian blue reagent

  1. Prussian Blue (United States)

    ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & ... Prussian blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN)6}x H2O) and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1) and high negative entropy of activation (-231 ...

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Adhikamsetty


    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  4. Characterization and utilization of Prussian blue and its pigments. (United States)

    Grandjean, Fernande; Samain, Louise; Long, Gary J


    This review deals with our long-range goal of determining why the Prussian blue pigments, typically either the "soluble" KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6]·xH2O or the alternative "insoluble" Fe[Fe(II)(CN)6]3·xH2O compounds, used by artists from shortly after the discovery of Prussian blue in 1704 and well into the early twentieth century, often fade when exposed to light. In order to achieve this goal it was decided that first, for comparison purposes, we had to prepare and fully characterize Prussian blues prepared by various, often commercially successful, synthetic methods. The characterization has employed a large variety of modern methods to determine both the stoichiometry of the Prussian blues and the arrangement of the voids found in the latter "insoluble" Prussian blues. The refinement of synchrotron radiation derived X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for a formally soluble and an insoluble Prussian blue required refinement in the Pm3[combining macron]m space group and lead to the K1.9[FeFe(CN)18]·{1.9 OH + 7.0H2O}, 1, and FeFe(CN)18·11.0H2O, 2, stoichiometries. The former compound, 1, exhibits an apparently random iron(ii) long-range void arrangement, whereas 2 exhibits a more non-random long-range arrangement, however, a pair distribution function analysis indicates a short-range ordering of the voids in both compounds. After further detailed characterization of many Prussian blue samples, painted samples on linen canvas, were subjected to accelerated light exposure for up to 800 hours either as pure Prussian blues or mixed with (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2, ZnO or TiO2, the white pigments often used by artists to lighten the intense Prussian blue colour. The results indicate that the first two of these white pigments play a significant role in the fading of the colour of Prussian blues. In order to achieve our long-range goal, several Prussian blue samples were prepared from "ancient" recipes published in 1758 and 1779. These so-called "ancient" samples, painted in a

  5. Thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue: implications for prebiotic chemistry. (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José Angel; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino


    The complex salt named Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 x 15 H2O, can release cyanide at pH > 10. From the point of view of the origin of life, this fact is of interest, since the oligomers of HCN, formed in the presence of ammonium or amines, leads to a variety of biomolecules. In this work, for the first time, the thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue was studied. To establish the influence of temperature and reaction time on the ability of Prussian Blue to release cyanide and to subsequently generate other compounds, suspensions of Prussian Blue were heated at temperatures from room temperature to 150 degrees at pH 12 in NH3 environment for several days. The NH3 wet decomposition of Prussian Blue generated hematite, alpha-Fe2O3, the soluble complex salt (NH4)4[Fe(CN6)] x 1.5 H2O, and several organic compounds, the nature and yield of which depend on the experimental conditions. Urea, lactic acid, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and several amino acids and carboxylic acids were identified by their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. HCN, cyanogen (C2N2), and formamide (HCONH2) were detected in the gas phase by GC/MS analysis.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Prussian Blue networked nanocomposites for electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    There has been a great deal of interest recently in Prussian blue functional graphene. Due to they displayed advantage of both Prussian blue and graphene, we presented a one-pot and green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue nanocomposites. Considering that graphene oxide (GO) ....... This kind materials displaying high performance when was used for electrocatalytic reduction H2O2....

  7. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    as electrochemicalcatalysts and supercapacitor electrode materials. Those nanocomposites were systematically characterizedby AFM, SEM, TEM and XPS. The results confirmed all PB nanostructures were well combined withgraphene nanosheets. Furthermore, PB nanostructure functionalized graphene materials were fabricatedinto......Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors...... to energytechnologies. In this presentation, we have explored the combination of redox active Prussian Blue (PB)nanostructures (e.g., core-shell Gold@Prussian Blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs) and interlocked PBnanocubes) with chemically exfoliated graphene to prepare multifunctional composites...

  8. Towards bottom-up nanopatterning of Prussian blue analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgile Trannoy


    Full Text Available Ordered nanoperforated TiO2 monolayers fabricated through sol–gel chemistry were used to grow isolated particles of Prussian blue analogues (PBA. The elaboration of the TiO2/CoFe PBA nanocomposites involves five steps. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS all along the synthesis process. Selected physico-chemical parameters have been varied in order to determine the key steps of the synthesis process and to optimize it. This study is an important step towards the full control of the fabrication process.

  9. Prussian Blue: A Potential Material to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Peng, Yueying; Li, Bing; Wang, Yunhui; He, Xinyi; Huang, Jianxing; Zhao, Jinbao


    The Prussian blue, as a potential adsorbent of polysulfides to suppress the dissolution and shuttle of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries, has been studied in this work. Our results show that Prussian blue improves the electrochemical reaction kinetics during discharge/charge processes. More importantly, the cathode with Prussian blue exhibits better cycling stability and higher discharge capacity retention (722 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 100 cycles) than the one without Prussian blue (151 mAh g-1). These improvements of electrochemical performances are ascribed to the fact that Prussian blue is very effective in suppressing the dissolution of polysulfides into liquid electrolyte by chemical adsorption.

  10. Adsorption mechanism of radioactive cesium by Prussian blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Chan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk [Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC), Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Chang Hyun [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, University of Science Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant, Prussian blue (PB) has attracted increasing attention as a material for use in decontaminating the environment. We have focused the fundamental mechanism of specific Cs{sup +} adsorption into PB in order to develop high-performance PB-based Cs{sup +} adsorbents. The ability of PB to adsorb Cs varies considerably according to its origin such as what synthesis method was used, and under what conditions the PB was prepared. It has been commonly accepted that the exclusive abilities of PB to adsorb hydrated Cs{sup +} ions are caused by regular lattice spaces surrounded by cyanido-bridged metals. Cs{sup +} ions are trapped by simple physical adsorption in the regular lattice spaces of PB. Cs{sup +} ions are exclusively trapped by chemical adsorption via the hydrophilic lattice defect sites with proton-exchange from the coordination water. Prussian blue are believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of {sup 1}3{sup 7C}s contaminated water around nuclear facilities and/or after nuclear accidents.

  11. Viral capsids as templates for the production of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Escosura, A; Verwegen, M.; Sikkema, F.D.; Comellas Aragones, M.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, T.; Nolte, Roeland; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria


    The use of a viral template has allowed the synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles with a diameter of 18 ± 1.7 nm and their organization into hexagonal patterns on mica and hydrophilic carbon surfaces.

  12. Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents. (United States)

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin


    A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion with Fe(3+) ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H(2)O(2) reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H(2)O(2) formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 μM to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 μM and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm(-2) M(-1). The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.

  13. A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun


    A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to Prussian white nanoparticles leading to a decrease of the absorption spectrum, was chosen as the target. And we were able to determine the concentration of sulfite in aqueous solution with a low detection limit and a broad linear relationship.A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to

  14. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang


    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  15. Prussian Blue-coated interdigitated array electrodes for possible analytical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, M.; Grabner, E.W.; Bergveld, Piet


    Thin films of iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) (Prussian Blue) were electrochemically deposited on interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes, yielding systems which can be considered as chemiresistors in sensing alkali metal ion concentrations in an adjacent electrolyte. This is due to the fact that the

  16. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, Marta, E-mail: [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Tian Faming [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: {center_dot} An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. {center_dot} Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. {center_dot} CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. {center_dot} Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. {center_dot} The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N{sup 6}-side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  17. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin


    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing toxic agents. High quality Prussian blue nanocubes with no or little coordinated water were generated simultaneously. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was thus functionalized by Prussian blue nanocubes via chemical bonding to form a kind of interlocked microstructure with high stability and good conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg(-1), with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance catalysis towards electroreduction of H2O2 with a high sensitivity of 1.5Acm(-2)M(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical charactization of Prussian Blue by using the E-MOSFET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet


    Prussian Blue (PB) is the mixed-valent compound, ferric ferrocyanide which can be used in electrocatalytic, electrochromic and charge storage applications. Observations of the electrochemical properties of PB have been done by different methods, e.g. electrochemical and optical. In this paper,

  19. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab


    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...

  20. One-pot green synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes decorated reduced graphene oxide using mushroom extract for efficient 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ruixue; Zhang, Qiuping; Gu, Yue; Tang, Liu; Li, Cong; Zhang, Zhiquan


    Highlights: • Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide was synthesized by mushroom extract. • This methodology avoids toxic reagents. • Detects 4-nitrophenol with low detection. - Abstract: One-pot green approach to the synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/RGO) nanocomposite had been attempted. It was based on the extract of mushroom with K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] and graphene oxide (GO) as precursors, where the reduction of GO and the deposition of PBNCs occurred simultaneously. The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. With the introduction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), the β-CD/PBNCs/RGO system showed linear behavior in the range from 0.01 to 700 μM for 4-nitrophenol with a low detection limit of 2.34 nM (S/N = 3)

  1. Colour changes due to the fading of Prussian blue in Danish Golden Age paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Buti, David; Vila, Anna


    Examination of oil paintings by artists from the so-called Danish Golden Age in the first half of the nineteenth century indicates that a significant degree of deterioration and fading has occurred in a number of cases in some of the blue coloured areas. The occurrence was initially suggested...... by the different appearance of the paint along the edges of the paintings where they had been protected from the light. Technical examination of paintings from the Statens Museum for Kunst collection, by artists such as Christen Købke, Nicolai Abildgaard and C.W. Eckersberg, revealed the presence of Prussian blue......, mixed with lead white and calcium carbonate as a component of the paint in the affected areas. Due to its high tinting strength, Prussian blue was often used – mostly in moderate proportions - mixed with other compounds and pigments. It has been demonstrated by experimental studies that the durability...

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS


    Full Text Available In this work, edged plane pyrolytic graphite electrode EPPGE was modified with functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes and Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB). The modified electrode was characterised by techniques such as TEM, FTIR, XPS, EDX...

  3. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shouqing, E-mail: [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Cheng Shi; Feng Lianrong; Wang Xiaomei; Chen Zhigang [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China)


    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R{sub K} > R > R{sub Na} > R{sub Rb} > R{sub Cs}, which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  4. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade


    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  5. Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for the Enrichment of Radioactive Cesium in Solutions - 13275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles in different form were studied for the adsorptive enrichment of Cs in solutions. Water dispersible nano-PB was found to be highly effective on removing trace level Cs in stagnant waters. The nano-PB loaded filters were effective on collecting Cs in flow systems like river water, thus provides a big relief on controlling the environmental mobility of Cs and its entry to the productive lands via water. Water insoluble nano-PB adsorbent possesses high Cs loading capacity and selectivity and it is found to be the ultimate option for the systems containing high concentration Cs. (authors)

  6. Prussian Blue Modified Solid Carbon Nanorod Whisker Paste Composite Electrodes: Evaluation towards the Electroanalytical Sensing of H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Siimenson


    Full Text Available Metallic impurity free solid carbon nanorod “Whiskers” (SCNR Whiskers, a derivative of carbon nanotubes, are explored in the fabrication of a Prussian Blue composite electrode and critically evaluated towards the mediated electroanalytical sensing of H2O2. The sensitivity and detection limits for H2O2 on the paste electrodes containing 20% (w/w Prussian Blue, mineral oil, and carbon nanorod whiskers were explored and found to be 120 mA/(M cm2 and 4.1 μM, respectively, over the concentration range 0.01 to 0.10 mM. Charge transfer constant for the 20% Prussian Blue containing SCNR Whiskers paste electrode was calculated, for the reduction of Prussian Blue to Prussian White, to reveal a value of 1.8±0.2 1/s (α=0.43, N=3. Surprisingly, our studies indicate that these metallic impurity-free SCNR Whiskers, in this configuration, behave electrochemically similar to that of an electrode constructed from graphite.

  7. Synthesis of gold coated magnetic microparticles and their application for electrochemical glucose sensing by the enzymatically precipitated prussian blue. (United States)

    Jung, Hye Young; Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun


    An enzyme stimulated deposition of prussian blue onto the gold-coated magnetic microparticles is described. We propose to synthesize the continuous outer gold layer on the magnetic particle for a gold working electrode and its superparamagnetic property. In-depth characterization of the gold shell formation was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry. The gold-coated magnetic microparticles offered adhesive layer for the immobilization of glucose oxidase catalyzing the generation of prussian blue in the presence of glucose. The assembled prussian blue on the gold shell surfaces was detected with electrochemical measurements depending on the glucose concentration. With accomplishing the linear response range from 0.2 mM to 10 mM of glucose, this approach successfully proposed the applicability of the magnetic core-gold shell structures to the electrochemical bioassay area.

  8. Alkali Cation Potential and Functionality in the Nanoporous Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo


    Full Text Available Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials is utilized in lithium-ion secondary battery, ion exchange, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, molecular filters, and so on. Here, we performed ab initio total energy calculation to derive the alkali cation potential in the Prussian blue analogues, AxM[Fe(CN6]zH2O (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; M=Co, Ni, Mn, and Cd, with jungle-gym-type nanoporous framework. The potential curves of larger cations, that is, K+, Rb+ and Cs+, exhibit a barrier at the window of the host framework, while those of the smaller cations, that is, Li+ and Na+, exhibit no barrier. We will discuss the useful functionalities observed in the Prussian blue analogues, that is, (a battery properties mediated by Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation, (b electrochromism mediated by Na+ transfer in all solid device, and (c the elimination of Cs+ from aqueous solution by precipitation, in terms of the alkali cation potentials.

  9. Simultaneous identification of historical pigments Prussian blue and indigo in paintings by electrospray mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Papoušková, Barbora; Sulovský, Petr; Lemr, Karel


    A new analytical protocol for identification of Prussian blue (PB) and indigo was proposed. Pigments useful for dating of artworks were detected by flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after alkalization of their suspensions in water, decomposition of PB to iron (III) hydroxide and hexacyanoferrate (II) and reduction of indigo to soluble leucoindigo using sodium dithionite. Limits of detection (PB 47 pg, indigo 59 pg) complied with requirements for analysis of microsamples of historical paintings. Potential of the developed method was proven in analysis of blue samples of two oil paintings from the 20(th) century. Further, PB was confirmed in a microsample from a painting of 'Crucifixion', St. Sebestian church on St. Hill in Mikulov, Czech Republic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung


    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release. (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J


    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  12. Buccal Mucosa Exfoliative Cell Prussian Blue Stain Co-Relates with Iron Overload in β-Thalassemia Major Patients. (United States)

    Gajaria, Pooja K; Maheshwari, Ujwala M; Borkar, D B; Dhar, Reeta; Pancholi, Varsha


    Thalassemics require regular blood transfusion therapy leading to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. We hereby attempted to measure this iron overload by means of exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique. The aims and objectives of our study were: 1. To detect iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl's Prussian blue stain in β-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate staining positivity with serum ferritin levels. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 50 β-thalassemia major patients (who had taken more than 12 transfusions) and 25 healthy subjects of the same age group as controls. Smears were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Blood samples were taken from the study group for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Grading criteria were defined for assessing the Prussian blue positivity. Perl's positivity was observed in 49 out of 50 of thalassemic patients (98%). 1 patient had Grade 0, 7 patients had Grade I, 5 had Grade II, 12 had Grade III, 14 had Grade IV while 11 patients had Grade V positivity. Spearman Rank's Correlation Co-efficient was 0.38, signifying a weak positive correlation between positivity of buccal smears for Perl's Prussian blue staining and respective serum ferritin levels. Perl's Prussian blue staining of exfoliated cells from buccal mucosa can be used to assess iron overload in β-thalassemia major patients, as a screening as well as diagnostic tool. With the grading system we can give a semi-quantitative assessment of the same.

  13. Graphene Paper Doped with Chemically Compatible Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Nanohybrid Electrocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Han, Shuang; Gan, Shiyu


    Along with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), water soluble Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, around 6 nm) are synthesized and broadly characterized. These two types of highly stable, low‐cost and chemically compatible nanomaterials are exploited as building ingredients to prepare electrically...... oxidation and detection of glucose. The present work demonstrates a facile and highly reproducible way to construct free‐standing and flexible graphene paper doped with electroactive catalyst. Thanks to high stability, low‐cost and efficient electrocatalytic characteristics, this kind of nanohybrid material...... enhanced and functionally endorsed nanohybrid electrocatalysts, which are further transformed into free‐standing graphene papers. PBNPs doped graphene papers show highly efficient electrocatalysis towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide and can be used alone as flexible chemical sensors for potential...

  14. A glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue/chitosan hybrid film. (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gu, Haifang; Yin, Fan; Tu, Yifeng


    Based on electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and chitosan (CS) directly on gold electrode, a hybrid film of PB/CS has been prepared. PB in this film shows a good stability compared with pure PB film when it worked in neutral and weak alkalescent solution and can act as redox mediator. It provides the potential application of such film in biosensor fabrication. A glucose biosensor was fabricated by electrodepositing glucose oxidase (GOD)/CS film on this PB/CS modified electrode. The optimum experimental conditions of biosensor for the detection of glucose have been studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, a linear dependence of the catalytic current upon glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2x10(-6) to 4x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 3.97x10(-7)M. The resulting biosensor could be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment.

  15. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo


    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  16. Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Intercalated into Diamagnetic Mg–Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Zhang


    Full Text Available A heterostructure of diamagnetic magnesium‒aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg‒Al LDHs and photomag‐ netic cobalt‒iron Prussian Blue analogue (Co‒Fe PBA was designed, synthesized and then designated as LDH‒PB. The cyanide-bridged Co‒Fe PBA was two-dimensionally intercalated into the Mg‒Al LDH template by the stepwise anion exchange method. LDH‒PB showed ferrimagnetic properties with in-plane antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, as well as small photo-induced magnetization by visible light illumination due to the low dimensional structures and the characteristic photo-induced electronic states of the mixed valence of FeIII(low spin, S = 1/2‒CN‒ CoII(high spin, S = 3/2‒NC‒FeII (low spin, S = 0.

  17. Planar Amperometric Glucose Sensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Immobilized by Chitosan Film on Prussian Blue Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyou Chen


    Full Text Available A planar amperometric glucose microsensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized by chitosan film on Prussian Blue layer has been developed. The experimental results show that the optimum detection potential is 50 mV (versus Ag/AgCl and the optimum pH is 6.5. Under the selective conditions the sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity of 98 nA/M and a linear range of 0.1-6.0 mM. The apparent Michanelis-Menten constant of the sensor is 21 mM. The response time is less than 60 seconds. No apparent change in the response to glucose was observed during one month. Foremost, the interference of ascorbic and uric acids can be avoided due to selective permeability of chitosan film and electrocatalysis of PB layer to H2O2. The sensor has been applied to detect glucose in human blood serum.

  18. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles


    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe


    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentrati...

  19. Core-shell hybrid nanomaterial based on prussian blue and surface active maghemite nanoparticles as stable electrocatalyst. (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Salviulo, Gabriella; Polakova, Katerina; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Kaslik, Josef; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio


    A novel core-shell nanomaterial based on prussian blue (PB) coating on peculiar surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), was developed. The synthetic process involves the direct crystallization of Fe(II)(CN)6(4-) onto the surface of SAMNs by simple incubation in water at controlled pH, demonstrating the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) on nanoparticle surface. The coating reaction occurs in a narrow pH range and the synthetic procedure was optimized. The resulting SAMN@PB hybrid nanostructures were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Mössbauer, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The nanomaterial, characterized by high stability in alkaline media, behave as excellent electro-catalyst for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The stability of SAMN@PB hybrid has been investigated as a function of pH, showing excellent stability up to pH 9.0 and demonstrating the feasibility of SAMNs, superficially derivatized with prussian blue, to produce an efficient and extremely stable nanostructured material. This maghemite supported nanostructured prussian blue was applied to develop a sensor, based on a simple carbon paste electrode, which was able to catalyze the electro-reduction of hydrogen peroxide, in aqueous solutions, buffered at pH 7.0, at low applied potentials (0.0 V vs. SCE). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prussian Blue Analogue Mesoframes for Enhanced Aqueous Sodium-ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Sun


    Full Text Available Mesostructure engineering is a potential avenue towards the property control of coordination polymers in addition to the traditional structure design on an atomic/molecular scale. Mesoframes, as a class of mesostructures, have short diffusion pathways for guest species and thus can be an ideal platform for fast storage of guest ions. We report a synthesis of Prussian Blue analogue mesoframes by top-down etching of cubic crystals. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the surfaces of the cubic crystals were selectively removed by HCl, leaving the corners, edges, and the cores connected together. The mesoframes were used as a host for the reversible insertion of sodium ions with the help of electrochemistry. The electrochemical intercalation/de-intercalation of Na+ ions in the mesoframes was highly reversible even at a high rate (166.7 C, suggesting that the mesoframes could be a promising cathode material for aqueous sodium ion batteries with excellent rate performance and cycling stability.

  1. Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics. (United States)

    Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei


    A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy.

  2. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Radiocesium Decorporation by a Prussian Blue Treatment and Stockpiling. (United States)

    Rump, Alexis; Stricklin, Daniela; Lamkowski, Andreas; Eder, Stefan; Port, Matthias


    In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL). Treatment costs were based on the market price of PB in Germany. Moreover we considered the holding costs of stockpiling. The benefit of PB treatment increases with its duration up to about 90 days. If treatment initiation is delayed, the maximum achievable benefit is decreased. For a VSL of 1.646 million €, the net benefit of a 90-days treatment started 1 day after the incorporation remains positive up to a stockpiling duration of 10 years. If starting PB treatment as late as the 180th day after incorporation, the costs will surpass the benefit. We conclude that a prompt decision making and early treatment initiation greatly impacts on the medical but also economic efficiency of a PB treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Application of Prussian blue nanoparticles for the radioactive Cs decontamination in Fukushima region. (United States)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Yoshino, Kazunori; Funahashi, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Osada, Mitsuo; Kawamoto, Tohru


    Cs decontamination efficiencies of the composites of iron hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were investigated in comparison with commercial Prussian blue and natural zeolite. In pure water solution, the adsorption rate varied with sizes. In ash extract, where Cs adsorbing ability of zeolite was sharply dropped due to its poor selectivity, the impact of coexisting ions was negligible for FeHCF. FeHCF-n11, having the finest primary and secondary particle size, resulted the highest distribution coefficient, which was comparable to the high efficiency analogues, CoHCF or NiHCF. This observation suggested the possibility of preparing the high performance FeHCF by particle size and composition adjustment. FeHCF nanoparticle in bead form was tested for the removal of radioactive Cs in pilot scale. Due to larger secondary particle size, pronounced effect of solution temperature on the Cs adsorption kinetics on FeHCF bead was observed. Adjusting the mass of the adsorbent for the given solution temperature is recommended for achieving high decontamination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe


    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicating the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.

  5. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan


    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode. (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining


    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  7. Prussian blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in humans and beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A


    Prussian blue was used to enhance the elimination of {sup 137}Cs from 46 individuals contaminated in an accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987. PB dosages administered to the victims varied from 1 to 3 g.d{sup -1} for children and from 3 to 10 g.d{sup -1} for adolescents and adults. To complement human data in the evaluation of the effectiveness of PB and its relation to age, a 41 day study was conducted using immature (4.7 months old), young adult (2.4 years old) and aged (13.5 years old) male beagle dogs. The mean biological half-times for the Goiania people under PB treatment were 24 {+-} 3 days, 30 {+-} 12 days and 25 {+-} 11 days, for children, adolescents and adults, respectively. The mean reductions of half-times were 43%, 46% and 69%, respectively. The effect of PB was shown to be independent of age and the administered dose. Similar results were found in dogs: the mean biological half-times related to the second component of the equation were 11, 15 and 13 days for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively, indicating a reduction of the clearance half-times of 45%, 45% and 63%. The experiment in dogs has shown that when the PB is administered immediately after caesium intake, its effectiveness is greater in immature than in aged dogs. The percentages of the initial body burden remaining 41 days after caesium intake were 4%, 12% and 8% for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively. This age-related effect correlates with the increased fraction of {sup 137}Cs eliminated with the fast clearance half-time, and was greater in immature than in aged dogs. (author)

  8. Rhodium-Prussian Blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane Midori


    Full Text Available Prussian Blue was deposited at carbon paste electrode surface from a solution containing 2.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 K3[Fe(CN6], 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 FeCl3 and 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 HCl using two controlled potentials. To improve the stability of the modified electrode it was 50 times cycled in a solution containing 1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 RhCl3, 0.50 mol L-1 KCl and 0.010 mol L-1 HCl in the potential range from - 0.40 V to 0.60 V at 60 mV s-1. The Rh - Prussian Blue carbon paste modified electrode (Rh-PBMCPE showed good stability during amperometric catalytic determination of H2O2 at 0.040 V, without ascorbic and uric acids interferences. The current changed linearly with H2O2 concentrations in the range of 5.0 x 10-5 - 8.6 x 10-4 mol L-1. The estimated detection limit was 2.8 x 10-5 mol L-1 with sensibility changing from 1.32 to 0.96 A mol-1 L cm-2 along five days (180 determinations.

  9. In Situ Growth of Prussian Blue Nanostructures at Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Modified Platinum Electrode for Synergistic Methanol Oxidation. (United States)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Kang, Inhak; Kim, Kyuwon


    Herein, we report a facile synthetic strategy for the in situ growth of Prussian blue nanostructures (PB NSs) at the amine-functionalized silicate sol-gel matrix (TPDT)-RGO composite via the electrostatic interaction. Subsequently, Pt nanostructures are electrodeposited onto the preformed ITO/TPDT-RGO-PB electrode to prepare the RGO/PB/Pt catalyst. The significance of the present method is that the PB NSs are in situ grown by interconnecting the RGO layers, leading to 3D cage-like porous nanostructure. The modified electrodes are characterized by FESEM, EDAX, XRD, XPS, and electrochemical techniques. The RGO/PB/Pt catalyst exhibits synergistic electrocatalytic activity and high stability toward methanol oxidation. The porous nature of the TPDT and PB and unique electron-transfer mediating behavior of PB integrated with RGO in the presence of Pt nanostructures facilitated synergistic electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  10. Prussian blue nanocubes: multi-functional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Cook, Jason R.; Dumani, Diego S.; Kubelick, Kelsey P.; Luci, Jeffrey; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.


    Imaging modalities utilize contrast agents to improve morphological visualization and to assess functional and molecular/cellular information. Here we present a new type of nanometer scale multi-functional particle that can be used for multi-modal imaging and therapeutic applications. Specifically, we synthesized monodisperse 20 nm Prussian Blue Nanocubes (PBNCs) with desired optical absorption in the near-infrared region and superparamagnetic properties. PBNCs showed excellent contrast in photoacoustic (700 nm wavelength) and MR (3T) imaging. Furthermore, photostability was assessed by exposing the PBNCs to nearly 1,000 laser pulses (5 ns pulse width) with up to 30 mJ/cm2 laser fluences. The PBNCs exhibited insignificant changes in photoacoustic signal, demonstrating enhanced robustness compared to the commonly used gold nanorods (substantial photodegradation with fluences greater than 5 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the PBNCs exhibited superparamagnetism with a magnetic saturation of 105 emu/g, a 5x improvement over superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. PBNCs exhibited enhanced T2 contrast measured using 3T clinical MRI. Because of the excellent optical absorption and magnetism, PBNCs have potential uses in other imaging modalities including optical tomography, microscopy, magneto-motive OCT/ultrasound, etc. In addition to multi-modal imaging, the PBNCs are multi-functional and, for example, can be used to enhance magnetic delivery and as therapeutic agents. Our initial studies show that stem cells can be labeled with PBNCs to perform image-guided magnetic delivery. Overall, PBNCs can act as imaging/therapeutic agents in diverse applications including cancer, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmology, and tissue engineering. Furthermore, PBNCs are based on FDA approved Prussian Blue thus potentially easing clinical translation of PBNCs.

  11. Selective transport of ions and molecules across layer-by-layer assembled membranes of polyelectrolytes, p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes and Prussian Blue-type complex salts. (United States)

    Tieke, Bernd; Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin


    Our recent studies in the field of ultrathin membranes prepared upon layer-by-layer assembly of various polyionic compounds such as polyelectrolytes, calixarenes and polyelectrolytes, and metal hexacyanoferrate salts such as Prussian Blue are reviewed. It is demonstrated that polyelectrolyte multilayers can be used (a) as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes suitable for water softening and seawater desalination and (b) as molecular sieves and ion sieves for size-selective separation of neutral and charged aromatic compounds. Furthermore, hybrid membranes of p-sulfonato-calixarenes and cationic polyelectrolytes showing specific host-guest interactions with permeating ions are described. The membranes exhibit high selectivities for distinct metal ions. Finally, it is demonstrated that purely inorganic membranes of Prussian Blue (PB) and analogues can be prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of transition metal cations and hexacyanoferrate anions. Due to the porous lattice of PB, the membranes are useful as ion filters able to separate cesium from sodium ions, for example.

  12. Chemical consequences of the nuclear reactions 58Fe(n,γ)59Fe and 57Co(EC)57Fe in soluble Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jes; Maddock, A. G.; Siekierska, K. E.


    KFe[Fe(CN)6],H2O was prepared with 58Fe in either the cation or the complex, and both samples were neutron-irradiated and analysed for free and complexed 59Fe. Parallel experiments were performed on K4[Fe(CN)6],3H2O. In Prussian Blue the retention in the hexacyano-complex is ca. 5% and can be inc...

  13. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: From synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Barré, Y. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Vincent, T. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Taulemesse, J.-M. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Center des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Robitzer, M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt – UMR5253, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, ICGM-MACS-R2M2, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, F-34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Guibal, E., E-mail: [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France)


    Highlights: • Prussian blue microparticles incorporated in chitin sponges. • Efficient Cs(I) sorption after water absorption by dry hybrid sponge. • Water draining after sorption for metal confinement and water decontamination. • High decontamination factors and distribution coefficients for Cs(I) and {sup 137}Cs(I). • Effect of freezing conditions on porous structure and textural characterization. - Abstract: Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water.

  14. Amperometric immunosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue/nanogold-modified electrode for determination of α-fetoprotein. (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yin, Bing


    In this article, a conspicuously simple and highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor based on the sequential electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface is proposed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). By comparison with PB, the MWCNT/PB composite film had been proven to show much better electrochemical stability and a larger response current. The electrodeposited GNP film can be used not only to immobilize biomolecules but also to avoid the leakage of PB and to prevent shedding of MWCNT/PB composite film from the electrode surface. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor for AFP was observed with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) equal to 3 pg/ml (at 3δ), and the linear working range spanned the concentrations of AFP from 0.01 to 300 ng/ml. Moreover, the immunosensor, as well as a commercially available kit, was examined for use in the determination of AFP in real human serum specimens. More significant, the assay mentioned here is simpler than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an excellent correlation of levels of AFP measured was obtained, indicating that the developed immunoassay could be a promising alternative approach for detection of AFP and other tumor markers in the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma


    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  16. Glucose biosensor based on three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue bicomponent film. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Tian, Rong; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng


    In this paper, a three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue (3DOM SPAN/PB) bicomponent film was fabricated via the inverted crystal template technique using step-by-step electrodeposition. In this bicomponent film, PB not only acted as a redox mediator, but also presented increased stability in neutral or weak alkaline solution by the protection of SPAN layer on the top. A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated based on the large active surface area and excellent conductivity possessed by the 3DOM SPAN/PB film. The applying experimental conditions of the glucose biosensor have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a wide linear range over three orders of magnitude in glucose concentrations (from 2 to 1600 μM) and a low detection limit of 0.4 μM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited short response time, high selectivity and excellent operation stability, which can be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In-situ secondary growth of nanocube-based Prussian-blue film as an ultrasensitive biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available A regular nanostructure has been widely confirmed to result ina marked improvement in material performance in biosensing applications. In the present study, a regular nanostructured Prussian blue (PB film with two heterogeneous crystal layers was synthesized in-situ using a secondary growth method. A PB seed layer was first controlled to form uniform cube-like crystal nuclei through an ultrasonic reaction with a single reactant. Then, well-defined 100 nm PB nanocubes were further crystallized on this seed layer using a self-assembly approach. In order to accelerate the electron transfer rate during the enzyme reaction for glucose detection, the graphene was used as the main cross-linker to immobilize glucose oxidase on the PB film. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited high electrocatalysis and electron conductivity for the detection of trace glucose with a sensitivity of 141.5 μA mM−1 cm−2, as well as excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid under a low operation potential of −0.05 V.

  18. Spontaneous Deposition of Prussian Blue on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Application in an Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Keung Shiu


    Full Text Available A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT materials. Formation of PB deposits was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. The surface morphology of the PB particles deposited on the substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CNT/PB composite modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited an electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide reduction. These modified electrodes exhibited a high sensitivity for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, probably due to the synergistic effect of CNT with PB. Then, CNT/PB modified electrodes were further developed as amperometric glucose biosensors. These biosensors offered a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.1 to 0.9 mM with good selectivity, high sensitivity of 0.102 A M−1 cm−2 and short response time (within 2 s at a negative operation potential of −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  19. Electrochemical immunosensor based on hydrophilic polydopamine-coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon for the rapid screening of 3-bromobiphenyl. (United States)

    Sun, Zihong; Luo, Zhigang; Gan, Cuifen; Fei, Shidong; Liu, Yingju; Lei, Hongtao


    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for 3-bromobiphenyl (3-BBP) detection was constructed by employing a new polydopamine coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon (PDOP/PB/CMK-3) nanocomposite as the substrate platform and multi-horseradish peroxidase-double helix carbon nanotubes-secondary antibody (multi-HRP-DHCNTs-Ab2) as the signal label. PB/CMK-3 was firstly successfully in-situ synthesized with the aid of the CMK-3 reduction, which was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. By using PDOP/PB/CMK-3 as the substrate, it can effectively enhance the specific surface for antigen loading due to the three-dimensional structure of the nanocomposites, while large amount of PB that fixed inside or outside the pore of CMK-3 successfully improved the electrochemical response and the PDOP film can provide a biocompatible environment to maintain the activity of antigen availability. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor shows a good current response to 3-BBP in a linear range from 5 pM to 2 nM with a detection limit of 2.25 pM. In addition, the specificity, reproducibility and stability of the immunosensor were also proved to be acceptable, indicating its potential application in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flow injection amperometric determination of persulfate in cosmetic products using a Prussian Blue film-modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R. Stradiotto


    Full Text Available A flow-injection system with a glassy carbon disk electrode modified with Prussian Blue film is proposed for the determination of persulfate in commercial samples of hair bleaching boosters by amperometry. The detection was obtained by chronoamperometric technique and the sample is injected into the electrochemical cell in a wall jet configuration. Potassium chloride at concentration of 0.1 mol L-1 acted as sample carrier at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min-1 and supporting-electrolyte. For 0.025 V (vs. Ag/AgCl applied voltage, the proposed system handles ca. 160 samples per hour (1.0 10-4 - 1.0 10-3 mol L-1 of persulfate, consuming about 200 μL sample and 11 mg KCl per determination. Typical linear correlations between electrocatalytic current and persulfate concentration was ca. 0.9998. The detection limit is 9.0 10-5 mol L-1 and the calculated amperometric sensibility 3.6 103 μA L mol-1. Relative standard deviation (n =12 of a 1.0 10-4 mol L-1 sample is about 2.2%. The method was applied to persulfate determination in commercial hair-bleaching samples and results are in agreement with those obtained by titrimetry at 95% confidence level and good recoveries (95 - 112% of spiked samples were found.

  1. Metal-to-metal electron transfer and magnetic interactions in a mixed-valence Prussian Blue analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail:; Saha, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Koner, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ksenofontov, V. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Reiman, S. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Guetlich, P. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail:


    In search of a new Prussian Blue analogue exhibiting fascinating magnetic properties, potassium manganese hexacyanoferrate, K{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.66}{sup II}Mn{sub 1.44}{sup III}[Fe{sub 0.2}{sup II}Fe{sub 0.8}{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]O{sub 0.6}= {sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 1.32}], 7.6H{sub 2}O, has been synthesized. This compound undergoes a paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition at 10K. Temperature and magnetic field-dependent magnetization studies of this compound have revealed different spin alignments below and above 3K. The nature of possible magnetic interactions between the nearest neighbor magnetic centers has been discussed in order to explore the origin of the observed magnetic interactions. Moessbauer spectroscopic study at different temperatures demonstrates the presence of both Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} in low-spin states in this compound. Quantitative analysis of the Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} ions, and their temperature dependence exhibits the existence of an electron transfer phenomenon between Mn and Fe ions [Fe{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 5}, S=1/2)-CN-Mn{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 2}, S=5/2)]-bar [Fe{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 6}, S=0)-CN-Mn{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 1}, S=2)]. This electron transfer has been remarkably enhanced in the magnetically ordered region.

  2. Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini


    Full Text Available Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition. The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system.

  3. Surfactant-assisted fabrication of 3D Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel as a self-propelling motor for water treatment (United States)

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Tang, Jilin


    Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an ideal candidate for water treatment.Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an

  4. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging. (United States)

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D


    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K(0.94)Gd(0.02)Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Long-range interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis of molecular scale Prussian Blue nanoparticles linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces by different chemical contacting groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin


    We have explored interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of 5–6 nm Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immobilized on Au(111)-electrode surfaces via molecular wiring with variable-length, and differently functionalized thiol-based self-assembled molecular monolayers...... forming linker molecules. The interfacial ET rate constants were found to depend exponentially on the ET distance for distances longer than a few methylene groups in the chain, with decay factors (β) of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 per CH2, for SAMs terminated by −NH3+,–COO–, and–CH3, respectively. This feature...

  6. Filling carbon nanotubes with Prussian blue nanoparticles of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity for colorimetric chemo- and biosensing. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Fu, Yingchun; Chai, Liyuan; Chao, Long; Bu, Lijuan; Meng, Yue; Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo


    Facile filling of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity was performed to develop novel colorimetric sensing protocols for assaying H2O2 and glucose. Fine control of PBNP growth was achieved by modulating the concentration ratio of K3 [Fe(CN)6] and FeSO4 precursors in an acidic solution containing ultrasonically dispersed MWCNTs, and thus size-matched PBNPs could be robustly immobilized in the cavities of the MWCNTs (MWCNT-PBin). Unlike other reported methods involving complicated procedures and rigorous preparation/separation conditions, this mild one-pot filling method has advantages of easy isolation of final products by centrifugation, good retention of the pristine outer surface of the MWCNT shell, and satisfactory filling yield of (24±2) %. In particular, encapsulation of PBNPs of poor dispersibility and limited functionality in dispersible and multifunctional MWCNT shells creates new and valuable opportunities for quasihomogeneous-phase applications of PB in liquid solutions. The MWCNT-PBin nanocomposites were exploited as a peroxidase mimic for the colorimetric assay of H2O2 in solution by using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as reporter, and they gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 nM. Moreover, glucose oxidase (GOx) was anchored on the outer surface of MWCNT-PBin to form GOx/MWCNT-PBin bionanocomposites. The cooperation of outer-surface biocatalysis with peroxidase-like catalysis of interior PB resulted in a novel cooperative colorimetric biosensing mode for glucose assay. The use of GOx/MWCNT-PBin for colorimetric biosensing of glucose gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.0 mM and an LOD of 200 nM. The presented protocols may be extended to other multifunctional nanocomposite systems for broad applications in catalysis and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co

  7. A resettable and reprogrammable biomolecular keypad lock with dual outputs based on glucose oxidase-Au nanoclusters-Prussian blue nanocomposite films on an electrode surface. (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Li, Menglu; Li, Tianrui; Zhou, Shuo; Liu, Hongyun


    In this work, electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) films were electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and a dispersion mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD), chitosan (CS) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) was then cast on the PB surface to form CS-AuNC-GOD/PB nanocomposite film electrodes. The blue PB component in the films could be changed into its colourless reduced form of Prussian white (PW) upon application of -0.2 V. The addition of glucose to the solution would produce H2O2 with the help of GOD in the films and oxygen in the solution, which could oxidize PW back to PB. In the meantime, the fluorescence emission signal of the AuNCs in the films was greatly influenced by the form of PB/PW. Based on these properties, the amperometric current, fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance of the film electrodes demonstrated potential- and glucose-sensitive ON-OFF behaviors. Thus, a 2-input/3-output biomolecular logic gate system with 3 different types of output signals and a 2-to-1 encoder were developed. Furthermore, a resettable and reprogrammable 3-input biomolecular keypad lock was established with fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance as dual outputs, which greatly enhanced the security level of the keypad lock. This work reported for the first time an enzyme-based keypad lock with dual outputs, which might open a new avenue to design more complicated biomolecular keypad lock systems.

  8. Radiation damages during synchrotron X-ray micro-analyses of Prussian blue and zinc white historic paintings: detection, mitigation and integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, Claire [Bern University of the Arts, Bern (Switzerland); Thoury, Mathieu [IPANEMA, USR 3461 CNRS/MCC, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Reguer, Solenn; Gueriau, Pierre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mass, Jennifer [Winterthur Museum and Country Estate, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)


    High-flux synchrotron techniques allow microspectroscopic analyses of artworks that were not feasible even a few years ago, allowing for a more detailed characterization of their constituent materials and a better understanding of their chemistry. However, interaction between high-flux photons and matter at the sub-microscale can generate damages which are not visually detectable. We show here different methodologies allowing to evidence the damages induced by microscopic X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy analysis (μXANES) at the Fe and Zn K-edges of a painting dating from the turn of the twentieth century containing Prussian blue and zinc white. No significant degradation of the pigments was noticed, in agreement with the excellent condition of the painting. However, synchrotron radiation damages occurred at several levels, from chemical changes of the binder, modification of crystal defects in zinc oxide, to Prussian blue photoreduction. They could be identified by using both the μXANES signal during analysis and with photoluminescence imaging in the deep ultraviolet and visible ranges after analysis. We show that recording accurately damaged areas is a key step to prevent misinterpretation of results during future re-examination of the sample. We conclude by proposing good practices that could help in integrating radiation damage avoidance into the analytical pathway. (orig.)

  9. A choline oxidase amperometric bioassay for the detection of mustard agents based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe


    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (-50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  10. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini


    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  11. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining. (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk


    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  12. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer of graphene/Prussian blue toward simultaneous electrochemical and SPR detection of H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Wang, Wei


    A new type of chemically converted graphene sheets, cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid decorated graphene sheets (PFIL–GS) composite, was synthesized and characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found...... that the presence of PFIL enabled the formation of a very stable aqueous dispersion due to the electrostatic repulsion between PFIL modified graphene sheets. With respect to the excellent dispersibility of this material, we have fabricated a novel PFIL–GS/Prussian blue (PB) nanocomposite multilayer film via classic...... layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. The assembly process was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which showed linear responses to the numbers of the deposited PFIL–GS/PB bilayers. Moreover, the as-prepared composite films were used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H...

  13. High-performance complementary electrochromic device based on WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT and prussian blue electrodes (United States)

    Yue, Yanfang; Li, Haizeng; Li, Kerui; Wang, Jinmin; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Chen, Pei


    The device assembly plays an important role in affecting the electrochromic (EC) performance of an electrochromic device (ECD). Here, WO3·0.33H2O films are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and then PEDOT:PSS are spin-coated on the surface of WO3·0.33H2O films. Finally, the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT films are assembled with electrodeposited prussian blue (PB) to fabricate the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT-PB complementary electrochromic devices (ECDs). Compared with pure WO3·0.33H2O and WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT single-active-layer structure ECDs, the complementary ECD exhibits higher optical modulation, higher coloration efficiency and faster response time, which would provide a promising platform for energy-saving smart (ESS) window.

  14. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun


    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  15. Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O for hydrogen storage. (United States)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Banerjee, Seemita; Anwar, Sharmistha; Mukadam, Mayuresh D; Meena, Sher Singh; Yusuf, Seikh M


    Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O has been synthesized using a core of Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O, surrounded by a shell of Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O compound. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study confirms the core-shell nature of the nanoparticles with an average size of ∼25 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern reveals that the core-shell compound has a face-centered cubic crystal structure with space group Fm3m. The observation of characteristic absorption bands in the range of 2000-2300 cm(-1) in IR spectra corresponds to the CN stretching frequency of Mn(II)/Ni(II)-N≡C-Cr(III) sequence, confirming the formation of Prussian blue analogues. Hydrogen absorption isotherm measurements have been used to investigate the kinetics of molecular hydrogen adsorption into core-shell compounds of the Prussian blue analogue at low temperature conditions. Interestingly, the core-shell compound shows an enhancement in the hydrogen capacity (2.0 wt % at 123 K) as compared to bare-core and bare-shell compounds. The hydrogen adsorption capacity has been correlated with the specific surface area and TGA analysis of the core-shell compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the hydrogen storage properties of core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet that could be useful for hydrogen storage applications.

  16. Study of oxidation states of the transition metals in a series of Prussian blue analogs using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States); Hartl, M., E-mail: [European Spallation Source ESS AB, 22100, Lund (Sweden); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Daemen, L. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830 (United States); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Fohtung, E.; Nakotte, H. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States)


    Highlights: • Systematic XANES measurements on Prussian blue analogs shows oxidation state of transition metals. • Cobal-iron bimetallic hexacyanometallates show unexpected oxidation states. • Iron(II) ions in hexacyanometallates(III) show varying spin state depending on their bond to the “N” end or “C” end of the cyanide ligand. • Thermal expansion coefficients have been linked to the XANES results. - Abstract: There have been renewed interests in metal-organic framework classes of materials such as Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) due to their potential usage in energy storage applications. In particular, due to their high surface areas, controllable structures and excellent electrochemical properties, PBAs such as hexacyanometalates M{sup II}{sub 3}[A{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; A = Co, Fe, Cr; n = no. of water molecules present), M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and mixed hexacyanometalates(III) (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 3}[B{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75; B = Co, Fe) could have possible usage as a new class of cathode and even anode materials for rechargeable batteries. Detailed knowledge of the oxidation states of the transition metals in PBAs is required to improve efficiency and durability of such devices. Furthermore, a link between the thermal expansion observed in these materials and the oxidation state of the transition metal is of interest to synthesize materials with a desired thermal expansion behavior, Here we demonstrate the use of Synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to identify transition metal oxidation states. Our analysis reveals the presence of divalent, trivalent and/or mixed valence transition metals in the materials as well as high-spin and low-spin complexes.

  17. Dual lanthanide role in the designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination (Prussian Blue analogue) nanocages with large internal cavity and mesoporous cage (United States)

    McHale, Ronan; Liu, Yibo; Ghasdian, Negar; Hondow, Nicole S.; Ye, Sunjie; Lu, Yun; Brydson, Rik; Wang, Xiaosong


    Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies entirely on the periphery coordination event occurring prior to the ester hydrolysis surfactant removal step. Crucially, this one-pot sequential synthesis was achieved using a newly developed metallo-surfactant designed to have a reduced ester hydrolysis rate. Syntheses of this innovative metallo-surfactant, intermediary PB analogue coordination polymer organo-nanoshells and the subsequent conversion to hollow metal coordination nanocages are fully characterised using a wide variety of techniques, including TEM, SEM, EFTEM, EDX, TGA, WAXD, NMR, N2 adsorption, etc., and represent the first designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination nanocages containing a large nanoscale cavity (wall of hollow nanosphere is mesoporous; hence nanocage).Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal


    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  19. Stabilization of Prussian blue with polyaniline and carbon nanotubes in neutral media for in vivo determination of glucose in rat brains. (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Guo, Deyin; Ye, Jianshan; Zhang, Meining


    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical microbiosensor for selective in vivo monitoring of glucose in rat brains. The microbiosensor is prepared by using Prussian blue (PB)/polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction and determination of H2O2 generated from the glucose oxidase (GOx)-based enzymatic catalytic reaction. PANI and MWNTs are used to stabilize PB nanoparticles in physiological solutions. As a result, the as-formed three-dimensional (3D) PB/PANI/MWNT nanostructure exhibits a stable and large electrochemical response compared to the PB-modified electrode. The use of PB/PANI/MWNTs in this work to replace "natural peroxidase" (i.e., horseradish peroxidase) used in the existing microbiosensors enables the method developed here to be facile but selective for in vivo measurements of glucose virtually interference-free from ascorbic acid and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. This property, along with the good linearity and stability toward glucose, makes this microbiosensor competent for continuous in vivo monitoring of the changes of glucose in rat brains during intraperitoneal injection of insulin. The method demonstrated here can be applied to develop other oxidase-based microbiosensors for other neurochemicals, which would be helpful for understanding the chemical process involved in some physiological and pathological events.

  20. Facile Synthesis of a MoS2-Prussian Blue Nanocube Nanohybrid-Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Hydrogen Peroxide and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection. (United States)

    Su, Shao; Han, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zaiwei; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Dan; Chao, Jie; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui


    Herein, an electrochemical detection platform was designed based on a Prussian blue nanocube-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2-PBNCs) nanocomposite. Shape-controlled and high-dispersion PBNCs were supported on the MoS2 nanosheet surface, which would be simply controlled by varying the experimental conditions. Expectedly, such obtained MoS2-based nanocomposites possessed excellent electrocatalytic ability, which could be employed to construct an electrochemical sensor for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. More interestingly, MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposites could be utilized to construct a sensor for label-free detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The electrochemical response of the MoS2-based immunosensor was linear with the CEA concentration ranging from 0.005 to 10 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.54 pg mL(-1). The acceptable selectivity and high stability made such immunosensors detect CEA in human serum with satisfactory results. All data indicated that this MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposite may be a promising electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of chemical and biological molecules.

  1. Prussian blue-Au nanocomposites actuated hemin/G-quadruplexes catalysis for amplified detection of DNA, Hg2+ and adenosine triphosphate. (United States)

    Wang, Guangfeng; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Yanhong; He, Xiuping; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Xiaojun


    In this paper, horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) and Prussian blue (PB)-gold (Au) nanocomposites were designed as versatile electrochemical sensing platforms for the amplified detection of DNA, Hg(2+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By the conjugation of the target probe with the capture probe, a conformational change resulted in the formation of HRP-DNAzyme on the PB-Au modified electrode. The redox of HRP-DNAzyme (red) was efficiently carried out in the presence of H2O2, in which PB acted as a mediator stimulating the biocatalytic functions of HRP-DNAzyme and actuated a catalytic cycle bringing an amplified signal. Specific recognition of the target DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP allowed selective amperometric detection of the target molecule. The detection limits of DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP were 50 nM, 30 pM and 3 nM, respectively. The highlight of this work is that the catalytic cycle between PB-Au nanocomposites and HRP-DNAzyme was adequately utilized in the amplification platform for versatile sensing. The novel electrocatalytic biosensor involving only one-step incubation exhibited a wide linear range, low detection limit, and satisfactory selectivity and operational stability. The proposed approach provided an ease-of-use and universal reporting system with a simple design and easy operations.

  2. Prussian Blue Nanocubes with an Open Framework Structure Coated with PEDOT as High-Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Cortie, Michael; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Guoxiu


    It is shown that Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) can be a very competitive sulfur host for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur stored in the large interstitial sites of a PBA host can take advantage of reversible and efficient insertion/extraction of both Li+ and electrons, due to the well-trapped mobile dielectron redox centers in the well-defined host. It is demonstrated that Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ] has a large open framework, and as a cathode, it both stores sulfur and acts as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor based on the Lewis acid-base bonding effect. The electrochemical testing shows that the S@Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite achieves excellent reversibility, good stability, and fast kinetics. Its outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to the internal transport of Li+/e- , maximizing the utilization of sulfur. Moreover, the open metal centers serve as the Lewis acid sites with high affinity to the negatively charged polysulfide anions, reducing the diffusion of polysulfides out of the cathode and minimizing the shuttling effect. The fundamental basis of these exceptional performance characteristics is explored through a detailed analysis of the structural and electrochemical behavior of the material. It is believed that the PBAs will have a useful role in ensuring more effective and stable Li-S batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo


    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on graphite oxide, Prussian blue, and PTC-NH2 for the detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in human serum. (United States)

    Gao, Liuliu; He, Junlin; Xu, Wailan; Zhang, Jing; Hui, Junmin; Guo, Yanlei; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Chao


    α2,6-Sialylated glycans are crucial molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and clinical research. In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on a graphite oxide (GO), Prussian blue (PB), and PTC-NH2 (an ammonolysis product of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) nanocomposite for the selective detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. To increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were immobilized on a GO-PB-PTC-NH2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sambucus nigra agglutinins (SNAs), which specifically bind with α2,6-sialylated glycans, were covalently immobilized on GNPs for the sensitive detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in serum. This proposed method can be applied to human serum, and it worked well over a broad linear range (0.1 pg mL(-1)-500 ng mL(-1)) with detection limits of 0.03 pg mL(-1). Moreover, recovery of the spiked samples ranged from 100.2% to 105.0%, suggesting that this excellent electrochemical biosensor can be used for the practical detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-assembly mechanism of nanoparticles of Ni-based Prussian Blue analogues at the air/liquid interface: a synchrotron X-ray reflectivity study. (United States)

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Brezesinski, Gerald


    Prussian Blue analogue (PBA) nanoparticles can be self-assembled at air/liquid interfaces to build novel materials with interesting magnetic features. Herein, we study the influence of the size of PBA Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 and K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles on the self-assembly behavior by synchrotron X-ray reflectivity. Both nanoparticles show similar Z-potential values. The phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and the amino surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium have been used as Langmuir monolayers to anchor the PBA nanoparticles and study the interplay of forces directing the self-assembly of the nanoparticles at the surfactant/liquid interface. Whereas Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 nanoparticles with a diameter of 8 nm form an incomplete layer at the surfactant/water interface, the larger K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm generate complete layers that can be stacked to one another. The size of the PBA nanoparticles is the main parameter determining the final arrangement at the air/liquid interface, due to the different extent of interparticle interaction. This study aims at the rationale design of PBA nanoparticles for an effective interfacial self-assembly, ultimately leading to functional materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Coated Prussian Blue for MR/PA Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Photothermal-Chemotherapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Su, Yunyan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yunlei; Tang, Yuxia; Ni, Qianqian; Liu, Wenfei; Dang, Meng; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Junjie; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming


    Complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. In this work, an imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy strategy for TNBC is developed for the first time based on a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coated Prussian blue (PB@PMO) nanoplatform. The PB@PMOs have organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks, uniform diameter (125 nm), high surface area (866 m(2) g(-1)), large pore size (3.2 nm), excellent photothermal conversion capability, high drug loading capacity (260 µg mg(-1)), and magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging abilities. The MR and PA properties of the PB@PMOs are helpful for imaging the tumor and showing the accumulation of the nanoplatform in the tumor region. The bioluminescence intensity and tumor volume of the MDA-MB-231-Luc tumor-bearing mouse model demonstrate that TNBC can be effectively inhibited by the combined photothermal-chemotherapy than monotherapy strategy. Histopathological analysis further reveals that the combination therapy results in most extensive apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumor without inducing obvious side effect to major organs.

  7. Light-induced magnetization changes in a coordination polymer heterostructure of a Prussian blue analogue and a Hofmann-like Fe(II) spin crossover compound. (United States)

    Gros, Corey R; Peprah, Marcus K; Hosterman, Brian D; Brinzari, Tatiana V; Quintero, Pedro A; Sendova, Mariana; Meisel, Mark W; Talham, Daniel R


    Coordination polymer thin film heterostructures of the Prussian blue analogue Ni(II)b[Cr(III)(CN)6](0.7)·nH2O (NiCr-PBA) and the 3D Hofmann-like spin crossover compound Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O {azpy = 4,4'-azopyridine} have been developed, and spin transition properties have been characterized via SQUID magnetometry and Raman spectroscopy. The magnetic response of the ferromagnetic NiCr-PBA layer (T(c) ≈ 70 K) can be altered by inducing the LIESST effect (light-induced excited spin state trapping) in the coupled paramagnetic Fe(II) spin crossover material. Whereas an increase in magnetization is measured for the single-phase Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O, a decrease in magnetization is observed for the heterostructure. These results indicate the LIESST effect alone cannot account for the sign and magnitude of the magnetization change in the heterostructure, but the temperature profile of the magnetization shows that significant changes in the NiCr-PBA network are correlated to the spin state of the Hofmann-like SCO network.

  8. Porous Structured Ni-Fe-P Nanocubes Derived from a Prussian Blue Analogue as an Electrocatalyst for Efficient Overall Water Splitting. (United States)

    Xuan, Cuijuan; Wang, Jie; Xia, Weiwei; Peng, Zongkai; Wu, Zexing; Lei, Wen; Xia, Kedong; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Deli


    Exploring nonprecious metal electrocatalysts to replace the noble metal-based catalysts for full water electrocatalysis is still an ongoing challenge. In this work, porous structured ternary nickel-iron-phosphide (Ni-Fe-P) nanocubes were synthesized through one-step phosphidation of a Ni-Fe-based Prussian blue analogue. The Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit a rough and loose porous structure on their surface under suitable phosphating temperature, which is favorable for the mass transfer and oxygen diffusion during the electrocatalysis process. As a result, Ni-Fe-P obtained at 350 °C with poorer crystallinity offers more unsaturated atoms as active sites to expedite the absorption of reactants. Additionally, the introduction of nickel improved the electronic structure and then reduced the charge-transfer resistance, which would result in a faster electron transport and an enhancement of the intrinsic electrocatalytic activities. Benefiting from the unique porous nanocubes and the chemical composition, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit excellent hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction activities in alkaline medium, with low overpotentials of 182 and 271 mV for delivering a current density of 10 mA cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes show outstanding stability for sustained water splitting in the two-electrode alkaline electrolyzer. This work not only provides a facile approach for designing bifunctional electrocatalysts but also further extends the application of metal-organic frameworks in overall water splitting.

  9. Synthesis of acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and comparison for targeting atherosclerotic plaques: evaluation by MRI, quantitative MPS, and TEM alternative to ambiguous Prussian blue iron staining. (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Kratz, Harald; Wiekhorst, Frank; Warmuth, Carsten; Schnorr, Jörg; Genter, Gesche; Ebert, Monika; Mueller, Susanne; Schellenberger, Eyk


    To further optimize citrate-stabilized VSOPs (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) for identification of atherosclerotic plaques, we modified their surface during synthesis using eight other acids for electrostatic stabilization. This approach preserves effective production for clinical application. Five particles were suitable to be investigated in targeting plaques of apoE(-/-) mice. Accumulation was evaluated by ex vivo MRI, TEM, and quantitatively by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS). Citric- (VSOP), etidronic-, tartaric-, and malic-acid-coated particles accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques with highest accumulation for VSOP (0.2‰ of injected dose). Targets were phagolysosomes of macrophages and of altered endothelial cells. In vivo MRI with VSOP allowed for definite plaque identification. Prussian blue staining revealed abundant endogenous iron in plaques, indistinguishable from particle iron. In apoE(-/-) mice, VSOPs are still the best anionic iron oxide particles for imaging atherosclerotic plaques. MPS allows for quantification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in such small specimens. The presence of vulnerable plaques in arteries is important for the prediction of acute coronary events. VSOP (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) have been shown to be very sensitive in identifying atherosclerotic plaques. The authors studied here further modification to the surface of VSOP during synthesis and compared their efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages. (United States)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng; Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian; Wang, Qingxiang


    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H2O2. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H2O2 concentrations from 5μM to 1mM with a fast response time (less than 3s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H2O2 released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences. (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L


    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of iodate using methylene blue as a chromogenic reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narayana


    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of iodate (IO3- in table salt and sea water. The proposed method is based on the reaction of iodate with potassium iodide in an acid medium to liberate iodine. The liberated iodine bleaches the blue color of methylene blue and is measured at 665.6 nm. This decrease in absorbance is directly proportional to the iodate concentration and obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.5-14 μgmL-1 of IO3-. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity, detection limit and quantitation limit of the method were found to be 1.24 x 104 L mol-1cm-1, 1.41 x 10-2 μgcm-2, 0.048 μgmL-1 and 0.145 μgmL-1, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical conditions were evaluated. The effect of interfering ions on the determination has been described. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the iodate in the table salt and sea water.

  13. An electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with highly efficient bi-functional glucose oxidase-polydopamine nanocomposites and Prussian blue modified screen-printed interdigitated electrodes. (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin


    The presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food manufacturers. Therefore, the demand for advanced detection methods that can sensitively and rapidly detect these pathogens has been of great importance. This study reports an electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with the integration of bifunctional glucose oxidase (GOx)-polydopamine (PDA) based polymeric nanocomposites (PMNCs) and Prussian blue (PB) modified screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SP-IDMEs). The core-shell magnetic beads (MBs)-GOx@PDA PMNCs were first synthesized by the self-polymerization of dopamine (DA). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were dispersed on the surface of PMNCs through biochemical synthesis to achieve further highly efficient adsorption of antibodies (ABs) and GOx. The final product ABs/GOxext/AuNPs/MBs-GOx@PDA PMNCs served as the carrier to separate target bacteria from food matrices as well as the amplifier for electrochemical measurement. The unbound PMNCs were separated by a filtration step and transferred into glucose solution to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur. The change of the current response was measured with an electrochemical detector using PB-modified SP-IDMEs. The constructed biosensor has been proven to be able to detect E. coli O157:H7 with the detection limit of 10(2) cfu ml(-1). The bifunctional PMNCs contain a high load of enzyme and can optimally utilize the binding sites on bacterial cells, which efficiently amplify the signals for measurement. The biosensor in this study exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, and stability and is expected to have a great impact on applications in the detection of foodborne pathogens.

  14. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the electronic structures of the MnFe Prussian blue analogs (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] H2O (United States)

    Lee, Eunsook; Seong, Seungho; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, D. H.; Thakur, Nidhi; Yusuf, S. M.; Kim, Bongjae; Min, B. I.; Kim, Younghak; Kim, J.-Y.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Kang, J.-S.


    The electronic structures of Prussian blue analog (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] cyanides have been investigated by employing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe and Mn L (2 p ) edges. The measured XAS spectra have been analyzed with the configuration-interaction (CI) cluster model calculations. The valence states of the Fe and Mn ions are found to be Fe2 +-Fe3 + mixed valent, with an average valency of v (Fe )˜2.8 and nearly divalent (Mn2 +), respectively. Our Mn/Fe 2 p XMCD study supports that Mn2 + ions are in the high-spin states while Fe2 +-Fe3 + ions are in the low-spin states. The Fe and Mn 2 p XAS spectra are found to be essentially the same for 80 ≤T ≤ 300 K, suggesting that a simple charge transfer upon cooling from Fe3 +-CN -Mn2 + to Fe2 +-CN -Mn3 + does not occur in (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] . According to the CI cluster model analysis, it is necessary to take into account both the ligand-to-metal charge transfer and the metal-to-ligand charge transfer in describing Fe 2 p XAS, while the effect of charge transfer is negligible in describing Mn 2 p XAS. The CI cluster model analysis also shows that the trivalent Fe3 + ions have a strong covalent bonding with the C ≡N ligands and are under a large crystal-field energy of 10 D q ˜3 eV, in contrast to the weak covalency effect and a small 10 D q ˜0.6 eV for the divalent Mn2 + ions.

  15. Iodimetric assay of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals using iodate and Nile blue as reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah


    Full Text Available A simple, selective and cost effective spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of olanzapine (OLP in bulk drug and in tablets. The method involves treating OLP with an excess of iodate in acid medium followed by the determination of liberated iodine by reacting with a fixed amount of Nile blue and measuring the absorbance at 400 nm. In this method, the amount of iodine reacted corresponds to the OLP concentration. The experimental conditions for the assay have been optimized and the absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of OLP (r = 0.997. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range 15-120 μg mL-1. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.657103 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.475 μg cm-2, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are 3.93 and 11.90 μg ml-1. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines. The repeatability and intermediate precision, expressed by the RSD was better than 3%. The accuracy of the method expressed as relative error was satisfactory. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of tablet form of OLP and the results tallied well with the label claim. No interference was observed from concomitant substances normally added to tablets. The results were statistically compared with those of a literature method by applying the Student’s t-test and F-test. The accuracy and validity of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery studies via spike method.


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  17. Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Gatifloxacin in Pharmaceuticals Using Bromate-Bromide, Methylene Blue and Rhodamine-B as Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah


    Full Text Available Two new simple, precise, rapid and extraction-free spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of gatifloxacin(GTF using bromate-bromide mixture and two dyes, methylene blue and rhodamine B, as reagents. Spectrophotometric methods entail the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to GTF in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methylene blue and measuring the absorbance at 665 nm (Method A or rhodamine B and measuring the absorbance at 555 nm (Method B. Beer᾽s law is obeyed in the ranges, 0.5-5.0 and 0.2-1.5 μg mL-1 for method A and method B, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 5.6×104 and 9.6×104 L mol-1cm-1 for method A and method B, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0071 and 0.0042 μg cm-2. The methods were successfully applied to the assay of GTF in pharmaceutical formulations with satisfactory results.

  18. Simple Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Zidovudine in Pharmaceuticals Using Chloramine-T, Methylene Blue and Rhodamine-B as Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah


    Full Text Available Two new spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of zidovudine(ZDV in pharmaceuticals. The methods use chloramine-T (CAT and two dyes, methylene blue and rhodamine-B, as reagents and are based on adding of a known excess of CAT to ZDV in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual oxidant by reacting with a fixed amount of either methylene blue and measuring the absorbance at 665 nm (Method A or rhodamine B and measuring the absorbance at 555 nm (Method B. In both methods, the amount of CAT reacted corresponds to the amount of ZDV. The absorbance measured is found to increase linearly with concentration of ZDV. Under the optimum conditions, ZDV could be assayed in the concentration range 1.25-15.0 and 0.25-3.0 μg ML-1 by method A and method B, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 7.7x103 and 5.6x104 L mol-1 cm-1 for method A and method B, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.035 and 0.005 μg cm-2. The limits of detection and quantification are reported for both methods. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the developed methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The proposed methods can be readily utilized for bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations.

  19. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  20. 21. The Franco-Prussian War


    Blamires, David


    During the last three decades of the nineteenth century the number of new German children’s books that were translated into English declined, although earlier books continued to be reissued. Germany did not cease to be of interest, but the interest was expressed in different ways. What I want to discuss in this chapter is the way in which British writers dealt with contemporary Germany through novels centred on the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). This may seem an unlikely subject for British c...

  1. Savant officials in the Prussian mining administration. (United States)

    Klein, Ursula


    In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly 'hybrid' experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural inquiry. Among these savant experts there was a particular sub-group that is at the centre of this paper: mining officials who were also recognized as mineralogists, geologists and chemists. The paper describes and analyses the training and the varied technical and scientific activities of these 'savant officials'. At the centre of attention are the travels of inspection of the mineralogist and mining official Carl Abraham Gerhard (1738-1821) in the late 1760s. I argue that Gerhard's travels of inspection were at the same time geological travels and that savant officials like Gerhard made a significant contribution to the fledgling science of geology.

  2. The Prussian Academy of Sciences during the Third Reich (United States)

    Notzoldt, Peter; Walther, Peter Th.


    In 1933, the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Humanities was an exclusive learned society, out of touch with modern methods and funding, which had also failed to re-establish itself as a "centre of research". During the Nazi regime, it was at best peripherally involved in the restructuring of German academia. While some of its members…

  3. The Prussian Reform Movement: A Case Study in Defense Reform (United States)


    trans. B. Battershaw, Westview Press, 1985. Goethe , J.W., Faust , trans. W. Kaufmann, Doubleday, 1963. Gordon, M.R., "Bush Pact Would Affect Only Older...time a "’people’s army’ had defeated the old order." Although the immediate csults appeared less than noteworthy. Goethe . accompanying the Prussians

  4. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.


    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  5. Preparation of the Reagent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    D-glucose and D-fructose. It is the easiest to perform among all the distinguishing tests available in the literature [2,3] for these two sugars, gives unambiguous results and uses ordinary chemicals such as NaOH and potassium ferricyanide. Preparation of the Reagent. The alkaline potassium ferricyanide reagent is prepared ...

  6. Postpartum Blues (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Baby blues after pregnancy Baby blues after pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... tell your health care provider. What are the baby blues? Baby blues are feelings of sadness a woman ...

  7. Color Transformation and Fluorescence of Prussian Blue–Positive Cells: Implications for Histologic Verification of Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frank


    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles, either modified or in combination with other macromolecules, are being used for magnetic labeling of stem cells and other cells to monitor cell trafficking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in experimental models. The correlation of histology to MRI depends on the ability to detect SPIO-labeled cells using Prussian blue (PB stain and fluorescent tags to cell surface markers. Exposure of PB-positive sections to ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 365 nm commonly used fluorescence microscopy can result in color transformation of PB-positive material from blue to brown. Although the PB color transformation is primarily an artifact that may occur during fluorescence microscopy, the transformation can be manipulated using imaging process software for the detection of low levels of iron labeled cells in tissues samples

  8. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access wit...

  9. Synthesis and studies of water-soluble Prussian Blue-type nanoparticles into chitosan beads. (United States)

    Folch, Benjamin; Larionova, Joulia; Guari, Yannick; Molvinger, Karine; Luna, Carlos; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Caneschi, Andrea; Guérin, Christian


    A new approach to the synthesis of highly stable aqueous colloids of coordination polymer nanoparticles was developed by using water-soluble chitosan beads as template and as stabilizing agent. The method consists in the synthesis of nanocomposite beads containing cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles via step-by-step coordination of the metal ions and the hexacyanometallate precursors into the chitosan pores and then water solubilization of these as-obtained nanocomposite beads. We obtain a large range of M(2+)/[M'(CN)(6)](3-)/chitosan (where M(2+) = Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) and M' = Fe(3+) and Cr(3+)) nanocomposite beads and their respective aqueous colloids containing coordination polymer core/chitosan shell nanoparticles. The nanocomposite beads and the corresponding aqueous colloids were studied by Infrared (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption (BET), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic analyses, which reveal the presence of homogeneously dispersed uniformly-sized cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles. The detailed studies of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of these nanoparticles show the occurrence of a spin-glass like behavior presumably produced by intra-particle spin disorder due to the low spin exchange energy characterizing these materials.

  10. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS


    Full Text Available % in the analytes. The electrode’s limit of detection and catalytic rate constant were 6.26 µM (4.37 x 106 cm3 mol-1 s-1) and 4.9 µM (6.35 x 105 cm3mol-1s-1) for nitrite and nitric oxide respectively. The fabricated electrode is not difficult to prepare and could...

  11. Organic-inorganic composites consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Prussian Blue analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna, E-mail: alo@pg.gda.p [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Wilamowska, Monika [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Jasulaitiene, Vitalija [Institute of Chemistry, Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    The organic-inorganic material consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (pEDOT) and copper hexacyanoferrate (Cuhcf) was synthesized. The pEDOT film with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} as counter-ions potentiodynamically polarized in aqueous CuCl{sub 2} electrolyte brings about stable hybrid material (pEDOT/Cuhcf) performing single redox activity of Fe{sup II/III} at a formal potential E{sub f} = 0.61 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/0.1 M KCl) and less clearly shaped two redox coming from copper ions entrapped inside the film. XPS ex situ measurements show three different binding energies for copper (Cu 2p{sub 3/2}: 932.2, 934.8 and 936.3 eV) and two for iron (Fe 2p{sub 3/2}: 708.2 and 709.0 eV). Spectroelectrochemical measurements allowed to establish an order in the energy band gap (E{sub g}) for the investigated hybrids pEDOT/Mehcf (Me = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) as follows: E{sub g(pEDOT/Fehcf)} = 1.40 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Cohcf)} = 1.48 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Nihcf)} = 1.52 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Cuhcf)} = 1.6 eV. The hybrid materials were examined as electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Copper centres in pEDOT/Cuhcf as well as high spin iron centres in pEDOT/Fehcf were found to be electrocatalytically active towards hydrogen peroxide reduction.

  12. Use of Protein Folding Reagents (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T.


    The reagents and methods for purification of the most commonly used denaturants guanidine hydrochloride (guanidine-HCl) and urea are described. Other protein denaturants and reagents used to fold proteins are briefly mentioned. Sulfhydryl reagents (reducing agents) and “oxido-shuffling” (or oxidative regeneration) systems are also described. PMID:18429069

  13. Complex amine-based reagents (United States)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.


    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition



    Patel Satish A; Patel Natavarlal J.


    A simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the estimation of cephalexin in tablets. The method is based on the reaction of cephalexin with ninhydrin reagent in methanol giving blue color chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 576 nm against reagent blank. The chromogen obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-60 µg/ml for cephalexin. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by ...

  15. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter


    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  16. Organic reagents in spectrophotometric methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, Sergey B; Mikhailova, Alla V [V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtykov, S N [Department of Chemistry, N.G. Chernyshevskii Saratov State University (Russian Federation)


    The role of organic, in particular, complex-forming, reagents in the formation and development of spectrophotometric analysis is discussed. The prospects for the use of organic reagents in modern analytical methods are considered; the attention is focused on modified and immobilised reagents, receptor molecules and on the use of nonaqueous and organised media.

  17. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.


    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  18. Neurology and Neurologists during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier


    The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) ended with the firm establishment of the French Republic and with German unity under Prussian leadership. After describing the events leading to the war, we explain how this conflict was the first involving the use of machine guns; soldiers were struck down by the thousands. Confronted with smallpox and typhus epidemics, military surgeons were quickly overwhelmed and gave priority to limb injuries, considering other wounds as inevitably fatal. Here, we present detailed descriptions of spinal and cranial injuries by Léon Legouest and of asepsis prior to trepanning by Ernst von Bergmann. Both the war and the Commune had disastrous effects on Paris. Jean-Martin Charcot continued to work intensely through the conflict, caring for numerous patients at La Salpêtrière Hospital according to his son Jean-Baptiste's account, which we've also excerpted below. As for young Dejerine, he treated the wounded from France who had taken refuge in Switzerland. Désiré-Magloire Bourneville also took heroic initiatives, as did Charles Lasègue, Alfred Vulpian, Alix Joffroy and Victor Cornil. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac


    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  20. Characterization of Reagent Pencils for Deposition of Reagents onto Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyenne H. Liu


    Full Text Available Reagent pencils allow for solvent-free deposition of reagents onto paper-based microfluidic devices. The pencils are portable, easy to use, extend the shelf-life of reagents, and offer a platform for customizing diagnostic devices at the point of care. In this work, reagent pencils were characterized by measuring the wear resistance of pencil cores made from polyethylene glycols (PEGs with different molecular weights and incorporating various concentrations of three different reagents using a standard pin abrasion test, as well as by measuring the efficiency of reagent delivery from the pencils to the test zones of paper-based microfluidic devices using absorption spectroscopy and digital image colorimetry. The molecular weight of the PEG, concentration of the reagent, and the molecular weight of the reagent were all found to have an inverse correlation with the wear of the pencil cores, but the amount of reagent delivered to the test zone of a device correlated most strongly with the concentration of the reagent in the pencil core. Up to 49% of the total reagent deposited on a device with a pencil was released into the test zone, compared to 58% for reagents deposited from a solution. The results suggest that reagent pencils can be prepared for a variety of reagents using PEGs with molecular weights in the range of 2000 to 6000 g/mol.

  1. Delivery of episomal vectors into primary cells by means of commercial transfection reagents. (United States)

    Han, Na Rae; Lee, Hyun; Baek, Song; Yun, Jung Im; Park, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Seung Tae


    Although episomal vectors are commonly transported into cells by electroporation, a number of electroporation-derived problems have led to the search for alternative transfection protocols, such as the use of transfection reagents, which are inexpensive and easy to handle. Polyplex-mediated transport of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm has been conducted successfully in immortalized cell lines, but no report exists of successful transfection of primary cells using this method. Accordingly, we sought to optimize the conditions for polyplex-mediated transfection for effective delivery of episomal vectors into the cytoplasm of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Episomal vectors were complexed with the commercially available transfection reagents Lipofectamine 2000, FuGEND HD and jetPEI. The ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vectors was varied, and the subsequent transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of the complexes were analyzed using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. No cytotoxicity and the highest transfection yield were observed when the ratio of transfection reagent to episomal vector was 4 (v/wt) in the cases of Lipofectamine 2000 and FuGENE HD, and 2 in the case of jetPEI. Of the three transfection reagents tested, jetPEI showed the highest transfection efficiency without any cytotoxicity. Thus, we confirmed that the transfection reagent jetPEI could be used to effectively deliver episomal vectors into primary cells without electroporation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.


    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  4. An air-stable copper reagent for nucleophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl halides

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang


    A series of copper(I) trifluoromethyl thiolate complexes have been synthesized from the reaction of CuF2 with Me3SiCF 3 and S8 (see scheme; Cu red, F green, N blue, S yellow). These air-stable complexes serve as reagents for the efficient conversion of a wide range of aryl halides into the corresponding aryl trifluoromethyl thioethers in excellent yields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio. (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M


    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Flow cytometric determination of basophils in whole blood with n-propyl Astra Blue iodide. (United States)

    Malin, M J; Hwang, D R; Ben-David, D


    Within the past year, it has become apparent, in connection with its use on automatic flow cytometers, that the quality of commercially available Alcian Blue has significantly declined. A homologous series of alkylated (C1-C7) Astra Blue quaternary ammonium halides was prepared, characterized, and evaluated for the detection of basophils in whole blood. On the Technicon H6000 flow cytometer, the resolution of the basophil cluster from the main population of unstained white blood cells was found to depend on the chain length of the quaternizing alkyl group. Optimal basophil resolution was observed for the n-propyl derivative. Correlation of the new method vs Alcian Blue as the reference on the H6000 was expressed as follows: %Baso (Astra Blue) = 0.89% Baso (Alcian Blue) + 0.12% for 180 fresh whole blood samples. Within-run precision at a basophil differential count of 0.73% was characterized by SD = 0.11, identical to that obtained for Alcian Blue. Aqueous solutions of n-propyl Astra Blue iodide, in contrast to Alcian Blue, are thermally stable. Heating the reagent for 1 h at 100 degrees C did not alter solubility or cytochemical behavior. In contrast, parallel treatment of Alcian Blue yielded insoluble material by hydrolysis of the isothiouronium groups. The reagent for basophil detection comprises n-propyl Astra Blue iodide, lanthanum chloride, sodium chloride, Tween 20, and cetylpyridinium chloride. The Astra Blue derivatives were characterized by uv-vis, ir, percentage halide, paper chromatography, and 13C NMR.

  7. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.


    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  8. Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Nudelman


    Full Text Available The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The study carried out with a series of ligands allows the correlation between the structural characteristics and their reactivity.

  9. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent. (United States)


    ... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100... naturally occurring serum protein from any warm-blooded animal such as guinea pigs, that may be included as...

  10. Code Blue: The Blues as Medicine. (United States)

    Purdy, W. Randolph


    Explores the basic features and background of "the blues" as a musical tool, or archetype, for understanding the universal condition of human suffering, for confronting diseases of disability and separation, and for coping or adapting to such suffering. Offers the blues as a method for looking at the spirit of human tragedy and…

  11. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka


    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Mumps virus serological reagents consist of antigens and antisera...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper venom reagent is a device used to determine the cause of an...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are devices that...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Bordetella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Brucella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600 Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Schistosoma spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Listeria spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rhinovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866... Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. (a) Identification. Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents... Entamoeba histolytica in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Klebsiella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  8. Prussian *Grubrius ‘god of spring and vegetation’ in perspective of the Italic pantheon 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Blažek


    Full Text Available The god originally called *Grubrius (or merely *Grubius, worshipped by Old Prussians in connection with vegetation, seems originally to bear a name of a specific tree species. The etymological analysis suggests a relation to the Slavic dendronym *grabъ & *grabrъ "hornbeam".The Latin and German chronicles recorded his name together with the prefix per / par "for" that was part of the name of the festival dedicated to this god. In the level of theonyms, the closest cognate appears in the Umbrian theonym *Grā̌bovius, serving as an epithet of three Umbrian gods, Vofionos, Mars, and especially Iove (Iuppiter, the thunder-god.

  9. Drug: D05647 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05647 Drug Prussian blue insoluble (USAN); Ferric hexacyanoferrate (II); Radiogard...PRODUCTS V03AB Antidotes V03AB31 Prussian blue D05647 Prussian blue insoluble (USAN) CAS: 14038-43-8 PubChem

  10. Organosilicon Reagents in Natural Product Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His research includes synthetic and mechanistic organic chemistry. Keywords. Organosilicon reagents, pros- taglandins, hormones, drugs, terpenoids. Hari Prasad. Berzelius, the Swedish chemist in 1807 ..... setum), diatoms and some sponges use silicates as part of their skeletal composition. Silicon is also required as ...

  11. Reagent for treatment of drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryakov, A.S.; Balitskaya, Z.A.; Bereshchaka, I.G.; Khariv, I.Yu.


    The use of arabinogalactan as a reagent for treatment of drilling fluids, useful for drilling footage in wells, improves the quality of the fluids, reduces their cost, allows starch to be replaced, and improves the performance in drilling footage in wells.

  12. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent. (United States)

    Mammen, K. J.


    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept…

  13. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History. Sujan Singh Dua. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 777-780. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.



  15. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents. (United States)


    ... reagents. (a) Identification. Analyte specific reagents (ASR's) are antibodies, both polyclonal and... application for identification and quantification of an individual chemical substance or ligand in biological... practitioners, e.g., forensic, academic, research, and other nonclinical laboratories. (b) Classification. (1...

  16. Tertiary alpha-diarylmethylamines derived from diarylketimines and organomagnesium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmarchelier, Alaric; Ortiz, Pablo; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.


    Organomagnesium reagents enable swift and versatile derivatisation of diarylimines to the corresponding alpha-substituted diarylmethylamines in excellent yields, through fast and clean reactions. Where it occurs, 1,2-reduction can be circumvented using readily accessible dialkylmagnesium reagents.

  17. Blue Ocean Thinking (United States)

    Orem, Donna


    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  18. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866... Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trichinella spiralis serological reagents are... Trichinella spiralis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of trichinosis caused by parasitic...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. 866.3780 Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents are devices that consist of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus antigens and antisera used to identify...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification. Chlamydi...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Staphylococcus and provides...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460... immuno-fluorescent reagents. (a) Identification. Rabiesvirus immunofluorescent reagents are devices that consist of rabiesvirus antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye used to identify rabiesvirus in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866... Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. (a) Identification. Coccidioides immitis serological reagents are... Coccidioides immitis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis caused by a...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khavanin, S. M. Mousavian, S. B. Mortazavi, A. Rezaee and H. Asiliyan


    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE has been commonly used as a fuel additive because of its many favorable properties that allow it to improve fuel combustion. Unfortunately, increased production and use have led to its introduction into the water supplies. Accordingly, research studies have been initiated to investigate the treatment of contaminated water. Degradation of MTBE in aqueous solution by Fenton reagent (Fe2+ and H2O2 was investigated. This study used Fenton reagent to oxidize MTBE with an attempt to explore the behavior of MTBE decomposition and measure how factors such as pH, [H2O2] and [Fe2+] may influence the degradation of MTBE, and finally the optimum conditions were obtained. Under optimum conditions of 50 mL H2O2, 0.65 g/L Fe2+, pH=3-4 and room temperature, the initial 1000 mg/L MTBE solution was reduced by 99% within 120 min. The results showed that application of Fenton reagent was an effective method for degradation of MTBE.

  10. Effect of Chemical Reagents in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Yoonm Inho; Jung, Chonghun; Choi, Wangkyu [Korea Atomic Energy research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. This paper deals with understanding the effects of chemical reagents involved in foam decontamination efficiency, evaluation of side effect on foam stability and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. Basic experiments using the nanoparticle-based complex fluid decontamination foam have been performed in order to development of decontamination foam technology. Results show that in the case of coexistence of chemical reagents, for the purpose of the good foam ability and foam stability, it is necessary to increase the concentration of surfactant. In corrosion test, metal materials including carbon steel, stainless steel 304, aluminum, inconel 600 and cupper, generally corrosion solubility percent in nitric acid solution were higher than in phosphoric acid solution. Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of three decontamination formulations on contaminant carbon steel component of dry oven. The results shows decontamination factor was in the range of 6.1∼13.4. Results suggest that our foam formulations have a feasibility potential to removal of about 83∼93% total radioactivity in contaminant.

  11. Production of latex agglutination reagents for pneumococcal serotyping. (United States)

    Ortika, Belinda D; Habib, Maha; Dunne, Eileen M; Porter, Barbara D; Satzke, Catherine


    The current 'gold standard' for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC) of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP) method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2), no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8) or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20). Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ≤ 500 μg/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of time, making them ideal for use in low-income countries.

  12. Blue ocean strategy. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  13. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases (United States)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.


    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric “bimesogenic” and “bent-core” materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina


    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  15. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu


    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  16. Eduard Hitzig's experiences in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): the case of Joseph Masseau. (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J


    It is well known that Fritsch and Hitzig published the results of their experiments on cortical stimulation in 1870, the year in which the Franco-Prussian War (FPW) broke out. Several tall stories are found about Hitzig's role in the FPW; stories that have not been well documented. During this war, he worked at the military hospital in Nancy, where he was allowed to admit to his ward soldiers with head wounds. He made a close observation of the 20-year-old French soldier Joseph Masseau, who suffered from a right-sided cerebral abscess following a gunshot wound sustained during the Loire campaign on December 10, 1870 and was looked after in the military hospital of Nancy in January and February 1871. Hitzig related the clinical and autopsy observations to his recent experimental findings. A translation into English of part of the case report is provided.

  17. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  18. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  19. Blue Holes & Hurricanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Levin


    A blue hole in the ocean is a striking sight. Fly over remote areas of the Caribbean Sea and you'll see shallow turquoise water stretching for miles, interrupted only by occasional sand bars and coral reefs...

  20. Blue Ribbon Panel Report (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  1. Blue-Green Algae (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  2. Methylene blue test (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  3. New York Blue (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  4. Optical chemosensors and reagents to detect explosives


    Salinas Soler, Yolanda; Martínez Mañez, Ramón; Marcos Martínez, María Dolores; Sancenón Galarza, Félix; Costero Nieto, Ana Maria; Parra Alvarez, Margarita; Gil Grau, Salvador


    This critical review is focused on examples reported from 1947 to 2010 related to the design of chromo-fluorogenic chemosensors and reagents for explosives (141 references). © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Spanish Government (project MAT2009-14564-C04) Generalitat Valencia (project PROMETEO/2009/016) Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation Salinas Soler, Y.; Martínez Mañez, R.; Marcos Martínez, MD.; Sancenón Galarza, F.; Costero Nieto, AM.; Parra Alvarez, M.; Gil Grau, S...

  5. Controlled fabrication of multilayered 4-(pyrrole-1-yl) benzoate supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) linked hybrid films of Prussian blue type nickel hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, Oktawian; Kowalewska, Barbara; Szymanska, Dorota; Stroka, Jadwiga; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Palys, Barbara; Kulesza, Pawel J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Malik, Marcin A. [Division of Chemistry, Department of Processing and Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland)


    The ability of 4-(pyrrole-1-yl) benzoic acid (PyBA) to form monolayer-type carboxylate-derivatized ultra-thin organic films on solid electrode surfaces was explored here to attract coordinatively and immobilize Ni{sup 2+} ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In the next step, the system was exposed to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} or Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} solution to form a robust nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) layer. By repeated and alternate treatments in solutions of PyBA, Ni{sup 2+} cations, and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} or Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} anions, the amount of the material could be increased systematically in a controlled fashion to form three-dimensional multilayered NiHCF-based assemblies. The layer-by-layer method was also extended to the growth of hybrid conducting polymer stabilized NiHCF films in which the initial PyBA-anchored NiHCF layer (formed on glassy carbon) was subsequently exposed (a desired number of times) through alternate immersions to the monomer (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} and Ni{sup 2+} solutions. During voltammetric potential cycling (electropolymerization) in the external supporting electrolyte solution, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT linked NiHCF-based multilayered films were produced. They were characterized by good stability and high dynamics of charge transport. (author)

  6. Graphene-Roll-Wrapped Prussian Blue Nanospheres as a High-Performance Binder-Free Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Luo, Jiahuan; Sun, Shixiong; Peng, Jian; Liu, Bo; Huang, Yangyang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yuyu; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yi; Qiu, Yuegang; Li, Qing; Han, Jiantao; Huang, Yunhui


    Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate (Fe-HCF) has been proposed as a promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of its desirable advantages, including high theoretical capacity (∼170 mAh g(-1)), eco-friendliness, and low cost of worldwide rich sodium and iron resources. Nonetheless, its application faces a number of obstacles due to poor electronic conductivity and structural instability. In this work, Fe-HCF nanospheres (NSs) were first synthesized and fabricated by an in situ graphene rolls (GRs) wrapping method, forming a 1D tubular hierarchical structure of Fe-HCF NSs@GRs. GRs not only provide fast electronic conduction path for Fe-HCF NSs but also effectively prevent organic electrolyte from reaching active materials and inhibit the occurrence of side reactions. The Fe-HCF NSs@GRs composite has been used as a binder-free cathode with a capacity of ∼110 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 150 mA g(-1) (∼1C), the capacity retention of ∼90% after 500 cycles. Moreover, the Fe-HCF NSs@GRs cathode displays a super high rate capability with ∼95 mAh g(-1) at 1500 mA g(-1) (∼10C). The results suggest that the 1D tubular structure of 2D GRs-wrapped Fe-HCF NSs is promising as a high-performance cathode for SIBs.

  7. Switching Between Giant Positive and Negative Thermal Expansions of a YFe(CN)6 -based Prussian Blue Analogue Induced by Guest Species. (United States)

    Gao, Qilong; Chen, Jun; Sun, Qiang; Chang, Dahu; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Sanson, Andrea; Milazzo, Ruggero; Zhu, He; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhanning; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran


    The control of thermal expansion of solid compounds is intriguing but remains challenging. The effect of guests on the thermal expansion of open-framework structures was investigated. Notably, the presence of guest ions (K(+) ) and molecules (H2 O) can substantially switch thermal expansion of YFe(CN)6 from negative (αv =-33.67×10(-6)  K(-1) ) to positive (αv =+42.72×10(-6)  K(-1) )-a range that covers the thermal expansion of most inorganic compounds. The mechanism of such substantial thermal expansion switching is revealed by joint studies with synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure, neutron powder diffraction, and density functional theory calculations. The presence of guest ions or molecules plays a critical damping effect on transverse vibrations, thus inhibiting negative thermal expansion. An effective method is demonstrated to control the thermal expansion in open-framework materials by adjusting the presence of guests. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electrocatalytic properties of prussian blue nanoparticles supported on poly(m-aminobenzenesulphonic acid)-functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes towards the detection of dopamine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS


    Full Text Available with increasing PB layers. The catalytic rate constant of 1.69 × 105 mol-1 cm3 s-1, Tafel value of 112 mV dec-1, and limit of detection of DA (2.8 nM) were obtained. Dopamine could be simultaneously detected with ascorbic acid. The electrode was found...

  9. [Application research of protein test by using biuret reagent]. (United States)

    Chen, Ningqing; Zheng, Siyu


    To investigate the biuret reagent to detect proteins in the application, the impact of different test conditions for test results. The biuret method to select three different instruments, reagents, calibrators are arranged in combination to form 27 sets of detection systems, each detection system is a combination of 5 serum samples for testing, 5 measured values obtained, the selection process normality good a serum for the study to determine the mean value of all AST after culling outliers obtained in order to calculate the various detection systems use a combination of biuret reagent to detect proteins bias. The use of different detection equipment to detect proteins biuret reagent bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.467), the difference was not statistically significant (F = 1.688, P = 0.421). different detection reagents using biuret reagent to detect proteins bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.574), a statistically significant difference (F = 5.784, P = 0.011). different calibrators use biuret reagent to detect proteins bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.467), the difference was statistically significant (F = 5.289, P = 0.000). Biuret reagent in the detection of protein applications, impact detection reagents and calibrators will test result, during the test than when it is necessary to detect deviation detection reagents and calibrators due to be considered.

  10. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zgurschi


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations of Folpan 80 WDG (30x10-5g Folpan 80 WDG /l water, 6x10-4g Folpan 80WDG /l water and 1‰ thiourea on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency on prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch 1782. The subacute and acute toxicity of Folpan 80 WDG fungicide and thiourea was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. Folpan 80 WDG produced, in all organized experimental variants a decrease in respiratory frequency and consumption of oxygen in the case of prussian carp, the more powerful the higher the concentration of the toxic was. Prussian carp anemia could be due to hypoxia that was induced by injuring the gills, as the red-pink colour of the gills became red-white, and at high concentrations the gills completely lost their red colour, while abundant secretions of mucus and even mucosal detachment with abundant bleeding could be observed. The antitoxic action of thiourea manifests itself by the fact that Folpan 80WDG are blocked by SH- groupings isothiourea, the mixture between Folpan 80WDG and thiourea produced no significant changes on the parameters physiological.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus... echoviruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The...

  13. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen


    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  14. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden


    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; La Font, Didier; Calvin,Melvin.


    Di-tertiarybutylnitroxide (DTBN), which they have tried to use as a trapping agent to identify the species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in photosynthetic materials, functions as a Hill reagent with spinach chloroplasts. Evidence is presented which indicates that the reduction of DTBN is affected by photosystem II of the electron transport system of spinach chloroplasts. The reduced form of DTBN, the hydroxylamine, undergoes a photo-oxidation with spinach chloroplasts. Possible explanations of this apparent inconsistency are presented. A product which could be ascribed to a chemical coupling reaction between the nitroxide and the radical species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in spinach chloroplasts was not detected, even using radioactive tracer methods.

  16. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.


    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  17. Code blue: seizures. (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I


    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate change, water and soil pollution, environ- mental impacts of wastewater irrigation and soil nutrient management. Keywords. Cyanosis, hemoglobin, infants, methemoglobinemia, nitrate. Deepanjan Majumdar. Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia is caused by decreased ability of blood to carry oxygen, ...

  19. Defining the Blue economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith-Godfrey, S


    Full Text Available MARITIME AFFAIRS: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL MARITIME FOUNDATION OF INDIA, 2016 Defining the Blue Economy S. Smith-Godfrey Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa...

  20. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Assessing the Impact of EDTA Chelating Effect on some Macro- and Microminerals in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula


    Full Text Available Chelators are used in chemical analysis, in medical aplications, as water softeners, as decontamination agents on radioactive surfaces and they are ingredients in many commercial products such as shampoos and food preservatives. Such a synthetic chelator is EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is considered one of the tools that promises to control the heavy metal pollution in aquaculture. EDTA attaches itself to heavy metals and carries the metals from the fish body. EDTA can also slow free-radical activity produced by heavy metals in the body. Because its ability to sequester metal ions, we tried to estimate the potential risks of a chronic exposure to EDTA on tissue mobilization of some metals which have an essential role in realization of different cell functions in Prussian carp specimens. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. Mn and Cu, were the mineral elements we have targeted in this study. It was found that these minerals have a trend of their tissues distribution and concentration in the body of the control specimens (higher or lower related to other similar works and EDTA presence in water led to a significant decreasing of their level in all tissues analyzed in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White. (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong


    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  3. Unseen Political Spaces: Gender and Nationhood in the Berlin and Paris Fashion Press during the Franco-Prussian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Looft


    Full Text Available The fashion press, and women’s magazines in general, are presumed to be spaces of political neutrality preoccupied with the trivialities of domesticity. Yet it is these very spaces that more easily evade political scrutiny that are often most powerful in reaching a broad audience on matters of politics and social change. This article explores how two Berlin and Paris fashion periodicals participated in the international dialogue on gender, nation-building, patriotism, and consumerism during a critical time between these two nations, namely during the Franco-Prussian war (July 1870 - May1871. A look at images and texts published in the Berlin-based Der Bazar and the Paris-based La Mode Illustrée during this critical time period in their shared history reveals how the fashion press contributed in complex and meaningful ways to an evolving understanding of Self, nationhood, gender, and the public versus private in nineteenth-century Europe.

  4. Red light activated "caged" reagents for microRNA research. (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, M; Starkuviene, V; Mokhir, A


    "Caged" reagents for miRNA research (siRNA targeting EGFR, involved in miRNA maturation, and mimics of miR-20a, playing a key role in tumor formation and metastasis) were prepared. It was demonstrated that these reagents can be activated by non-toxic to cells red light both in cells and in cell free settings.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    graphic plates were of shades of the spectrum, and characteristic for a good number of the com- pounds tested. The series of spray reagents are suitable, not only for identification, but also, for preparative chromatography. The reagents may also find application in the analysis of food and pharmaceutical products,.

  6. Review Article: Toxic Effects of Some Reagents Used in Electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrathin sections prepared for electron microscopy and histochemistry are indispensable in cytological, histological and histochemical studies. The paper discusses the various reagents used in these fields of study. Unfortunately, these reagents and chemicals are hazardous to health. There is wisdom in informing the ...

  7. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert


    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when...... the limiting Grignard reagent underwent little homocoupling under the reaction conditions. Arylmagnesium bromides that contain p-methoxy, p-(dimethylamino), p-fluoro, and p-chloro substituents were shown to afford high product yields in the cross-coupling reactions with a variety of substituted aryl Grignard...... reagents. Heterocyclic Grignard reagents, on the other hand, were less effective substrates for this transformation because of the rapid homocoupling of these reagents under the reaction conditions....

  8. Use of Competition Kinetics with Fast Reactions of Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil


    Competition kinetics are useful for estimation of the reactivities of Grignard reagents if the reaction rates do not differ widely and if exact rates are not needed. If the rate of mixing is slower than the rate of reaction the ratios between the rates of fast and slow reagents are found to be too...... small.This is concluded from experiments in which results obtained by competition kinetics are compared with results obtained directly by flow stream procedures. A clearer picture of the reactivity ratios is obtained when the highly reactive reagent is highly diluted with its competitor. A fast reagent...... found for the four substrates do not differ significantly and it seems possible that there is a ceiling over the rate of reaction of this reagent, for example caused by diffusion control. This may explain that competition kinetics using allylmagnesium bromide have failed to show kinetic isotope effects...

  9. [Blue light and eye health]. (United States)

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui


    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  10. Standardization of reagents and methods used in cytological and histological practice with emphasis on dyes, stains and chromogenic reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; De Leenheer, A P; Horobin, R W


    The need for the standardization of reagents and methods used in the histology laboratory is demonstrated. After definitions of dyes, stains, and chromogenic reagents, existing standards and standards organizations are discussed. This is followed by practical instructions on how to standardize dyes...

  11. [Quantitative determination of total urinary protein utilizing the principle of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 binding to protein (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Thomas, L; Winckelmann, M; Michaelis, H C; Walb, D


    Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 was used for the determination of total urinary protein and compared with the biuret-procedure. In the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250-assay 0.10 ml urine are added to 5.0 ml Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 reagent and the sample is read against the reagent blank. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method seems to be superior to the biuret-procedure because of better reproducibility, higher sensitivity and simpler handling. The upper limit or urinary protein excretion in 49 healthy subjects was 120 mg/24 h. To evaluate the clinical significance of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method the urinary protein concentration of 134 patients with metabolic, systemic and organ diseases was compared with the biuret-procedure. The regression line was y = 0.827 X + 8.713 mg/l with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.966. The type of proteinuria (mixed, glomerular, tubular) had no influence on the protein value measured with the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method. However in selective proteinuria, like Bence-Jones protein excretion, there is no correlation between the two methods, because the concentration of Bence-Jones protein is underestimated. Lower protein values were also frequently obtained for patients with diabetes mellitus. Some specimens from patients with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis showed elevated values. In spite of these limitations the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250 method might become the method of choice for the determination of total urinary protein.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of ajmaline and brucine by Folin Ciocalteu’s reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A rapid and simple spectrophotometric procedure is described for the determination of ajmaline and brucine. The method is based on the development of blue coloured product due to reduction of tungstate and/or molybdate in Folin Ciocalteu’s reagent (FCR by ajmaline and brucine in alkaline medium. The colour is stable for more than 48 h. The chromogenic reaction has lmax at 540 nm with molar absorptivity 1.64×104 and 2.37×103 l mol-1 cm-1 in the Beer’s law range 1–8 mg ml-1 and 10–100 mg ml-1 for ajmaline and brucine, respectively.

  13. Thermostabilization of indigenous multiplex polymerase chain reaction reagents for detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Nagaraj, Sowmya; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph; Batra, Harsh Vardhan


    Among DNA-based techniques, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most widely accepted molecular tool for the detection of pathogens. However, the technique involves several reagents and multiple pipetting steps that often lead to error-prone results. Additionally, the reagents entail a cold-chain facility to maintain their stability during storage and transportation. The main aim of the present study was to simplify the utility of a pre-optimized multiplex PCR format that was developed to detect toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus by providing stable, pre-mixed, and ready-to-use master mix in a lyophilized formulation. Master mix containing all reagents except the template was lyophilized in the presence of an excipient lyoprotectant to achieve long-term stability without altering the sensitivity, specificity and PCR performance. Bromophenol blue was also included in the master mix to reduce the risk of external contamination during gel loading. The stability of lyophilized master mix was analyzed at different temperatures. The PCR performance was also examined after exposure of master mix to notable temperature fluctuations during transportation. The shelf-life of lyophilized master mix was estimated to be 1.5 months at ambient temperature and 6 months at 4°C. Stability was unaffected by temperature fluctuations during transportation even in cold-chain-free conditions, thus reducing the cost required for cold storage. The sensitive, cost-effective, ready-to-use, and ambient temperature stable formulation could be implemented as a detection tool in food analysis and diagnostic laboratories and hospitals and for on-field application outside the laboratories, as well as for detection of toxigenic strains of S. aureus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fingerprint reagents with dual action: color and fluorescence. (United States)

    Almog, Joseph; Levinton-Shamuilov, Genyia; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam


    We define "dual fingerprint reagents" as chemical formulations that produce with latent fingerprints in one stage impressions that are both colored and fluorescent. Solutions containing ninhydrin and group IIb metal salts appear to be true dual reagents. Application of these formulations to latent fingerprints on paper is as efficient as the two-step process beginning with ninhydrin and followed by treatment with metal salt. In the color mode, fingerprint detectability with the two ninhydrin-metal salt reagents (one with zinc chloride and the other with cadmium chloride) is comparable with that of ninhydrin itself, in spite of the difference in color. The sensitivity is significantly higher in the fluorescence mode. To view the latent impressions the exhibits are treated with ninhydrin-metal salt reagents and observed under white light illumination and under fluorescence conditions. Cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature enhances the fluorescence considerably. In the shorter wavelength domain, ninhydrin-metal salt reagents exhibit higher sensitivity than the recently reported dual reagent, genipin. The latter is advantageous, however, in the longer wavelength domain, on paper items with strong self-fluorescence, such as brown wrapping paper or paper printed with fluorescent ink. Upon reduction of the ninhydrin concentration 10-fold, ninhydrin-metal salt formulations become purely fluorogenic reagents; no color is noticed but the fluorescence is as intense as with concentrated solutions. Working at lower concentrations is an advantage from ecological and economical viewpoints.

  15. Nanomechanical identification of liquid reagents in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Faheem; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu


    . But unfortunately so far a method to precisely determine molecular signatures of reagents is missing in μTAS. We have developed a technique whereby molecular signatures of 50 pL of liquid reagents confined within a bimetallic microchannel cantilever can be obtained. This is achieved using wavelength dependent...... mechanical bending of the cantilever under infrared (IR) radiation. This technique also allows simultaneous physical characterization of the liquid reagent using variations in resonance frequency. It is useful in lab-on-a-chip devices and has a myriad of applications in drug screening, bioreactor monitoring...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic carbon dioxide fixing reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C


    The synthesis of three amine-based carbon dioxide fixing reagents is presented. The reagents were designed so that they would be able to bind CO2 reversibly through the formation of the well known carbamates that was stabilized through forming a zwitterion. CO2 fixing experiments were performed...... with 13CO2 labeling and medium pressure NMR. The experiments showed that two of the three reagents were able to form carbamates and thus bind CO2. In addition we investigated this particular class of molecules for the possible formation of neutrally charged spiro compounds and we show that these did...

  17. Prussian *Grubrius ‘god of spring and vegetation’ in perspective of the Italic pantheon


    Václav Blažek; Marta Eva Běťáková


    The god originally called *Grubrius (or merely *Grubius), worshipped by Old Prussians in connection with vegetation, seems originally to bear a name of a specific tree species. The etymological analysis suggests a relation to the Slavic dendronym *grabъ & *grabrъ "hornbeam".The Latin and German chronicles recorded his name together with the prefix per / par "for" that was part of the name of the festival dedicated to this god. In the level of theonyms, the closest cognate appears in the U...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sharamok


    Full Text Available Purpose. To detect the effect of elevated copper ion concentrations (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits on morphological and cytometric parameters of erythrocytes of age-2 Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 in experimental and natural conditions. Methodology. During the work, summarized results of studies performed in 2015-2016 were used. Morphological and cytometric parameters of Prussian carp erythrocytes were determined in the conditions of natural habitats (Zaporizhzhia reservoir and an experiment. Copper ion concentration both in the experiment and natural conditions was similar and was 0.01 mg/L (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits. Experimental studies were performed during 21 days. In the control aquarium, fish were kept in the settled tap water; while in the experimental aquaria, intoxication of fish with copper ions was modelled by introducing CuSO4 in water. Blood smears were examined under 40x and 100 x magnifications with the use of microphotography (digital camera Sciencelab T500 5.17 M. Findings. The performed hematological studies showed that under the conditions of experimental chronic intoxication with copper ions (0.01 mg/L, age-2 Prussian carp had an increase in the share of immature forms of erythrocytes, increase in the number of erythrocytes with pathological signs (cell wall destruction, atypical forms, increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ration, but the difference in cytometric parameters of erythrocytes between experimental and control fish was not significant. When comparing the morphometric parameters of erythrocytes of fish kept in experimental and natural conditions with similar copper ion concentrations (0.01 mg/L, a significant increase in the nucleus areas of mature erythrocytes was detected and, correspondingly, an increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of erythrocytes (by almost 30% in fish in experimental conditions compared to fish, which lived in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir. An increase

  19. APTT reagent with ellagic acid as activator shows adequate lupus anticoagulant sensitivity in comparison to silica-based reagent. (United States)

    Kumano, O; Ieko, M; Naito, S; Yoshida, M; Takahashi, N


    Lupus anticoagulant (LA) is an antibody that interferes with phospholipid-dependent coagulation reactions. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used as a test for LA screening. APTT reagents are composed of activators, such as silica or ellagic acid, and phospholipids, and APTT reagents with silica are recommended for LA screening because of greater sensitivity. However, the effects of activators on LA activity have not been adequately investigated. In this study, we examined whether an ellagic acid-based reagent was highly sensitive to LA in a low phospholipid condition and useful for LA screening. Silica-based (SL) and ellagic acid-based (EA) reagents were prepared in-house with the same composition and concentration of phospholipids, while the commercial APTT reagents APTT-SLA (SLA), Actin FSL (FSL), APTT-SP (SP) and PTT-LA (PTT) were also included in the study. The normal reference ranges for SL and EA were 30.1-47.0 and 28.0-40.2 s, respectively, while the cut-off index values for circulating anticoagulant activity (ICA) calculated from the results obtained with SL, EA, SLA, FSL, SP and PTT were 12.9, 11.5, 13.2, 15.6, 14.3 and 14.0, respectively. The sensitivity of those reagents based on those cut-off values was 91%, 96%, 68%, 46%, 91% and 86%, respectively. Our results showed that the ellagic acid-based reagent was more sensitive to LA than silica-based reagents in a low phospholipid condition and had adequate sensitivity to detect LA. We concluded that the sensitivity of APTT reagents for LA is dependent on phospholipid concentration and not the activator. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a) Identification. Mycobacterium... used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids...

  1. Use of electrophilic coupling reagents, 3-methyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of electrophilic coupling reagents, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride and 4-amino antipyrine, for the spectrophotometric analysis of vardenafil in tablet dosage forms. Atkuru Veera Venkata Naga Krishna Sunil, Chandra Bala Sekaran, Tamanampudi Varahala Reddy ...

  2. Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Children by Reagent Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Farahmand


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dipstick tests (leukocyte esterase and nitrite in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP in cirrhotic patients. Forty six children with ascites hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 in Children Medical Center were enrolled in this study. Reagent strip assays for leukocyte esterase and nitrite were performed on ascetic fluid and the results were compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a polymorphonuclear ascites count of ≥ 250/mm3. Twenty children were female and twenty six were male with mean age of 3±3.9 years. The sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were all 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strip test were 100%, 97%, 90% and 100% respectively. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for the diagnosis of SBP.

  3. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of ketones using organometallic reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the addition of organometallic reagents to ketones is of central importance in organic chemistry. The resulting quaternary stereocentres are difficult to prepare selectively by other means despite their widespread occurrence in natural

  4. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (United States)


    ... hormone receptors in breast cancer. (3) Class III (premarket approval). IHC's intended for any use not... Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification. Immunohistochemistry test systems (IHC's) are in vitro...

  5. Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays (United States)

    Golova, Julia; Chernov, Boris; Perov, Alexander


    New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

  6. Efficient Synthesis and Versatile Reactivity of Porphyrinyl Grignard Reagents


    Fujimoto, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro


    Iodine–magnesium exchange between iodoporphyrins and iPrMgCl·LiCl proceeded successfully without decomposition of the porphyrin core. The resulting porphyrinyl Grignard reagents are nucleophilic enough to react with various carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes, ketones, and amides. Furthermore, the porphyrinyl Grignard reagents underwent transmetalation to afford porphyrinyl copper and zinc species of mild and unique reactivity. These could be engaged in 1, 4-addition and Negishi coupling, r...

  7. Blue ocean leadership. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  8. Evaluation of leucocyte esterase reagent strip test for the rapid bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. (United States)

    Balagopal, Sithara K; Sainu, Ashik; Thomas, Varghese


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common serious complication of cirrhosis, and carries a high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment of this condition may improve survival of such patients. To validate the diagnostic efficacy of a leukocyte esterase reagent (LER) strip test for rapid, bedside diagnosis of SBP. We prospectively studied 175 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites [mean age 48 (SD 16.4) years; 146 men] between August 2007 and December 2008. Alcohol was the most common (124 of 175; 70.8%) cause of liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, and the ascitic fluid was processed for cell count, LER strip (Magistik 10) test and culture. Two different cut-offs for calling the LER strip test positive were tried, namely when the color turned light blue [grade 2: >125 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL)/microL] or it turned purple (grade 3: >500 PMNL/microL). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were calculated, using PMN count by microscopy exceeding 250 PMNL/microL. LER strip using the more stringent purple-color cut off to diagnose SBP had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 100%. The corresponding figures using the light-blue color cut-off were 97% and 89%, respectively. LER strip testing of ascitic fluid is a rapid, cheap and sensitive bed side tool for the diagnosis of SBP.

  9. Effect of methylene blue on resuscitation after haemorrhagic shock. (United States)

    Jeroukhimov, I; Weinbroum, A; Ben-Avraham, R; Abu-Abid, S; Michowitz, M; Kluger, Y


    To compare prehospital hypotensive resuscitation with volume resuscitation, and find out whether reagents that inhibit free-oxygen radical formation, such as methylene blue, can improve resuscitation and survival. Randomised controlled trial. Animal laboratory, Israel. 48 adult male Wistar rats. After 30 minutes of controlled haemorrhage, rats were subjected to 60 minutes of uncontrolled haemorrhage with simultaneous resuscitation. Hartmann's solution alone, or with blood or with a bolus of methylene blue were infused to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 80 or 40 mm Hg. Then haemorrhage was stopped and Hartmann's solution plus whole blood were infused to obtain a MAP that was within normal limits. Volumes of shed blood and resuscitation fluids, MAP, packed cell volume, blood pH and base deficit, and survival. During uncontrolled haemorrhage. a MAP of 80 mm Hg could not be reached in animals resuscitated with Hartmann's solution alone, and all died. All the rats given Hartmann's solution with a bolus of methylene blue or with whole blood achieved a higher MAP. MAP of 40 mm Hg was attained in all animals regardless of the resuscitation fluid. Only 15 of 24 animals resuscitated to a MAP of 80 mm Hg survived, compared with 22 survivors of the 24 rats resuscitated to a MAP of 40 mm Hg (p <0.04). Methylene blue or whole blood drastically reduced the volumes of shed blood and of fluids required, and moderated the reduction in packed cell volume, particularly during hypotensive resuscitation. Hypotensive protocols should be used to improve survival. Methylene blue given with the electrolyte solutions could negate their detrimental effects during resuscitation.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor P. Pasko; Jeremy J. George


    .... Results from a three‐dimensional fractal model based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach to the modeling of streamer coronas indicate, in particular, that blue jets and blue starters can be formed by a fast (∼1 s) accumulation of ∼110...

  11. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  12. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    design is a possible approach to help overcoming the present stability issues of phycocyanin-based colorants. This thesis presents a process for cleavage of PCB from phycocyanin by solvolysis in alcohols as a first step towards the formulation of a new natural blue colorant. A pre-treatment dia......, and a set of differential equations, the model was able to predict the behaviour of the flux with a confidence level above 95 %. Three different methods of cleavage of PCB by solvolysis were evaluated in this study: conventional reflux, sealed vessel heated in an oil bath, and microwave assisted reaction...... mechanisms are suggested: a concerted E2 elimination, and a SN2 nucleophilic substitution. The stability essays on PCB showed that it is most stable when stored in dry form or in ethanol. PCB showed poor stability in water, although at moderately low temperatures and higher purity the degradation rates...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that...

  15. Strategies to prepare and use functionalized organometallic reagents. (United States)

    Klatt, Thomas; Markiewicz, John T; Sämann, Christoph; Knochel, Paul


    Polyfunctional zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents occupy a central position in organic synthesis. Most organic functional groups are tolerated by zinc organometallic reagents, and Csp(2)-centered magnesium organometallic reagents are compatible with important functional groups, such as the ester, aryl ketone, nitro, cyano, and amide functions. This excellent chemoselectivity gives zinc- and magnesium-organometallic reagents a central position in modern organic synthesis. Efficient and general preparations of these organometallic reagents, as well as their most practical and useful reactions, are presented in this Perspective. As starting materials, a broad range of organic halides (iodides, bromides, and also to some extent chlorides) can be used for the direct insertion of magnesium or zinc powder; the presence of LiCl very efficiently promotes such insertions. Alternatively, aromatic or heterocyclic bromides also undergo a smooth bromine-magnesium exchange when treated with i-PrMgCl·LiCl. Alternative precursors of zinc and magnesium reagents are polyfunctionalized aryl and heteroaryl molecules, which undergo directed metalations with sterically hindered TMP bases (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperide) of magnesium and zinc. This powerful C-H functionalization method gives access to polyfunctional heterocyclic zinc and magnesium reagents, which undergo efficient reactions with numerous electrophiles. The compatibility of the strong TMP-bases with BF3·OEt2 (formation of frustrated Lewis pairs) dramatically increases the scope of these metalations, giving for example, a practical access to magnesiated pyridines and pyrazines, which can be used as convenient building blocks for the preparation of biologically active molecules.

  16. Melanoma and satellite blue papule. (United States)

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer


    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis.

  17. Blues fans and suicide acceptability. (United States)

    Stack, S


    Research has neglected the possible impact of the blues music subculture on suicide acceptability (SA). The sad themes in the blues may attract suicidal persons and reinforce their suicidal moods and attitudes. The present study performs the first test of the thesis that associates SA with being a blues fan. It uses data on a national sample of 961 adults drawn from the General Social Survey of 1993. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blues fans were no more accepting of suicide than nonfans. However, blues fanship was found to have substantial indirect effects on SA through its influence on such factors as lowered religiosity levels, the most important predictor of SA. Race-specific analyses found more support for the model for whites than for African Americans.

  18. New reagents for coal desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, S.; Warfel, L.


    The primary goal of this project was development and exploration of potential new desulfurization reagents for the removal of ``organic sulfur`` from Illinois coals by mild chemical methods. Potential new desulfurization reagents were investigated using organic sulfur compounds of the types thought to be present in coals. Reagents included low-valent metal complexes based on nickel and on iron as well as possible Single Electron Transfer reagents. Soluble coal extracts served as second generation model compounds during this reagent development project.

  19. True blue football fan: tattoo reaction confined to blue pigment. (United States)

    Yoong, Corinne; Vun, Yin Yin; Spelman, Lynda; Muir, James


    A tattoo reaction which appeared solely on the blue pigment of a 6-month old red and blue football club tattoo of an ardent fan was investigated. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic and no other abnormality was detected on full physical examination. Histology revealed a florid sarcoidal granuloma reaction to blue pigment. Preliminary investigations for systemic sarcoidosis did not reveal any abnormality. The tattoo reaction flattened clinically with the institution of a short course of topical mometasone furoate 0.1% ointment and as the subject remained asymptomatic, close surveillance for the development of systemic sarcoidosis is to continue. The possibility of delayed type hypersensitivity is discussed.

  20. Lipid-based transfection reagents can interfere with cholesterol biosynthesis. (United States)

    Danielli, Mauro; Marinelli, Raúl A


    Lipid-based transfection reagents are widely used for delivery of small interfering RNA into cells. We examined whether the commonly used commercial transfection reagents DharmaFECT-4 and Lipofectamine 2000 can interfere with lipid metabolism by studying cholesterogenesis. Cholesterol de novo synthesis from [(14)C]acetate was assessed in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. The results revealed that DharmaFECT, but not Lipofectamine, markedly inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis by approximately 70%. Cell viability was not significantly altered. These findings suggest that caution is required in the choice of certain lipid-based transfection reagents for gene silencing experiments, particularly when assessing cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stoichiometric and Catalytic Ring Opening of Hexaalkylcyclodisilazanes by Organoalkali Reagents (United States)


    silicon nitride and silicon carbonitride 3 led us to investigate the possibility of organoalkali reagent-catalyzed ring opening polymerization of...8c 0.44 (q, J=117.0 Hz, Me2Si), 26.87 (q, J=134.9 Hz, MeN). 29Si NMR (59.59 MHz, C6D6, DEPT): 8Si 8.06 IR ( thin film ): 2955(m), 2900(s), 2810(s...rings. In view of this, one might expect that attack at a silicon atom of these cyclodisilazanes by a strongly nucleophilic organoalkali reagent will

  2. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids. (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide


    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo


    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  4. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine... tests to identify antobodies to equine encephalomyelitis virus in serum. The identification aids in the...

  6. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert


    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when the li...

  7. Catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to chromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.


    A highly regio- and enantioselective copper catalysed direct conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to chromones has been developed taking advantage of the reduced reactivity of the resulting magnesium enolates. This methodology tolerates a broad scope of alkyl Grignards including secondary alkyl

  8. Effects of the Fenton reagent on transport in yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khansuwan, U.; Kotyk, Arnošt


    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2000), s. 515-520 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Fenton reagent * yeast Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2000

  9. Tribromoisocyanuric Acid/NaNO : a New Reagent for Mononitration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    a New Reagent for Mononitration of Phenols under Mild and. Heterogeneous Conditions. Khodabakhsh Niknam,a* Mohammad Ali Zolfigol,b* Elaheh Madrakianb and Ezat Ghaemib. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 75169, Iran. bFaculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, ...

  10. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  11. Selectfluor : A novel and efficient reagent for the rapid α ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel and efficient reagent for the rapid α-thiocyanation of ketones. DEZHEN WUa, XIAOJUAN YANGb and LIQIANG WUc,∗. aDepartment of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Central Hospital, Xinxiang, Henan 453000, China. bCollege of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China.

  12. satl based lesson for teaching grignard reagents in synthetic organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is vital for enhancing the students creative capability. In this paper we will illustrate the uses of SATL methodology, which is recently getting popular [1-. 3], in an SATL-based model lesson concerning teaching and learning of synthetic organic reactions related to Grignard reagents.

  13. Tetrameric DABCO™-Bromine: an Efficient and Versatile Reagent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetrameric DABCO™-bromine is a powerful brominating agent but shows reasonable selectivity with certain substrates. The selective bromination for activated aromatic compounds and alkenes is reported. Synthesis of -bromo ketones and nitriles has also been achieved by using this reagent and the results are also ...

  14. SATL Based Lesson for Teaching Grignard Reagents in Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesizing new products from raw materials has been very popular aspects of research in organic chemistry. Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic procedures. Hence learning of various issues concerning with applications of Grignard reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is ...

  15. Protein-Protein Interaction Reagents | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has a library of genes used to study protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. These genes are cloned in different mammalian expression vectors. A list of available cancer-associated genes can be accessed below. Emory_CTD^2_PPI_Reagents.xlsx Contact: Haian Fu

  16. Selective Flotation of Calcite from Fluorite: A Novel Reagent Schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Gao


    Full Text Available Fluorite is an important strategic mineral. In general, fluorite ores will contain a certain amount of calcite gangue mineral. Thus, they need to be separated from each other. For an economic separation, a reverse flotation process is used to float calcite gangue from fluorite. However, little information on the separation is available. In this study, a novel reagent schedule using citric acid (CA as the depressant, sodium fluoride (NaF as the regulator and sulfoleic acid (SOA as the collector, was developed to separate calcite from fluorite. The results demonstrated a high selectivity for the flotation of calcite from fluorite using this new reagent schedule. The best selective separation for a single mineral and mixed binary minerals was obtained when 200 mg/L of NaF, 50 mg/L of CA, and 6 mg/L of SOA were used at pH 9. In addition, a batch flotation experiment was carried out using a run-of-mine feed material. Selective separation was achieved with 85.18% calcite removal while only 11.2% of fluorite was lost. An attempt was made to understand the effect of the new reagent schedule on the flotation of calcite. The results from both microflotation and bench scale flotation demonstrated a great potential for industrial application using this novel reagent schedule to upgrade fluorite ore.

  17. ELISA reagent coverage evaluation by affinity purification tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Henry, Scott M; Sutlief, Elissa; Salas-Solano, Oscar; Valliere-Douglass, John


    Host cell proteins (HCPs) must be adequately removed from recombinant therapeutics by downstream processing to ensure patient safety, product quality, and regulatory compliance. HCP process clearance is typically monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal reagent. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to identify specific HCP process impurities and monitor their clearance. Despite this capability, ELISA remains the preferred analytical approach due to its simplicity and throughput. There are, however, inherent difficulties reconciling the protein-centric results of MS characterization with ELISA, or providing assurance that ELISA has acceptable coverage against all process-specific HCP impurities that could pose safety or efficacy risks. Here, we describe efficient determination of ELISA reagent coverage by proteomic analysis following affinity purification with a polyclonal anti-HCP reagent (AP-MS). The resulting HCP identifications can be compared with the actual downstream process impurities for a given process to enable a highly focused assessment of ELISA reagent suitability. We illustrate the utility of this approach by performing coverage evaluation of an anti-HCP polyclonal against both an HCP immunogen and the downstream HCP impurities identified in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody after Protein A purification. The overall goal is to strategically implement affinity-based mass spectrometry as part of a holistic framework for evaluating HCP process clearance, ELISA reagent coverage, and process clearance risks. We envision coverage analysis by AP-MS will further enable a framework for HCP impurity analysis driven by characterization of actual product-specific process impurities, complimenting analytical methods centered on consideration of the total host cell proteome.

  18. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes


    Bengü Özütürk; Nalan Muhammedoğlu; Emel Dal; Berna Çalışkan


    Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code...

  19. Sodium perborate: A mild and convenient reagent for efficiently oxidizing organoboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Shoup, T.M.; Goudgaon, N.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))


    Sodium perborate, a readily available and inexpensive reagent, efficiently oxidizes organoboranes. The reagent permits the oxidation of a wide variety of functionally substituted organoboranes. In nearly every instance, the product yields exceed those obtained using standard oxidation procedures.

  20. The pyruvic acid analog 3-bromopyruvate interferes with the tetrazolium reagent MTS in the evaluation of cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Kunjithapatham, Rani; Buijs, Manon; Syed, Labiq H; Rao, Pramod P; Ota, Shinichi; Vali, Mustafa


    3-Bromopyruvate (3BrPA) is a pyruvate analog known for its alkylating property. Recently, several reports have documented the antiglycolytic and anticancer effects of 3BrPA and its potential for therapeutic applications. 3BrPA-mediated cytotoxicity has been evaluated in vitro by various methods including tetrazolium salt (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide)-based assays such as MTT, MTS, and so on. However, growing body of evidences has shown that tetrazolium reagent may interfere with the test compounds. In this study, we investigated whether the tetrazolium reagent interferes with the assessment of 3BrPA cytotoxicity. The results of the tetrazolium-based MTS assay were compared with 3 distinct cell viability detection methods, that is, Trypan Blue staining, ATP depletion, and Annexin V staining in 2 different cell lines, Vx-2 and HepG2. The MTS assay data showed false positive results by indicating increased cell viability at 1 mM and 2 mM 3BrPA whereas the other cell viability assays demonstrated that both Vx-2 and HepG2 cells are not viable at the same treatment conditions. In order to validate the direct interaction of 3BrPA with MTS reagent, we tested cell-free media incubated with different concentrations of 3BrPA. The results of cell-free media showed an increase in absorbance in a dose-dependent manner confirming the interaction of MTS with 3BrPA. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that 3BrPA interferes with the accuracy of MTS-based cytotoxicity evaluation. Hence, we suggest that employing multiple methods of biochemical as well as morphological cytotoxicity assays is critical to evaluate 3BrPA-mediated cell death.

  1. Selective densitometric determination of four alpha-aminocephalosporins using ninhydrin reagent. (United States)

    Saleh, Gamal A; Mohamed, Fardous A; El-Shaboury, Salwa R; Rageh, Azza H


    A simple, selective, and precise densitometric method for analysis of four alpha-aminocephalosporins, namely cefaclor monohydrate, cefadroxil monohydrate, cefalexin anhydrous, and cefradine anhydrous, both in bulk drugs and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed thin-layer chromatography (TLC) aluminium sheets precoated with silica gel G 60 F(254) as the stationary phase. The solvent system consists of ethyl acetate-methanol-water with different ratios for all studied drugs (R(f) values of 0.40-0.60). The separated spots were visualized as blue to violet color after spraying with ninhydrin reagent. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots of all studied drugs produced a good linear relationship with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9996 and coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9986 to 0.9992 over the concentration range 2-10 microg/spot. The limits of detection and quantitation for all studied drugs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23 and from 0.27 to 0.84 microg/spot, respectively. The developed method was applied successfully for the determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with good precision and accuracy. Also, the method can be employed as a promising stability-indicating assay.

  2. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater. (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Sun, Yuping; Wang, Jianji; Fan, Maohong


    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-reagent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in acidic medium. H(2)O(2) and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 microg mL(-1), and the detection limit was 0.16 microg mL(-1). The sample throughput was 80 h(-1), and the total volume of only 145 microL was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  3. Bonney's blue cystitis: a warning. (United States)

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Payne, S D; Milroy, E J; Warwick, R T


    The instillation of diluted Bonney's blue into the bladder during gynaecological operations has been quite common practice over the last 50 years. Bonney's blue is composed of a 1:1 mixture of brilliant green and crystal violet dissolved in ethanol (90%) or industrial methylated spirit. Before insertion into the bladder this solution must be diluted with water to a 0.5% solution. Failure to do this will result in a severe inflammatory reaction within the bladder. The degree of resultant damage depends upon the duration of exposure. Persistent pain is a feature of this condition, although the other symptoms (frequency and urgency) may settle in time. Two cases of chemical cystitis resulting from the use of undiluted Bonney's blue are described to illustrate the possible consequences. Both patients were awarded 6-figure sums as compensation.

  4. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj


    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  5. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera, cells...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents... Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (a) Identification. Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents), derived from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris used in...

  7. Removal of contaminating DNA from commercial nucleic acid extraction kit reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Reesink, Henk W.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.


    Due to contamination of DNA extraction reagents, false-positive results can occur when applying broad-range real-time PCR based on bacterial 16S rDNA. Filtration of the nucleic acid extraction kit reagents with GenElute Maxiprep binding columns was effective in removing this reagent-derived

  8. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. 866... Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents..., occurring in adults who were previously infected with varicella-zoster viruses. Zoster is the response...

  10. Agminated blue nevus - Case report* (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna


    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  11. Baby blues: identification and intervention. (United States)

    Hansen, C H


    Transitory postpartum depressive syndrome or baby blues affects up to 80% of all newly delivered women. Baby Blues is so common it may be considered normal. While one of the more mild forms of depression after child birth, it can still be disruptive to the family unit. Both physiological and psychosocial factors contribute to the syndrome. Appropriate nursing assessment and intervention throughout the childbearing cycle can be very beneficial in helping families to understand and cope with the problem, as well as help prevent more serious depressive syndromes.

  12. Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble. (United States)

    Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich


    The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Methyl fluorosulfonyldifluoroacetate (MFSDA): An Underutilised Reagent for Trifluoromethylation. (United States)

    Clarke, Sarah L; McGlacken, Gerard P


    The introduction of fluorine groups to pharmaceutical compounds can have a dramatic effect on the lipophilicity and metabolic stability of the molecule in vivo. Around 20 % of drugs contain at least one fluorine atom. The trifluoromethyl group is known to have beneficial effects and can dramatically affect the biological activity when substituted for a methyl group, for example. In any case, the direct and late-stage introduction of a trifluoromethyl group is a powerful transformation in the tool box of the medicinal chemist. The use of methyl fluorosulfonyldifluoroacetate (MFSDA) as a relatively inexpensive reagent for trifluoromethylation was first reported in 1989; however, in our opinion it has been somewhat underutilised. Herein, a comprehensive review of trifluoromethylation using MFSDA is reported, which we hope will further expose readers to this useful reagent. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reagent controlled addition of chiral sulfur ylides to chiral aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Jie


    Full Text Available Abstract The degree of reagent and substrate control in the reaction of chiral sulfur ylides with chiral aldehydes has been investigated. Specifically, the reactions of the two enantiomers of the chiral benzyl sulfonium salt 1 with glyceraldehyde acetonide were studied in detail. Of the two new stereogenic centers created, it was found that the C1 stereochemistry was largely controlled by the reagent, whereas control at the C2 center was dependent on the aldehyde used. In one case, the trans isomer was produced via reversible formation of the intermediate betaine, whereas in the alternative case, the C2 center was under Felkin Anh/Cornforth control through non-reversible formation of the betaine. Thus, the aldehyde stereocenter influenced the degree of reversibility in betaine formation, which impacted on the stereocontrol at the C2 position.

  15. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification. (United States)

    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A


    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer readily scalable solutions for purification of clinical grade AAV vectors.

  16. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification


    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A


    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer re...

  17. New reagents for detecting free radicals and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Barzegar Amiri Olia, Mina; Schiesser, Carl H; Taylor, Michelle K


    Free radicals and oxidative stress play important roles in the deterioration of materials, and free radicals are important intermediates in many biological processes. The ability to detect these reactive species is a key step on the road to their understanding and ultimate control. This short review highlights recent progress in the development of reagents for the detection of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with broad application to materials science as well as biology.

  18. 5(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) rhodanine as a reagent for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper and manganese compounds react with the reagent in the molar ratio 1:1; 1:2;and 1:3 (metal:ligand) at pH 1.09 to 11 in a solution containing 20 % (v/v) of ethanol..A concentration of DMABR three times greater than the metal concentration was necessary for complete complexation; to give molar extinction coefficient ...

  19. Identification of mimotopes of Mycobacterium leprae as potential diagnostic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Silvana M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early diagnostic test for detecting infection in leprosy is fundamental for reducing patients’ sequelae. The currently used lepromin is not adequate for disease diagnosis and, so far, no antigen to be used in intradermoreaction has proved to be sensitive and specific for that purpose. Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated. Methods Random peptide phage display libraries were screened by using antibodies from leprosy patients in order to identify peptides as diagnostic reagents. Results Seven different phage clones were identified using purified antibodies pooled from sera of leprosy patients. When the clones were tested with serum samples by ELISA, three of them, 5A, 6A and 1B, allowed detecting a larger number of leprosy patients when compared to controls. The corresponding peptides expressed by selected phage clones were chemically synthesized. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the use of peptides in skin tests. The intradermal challenge with peptides in animals previously sensitized with Mycobacterium leprae induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity with peptide 5A (2/5 and peptide 1B (1/5. In positive controls, there was a 3/5 reactivity for lepromin and a 4/5 reactivity of the sensitized animals with soluble extract of M. leprae. Conclusions The preliminary data suggest that may be possible to develop reagents with diagnostic potential based on peptide mimotopes selected by phage display using polyclonal human antibodies.

  20. Rapid heteroatom transfer to arylmetals utilizing multifunctional reagent scaffolds (United States)

    Gao, Hongyin; Zhou, Zhe; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Coombs, James; Jones, Steven; Behnke, Nicole Erin; Ess, Daniel H.; Kürti, László


    Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents. Here, we demonstrate the use of bench-stable N-H and N-alkyl oxaziridines derived from readily available terpenoid scaffolds as efficient multifunctional reagents for the direct primary amination and hydroxylation of structurally diverse aryl- and heteroarylmetals. This practical and scalable method provides one-step synthetic access to primary anilines and phenols at low temperature and avoids the use of transition-metal catalysts, ligands and additives, nitrogen-protecting groups, excess reagents and harsh workup conditions.

  1. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov


    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  2. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  3. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid


    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  4. Code Blue evaluation in children's hospital. (United States)

    Sahin, Kubra Evren; Ozdinc, Oktay Zeki; Yoldas, Suna; Goktay, Aylin; Dorak, Selda


    True alarm rate of the Code Blue cases is at a low level in the Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital in İzmir. This study aims to analyse the use of the Code Blue alarm cases in the children's hospital. This retrospective clinical study evaluated the age and the gender of the cases, the arriving time of the Code Blue team, the date and time of the Code Blue Call, the reasons of the Code Blue Call, and the verification which were all obtained from the Code Blue forms of the hospital dated between January 2014 and January 2015. The data of 139 Code Blue cases' forms were investigated and was divided into two groups: before and after the education containing 88 and 51 cases, respectively. Conversive disorder (26% to 13%, Pode Blue cases were false calls with female greater than male (Pode that is to say pre-diagnosis team should be formed.

  5. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diana Biţu


    Full Text Available Herbicides are chemical substances with selective toxic action (limited for some vegetal species or general (for any species, used to fight against weeds in the crops, fruit and grapes-growing fields, parks etc. The administration of herbicides though has complex effects on the biocenosis. In the aquatic environment, they have proved to be toxic not only for the aimed plants, but also for numerous species of animals. The deterioration of the aquatic environment is accentuated by the fact that plants that had died due to the treatment decompose themselves in a rapid manner, leading to the decrease of the oxygen level in the water, the final consequence being the increase in the death rate of the animals. This paper has studied the action of the Dual Gold 960 EC herbicide in different concentrations on some physiological indicators for the Prussian carp (Carassiusauratusgibelio Bloch 1782. The herbicide has had an inhibitive effect on the researched parameters for all the used concentrations.

  7. Chemical Insight Into The Origin of Red and Blue Photoluminescence Arising From Freestanding Silicon Nanocrystals (United States)

    Dasog, Mita; Yang, Zhenyu; Regli, Sarah; Atkins, Tonya M.; Faramus, Angelique; Singh, Mani P.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.


    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are attractive functional materials. They are compatible with standard electronics and communications platforms as well being biocompatible. Numerous methods have been developed to realize size-controlled Si NC synthesis. While these procedures produce Si NCs that appear identical, their optical responses can differ dramatically. Si NCs prepared using high-temperature methods routinely exhibit photoluminescence agreeing with the effective mass approximation (EMA), while those prepared via solution methods exhibit blue emission that is somewhat independent of particle size. Despite many proposals, a definitive explanation for this difference has been elusive for no less than a decade. This apparent dichotomy brings into question our understanding of Si NC properties and potentially limits the scope of their application. The present contribution takes a substantial step forward toward identifying the origin of the blue emission that is not expected based upon EMA predictions. It describes a detailed comparison of Si NCs obtained from three of the most widely cited procedures as well as the conversion of red-emitting Si NCs to blue-emitters upon exposure to nitrogen containing reagents. Analysis of the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of trace nitrogen and oxygen even at the ppm level in Si NCs gives rise to the blue emission. PMID:23394574

  8. The first direct evidence of pre-columbian sources of palygorskite for Maya Blue (United States)

    Arnold, Dean E.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Neff, Hector; Feinman, Gary M.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Dussubieux, Laure; Bishop, Ronald


    Maya Blue, a nano-structured clay–organic complex of palygorskite and indigo, was used predominantly before the Spanish Conquest. It has fascinated chemists, material scientists, archaeologists and art historians for decades because it is resistant to the effect of acids, alkalis, and other reagents, and its rich color has persisted for centuries in the harsh tropical climate of southern Mesoamerica. One of its components, palygorskite, is part of modern Maya indigenous knowledge, and ethnohistoric and archaeological data suggest that its modern sources were probably utilized in Prehispanic times. Yet no direct evidence verifies that palygorskite was actually mined from these sources to make Maya Blue. Here we characterize these sources compositionally, and compare our analyses to those of Maya Blue from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. We demonstrate that the palygorskite in most of these samples came from modern mines, providing the first direct evidence for the use of these sources for making Maya Blue. These findings reveal that modern Maya indigenous knowledge about palygorskite, its mining, and its source locations, is at least seven centuries old.

  9. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent. (United States)

    Kong, Yanping; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhao, Yongliang; Xue, Yanfang; Zhang, Ye


    Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer) and THLE3 (normal liver cells) after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells' genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of "label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)" from Mirus (USA). The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA's size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA fragments directly from the environment without the aid of the transfecting

  10. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.


    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  12. The Physics of the Blues (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray


    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  13. An amino acid-based heterofunctional cross-linking reagent. (United States)

    Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina


    We describe the synthesis and characterization of a new lysine-based heterofunctional cross-linking reagent. It carries two readily available aminooxy functionalities and an activated and protected thiol group that is capable of generating reducible disulfides, the former enable bioorthogonal modification of ketones and aldehydes by the formation of an oxime bond. The efficacy of the linker was proven by coupling two doxorubicin molecules to the functionalized amino acid core and the subsequent bioconjugation of this drug conjugate with a thiolated antibody.

  14. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus (United States)

    Nelson, Michael


    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  15. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status. (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T


    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  16. A performance evaluation of a novel human recombinant tissue factor prothrombin time reagent (Revohem™ PT). (United States)

    Gardiner, C; Kohama, K; Patel, I; Lane, P; Dwyer, S; Machin, S J; Mackie, I J


    A new prothrombin time reagent (Revohem™ PT) based on recombinant human tissue factor produced by the silkworm-baculovirus expression system was tested. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the new PT reagent with two widely used routine PT reagents. All testing was performed on a Sysmex CS-5100 coagulometer. Revohem™ PT was tested for imprecision and stability using normal and abnormal lyophilized commercial control plasmas. Comparability was assessed with two widely used reagents: one containing recombinant human tissue factor (Reagent A) and the other a human placental thromboplastin (Reagent B) using a wide range of normal and abnormal plasmas and analyser-specific ISI values. Excellent between-day imprecision was obtained for Revohem™ PT (CV <1.0%) and acceptable open-vial on-board stability over 7 days. There was good agreement between methods in samples from patients with liver disease and patients receiving warfarin and no significant differences between methods with increasing INR values. Both recombinant reagents suffered less interference from lupus anticoagulant than the placental thromboplastin. Revohem™ PT had similar sensitivity to reagents A and B for FII, V, VII and X deficiency and demonstrated dose responsiveness to dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban with steeper response curves than the comparison reagents. Revohem™ PT showed comparable or improved performance relative to two widely used reagents and is suitable for use in warfarin control, detection of inherited factor II, V, VII and X deficiency and assessment of liver disease coagulopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Postpartum Blues


    ', Desfanita '; ', Misrawati '; ', Arneliwati '


    Postpartum blues (baby blues)is a sad condition which is faced by certain mothers after giving birth, every mothers has a tendency for having a postpartum blues (baby blues). The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which affect the postpartum blues syndrome. The analysis method of this study used a descriptive correlation design. The study was held in the state hospital of Riau (RSUD Arifin Achmad) and Petala Bumi hospital. A purposive sampling technigue. Was used in this study to...

  18. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers (United States)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  19. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany Colson


    Full Text Available A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented.

  20. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young


    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  1. Diagnóstico das meningites através de fitas reagentes Diagnosis of meningitis with reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.C. Romanelli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a utilidade de fitas reagentes para a avaliação liquórica de pleocitose, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia no diagnóstico precoce e rápido de meningites em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo amostras de líquor provenientes de 164 crianças admitidas no ambulatório de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Centro Geral de Pediatria (CGP-FHEMIG, com suspeita clínica de meningite, no período diurno de Maio/97 à Maio/99. A faixa etária dos pacientes variou de um mês a 12 anos (mediana de 12 meses, sendo obtidos resultados da citobioquímica liquórica (celularidade, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia de 154 desses pacientes. Esses achados foram comparados com reações do líquor em fitas reagentes. RESULTADOS: Através da citobioquímica líquórica foram identificados 43 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, 19 provavelmente viróticas e 83 amostras sem alterações. Pelas fitas reagentes, detectaram-se 41 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, dois casos de infecção meníngea provavelmente virótica, e em 71 exames não se verificaram alterações. Comparando os resultados obtidos por meio das fitas reagentes com a citobioquímica convencional, observou-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e acurácia (90,7; 98,1; 95,1; 96,4; 96,1%, respectivamente. Ademais, a análise estatística pelo teste de Mc Nemar não evidenciou discordância significativa no diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana obtido através de ambos os métodos (p=0,68 e, pela estatística Kappa, verificou-se elevado grau de concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: to determine the usefulness of reagent strips in the evaluation of pleocytosis, cerebrospinal fluid glucose and protein levels for early and rapid diagnosis of meningitis in children. METHODS: We included cerebrospinal fluid samples of 164 children admitted to the outpatient clinic of Communicable Diseases of the General Pediatric Center (Funda

  2. Towards supramolecular fixation of NOX gases: encapsulated reagents for nitrosation. (United States)

    Kang, Yanlong; Zyryanov, Grigory V; Rudkevich, Dmitry M


    The use of simple calix[4]arenes for chemical conversion of NO2/N2O4 gases is demonstrated in solution and in the solid state. Upon reacting with these gases, calixarenes 1 encapsulate nitrosonium (NO+) cations within their cavities with the formation of stable calixarene-NO+ complexes 2. These complexes act as encapsulated nitrosating reagents; cavity effects control their reactivity and selectivity. Complexes 2 were effectively used for nitrosation of secondary amides 5, including chiral derivatives. Unique size-shape selectivity was observed, allowing for exclusive nitrosation of less crowded N-Me amides 5 a-e (up to 95 % yields). Bulkier N-Alk (Alk>Me) substrates 5 did not react due to the hindered approach to the encapsulated NO+ reagents. Robust, silica gel based calixarene material 3 was prepared, which reversibly traps NO2/N2O4 with the formation of NO+-storing silica gel 4. With material 4, similar size-shape selectivity was observed for nitrosation. The N-Me-N-nitroso derivatives 6 d,e were obtained with approximately 30 % yields, while bulkier amides were nitrosated with much lower yields (environment and biomedical areas.

  3. The blocking reagent optimization for the magnetoelastic biosensor (United States)

    Hu, Jiajia; Chai, Yating; Horikawa, Shin; Wikle, Howard C.; Wang, Feng'en; Du, Songtao; Chin, Bryan A.; Hu, Jing


    The wireless phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor has proven to be promising for real-time detection of pathogenic bacteria on fresh produces. The ME biosensor consists of a freestanding ME resonator as the signal transducer and filamentous phage as the biomolecular-recognition element, which can specifically bind to a pathogen of interest. Due to the Joule magnetostriction effect, the biosensors can be placed into mechanical resonance when subjected to a time-varying magnetic field alternating at the sensor's resonant frequency. Upon the attachment of the target pathogen, the mass of the biosensor increases, thereby decreasing its resonant frequency. This paper presents an investigation of blocking reagents immobilization for detecting Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh food surfaces. Three different blocking reagents (BSA, SuperBlock blocking buffer, and blocker BLOTTO) were used and compared. The optical microscope was used for bacterial cells binding observation. Student t-test was used to statistically analysis the experiment results. The results shows that SuperBlock blocking buffer and blocker BLOTTO have much better blocking performance than usually used BSA.

  4. Fenton’s reagent application in the domestic sewers disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juacyara Cabonelli Campos


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the application of advanced oxidative processes – Fenton’s reagent - in wastewater disinfection. The treatments included the variation of the hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions concentrations (Fe2+/H2O2 and pH values. The sewage samples were collected at Ilha do Governador Wastewater Treatment Plant (ETIG in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before the biological treatment with activated sludge. The average pH fluctuated from 6.5 to 7.2 and the most common value was 6.7. The reactions with the Fenton´s reagents, as well as the beginning of the analysis occurred within 24 hours after the sewage sample`s collection. The oxidative process, its behavior and the treatment effectiveness have been monitored by microorganism counting, COD, BOD, ammoniacal nitrogen and others. The results have shown a total elimination of the fecal coliforms in the wastewater samples when treated with H2O2 and Fe2+ in concentrations of 200 mg/L of 50 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Reduction of amine N-oxides by diboron reagents. (United States)

    Kokatla, Hari Prasad; Thomson, Paul F; Bae, Suyeal; Doddi, Venkata Ramana; Lakshman, Mahesh K


    Facile reduction of alkylamino-, anilino-, and pyridyl-N-oxides can be achieved via the use of diboron reagents, predominantly bis(pinacolato)- and in some cases bis(catecholato)diboron [(pinB)(2) and (catB)(2), respectively]. Reductions occur upon simply mixing the amine N-oxide and the diboron reagent in a suitable solvent, at a suitable temperature. Extremely fast reductions of alkylamino- and anilino-N-oxides occur, whereas pyridyl-N-oxides undergo slower reduction. The reaction is tolerant of a variety of functionalities such as hydroxyl, thiol, and cyano groups, as well as halogens. Notably, a sensitive nucleoside N-oxide has also been reduced efficiently. The different rates with which alkylamino- and pyridyl-N-oxides are reduced has been used to perform stepwise reduction of the N,N'-dioxide of (S)-(-)-nicotine. Because it was observed that (pinB)(2) was unaffected by the water of hydration in amine oxides, the feasibility of using water as solvent was evaluated. These reactions also proceeded exceptionally well, giving high product yields. In constrast to the reactions with (pinB)(2), triethylborane reduced alkylamino-N-oxides, but pyridine N-oxide did not undergo efficient reduction even at elevated temperature. Finally, the mechanism of the reductive process by (pinB)(2) has been probed by (1)H and (11)B NMR.

  6. Ligand Binding Assays in the 21st Century Laboratory: Recommendations for Characterization and Supply of Critical Reagents


    O’Hara, Denise M.; Theobald, Valerie; Egan, Adrienne Clements; Usansky, Joel; Krishna, Murli; TerWee, Julie; Maia, Mauricio; Spriggs, Frank P.; Kenney, John; Safavi, Afshin; Keefe, Jeannine


    Critical reagents are essential components of ligand binding assays (LBAs) and are utilized throughout the process of drug discovery, development, and post-marketing monitoring. Successful lifecycle management of LBA critical reagents minimizes assay performance problems caused by declining reagent activity and can mitigate the risk of delays during preclinical and clinical studies. Proactive reagent management assures adequate supply. It also assures that the quality of critical reagents is ...

  7. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles. (United States)

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan


    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  8. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran


    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  9. Lot-to-lot stability of antibody reagents for flow cytometry. (United States)

    Böttcher, Sebastian; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Villamor, Neus; Ritgen, Matthias; Flores-Montero, Juan; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Kalina, Tomas; Brüggemann, Monika; Grigore, Georgiana; Martin-Ayuso, Marta; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Pedreira, Carlos E; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto


    The fluorescence detected using fluorochrome-labelled monoclonal antibodies depends not only on the abundance of the target antigen, but amongst many other factors also on the effective fluorochrome-to-antibody ratio. The diagnostic approach of the EuroFlow consortium relies on reproducible fluorescence intensities over time. A capture bead system for mouse immunoglobulin light chains was utilized to compare the mean fluorescence intensity of 1323 consecutive antibody lots to the currently used lot of the same monoclonal antibody. In total, 157 different monoclonal antibodies were assessed over seven years. Median relative difference between consecutive lots was 3.8% (range: 0.01% to 164.7%, interquartile range: 1.3% to 10.1%). The relative difference exceeded 20% in 8.8% of all comparisons. FITC labelled monoclonal antibodies (median relative difference: 2.1%) showed a significantly smaller variation between lots than antibodies conjugated to PE (3.5%), PECy7 (3.9%), PerCPCy5.5 (5.8%), APC (5.8%), APCH7 (7.4%), and APCC750 (14.5%). Reagents labelled with Pacific Blue (1.4%), Pacific Orange (2.4%), HV450 (0.7%), and HV500 (1.7%) demonstrated more consistent results compared to conjugates of BV421 (4.1%) and BV510 (16.2%). Additionally, significant differences in lot-to-lot fluorescence stability amongst antibodies labelled with the same fluorochrome were observed between manufacturers. These observations might guide future quality recommendations for the production and application of fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies in multicolor flow cytometry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A novel strategy for selective gene delivery by using the inhibitory effect of blue light on jetPRIME-mediated transfection. (United States)

    Dateki, Minori; Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Takishima, Kunio


    Photodynamic control of gene delivery is a new technology with growing applications in gene therapy and basic cell research. Main approaches of light-selective gene delivery rely on the light-dependent enhancement of transfection efficiency. Studies focused on light-stimulated inhibitory regulation of transfection have rarely been reported. Here, we tried to establish a novel procedure of light-dependent inhibition of transfection. Our experiments, conducted with several types of commercial transfection reagents, revealed that jetPRIME-mediated transfection was strongly inhibited by blue light. Although the uptake of reagent-DNA complex was drastically reduced, preliminary exposure of cells or reagent-DNA complex to blue light had no inhibitory effect on the transfection efficiency. The inhibitory effect was wavelength-dependent and mediated by reactive oxygen species. Partial exposure of a culture vessel to blue light resulted in selective gene delivery into cells grown on the unexposed area of the vessel. By using this approach, different types of plasmid DNA were delivered into different areas in the culture vessel. This novel approach to the inhibitory control of transfection provides practical options for research and therapeutics. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1560-1567. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. UP-TORR: online tool for accurate and Up-to-Date annotation of RNAi Reagents. (United States)

    Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Flockhart, Ian; Perkins, Lizabeth; Perrimon, Norbert; Mohr, Stephanie E


    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely adopted tool for loss-of-function studies but RNAi results only have biological relevance if the reagents are appropriately mapped to genes. Several groups have designed and generated RNAi reagent libraries for studies in cells or in vivo for Drosophila and other species. At first glance, matching RNAi reagents to genes appears to be a simple problem, as each reagent is typically designed to target a single gene. In practice, however, the reagent-gene relationship is complex. Although the sequences of oligonucleotides used to generate most types of RNAi reagents are static, the reference genome and gene annotations are regularly updated. Thus, at the time a researcher chooses an RNAi reagent or analyzes RNAi data, the most current interpretation of the RNAi reagent-gene relationship, as well as related information regarding specificity (e.g., predicted off-target effects), can be different from the original interpretation. Here, we describe a set of strategies and an accompanying online tool, UP-TORR (for Updated Targets of RNAi Reagents;, useful for accurate and up-to-date annotation of cell-based and in vivo RNAi reagents. Importantly, UP-TORR automatically synchronizes with gene annotations daily, retrieving the most current information available, and for Drosophila, also synchronizes with the major reagent collections. Thus, UP-TORR allows users to choose the most appropriate RNAi reagents at the onset of a study, as well as to perform the most appropriate analyses of results of RNAi-based studies.

  12. Optimizing Transfection of Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Using Commercially Available Chemical Transfection Reagents


    Hunt, Michelle A.; Currie, Margaret J.; Robinson, Bridget A.; Dachs, Gabi U.


    Primary cells, such as HUVEC, are notoriously difficult to transfect and are susceptible to the toxic effects of transfection reagents. A transfection reagent with a high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity was sought to retain sufficient viability of transfected HUVEC for subsequent assays. Nine chemical transfection reagents, currently commercially available, were compared for their ability to transfect HUVEC in vitro. A plasmid expressing the enhanced GFP (EGFP) was used for trans...

  13. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk


    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  14. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael


    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  15. Features of the reaction of heterocyclic analogs of chalcone with lanthanide shift reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turov, A.V.; Khilya, V.P. [Taras Shevchenko Kiev Univ. (Russian Federation)


    The PMR spectra of heterocyclic analogs of 2-hydroxychalcone containing thiazole, benzofuran, triazole, imidazole, benzodioxane, or pyridine rings in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents are studied. It is found that the most effective reagent for modifying the spectra of these compounds is Yb(fod)3. The broadening of the spectra of 2-hydroxy chalcones in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents is explained by the dynamic effects of complex formation. An example is given of the determination of the conformation of molecules of 2-hydroxychalcone by the simultaneous use of lanthanide shift reagents and the homonuclear Overhauser effect. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. A Stimuli-Responsive, Binary Reagent System for Rapid Isolation of Protein Biomarkers. (United States)

    Nehilla, Barrett J; Hill, John J; Srinivasan, Selvi; Chen, Yen-Chi; Schulte, Thomas H; Stayton, Patrick S; Lai, James J


    Magnetic microbeads exhibit rapid separation characteristics and are widely employed for biomolecule and cell isolations in research laboratories, clinical diagnostics assays, and cell therapy manufacturing. However, micrometer particle diameters compromise biomarker recognition, which leads to long incubation times and significant reagent demands. Here, a stimuli-responsive binary reagent system is presented that combines the nanoscale benefits of efficient biomarker recognition and the microscale benefits of rapid magnetic separation. This system comprises magnetic nanoparticles and polymer-antibody (Ab) conjugates that transition from hydrophilic nanoscale reagents to microscale aggregates in response to temperature stimuli. The binary reagent system was benchmarked against Ab-labeled Dynabeads in terms of biomarker isolation kinetics, assay speed, and reagent needs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that polymer conjugation did not significantly alter the Ab's binding affinity or kinetics. ELISA analysis showed that the unconjugated Ab, polymer-Ab conjugates, and Ab-labeled Dynabeads exhibited similar equilibrium dissociation constants (K d ), ∼2 nM. However, the binary reagent system isolated HIV p24 antigen from spiked serum specimens (150 pg/mL) much more quickly than Dynabeads, which resulted in shorter binding times by tens of minutes, or about 30-50% shorter overall assay times. The binary reagent system showed improved performance because the Ab molecules were not conjugated to large, solid microparticle surfaces. This stimuli-responsive binary reagent system illustrates the potential advantages of nanoscale reagents in molecule and cell isolations for both research and clinical applications.

  17. Genipin, a novel fingerprint reagent with colorimetric and fluorogenic activity, part II: optimization, scope and limitations. (United States)

    Levinton-Shamuilov, Genyia; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam; Chaikovsky, Alan; Almog, Joseph


    Genipin, a hydrolytic product of geniposide extracted from gardenia fruit, was thoroughly studied as a potential fingerprint reagent, and optimal conditions for fingerprint development have been determined. Latent fingerprints on paper items that have been treated with a non-ink running formulation containing 0.17% of the reagent, showed up as both colored and fluorescent images. On brown wrapping paper and on papers with highly luminescent backgrounds, genipin developed more visible and clearer prints than did classical reagents such as ninhydrin or DFO. Another potential advantage of genipin is that it is totally harmless and an environmentally friendly reagent.

  18. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik


    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  19. Melanoma and Satellite Blue Papule


    Oliveira, A.; Arzberger, E; Massone, C.; Zalaudek, I.; Fink-Puches, R; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R


    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slo...

  20. Blue breath holding is benign. (United States)

    Stephenson, J B


    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  1. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures. (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng


    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  2. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  3. Selective recognition of americium by peptide-based reagents. (United States)

    Özçubukçu, Salih; Mandal, Kalyanaswer; Wegner, Seraphine; Jensen, Mark P; He, Chuan


    The separation of lanthanides from minor actinides such as americium and curium is an important step during the recycling process in the treatment of nuclear waste. However, the similar chemistry and ionic size of lanthanide and actinide ions make the separation challenging. Here, we report that a peptide-based reagent can selectively bind trivalent actinides over trivalent lanthanides by means of introducing soft-donor atoms into a peptide known as a lanthanide-binding tag (LBT). Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to measure the dissociation constant of each metal/peptide complex. A 10-fold selectivity was obtained for Am(3+) over the similarly sized lanthanide cation, Nd(3+), when the asparagine on the fifth position of a LBT was mutated to a cysteine and further functionalized by a pyridine moiety.

  4. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here:

  5. Photodynamic therapy with Methylene Blue as photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisaka, Tsuyoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan). Health Science Center); Ennyu, Hiroko; Takeno, Tetsu; Okura, Ichiro


    Availability of Methylene Blue as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy was investigated, and it was found that the HeLa cells incorporated with Methylene Blue was strongly damaged by the irradiation with laser light. Methylene Blue was effective for the irradiation of longer wavelength, which has the large tissue penetration depth. The possible reaction mechanism of the cell damage via photo-produced singlet oxygen is discussed. (author).

  6. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa


    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H2O2. Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H2O2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H2O2]/[Fe2+] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV tested in different conditions.

  7. A high-sensitivity thromboplastin reagent prepared from cultured human cells. (United States)

    Valdes-Camin, R; Callahan, J B; Ebert, R F


    High-sensitivity thromboplastin reagents suitable for use in the prothrombin time (PT) assay are typically prepared from human brain and placenta, tissues that are in limited supply and subject to viral contamination. Cloning and expression of recombinant human tissue factor (TF) has enabled production of a new generation of thromboplastin reagents whose performance and utility are under active investigation. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing a sensitive human thromboplastin reagent from a non-recombinant source: cultured human cells. Several human cell lines with apparently high constitutive TF synthesis were identified, and a viable thromboplastin reagent (Humaplastin) was produced from a human lung cell line via a non-conventional process that did not require reconstitution or rehydration of TF in cell membranes. When calibrated against BCT/253, a human brain international reference thromboplastin, Humaplastin exhibited a mean normal prothrombin time of 12.6 +/- 0.7 s (mean +/- SD: n = 20) and an International Sensitivity Index of 1.09 +/- 0.019. The performance of this reagent was well correlated (r = 0.983) with Thromborel S, a commercially available human placental thromboplastin reagent. Orthogonal least squares regression of the log PT values from the placental thromboplastin reagent versus Humaplastin and two recombinant TF-based thromboplastin reagents suggested that the latter three reagents are somewhat more sensitive than the placental thromboplastin reagent, although such differences should not be expected to have a significant impact on clinical utility. It is concluded that cultured human lung cells represent a suitable source of tissue thromboplastin for production of a high-sensitivity non-recombinant thromboplastin reagent.

  8. Methodical aspects of blood coagulation measurements in birds applying commercial reagents--a pilot study. (United States)

    Guddorf, Vanessa; Kummerfeld, Norbert; Mischke, Reinhard


    The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of commercially available reagents for measurements of coagulation parameters in citrated plasma from birds. Therefore, plasma samples of 17 healthy donor birds of different species were used to determine prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) applying various commercial reagents which are routinely used in coagulation diagnostics in humans and mammals. A PT reagent based on human placental thromboplastin yielded not only shorter clotting times than a reagent containing recombinant human tissue factor (median 49 vs. 84 s), but also showed a minor range of distribution of values (43-55 s vs. 30-147 s, minimum-maximum, n = 5 turkeys). An aPTT reagent containing kaolin and phospholipids of animal origin delivered the shortest clotting times and the lowest range of variation in comparison to three other reagents of different composition. However, even when this reagent was used, aPTTs were partially extremely long (> 200 s). Thrombin time was 38 s (28-57 s, n = 5 chicken) when measured with bovine thrombin at a final concentration of 2 IU thrombin/ ml. Coefficients of variation for within-run precision analysis (20 repetitions) of PT was 8.0% and 4.7% for aPTT measurements using selected reagents of mammalian origin. In conclusion, of the commercially available reagents tested, a PT reagent based on human placental thromboplastin and an aPTT reagent including rabbit brain phospholipid and kaolin, show some promise for potential use in birds.

  9. Fenton's reagent for the rapid and efficient isolation of microplastics from wastewater. (United States)

    Tagg, A S; Harrison, J P; Ju-Nam, Y; Sapp, M; Bradley, E L; Sinclair, C J; Ojeda, J J


    Fenton's reagent was used to isolate microplastics from organic-rich wastewater. The catalytic reaction did not affect microplastic chemistry or size, enabling its use as a pre-treatment method for focal plane array-based micro-FT-IR imaging. Compared with previously described microplastic treatment methods, Fenton's reagent offers a considerable reduction in sample preparation times.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. 866... Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a) Identification. Treponema pallidum treponemal test... the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), the Treponema pallidum immobilization...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents... Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (a) Identification. Treponema pallidum nontreponemal test... reaction of treponema microorganisms with body tissues. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  12. NIH Seeks Input on Prioritizing Renewable Affinity Reagents | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (United States)

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is seeking community input on a priority list for renewable affinity reagents for human transcription factors. For more information or to provide input, please visit,

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Polyfluorophenylation of Porphyrins with Bis(polyfluorophenylzinc Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Takanami


    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of pentafluorophenyl- and related polyfluorophenyl-substituted porphyrins has been achieved via palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of brominated porphyrins with bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents. The reaction is applicable to a variety of free-base bromoporphyrins, their metal complexes, and a number of bis(polyfluorophenylzinc reagents.

  14. TFFH as an excellent reagent for acylation of alcohols, thiols and dithiocarbamates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittelkow, M.; Kamounah, F. S.; Boas, Ulrik


    A convenient and easy procedure to synthesize esters and thioesters from the corresponding carboxylic acid using TFFH as the coupling reagent is described. The preparation of N-acyl-dithiocarbamates from carboxylic acids and 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione with TFFH as the coupling reagent is also...

  15. T3P as an efficient cyclodehydration reagent for the one-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NaOH6b and mercury salts7 have been employed for this purpose. These reagents promote the cyclization by selectively activating the sulphur moiety. Carbodiimides acted as H2S scavengers while iodine reagents shifted the equilibrium to the right ...

  16. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann Reagent from stable sulfonyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard


    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a safe and scalable approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes...

  17. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael


    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  18. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeren, Sophie; Meier, Sebastian


    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal...

  19. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.


    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formation...

  20. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken


    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  1. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Kubiak


    Full Text Available Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods.

  2. Efficiency of Deposit Dissolution in Water Well Filters by Acid Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivashechkin


    Full Text Available The paper considers some problems of efficient dissolution of contaminative deposits by acid reagents which are accumulated in the pores of gravelling and water well filters.Tests of reagents in terms of their corrosive effect on the elements of a well filter have been carried out.

  3. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap


    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  4. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels (United States)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.


    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  5. Dried reagents for multiplex genotyping by tag-array minisequencing to be used in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlford, Annika; Kjeldsen, Bastian; Reimers, Jakob


    We present an optimized procedure for freeze-drying and storing reagents for multiplex PCR followed by genotyping using a tag-array minisequencing assay with four color fluorescence detection which is suitable for microfluidic assay formats. A test panel was established for five cancer mutations...... phosphatase were estimated to 55 and 200 days, respectively. We conducted a systematic genotyping comparison using freeze-dried and liquid reagents. The accuracy of successful genotyping was 99.1% using freeze-dried reagents compared to liquid reagents. As a proof of concept, the genotyping protocol...... was carried out with freeze-dried reagents stored in reaction chambers fabricated by micromilling in a cyclic olefin copolymer substrate. The results reported in this study are a key step towards the development of an integrated microfluidic device for point-of-care DNA-based diagnostics....

  6. A community standard format for the representation of protein affinity reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Orchard, Sandra; Bertinetti, Daniela


    Protein affinity reagents (PARs), most commonly antibodies, are essential reagents for protein characterization in basic research, biotechnology, and diagnostics as well as the fastest growing class of therapeutics. Large numbers of PARs are available commercially; however, their quality is often...... to set up a resource of consistently quality-controlled protein-binding reagents for the whole human proteome. An ultimate PAR database resource would allow consumers to visit one on-line warehouse and find all available affinity reagents from different providers together with documentation....... Here we propose Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI)-PAR as a global community standard format for the representation and exchange of protein affinity reagent data. The PSI-PAR format is maintained by the Human Proteome Organisation PSI and was developed within the context of Proteome...

  7. Characterization of critical reagents in ligand-binding assays: enabling robust bioanalytical methods and lifecycle management. (United States)

    Geist, Brian J; Egan, Adrienne Clements; Yang, Tong-Yuan; Dong, Yuxin; Shankar, Gopi


    The effective management of validated ligand-binding assays used for PK, PD and immunogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics is vital to ensuring robust and consistent assay performance throughout the lifetime of the method. The structural integrity and functional quality of critical reagents is often linked to ligand-binding assay performance; therefore, physicochemical and biophysical characterization coupled with assessment of assay performance can enable the highest degree of reagent quality. The implementation of a systematic characterization process for monitoring critical reagent attributes, utilizing detailed analytical techniques such as LC-MS, can expedite assay troubleshooting and identify deleterious trends. In addition, this minimizes the potential for costly delays in drug development due to reagent instability or batch-to-batch variability. This article provides our perspectives on a proactive critical reagent QC process. Case studies highlight the analytical techniques used to identify chemical and molecular factors and the interdependencies that can contribute to protein heterogeneity and integrity.

  8. Stoichiometric and irreversible cysteine-selective protein modification using carbonylacrylic reagents (United States)

    Bernardim, Barbara; Cal, Pedro M. S. D.; Matos, Maria J.; Oliveira, Bruno L.; Martínez-Sáez, Nuria; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Perkins, Elizabeth; Corzana, Francisco; Burtoloso, Antonio C. B.; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.


    Maleimides remain the reagents of choice for the preparation of therapeutic and imaging protein conjugates despite the known instability of the resulting products that undergo thiol-exchange reactions in vivo. Here we present the rational design of carbonylacrylic reagents for chemoselective cysteine bioconjugation. These reagents undergo rapid thiol Michael-addition under biocompatible conditions in stoichiometric amounts. When using carbonylacrylic reagents equipped with PEG or fluorophore moieties, this method enables access to protein and antibody conjugates precisely modified at pre-determined sites. Importantly, the conjugates formed are resistant to degradation in plasma and are biologically functional, as demonstrated by the selective imaging and detection of apoptotic and HER2+ cells, respectively. The straightforward preparation, stoichiometric use and exquisite cysteine selectivity of the carbonylacrylic reagents combined with the stability of the products and the availability of biologically relevant cysteine-tagged proteins make this method suitable for the routine preparation of chemically defined conjugates for in vivo applications.

  9. Blue code: Is it a real emergency? (United States)

    Eroglu, Serkan E; Onur, Ozge; Urgan, Oğuz; Denizbasi, Arzu; Akoglu, Haldun


    Cardiac arrests in hospital areas are common, and hospitals have rapid response teams or "blue code teams" to reduce preventable in-hospital deaths. Education about the rapid response team has been provided in all hospitals in Turkey, but true "blue code" activation is rare, and it is abused by medical personnel in practice. This study aimed to determine the cases of wrong blue codes and reasons of misuse. This retrospective study analyzed the blue code reports issued by our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2012. A total of 89 "blue code" activations were recorded in 5 months. A "blue code" was defined as any patient with an unexpected cardiac or respiratory arrest requiring resuscitation and activation of a hospital alert. Adherence to this definition, each physician classified their collected activation forms as either a true or a wrong code. Then, patient data entered a database (Microsoft Excel 2007 software) which was pooled for analysis. The data were analyzed by using frequencies and the Chi-square test on SPSSv16.0. The patients were diagnosed with cardiopulmonary arrest (8), change in mental status (18), presyncope (11), chest pain (12), conversive disorder (18), and worry of the staff for the patient (22). Code activation was done by physicians in 76% of the patients; the most common reason for blue code was concern of staff for the patient. The findings of this study show that more research is needed to establish the overall effectiveness and optimal implementation of blue code teams.

  10. Instituting code blue drills in the OR. (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Joy A


    A code blue in the OR is a low-volume, high-risk event. To be effective during a code blue event, perioperative personnel must be able to properly execute a response plan and perform seldom-used skills and procedures. I developed and implemented a code blue drill educational experience for OR staff members that included a review of code blue policy, how to use a defibrillator, and simulated code blue scenarios. In addition, I worked with educational facilitators to provide an assessment of the personnel who performed the simulated code blue drills to identify key learning opportunities, such as gaps in communication, poor performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ineffective delegation skills, and lack of assertiveness. One month after the educational experience, all team members passed an observed competency for responding to a code blue in a simulation laboratory. These results show the effectiveness of the educational experience as part of the code blue drills program in the hospital's main OR. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Liebl, Michael


    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  12. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce


    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  13. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks (United States)

    Lang, Dieter


    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  14. Simultaneous dual protein labeling using a triorthogonal reagent. (United States)

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Kumarapperuma, Sidath C; Gabrielse, Kari; Fegan, Adrian; Wagner, Carston R; Distefano, Mark D


    Construction of heterofunctional proteins is a rapidly emerging area of biotherapeutics. Combining a protein with other moieties, such as a targeting element, a toxic protein or small molecule, and a fluorophore or polyethylene glycol (PEG) group, can improve the specificity, functionality, potency, and pharmacokinetic profile of a protein. Protein farnesyl transferase (PFTase) is able to site-specifically and quantitatively prenylate proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX-box amino acid sequence with various modified isoprenoids. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and application of a triorthogonal reagent, 1, that can be used to site-specifically incorporate an alkyne and aldehyde group simultaneously into a protein. To illustrate the capabilities of this approach, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by oxime ligation and click reaction to simultaneously incorporate an azido-tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) fluorophore and an aminooxy-PEG moiety. This was performed with both a model protein [green fluorescent protein (GFP)] as well as a therapeutically useful protein [ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)]. Next, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by coupling to an azido-bis-methotrexate dimerizer and aminooxy-TAMRA. Incubation of that construct with a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-DHFR-anti-CD3 fusion protein resulted in the self-assembly of nanoring structures that were endocytosed into T-leukemia cells and visualized therein. These results highlight how complex multifunctional protein assemblies can be prepared using this facile triorthogonal approach.

  15. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents. (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Guduguntla, Sureshbabu; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Pérez, Manuel; Bos, Pieter H; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Feringa, Ben L


    This protocol describes a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary and quaternary carbon stereogenic centers, which are widely present in pharmaceutical and natural products. The method is based on the direct reaction between organolithium compounds, which are cheap, readily available and broadly used in chemical synthesis, and allylic electrophiles, using chiral copper catalysts. The methodology involves the asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) of allyl bromides, chlorides and ethers with organolithium compounds using catalyst systems based on Cu-Taniaphos and Cu-phosphoramidites. The protocol contains a complete description of the reaction setup, a method based on 1 H-NMR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chiral HPLC for assaying the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the product, and isolation, purification and characterization procedures. Six Cu-catalyzed AAA reactions between different organolithium reagents and allylic systems are detailed in the text as representative examples of these procedures. These reactions proceed within 1-10 h, depending on the nature of the allylic substrate (bromide, chloride, or ether and disubstituted or trisubstituted) or the chiral ligand used (Taniaphos or phosphoramidite). However, the entire protocol, including workup and purification, generally requires an additional 4-7 h to complete.

  16. The Effect of Reagents Mimicking Oxidative Stress on Fibrinogen Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Štikarová


    Full Text Available Fibrinogen is one of the plasma proteins most susceptible to oxidative modification. It has been suggested that modification of fibrinogen may cause thrombotic/bleeding complications associated with many pathophysiological states of organism. We exposed fibrinogen molecules to three different modification reagents—malondialdehyde, sodium hypochlorite, and peroxynitrite—that are presented to various degrees in different stages of oxidative stress. We studied the changes in fibrin network formation and platelet interactions with modified fibrinogens under flow conditions. The fastest modification of fibrinogen was caused by hypochlorite. Fibers from fibrinogen modified with either reagent were thinner in comparison with control fibers. We found that platelet dynamic adhesion was significantly lower on fibrinogen modified with malondialdehyde and significantly higher on fibrinogen modified either with hypochlorite or peroxynitrite reflecting different prothrombotic/antithrombotic properties of oxidatively modified fibrinogens. It seems that, in the complex reactions ongoing in living organisms at conditions of oxidation stress, hypochlorite modifies proteins (e.g., fibrinogen faster and more preferentially than malondialdehyde. It suggests that the prothrombotic effects of prior fibrinogen modifications may outweigh the antithrombotic effect of malondialdehyde-modified fibrinogen in real living systems.

  17. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Michalski


    Full Text Available Filarial worms cause a variety of tropical diseases in humans; however, they are difficult to study because they have complex life cycles that require arthropod intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts. Research efforts in industrialized countries are further complicated by the fact that some filarial nematodes that cause disease in humans are restricted in host specificity to humans alone. This potentially makes the commitment to research difficult, expensive, and restrictive. Over 40 years ago, the United States National Institutes of Health-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID established a resource from which investigators could obtain various filarial parasite species and life cycle stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycles in their own laboratories. This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3 translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are unaware of the scope of materials and support provided by the FR3. This review is intended to provide a short history of the contract, brief descriptions of the fiilarial species and molecular resources provided, and an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describes some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators.

  18. Deep soil mixing for reagent delivery and contaminant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.; Gardner, F.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Cline, S.R.; West, O.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    Deep soil mixing was evaluated for treating clay soils contaminated with TCE and its byproducts at the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The objective of the project was to evaluate the extent of limitations posed by the stiff, silty-clay soil. Three treatment approaches were tested. The first was vapor stripping. In contrast to previous work, however, laboratory treatability studies indicated that mixing saturated, clay soil was not efficient unless powdered lime was added. Thus, powder injection of lime was attempted in conjunction with the mixing/stripping operation. In separate treatment cells, potassium permanganate solution was mixed with the soil as a means of destroying contaminants in situ. Finally, microbial treatment was studied in a third treatment zone. The clay soil caused operational problems such as breakage of the shroud seal and frequent reagent blowouts. Nevertheless, treatment efficiencies of more than 70% were achieved in the saturated zone with chemical oxidation. Although expensive ($1128/yd{sup 3}), there are few alternatives for soils of this type.

  19. [Research of regional medical consumables reagent logistics system in the modern hospital]. (United States)

    Wu, Jingjiong; Zhang, Yanwen; Luo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Jianxin


    To explore the modern hospital and regional medical consumable reagents logistics system management. The characteristics of regional logistics, through cooperation between medical institutions within the region, and organize a wide range of special logistics activities, to make reasonable of the regional medical consumable reagents logistics. To set the regional management system, dynamic management systems, supply chain information management system, after-sales service system and assessment system. By the research of existing medical market and medical resources, to establish the regional medical supplies reagents directory and the initial data. The emphasis is centralized dispatch of medical supplies reagents, to introduce qualified logistics company for dispatching, to improve the modern hospital management efficiency, to costs down. Regional medical center and regional community health service centers constitute a regional logistics network, the introduction of medical consumable reagents logistics services, fully embodies integrity level, relevance, purpose, environmental adaptability of characteristics by the medical consumable reagents regional logistics distribution. Modern logistics distribution systems can increase the area of medical consumables reagent management efficiency and reduce costs.

  20. Falsely elevated INR results due to the sensitivity of a thromboplastin reagent to heparin. (United States)

    Leech, B F; Carter, C J


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of heparin therapy on the international normalized ratio (INR). In vitro heparin sensitivity curves were created using normal and warfarinized plasma samples from patients. The INR results were measured with each of two reagents. In addition, a comparison of INR values with these two reagents was performed on plasma from patients receiving therapeutic heparin and warfarin. The INR values were measured before and after heparin removal with a heparin adsorbent system. While one of the reagents was found to be sensitive to even low levels of therapeutic heparin, the other thromboplastin was resistant up to at least 0.9 U/mL. The INR values determined for patients with one of the reagents were found to be erroneously elevated by an average of 16%. The error ranged from 2% to 55% depending on the in vivo heparin concentration. With the other reagent, the INR values were not substantially affected by heparin. Previous studies have described the effect or lack thereof of heparin on the prothrombin time. The present study demonstrates that the degree to which INR results are prolonged by heparin therapy depends on the reagent formulation. As the therapeutic index for monitoring warfarin is relatively narrow (2.0-3.0), an INR value that is falsely elevated due to reagent sensitivity may precipitate premature cessation of heparin therapy and place certain patients at risk for recurrent thrombosis in the short term.

  1. Effect of argatroban on the activated partial thromboplastin time: a comparison of 21 commercial reagents. (United States)

    Francis, John L; Hursting, Marcie J


    Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor used for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The drug is administered by continuous infusion, at a recommended initial dose of 2 microg/kg per min, to achieve activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTTs) 1.5-3.0 times baseline. We evaluated the effect of argatroban, at clinically relevant concentrations, on aPTTs using 21 commercially available reagents. The aPTTs of plasma containing argatroban at 0.125-8.0 microg/ml (final concentration) were assessed using each reagent and an ACL 3000+ coagulation analyzer. Argatroban increased aPTTs (and aPTT ratios relative to control) in a broadly comparable fashion among reagents. Concentration-aPTT ratio profiles linearized well using logarithmic-logarithmic transformation (r > 0.98), with the regression slope taken as the reagent's sensitivity to argatroban. Sensitivity ranged from 0.304 +/- 0.006 to 0.364 +/- 0.007. Only the least and two most sensitive reagents (all now unavailable in the United States) differed significantly in sensitivity from the other reagents (P sensitive to argatroban, and reagent choice is unlikely to significantly affect argatroban monitoring in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

  2. New fluorescent reagents specific for Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Lemelson, Daniela [Department of Life Sciences and the NIBN, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Israelson, Adrian [Department of Physiology, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda, E-mail: [Department of Life Sciences and the NIBN, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New reagents specifically inhibit the activity of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru allow for mechanism-independent probing of Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes in reagents fluorescence allow characterization of protein Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} carries information pivotal to cell life and death via its interactions with specific binding sites in a protein. We previously developed a novel photoreactive reagent, azido ruthenium (AzRu), which strongly inhibits Ca{sup 2+}-dependent activities. Here, we synthesized new fluorescent ruthenium-based reagents containing FITC or EITC, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru. These reagents were purified, characterized and found to specifically interact with and markedly inhibit Ca{sup 2+}-dependent activities but not the activity of Ca{sup 2+}-independent reactions. In contrast to many reagents that serve as probes for Ca{sup 2+}, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru are the first fluorescent divalent cation analogs to be synthesized and characterized that specifically bind to Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins and inhibit their activity. Such reagents will assist in characterizing Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins, thereby facilitating better understanding of the function of Ca{sup 2+} as a key bio-regulator.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of alkyl and aryl indium reagents with CO under mild conditions. (United States)

    Zhao, Yingsheng; Jin, Liqun; Li, Peng; Lei, Aiwen


    CO now can react with organoindium reagents. A novel palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reaction of organoindium reagents by CO gas with desyl chloride as oxidant was developed in supplementation with the classical methods for preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives. Primary, secondary alkyl indium reagents with beta-hydrogens and aryl indium reagents were suitable substrates, and the reaction could be carried out at 60 degrees C under 50 psi CO. Carbonylation of alkyl indium reagents can occur smoothly without additional base. Although the indium reagents were prepared from corresponding Grignard reagents (at low temperature), they displayed full compatibility with various functional groups under the protic reaction conditions. Preliminary mechanistic studies including stoichiometric and catalytic reaction examination provided evidence to support the operation of the mechanism consisted of oxidative addition of deslyl chloride to Pd(0) and quick tautomerization to give a palladium enolate species II (ROPdCl), displacement of the enolate group in II by R(2)OH, followed by CO insertion to give alkoxycarbonyl palladium complex V, which undergoes transmetalation with R(1)(3)In and reductive elimination to afford the product and a Pd(0) species. In this mechanism, the alkoxycarbonyl group was transferred to the palladium center prior to the alkyl group, different from traditional ways initiated from oxidative addition of alkyl halides to a Pd(0) species.

  4. Reagent delivery by partial coalescence and noncoalescence of aqueous microdroplets in oil. (United States)

    Minardi, Carina S; Taghioskoui, Mazdak; Jang, Seong J; Jorabchi, Kaveh


    Reagent delivery constitutes a key step for reaction initiation in droplet-in-oil microfluidic platforms. Currently, this function is performed by complete fusion of a reagent droplet with the reactor droplet. The full coalescence, however, constrains the lower limit of volume delivery because reproducible droplet generation becomes exceedingly difficult as the reagent droplet volume is decreased. Here, we demonstrate fractional volume delivery based on partially coalescent and noncoalescent droplet collisions as a new reagent delivery mechanism. A charged reagent droplet is generated by pulsing a flow carrying needle to high voltage. The charged droplet is directed toward a grounded reactor droplet. Upon collision, the reagent droplet inverts its charge and is pulled away from the reactor droplet prior to full fusion, injecting only a fraction of its volume. The undelivered portion of the reagent drop is then merged with a collector droplet. We demonstrate that a wide range of fractional injections (0.003%-56%) can be reproducibly achieved, providing a means for minute volume delivery without small drop generation.

  5. Lipid-based Transfection Reagents Exhibit Cryo-induced Increase in Transfection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sork


    Full Text Available The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout eight different cell lines, without compromising cell viability. Increased transfection efficiency with the freeze-thawed reagent was also seen with 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide delivery and in a splice-correction assay. Most importantly, a log-scale improvement in gene delivery using the freeze-thawed reagent was seen in vivo. Using three different methods, we detected considerable differences in the polydispersity of the different nucleic acid complexes as well as observed a clear difference in their surface spreading and sedimentation, with the freeze-thawed ones displaying substantially higher rate of dispersion and deposition on the glass surface. This hitherto overlooked elevated potency of the freeze-thawed reagent facilitates the targeting of hard-to-transfect cells, accomplishes higher transfection rates, and decreases the overall amount of reagent needed for delivery. Additionally, as we also saw a slight increase in plasmid delivery using other freeze-thawed transfection reagents, we postulate that freeze-thawing might prove to be useful for an even wider variety of transfection reagents.

  6. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper


    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  7. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon? (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S


    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  8. [Effect of composition of reagents for activated partial thromboplastin time on their sensitivity during analysis of blood coagulation factors]. (United States)

    Berkovskiĭ, A L; Vasil'ev, S A; Sergeeva, E V; Kozlov, A A


    Brain cephaline-based reagents for evaluating activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and soybean phosphatides with ellagic acid complex activator with intermediate metal ions have been studied. The sensitivity of these reagents to internal clotting factors (VIII and IX) and heparin is determined by phospholipid nature and type of metal. The results help obtain highly active and sensitive APTT reagents.

  9. Mössbauer investigation of FeCl3 sediment after model water treatment by different aluminosilicate reagents (United States)

    Filippov, V. P.; Salomasov, V. A.; Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Feklistov, D. Yu.; Alexandrov, R. A.; Permyakov, Yu. V.


    The method of Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study precipitated (coagulated) contaminations of model water with FeCl3 using reagents. Two different aluminosilicate reagents such as that produced by Ltd. "Trivektr" and a hybrid aluminosilicic reagent produced by JSC "Aquaservice" were used. The chemical state of iron in sediments was determined.

  10. Skin discoloration with blue food coloring. (United States)

    Zillich, A J; Kuhn, R J; Petersen, T J


    To describe a pediatric patient who developed a clinical cyanotic appearance after receiving an excessive amount of blue food coloring. An 11-year-old white girl with cerebral palsy was admitted for unresolving aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered. During the hospital course, enteral nutrition containing blue food coloring was also administered. Twelve hours after the start of enteral nutrition, the patient appeared cyanotic despite a regular respiratory rate and normal oxygen saturation. The pediatric code response team was called. Enteral nutrition was stopped and then restarted without blue food coloring. Over the next 24 hours, the cyanotic appearance resolved and no further complications developed. At our institution, blue food coloring is used with enteral nutrition for detecting aspiration of stomach contents. The dietary department supplies food coloring to each nursing unit in pint-sized medicine bottles. Nurses place an unstandardized amount of blue food coloring into each enteral nutrition bag. This child received an unspecified amount of FD&C Blue No. 1 food coloring. No toxicity studies exist for acute or human ingestion, but the National Academy of Sciences lists 363 mg/d of FD&C Blue No. 1 as a safe level for humans. We estimated this child ingested 780-3,940 mg of dye over a 12-hour period. This is the first known report of an adverse effect from blue food coloring. To prevent similar occurrences within our institution, the blue food coloring for tube feedings will be dispensed by the pharmacy department in standardized units.

  11. Brilliant blue in vitreoretinal surgery. (United States)

    Enaida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuro


    This paper reviews the preclinical effects of brilliant blue G (BBG) on the morphology and functions of the retina, and reports on a pilot study of BBG staining and subsequent peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitreoretinal surgery. BBG solution was injected into rat eyes and investigated using light microscopy and electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and electroretinography (ERG). No pathological changes were caused by the BBG intravitreous injection. Although electron microscopy revealed that high doses of BBG induced vacuolization in the inner retinal cells, there was no reduction in the amplitude of the ERG waves and no detectable toxic effects. In the primate eyes, the ILM was clearly visualized by BBG staining, and peeled off easily from the retina. In the clinical study, BBG improved visualization of the ILM, allowing peeling and surgery to be performed successfully on patients with various vitroretinal diseases. Improvement of postoperative visual acuity was obtained in most cases, and no adverse effects were observed postoperatively. In conclusion, BBG has low toxicity, high staining ability, and is easy to handle, making it a good candidate dye for visualizing vitreoretinal disease surgery without adverse effects.

  12. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting. (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo


    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  13. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light


    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R


    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  14. Reciproc blue: the new generation of reciprocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Yared


    Conclusions: This article introduces and describes the clinical technique with which the Reciproc® blue instrument is used, even without the need to create a glide path with manual files before using the mechanical instrument.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI


    .... Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy...

  16. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A


    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  17. Blue-light reception through quaternary transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Engelhard; Ralph P Diensthuber; Andreas Möglich; Robert Bittl


    .... Using electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labelling, we chart the structural transitions facilitating blue-light reception in the engineered light-oxygen-voltage (LOV...

  18. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud


    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  19. In vitro sensitivity of different activated partial thromboplastin time reagents to mild clotting factor deficiencies. (United States)

    Toulon, P; Eloit, Y; Smahi, M; Sigaud, C; Jambou, D; Fischer, F; Appert-Flory, A


    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a routine clotting assay that is widely used to globally screen for coagulation abnormalities. It is commonly admitted that a prolonged test result, may trigger the need for specific assays to be performed, particularly factor measurement. However, the sensitivity of aPTT reagents to deficiencies of clotting factors varies. We evaluated, according to the recommendation of the CLSI H47-A2 guideline, the responsiveness to single factor levels of five aPTT reagents by using factor-deficient plasmas spiked with a calibration plasma to produce individual factor activities ranging from sensitivity of the tested aPTT reagents to single factor deficiency is highly variable. Moreover, for one given aPTT reagent, its sensitivity was very different depending on the deficient factor. This must be considered when analyzing clinical materials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Application of self-made electrolyte reagents in SYNCHRON EL-ISE]. (United States)

    Li, Y; Shen, Y; Li, X


    Based on the principle of the Ion Selected Electrode dilution method (indirect), a complete set of reagents for determining Na, K, Cl and CO2 have been developed. Compared with original BECKMAN reagents being applied in the SYNCHRON EL-ISE analyzer, the self-made reagents may satisfy clinical requirements for precision and accuracy, and have a good correlation with original reagents: rNa = 0.998, rK = 0.999, rCl = 0.998, rCO2 = 0.889, and the CV% within and between batches are less than 3.3 and 5.7 respectively; the rate of recovery is 99%-105%. NO influence on the electrode has been found through observing electrode slopes and SPAN values.

  1. Unprecedented copper-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of organometallic reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated lactams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pineschi, M.; Del Moro, F.; Gini, F.; Minnaard, A.J.; Feringa, B.L.


    For the first time, an excellent enantioselectivity has been obtained in the conjugate addition of hard organometallic reagents to alpha, beta-unsaturated lactams bearing appropriate protecting-activating groups on the nitrogen.

  2. Compare study cellulose/Ag hybrids using fructose and glucose as reducing reagents by hydrothermal method. (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Yan; Li, Shu-Ming; Ma, Ming-Guo; Yao, Ke; Sun, Run-Cang


    The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of reducing reagents on the hybrids from cellulose and Ag, which have been successfully synthesized by using fructose and glucose as reducing reagents via a hydrothermal method, respectively. The hybrids were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The influences of the various reaction parameters including the heating time, heating temperature, and types of reducing reagents on the hybrids were investigated. Silver particles can be better dispersed in the cellulose matrix by adjusting reaction parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that the types of reducing reagents played an important role in the shape and dispersion of silver particles in hybrids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. T3P as an efficient cyclodehydration reagent for the one-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A scalable and environmentally friendly one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from acylhydrazides and isocyanates has been achieved with propane phosponic anhydride (T3P) acting as cyclodehydrating reagent.

  4. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise


    Melcón, Mariana L.; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.


    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  5. [The blue jars of Llivia's dispensary]. (United States)

    Tamarelle, Charles


    The Town Museum of Llivia, Spanish enclave in Eastern Pyrenees, displays a XVIIIth century dispensary transmitted by a lineage of pharmacists. Decorated plant boxes, Catalonian albarellos (jars) and original items: a reredos shaped toxic cabinet and typical blue albarellos can be seen there. The shape, type and inscriptions of these blue jars are considered through hypothesis about their origin, aesthetic justifications, and the historical and geographic conditions which may infer these specificities.

  6. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place. (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas


    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Palladium-catalysed direct cross-coupling of organolithium reagents with aryl and vinyl triflates. (United States)

    Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentín; Giannerini, Massimo; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    A palladium-catalysed cross-coupling of organolithium reagents with aryl and vinyl triflates is presented. The reaction proceeds at 50 or 70 °C with short reaction times, and the corresponding products are obtained with moderate to high yields, with a variety of alkyl and (hetero)aryl lithium reagents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectra of tetracyclic triterpene alcohols under the influence of a lanthanide shift reagent. (United States)

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T


    The proton magnetic resonance spectra were measured for four series of tetracyclic triterpen-3beta-ols, i.e. 5alpha-lanostane, 5alpha-euphane, 5alpha-tirucallane, and 5alpha-dammarane series, in the presence of a molar equivalent of tris (dipivalomethanato) europium, a lanthanide shift reagent. The spectral pattern measured in the presence of the shift reagent was found useful for distinguishing each series and also for characterizing each skeletal isomer of tetracyclic triterpene alcohols.

  9. Convenient analysis of protein modification by chemical blotting with fluorogenic “click” reagents (United States)

    Ohata, Jun; Farrukh, Vohidov; Ball, Zachary T.


    Direct visualization of bioorthogonal alkyne or azide handles using fluorogenic azide-alkyne cycloaddition conducted on the surface of a blot membrane. The method eliminates the need for separation steps to remove excess small molecule reagents before attachment of antigen molecules or other visualization handles, and is especially useful for the analysis of peptides and small proteins. A variety of potential fluorogenic reagents are assessed, and sensitivity (<0.1 picomole) similar to current commercially available fluorescence imaging methods is possible. PMID:26325302

  10. An efficient multistrategy DNA decontamination procedure of PCR reagents for hypersensitive PCR applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Champlot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i sample contamination, (ii laboratory surface contamination, (iii carry-over contamination, and (iv contamination of reagents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves γ- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA.

  11. Ambient stable quantitative PCR reagents for the detection of Yersinia pestis. (United States)

    Qu, Shi; Shi, Qinghai; Zhou, Lei; Guo, Zhaobiao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhai, Junhui; Yang, Ruifu


    Although assays for detecting Yersinia pestis using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR have been developed for years, little is reported on room-temperature-stable PCR reagents, which will be invaluable for field epidemic surveillance, immediate response to public health emergencies, counter-bioterrorism investigation, etc. In this work, a set of real-time PCR reagents for rapid detection of Y. pestis was developed with extraordinary stability at 37 degrees C. TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays were developed using the primers and probes targeting the 3a sequence in the chromosome and the F1 antigen gene caf1 in the plasmid pMT1of Y. pestis, respectively. Then, carbohydrate mixtures were added to the PCR reagents, which were later vacuum-dried for stability evaluation. The vacuum-dried reagents were stable at 37 degrees C for at least 49 days for a lower concentration of template DNA (10 copies/microl), and up to 79 days for higher concentrations (> or =10(2) copies/microl). The reagents were used subsequently to detect soil samples spiked with Y. pestis vaccine strain EV76, and 5x10(4) CFU per gram of soil could be detected by both 3a- and caf1-based PCR reagents. In addition, a simple and efficient method for soil sample processing is presented here. The vacuum-dried reagents for real-time PCR maintain accuracy and reproducibility for at least 49 days at 37 degrees C, indicating that they can be easily transported at room temperature for field application if the machine for performing real-time PCR is available. This dry reagent is of great significance for routine plague surveillance.

  12. Potent triazine-based dehydrocondensing reagents substituted by an amido group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munetaka Kunishima


    Full Text Available This study describes the synthesis of triazine-based dehydrocondensing reagents substituted by amido substituents and demonstrates their efficiency for dehydrocondensing reactions in MeOH and THF. N-Phenylbenzamido-substituted chlorotriazine is readily converted to a stable, non-hygroscopic triazinylammonium-based dehydrocondensing reagent that is superior to 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM in terms of its reactivity in dehydrocondensing reactions.



    Nursiah La Nafie


    Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+) and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene,...

  14. Genetic engineering approach to develop next-generation reagents for endotoxin quantification. (United States)

    Mizumura, Hikaru; Ogura, Norihiko; Aketagawa, Jun; Aizawa, Maki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro; Oda, Toshio


    The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent. The protease activity of the RCR containing recombinant factor C was much greater than that of recombinant factor C alone, indicating the efficiency of signal amplification in the cascade. Compared with the RCR containing the insect cell-derived factor C, those containing mammalian cell-derived factor C, which features different glycosylation patterns, were less susceptible to interference by the injectable drug components. The standard curve of the RCR containing mammalian cell-derived recombinant factor C had a steeper slope than the curves for those containing natural lysate reagents, suggesting a greater sensitivity to endotoxin. The present study supports the future production of recombinant reagents that do not require the use of natural resources.

  15. Removal of veterinary antibiotics from sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pretreated swine wastewater by Fenton's reagent. (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Qiang, Zhimin; Pan, Xun; Chen, Meixue


    The large-scale application of veterinary antibiotics in livestock industry makes swine wastewater an important source of antibiotics pollution. This work investigated the degradation of six selected antibiotics, including five sulfonamides and one macrolide, by Fenton's reagent in swine wastewater pretreated with sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The dosing mode and practical dosage of Fenton's reagent were optimized to achieve an effective removal of antibiotics while save the treatment cost. The effects of initial pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solids (SS) of the SBR effluent on antibiotics degradation were examined. The results indicate that the optimal conditions for Fenton's reagent with respect to practical application were as follows: batch dosing mode, 1.5:1 molar ratio of [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)], initial pH 5.0. Under the optimal conditions, Fenton's reagent could effectively degrade all the selected antibiotics and was resistant to the variations in the background COD (0-419 mg/L) and SS (0-250 mg/L) of the SBR effluent. Besides, Fenton's reagent helped to not only remove total organic carbon (TOC), heavy metals (As, Cu and Pb) and total phosphorus (TP), but also inactivate bacteria and reduce wastewater toxicity. This work demonstrates that the integrated process combining SBR with Fenton's reagent could provide comprehensive treatment to swine wastewater.

  16. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim


    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  17. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1 (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.


    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.



    Kurniasari Pratiwi; Istiani Nur Chasanah; Sri Martuti


    Postpartum blues or baby blues is a feeling of sadness experienced by mothers after childbirth related to the baby. Postpartum blues is like an iceberg that is difficult to detect because there are still many people who do not understand about the event. Nevertheless, postpartum blues not being handled properly is one of the factors precipitating the occurrence of postpartum depression,  can be fatal for mother and baby. Postpartum blues more common in women who marry in their early age. Indo...

  19. Postpartum Blues pada Persalinan Dibawah Usia Dua Puluh Tahun


    Pratiwi, Kurniasari; Chasanah, Istiani Nur; Martuti, Sri


    Postpartum blues or baby blues is a feeling of sadness experienced by mothers after childbirth related to the baby. Postpartum blues is like an iceberg that is difficult to detect because there are still many people who do not understand about the event. Nevertheless, postpartum blues not being handled properly is one of the factors precipitating the occurrence of postpartum depression, can be fatal for mother and baby. Postpartum blues more common in women who marry in their early age. Indo...

  20. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-


    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  1. "Blue and seven phenomena" among Japanese students. (United States)

    Saito, M


    To investigate color and number preferences in Japan, 586 university undergraduates (239 men and 347 women; M age = 20.9 yr.) were asked to name a color (Question 1), to name their preferred color (Question 2), and to name their preferred number between zero and nine (Question 3). The results showed that Japanese students chose blue (33.5%) or red (26.0%) when asked to name a color but that red was not chosen as frequently as blue as a preferred color (red: 11.1%, blue: 37.1%). Sex differences were found on both Questions 1 and 2 by chi-squared test. Black was chosen more by men, while pink was selected more by women. 22.5% subjects also selected the number seven, supporting Simon's observation of the "blue-seven phenomenon." The reasons given for the choice showed that seven was "a lucky number" and "represented happiness" among Japanese students. Four colors (blue, red, white, and black) accounted for 76.8% and 65.1% of responses to Questions 1 and 2, respectively, and odd numbers 68.4% for Question 3.

  2. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit


    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  3. Sensitivity of commercial prothrombin time reagents to detect coagulation factor deficiencies in equine plasma. (United States)

    Mischke, R; Junker, J; Deegen, E


    The sensitivity of commercial prothrombin time (PT) tests was assessed based on a dilution series of equine pooled plasma (EPP) (experiment 1) and on 40 equine plasma samples with reduced activity of coagulation factors II, V, VII and X (experiment 2). Two different PT reagents (reagent 1, human placental thromboplastin; reagent 2, recombinant human tissue factor) were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (standard test, PT([ST])) and compared to a modified test procedure (modified test, PT([MT])) using sample dilution and fibrinogen addition. In all samples, sensitivity was lower (Psensitivity was found for PT([MT]) when using a 1:20 sample dilution. In those samples in which at least one coagulation factor activity was decreased (by 20%; n=18), the sensitivity of PT([ST]) with reagent 2 (0.33) was found to be inadequate, in contrast to all other test procedures (0.83-0.94). This low sensitivity corresponded to shorter time intervals between different coagulation activity levels prepared by EPP dilution. The results indicate that adequate sensitivity of PT measurements in equine plasma can be achieved using a standard test procedure as long as a suitable reagent is used.

  4. Efficacy Assessment of Nucleic Acid Decontamination Reagents Used in Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories. (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Renevey, Nathalie; Thür, Barbara; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd


    The occurrence of nucleic acid cross contamination in the laboratory resulting in false positive results of diagnostic samples is seriously problematic. Despite precautions to minimize or even avoid nucleic acid cross contaminations, it may appear anyway. Until now, no standardized strategy is available to evaluate the efficacy of commercially offered decontamination reagents. Therefore, a protocol for the reliable determination of nucleic acid decontamination efficacy using highly standardized solution and surface tests was established and validated. All tested sodium hypochlorite-based reagents proved to be highly efficient in nucleic acid decontamination even after short reaction times. For DNA Away, a sodium hydroxide-based decontamination product, dose- and time-dependent effectiveness was ascertained. For two other commercial decontamination reagents, the phosphoric acid-based DNA Remover and the non-enzymatic reagent DNA-ExitusPlus™ IF, no reduction of amplifiable DNA/RNA was observed. In conclusion, a simple test procedure for evaluation of the elimination efficacy of decontamination reagents against amplifiable nucleic acid is presented.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by use of reagent strips. (United States)

    Castellote, José; López, Carmen; Gornals, Joan; Tremosa, Gemma; Fariña, Eva Rodríguez; Baliellas, Carmen; Domingo, Alicia; Xiol, Xavier


    We studied the use of reagent strips for diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients with ascites. A reagent strip for leukocyte esterase designed for the testing of urine with a colorimetric 5-grade scale (0 to 4) was used to evaluate ascitic fluid in 228 nonselected paracentesis performed in 128 cirrhotic patients. We diagnosed 52 SBP and 5 secondary bacterial peritonitis by means of polymorphonuclear cell count and classical criteria. When we considered positive a reagent strip result of 3 or 4, sensitivity was 89% (51 of 57), specificity was 99% (170 of 171), and positive predictive value was 98%. When we considered positive a reagent strip result of 2 or more, sensitivity was 96% (55 of 57), specificity was 89% (152 of 171), and negative predictive value was 99%. In conclusion, the use of reagent strips is a rapid, easy to use, and inexpensive tool for diagnosis of ascitic fluid infection. A positive result should be an indication for empirical antibiotic therapy, and a negative result may be useful as a screening test to exclude SBP.

  6. An organic-reagent-free method for determination of chromium(VI) in steel alloys, sewage sludge and wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jing, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun Yuping; Wang Jianji [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory for Yellow and Huai Rivers Water Environment and Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Fan Maohong [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)


    One of the active areas of green chemistry research and development is in the development of new analytical methods and techniques that reduce and eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. In this work, a rapid and organic-regent-free method was developed for the determination of chromium(VI) by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method was based on the detection of a blue unstable intermediate compound resulting from the reaction of Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in acidic medium. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and its reaction products were environmentally friendly, and chromogenic reagents and organic solvents were not used in the proposed method. Different SIA parameters have been optimized and used to obtain the analytical figures of merit. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) was 0.5-100.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, and the detection limit was 0.16 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. The sample throughput was 80 h{sup -1}, and the total volume of only 145 {mu}L was consumed in each determination of Cr(VI). The method was applied for the determination of Cr(VI) in seven real samples, including alloy steel, sewage sludge and wastewater samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry as well as with the certified value of Cr(VI) in standard reference material. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  7. Blue Energy North Sea Canal. Feasibility Study Blue Energy Plant along the North Sea Canal; Blue Energy Noordzeekanaal. Haalbaarheidsonderzoek Blue Energy centrale langs het Noordzeekanaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, C.M.; Bijlsma, A.C.; Hommes, S.


    This study offers insight in the potential of the North Sea Canal for energy extraction from salinity gradients (Blue Energy) and offers advice on the most suitable locations where the extraction can be conducted. Moreover, this project identifies the relevant actors and explores their responsibilities and interests. [Dutch] In deze verkenning wordt de potentie van het Noordzeekanaal voor energiewinning uit zoet-zout gradienten (Blue Energy) inzichtelijk gemaakt van en een advies gegeven over de meest geschikte locatie(s) waar deze winning plaats zou kunnen vinden. Verder worden in dit project de relevante actoren geidentificeerd en worden hun verantwoordelijkheden en belangen verkend.

  8. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Safranin O and Methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna


    Full Text Available Two simple extractive Spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium (RST in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the RST with basic dyes safranin O (Method A and methylene blue (Method B in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate λmax against the reagent blank. These methods have been statistically evaluated and are found to be precise and accurate.

  9. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo


    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  10. In situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film: a new way to utilize TiO2 under visible light irradiation. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Gang; Ma, Li-Li; Li, Jia-Lin; Yu, Ying


    TiO2/Cu2O composite is prepared by a simple electrochemical method and coated on glass matrix through a spraying method. The obtained composite is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of TiO2/Cu2O composite films with different ratio of TiO2 and Cu2O on photodegradation of the dye methylene blue under visible light is investigated in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film with the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA is much higher than that for the similar system with only TiO2 and Cu2O film respectively. Without the presence of FeSO4 and EDTA, there is no degradation for methylene blue. The exploration of the optimized parameters for the degradation of methylene blue by using TiO2/Cu2O composite film as catalyst under visible light was also carried out. The most significant factor is the amount of Ti02 in the composite, and the second significant factor is the concentration of FeSO4. During the degradation of methylene blue under visible light, TiO2/Cu2O composite film generates H202, and Fenton regent is formed with Fe2+ and EDTA, which is detected in this study. The mechanism for the great improvement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Cu2O composite film under visible light is proposed by the valence band theory. Electrons excitated from TiO2/Cu2O composite under visible light are transferred from the conduction band of Cu2O to that of Ti02. The formed intermediate state of Ti 3+ ion is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on the TiO/Cu2O composite film. Additionally, the accumulated electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 are transferred to oxygen on the TiO2 surface for the formation of O2- or O2(2-), which combines with H+ to form H2O2. The evolved H202 with FeSO4 and EDTA forms Fenton reagentto degrade methylene blue. Compared to the traditional Fenton reagent, this new kind of in situ Fenton reagent generated from TiO2/Cu2O composite film does not need to

  11. The development of a neutralizing amines based reagent for maintaining the water chemistry for medium and high pressures steam boilers (United States)

    Butakova, M. V.; Orlov, K. A.; Guseva, O. V.


    An overview of the development for neutralizing amine based reagent for water chemistry of steam boilers for medium and high pressures was given. Total values of the neutralization constants and the distribution coefficients of the compositions selected as a main criteria for reagent composition. Experimental results of using this new reagent for water chemistry in HRSG of power plant in oil-production company are discussed.

  12. Organophosphorus reagents in actinide separations: Unique tools for production, cleanup and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. L.


    Interactions of actinide ions with phosphate and organophosphorus reagents have figured prominently in nuclear science and technology, particularly in the hydrometallurgical processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Actinide interactions with phosphorus-containing species impact all aspects from the stability of naturally occurring actinides in phosphate mineral phases through the application of the bismuth phosphate and PUREX processes for large-scale production of transuranic elements to the development of analytical separation and environment restoration processes based on new organophosphorus reagents. In this report, an overview of the unique role of organophosphorus compounds in actinide production, disposal, and environment restoration is presented. The broad utility of these reagents and their unique chemical properties is emphasized.

  13. MAPN: First-in-Class Reagent for Kinetically Resolved Thiol-to-Thiol Conjugation. (United States)

    Koniev, Oleksandr; Kolodych, Sergii; Baatarkhuu, Zoljargal; Stojko, Johann; Eberova, Jitka; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Cianférani, Sarah; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Wagner, Alain


    Thiols are among the most frequently used functional groups in the field of bioconjugation. While there exists a variety of heterobifunctional reagents that allow for coupling thiols to other functions (e.g., amines, carboxylic acids), there is no specific reagent for creating heteroconjugates using two different thiols. In response to the ever-increasing demand for bioconjugation tools, we have developed p-(maleimide)-phenylpropionitrile (MAPN)-an efficient reagent for kinetically resolved thiol-to-thiol coupling. In a comparative study with its closest commercially available analogue, p-phenylenedimaleimide, MAPN has shown substantial advantages for the preparation of thiol-thiol heteroconjugates. Namely, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) with mertansine (DM1), conjugated to the cysteine residues of Trastuzumab, was prepared for the first time.

  14. A TLC visualisation reagent for dimethylamphetamine and other abused tertiary amines. (United States)

    Kato, N; Ogamo, A


    Application of citric acid/acetic anhydride reagent (CAR), a colour reagent selective for tertiary amines in solution, improves detection of abused tertiary amino drugs on the TLC plate. The plate is pretreated by a brief immersion in phosphoric acid/acetone solution to suppress colouration. After suppressing, the plate is sprayed with CAR and heated at 100 degrees C, causing tertiary amines to turn red purple within 3 minutes. The sensitivity of this new CAR method is 2.5 to 15-times greater than that of conventional detection with Dragendorff reagent for some of the tertiary amines dimethylamphetamine, methylephedrine, levomepromazine, chlorpromazine, caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and nicotine. This present method provides rapid TLC detection of abused tertiary amino drugs such as phenethylamine, phenothiazine, xanthine derivative, nicotine and narcotics.

  15. Extracting copper from copper oxide ore by a zwitterionic reagent and dissolution kinetics (United States)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Wen, Shu-ming; Deng, Jian-ying; Wu, Dan-dan


    Sulfamic acid (SA), which possesses a zwitterionic structure, was applied as a leaching reagent for the first time for extracting copper from copper oxide ore. The effects of reaction time, temperature, particle size, reagent concentration, and stirring speed on this leaching were studied. The dissolution kinetics of malachite was illustrated with a three-dimensional diffusion model. A novel leaching effect of SA on malachite was eventually demonstrated. The leaching rate increased with decreasing particle size and increasing concentration, reaction temperature and stirring speed. The activation energy for SA leaching malachite was 33.23 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the effectiveness of SA as a new reagent for extracting copper from copper oxide ore was confirmed by experiment. This approach may provide a solution suitable for subsequent electrowinning. In addition, results reported herein may provide basic data that enable the leaching of other carbonate minerals of copper, zinc, cobalt and so on in an SA system.

  16. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips. (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A


    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  17. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone Oxime as an Analytical Reagent for Copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss Krishna Purohit


    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenoneoxime (HMBO was developed as a new analytical reagent for the gravimetric determination of Cu(II. In pH 2.5-9.0 the reagent gives brown coloured precipitate with Cu(II. Spectrophotometric methods revealed that the stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2 (metal: ligand. Beer's law is obeyed up to 31.75 ppm of Cu(II. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity at 400 nm were found to be 7.0×102 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.090 μg/cm2 respectively. The stability constant of Cu(II-HMBO complex is found to be 6.13×109. Gibb’s free energy change for complex formation reaction was found to be -13.93 Kcal/mol. The reagent can be used for the analysis of brass.

  18. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Molin


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP reductase (ENR from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent. EGCG treatment was further shown to be able to attenuate the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa.

  19. Comparison of SHAPE reagents for mapping RNA structures inside living cells. (United States)

    Lee, Byron; Flynn, Ryan A; Kadina, Anastasia; Guo, Jimmy K; Kool, Eric T; Chang, Howard Y


    Recent advances in SHAPE technology have converted the classic primer extension method to next-generation sequencing platforms, allowing transcriptome-level analysis of RNA secondary structure. In particular, icSHAPE and SHAPE-MaP, using NAI-N3 and 1M7 reagents, respectively, are methods that claim to measure in vivo structure with high-throughput sequencing. However, these compounds have not been compared on an unbiased, raw-signal level. Here, we directly compare several in vivo SHAPE acylation reagents using the simple primer extension assay. We conclude that while multiple SHAPE technologies are effective at measuring purified RNAs in vitro, acylimidazole reagents NAI and NAI-N3 give markedly greater signals with lower background than 1M7 for in vivo measurement of the RNA structurome. © 2017 Lee et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  20. Applications of Lawesson's reagent in the synthesis of naturally occurring steroids and terpenoids. (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Mehfooz, Haroon; Larik, Fayaz Ali; Faisal, Muhammad; Channar, Pervaiz Ali


    Steroids and terpenoids are among the most biologically significant classes of natural products possessing a variety of biological activities. The replacement of one or more oxygen atoms in a steroid or terpenoid molecule by a heteroatom affects the chemical properties of that particular steroid or terpenoid, and that replacement often results in alterations of its biological properties, which is sometimes valuable. One possible modification is the thionation that could have some influence on such activity. Among the various thionating reagents, Lawesson's reagent was found to be most suitable and showed versatile properties, including chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. In this review, we present the role of Lawesson's reagent in the synthesis of thioanalogues of natural steroids and terpenoids.

  1. Enantioselective Addition of Organolithium Reagents to Imines Mediated by C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.; Tanner, David Ackland


    The C-2-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands 1 - 5 have been screened in the enantioselective addition of organolithium reagents to imines. Ligand 1 (used in stoichiometric amounts) was found to be superior in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity, the best result being 90% yield and 89% e.......e. in the addition of vinyllithium to imine 6a. Use of ligand 1 in substoichiometric amounts gave poorer yield and lower enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity of the reaction was investigated as a function of substrate, reagent, stoichiometry and temperature, but no firm mechanistic conclusions could be drawn....... Preliminary results with deuterium-labelled methyllithium indicate complexation/exchange processes involving ligand, reagent and substrate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Sternberg, Claus


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents...... which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea...... epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent...

  3. Evaluation of Fenton's Reagent and Activated Persulfate for Treatment of a Pharmaceutical Waste Mixture in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Kakarla, Prasad

    -going bench tests evaluating treatment of site groundwater and soil using modified Fenton's reagent and activated persulfate. These tests are investigating oxidant stability, oxidation efficiency, metals mobilization and, for the persulfate, different activating agents, including NaOH, chelated iron......, and modified Fenton's reagent. The stability of the oxidants will be determined under simulated aquifer conditions, with and without catalyst or activating agents. Once an optimal activation technique has been determined, oxidation efficiency towards the complex mix of contaminants will be measured in terms...... is to identify the fate of mercury and cyanide consequent to the application of Fenton's reagent and activated persulfate.  Batch and continuous-flow column reactors will be used to measure mobilization of the mercury, cyanide and other metals both within the aqueous and vapor phases.   The collective chemical...

  4. Dual fingerprint reagents with enhanced sensitivity: 5-methoxy- and 5-methylthioninhydrin. (United States)

    Almog, Joseph; Klein, Asne; Davidi, Inbal; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam; Levin-Elad, Michal


    "Dual fingerprint reagents" are chemical formulations which produce with latent fingerprints in a single step, impressions that are both colored and fluorescent. Pre-mixed solutions of the two commercially available ninhydrin analogues, 5-methoxyninhydrin (MN) and 5-methylthioninhydrin (MTN) with zinc or cadmium salts, are true dual reagents. They are much more sensitive than the parent dual reagent, ninhydrin/ZnCl(2). The main advantage of the new formulations is that they can be used at room temperature, with no need to cool the sample to liquid nitrogen temperature. At 0.05% concentration, which is 10-fold lower than the common ninhydrin working solution, MTN/ZnCl(2) is as sensitive as DFO in the fluorescence mode and considerably more sensitive in the color mode. MTN is also slightly cheaper than DFO.

  5. Luminescent visualization of latent fingerprints by direct reaction with a lanthanide shift reagent. (United States)

    Caldwell, J P; Henderson, W; Kim, N D


    The utilization of the lanthanide shift reagent tris (6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato) europium (III) [Eu(fod)3] as a simple one-step reagent for the luminescent visualization of latent fingerprints has been investigated. UV excitation of Eu(fod)3-treated prints, achieved by using a hand-held UV lamp or a Polilight, results in an orange emission at 614 nm. Time-resolved imaging is not required for visualization. Visualization of latent fingerprints on paper under the conditions used, although good, was found to be inferior to that obtained by standard DFO (1,8-diazafluoren-9-one) treatment, whereas visualization of prints obtained on aluminum drink cans and galvanized iron proved superior to that obtained by Superglue/panacryl treatment. Eu(fod)3 treatment can also be used first without compromising subsequent ninhydrin or DFO treatment, making it a 'nothing-to-lose" reagent.

  6. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guifang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Gang [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yin, Pinghe, E-mail: [Research Center of Analysis and Test, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Ling, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jimmy Yu, Qiming [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)


    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  7. Application of Recombinant Factor C Reagent for the Detection of Bacterial Endotoxins in Pharmaceutical Products. (United States)

    Bolden, Jay; Smith, Kelly


    Recombinant Factor C (rFC) is non-animal-derived reagent used to detect bacterial endotoxins in pharmaceutical products. Despite the fact that the reagent was first commercially available nearly 15 years ago, the broad use of rFC in pharmaceutical industry has long been lagging, presumably due to historical single-source supplier concerns and the lack of inclusion in worldwide pharmacopeias. Commercial rFC reagents are now available from multiple manufacturers, thus single sourcing is no longer an issue. We report here the successful validation of several pharmaceutical products by an end-point florescence-based endotoxin method using the rFC reagent. The method is equivalent or superior to the compendia bacterial endotoxins test method. Based on the comparability data and extenuating circumstances, the incorporation of the end point fluorescence technique and rFC reagent in global compendia bacterial endotoxins test chapters is desired and warranted.LAY ABSTRACT: Public health has been protected for over 30 years with the use of a purified blood product of the horseshoe crab, limulus amebocyte lysate. More recently, this blood product can be produced in biotech manufacturing processes, which reduces potential impacts to the horseshoe crab and related species dependent upon the crab, for example, migrating shorebirds. The pharmaceutical industry has been slow to adopt the use of this reagent, Recombinant Factor C (rFC), for various reasons. We evaluated the use of rFC across many pharmaceutical products, and in other feasibility demonstration experiments, and found rFC to be a suitable alternative to the animal-derived limulus amebocyte lysate. Incorporation of rFC and its analytical method into national testing standards would provide an equivalent or better test while continuing to maintain patient safety for those who depend on medicines and while securing pharmaceutical supply chains. In addition, widespread use of this method would benefit existing animal

  8. The establishment of sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents for BCG vaccine. (United States)

    Dagg, Belinda; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Ho, Mei M


    As the latest addition to the sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine, an international collaborative study was completed to evaluate the suitability of a candidate BCG Moreau-RJ sub-strain as a WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine. This follows the recent replacement of the WHO 1st International Reference Preparation for BCG vaccine, by three sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine (Danish 1331, Tokyo 172-1 and Russian BCG-I) in order to complete the coverage of most predominant sub-strains used for BCG vaccine production and distribution for use worldwide. The study used cultural viable count and modified ATP assays to quantify the preparation and multiplex PCR to confirm the identity of the sub-strain. The establishment of this WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine of Moreau-RJ sub-strain was approved by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2012. This preparation is available for distribution by NIBSC-MHRA, UK. The data from real-time stability monitoring demonstrated that these Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine are very stable in storage condition at -20°C. They serve as the valuable source of BCG Reference Reagents for use as comparators (1) for viability assays (such as cultural viable count and modified ATP assays); (2) for in vivo assays (such as the absence of virulent mycobacteria, dermal reactivity and protection assays) in the evaluation of candidate TB vaccines in non-clinical models; (3) for identity assays using molecular biology techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of reagent lot-to-lot comparability tests in five immunoassay items. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Hee Jung; Whang, Dong Hee; Lee, Seong Gyu; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu Man


    We investigated the degree of lot-to-lot reagent variation for 5 common immunoassay items. We measured the commercial as well as in-house controls for α-fetoprotein (AFP), ferritin, CA19-9, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) 10 times each by using both the old and the new lot of reagents whenever a reagent lot was changed, over a period of 10 months. The differences in the mean control values, the percent difference (% difference), and the difference to between-run standard deviation ratio (D:SD ratio) between successive lots were calculated. The % difference in mean control values between 2 reagent lots ranged from 0.1 to 17.5% for AFP, 1.0 to 18.6% for ferritin, 0.6 to 14.3% for CA19-9, 0.6 to 16.2% for HBsAg, and 0.1 to 17.7% for anti-HBs except negative controls of HBsAg and anti-HBs. The maximum D:SD ratios between 2 lots were 4.37 for AFP, 4.39 for ferritin, 2.43 for CA19-9, 1.64 for HBsAg, and 4.16 for anti-HBs. Thus, we have experienced extensive variability in lot-to-lot reagent variation for 5 immunoassay items, indicating that reagent lot-to-lot comparability tests should be continuously performed and that laboratories should determine their own acceptance criteria for each item.

  10. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique


    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  11. A Code Blue Answer to Training (United States)

    Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis


    Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

  12. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  13. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia. (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  14. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David


    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  15. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  16. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise. (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A


    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  17. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A


    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  18. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 18, 2007 ... Reactive Red (33%) and Coloron Violet (66%) were decolorized moderately.The dye Coloron Black (9%) was highly ... ues into river and lakes lead to higher biological oxygen demand (BOD) causing serious ... Reactive Red, Reactive Blue were purchased from Evergreen Ind- ustries, Ahmedabad, India.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  20. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.


    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  1. [The dangers of blue light: True story!]. (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J


    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibodies for all: The case for genome-wide affinity reagents. (United States)

    Sidhu, Sachdev S


    For more than 30 years, the production of research antibodies has been dominated by hybridoma technologies, while modern recombinant technologies have lagged behind. Here I discuss why this situation must change if we are to generate reliable, comprehensive reagent sets on a genome-wide scale, and I describe how a cultural shift in the research community could revolutionize and modernize the affinity reagent field. In turn, such a revolution would pay huge dividends by closing the gap between basic research and therapeutic development, thus enabling the development of myriad new therapies for unmet medical needs. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PPh3·HBr-DMSO: A Reagent System for Diverse Chemoselective Transformations. (United States)

    Mal, Kanchan; Kaur, Amanpreet; Haque, Fazle; Das, Indrajit


    The broad applicability of the hitherto unexplored reagent combination PPh3·HBr-DMSO is exemplified with multiple highly diverse one-step transformations to synthetically useful building blocks, such as flavones, 4H-thiochromen-4-ones, α-hydroxy ketones, 1,4-naphthoquinones (including vitamin K3), 2-bromo-3-substituted-1H-1-indenones, 2-methylthio-1H-1-indenones, 3-butyne-1,2-dione, and 4-pentene-2,3-diones. The simple and mild reaction conditions make the reagent superior in terms of yield and substrate scope in comparison with the existing alternatives.

  4. A comparison of new reagents and processes for hydrometallurgical processing of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div


    The future viability of nuclear power as an electricity generation technology depends greatly on addressing all aspects of radioactive waste disposal. A closed fuel cycle with recycle and burnup of actinides is one important option for solving long-term waste sequestration issues. The 50 years of accumulated experience in application of solvent extraction to the processing of spent nuclear fuels uniquely qualifies this technology for actinide partitioning. However, employment of new reagents and development of new processes must be reconciled with century 21 expectations for environment protection. The interrelationship between the separations potential and waste disposal aspects of new reagents and processes are discussed in this report. (author)

  5. Ring-opening of cyclic ethers with carbon–carbon bond formation by Grignard reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert


    The ring-opening of cyclic ethers with concomitant C–C bond formation was studied with a number of Grignard reagents. The transformation was performed in a sealed vial by heating to ∼160 °C in an aluminum block or at 180 °C in a microwave oven. Good yields of the product alcohols were obtained...... with allyl- and benzylmagnesium halides when the ether was tetrahydrofuran or 3,3-dimethyloxetane. Lower yields were obtained with substituted tetrahydrofurans while no ring-opening was observed with tetrahydropyran. Only highly reactive allyl and benzyl Grignard reagents participated in the transformation...

  6. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide......-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine), TEMPO (N-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), dinitrophenyl, texas red, tetramethyl rhodamine, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1-diazole (NBD), or pyrene. The present invention also relates to a solid phase support, e.g. a Controlled Pore Glass (CPG), immobilized linker reagent...

  7. Difluoroacetic Acid as a New Reagent for Direct C-H Difluoromethylation of Heteroaromatic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh Tung, Truong; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Nielsen, John


    A technically simple procedure for direct C-H difluoromethylation of heteroaromatic compounds using off-the-shelf difluoroacetic acid as the difluoromethylating reagent has been developed. Mono-difluoromethylation versus bis-difluoromethylation is controlled as the result of the reaction temperat......A technically simple procedure for direct C-H difluoromethylation of heteroaromatic compounds using off-the-shelf difluoroacetic acid as the difluoromethylating reagent has been developed. Mono-difluoromethylation versus bis-difluoromethylation is controlled as the result of the reaction...

  8. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland


    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...... 1 the methodology appears to be limited to reaction with more stable acid chlorides, providing the desired products in moderate yields. When applied to organozinc reagent 3, however, the protocol is more general and provides the products in good yields in all but one of the cases tested....

  9. Manganese-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Halides and Grignard Reagents by a Radical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Ahlburg, Andreas; Fristrup, Peter


    The substrate scope and the mechanism have been investigated for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and Grignard reagents. The transformation proceeds rapidly and in good yield when the aryl halide component is an aryl chloride containing a cyano or an ester group...... in the para position or a cyano group in the ortho position. A range of other substituents gave no conversion of the aryl halide or led to the formation of side products. A broader scope was observed for the Grignard reagents, where a variety of alkyl- and arylmagnesium chlorides participated in the coupling...

  10. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Christophersen, Mette

    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  11. Evaluation of Fenton's Reagent and Activated Persulfate for Treatment of a Pharmaceutical Waste Mixture in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Kakarla, Prasad


    techniques. This paper describes the results from the bench tests evaluating treatment of site groundwater and soil using modified Fenton's reagent (MFR) and activated sodium persulfate (ASP). These results have been used to design pilot tests that will form the basis for selecting an optimal remediation...... technology or series of technologies for a future full-scale remediation system. The bench tests investigated oxidant stability, oxidation efficiency, toxicity reduction, metal mobilization and, for the persulfate, different activating agents, including NaOH, chelated iron, and modified Fenton's reagent. 126...

  12. Use of toxicity assays for evaluating the effectiveness of groundwater remediation with Fenton’s reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Bennedsen, Lars; Christophersen, Mette


    evaluates in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using modified Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + chelated Fe2+) as a groundwater remedy. Three injections were performed over a period to test treatment efficacy. Performance monitoring samples were collected from two depths both prior to and during treatment, and analyzed...... treatment with Fenton’s reagent the toxicity had increased and now needed 7100 times dilution to reduce toxicity to the LC10 probably due to mobilization of metals. It is concluded that toxicity assay is a useful tool for evaluating samples from contaminated sites and that toxicity assays and chemical...

  13. Phenanthrene Synthesis via Chromium-Catalyzed Annulation of 2-Biaryl Grignard Reagents and Alkynes. (United States)

    Yan, Jianming; Yoshikai, Naohiko


    A chromium/2,2'-bipyridine-catalyzed annulation reaction of 2-biarylmagnesium reagents with alkynes is reported. The reaction is applicable to a variety of aryl- and/or alkyl-substituted internal alkynes as well as 2-biaryl and related Grignard reagents, thus affording phenanthrene derivatives in moderate to good yields. The reaction proceeds at the expense of excess alkyne as a hydrogen acceptor and thus does not need an external oxidant. Deuterium-labeling experiments shed light on the reaction mechanism, which likely involves multiple intramolecular C-H activation processes on chromium.

  14. Reagent based DOS: a "Click, Click, Cyclize" strategy to probe chemical space. (United States)

    Rolfe, Alan; Lushington, Gerald H; Hanson, Paul R


    The synthesis of small organic molecules as probes for discovering new therapeutic agents has been an important aspect of chemical-biology. Herein we report a reagent-based, diversity-oriented synthetic (DOS) strategy to probe chemical and biological space via a "Click, Click, Cyclize" protocol. In this DOS approach, three sulfonamide linchpins underwent cyclization protocols with a variety of reagents to yield a collection of structurally diverse S-heterocycles. In silico analysis is utilized to evaluate the diversity of the compound collection against chemical space (PC analysis), shape space (PMI) and polar surface area (PSA) calculations.

  15. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys. (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina


    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  16. Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED. (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Singh, Meenu; Su, Yu-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hao; He, Zhe-Kai


    A candlelight-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a human-friendly type of lighting because it is blue-hazard-free and has a low correlated color temperature (CCT) illumination. The low CCT lighting is deprived of high-energy blue radiation, and it can be used for a longer duration before causing retinal damage. This work presents the comprehensive protocols for the fabrication of blue-hazard-free candlelight OLEDs. The emission spectrum of the OLED was characterized by the maximum exposure time limit of the retina and the melatonin suppression sensitivity. The devices can be fabricated using dry and wet processes. The dry-processed OLED resulted in a CCT of 1,940 K and exhibited a maximum retinal exposure limit of 1,287 s at a brightness of 500 lx. It showed 2.61% melatonin suppression sensitivity relative to 480 nm blue light. The wet-processed OLED, where the spin coating is used to deposit hole injection, hole transport, and emissive layers, making fabrication fast and economical, produced a CCT of 1,922 K and showed a maximum retinal exposure limit of 7,092 at a brightness of 500 lx. The achieved relative melatonin suppression sensitivity of 1.05% is 86% and 96% less than that of the light emitting diode (LED) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), respectively. Wet-processed blue-hazard-free candlelight OLED exhibited a power efficiency of 30 lm/W, which is 2 times that of the incandescent bulb and 300 times that of the candle.

  17. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani


    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  18. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  19. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany. (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas


    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni


    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III. (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy


    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A roadmap towards habitable exoplanets by the Blue Dots Initiative (United States)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.


    This paper is an abridged version of the report produced by the Blue Dots initiative, whose activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. The full version of the Blue Dots report can be downloaded at While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  3. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  4. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell


    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  5. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...

  6. Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodo, Eleanor A; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Spek, Bea; Reitsma, Johannes B; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polman, Katja; Lamberton, Poppy; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Leeflang, Mariska M G


    BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnosing schistosomiasis include tests based on circulating antigen detection and urine reagent strip tests. If they had sufficient diagnostic accuracy they could replace conventional microscopy as they provide a quicker answer and are easier to use.

  7. N-halossacarinas: reagentes úteis (e alternativos em síntese orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Soraia P. L. de


    Full Text Available N-halosaccharins proved to be useful and alternative reagents for diverse organic transformations, such as halogenation of aromatic compounds, benzylic and alpha-carbonylic positions, cohalogenation of alkenes, oxidation of secondary alcohols, etc. Their preparation from saccharin, a cheap and readly available starting material, is simple.

  8. N-halossacarinas: reagentes úteis (e alternativos em síntese orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia P. L. de Souza


    Full Text Available N-halosaccharins proved to be useful and alternative reagents for diverse organic transformations, such as halogenation of aromatic compounds, benzylic and alpha-carbonylic positions, cohalogenation of alkenes, oxidation of secondary alcohols, etc. Their preparation from saccharin, a cheap and readly available starting material, is simple.

  9. Effects of humidity and filter material on diffusive sampling of isocyanates using reagent-coated filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, H.; Vogel, M.; Karst, U.


    Diffusive sampling of methyl isocyanate (MIC) on 4-nitro-7-piperazinobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDPZ)-coated glass fibre (GF) filters is strongly affected by high relative humidity (RH) conditions. It is shown that the humidity interference is a physical phenomenon, based on displacement of reagent

  10. Reactivity of Various Compound Classes Towards the Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent (United States)

    Walker, Richard B.; Everette, Jace D.; Bryant, Quinton M.; Green, Ashlee M.; Abbey, Yvonne A.; Wangila, Grant W.


    The Folin-Ciocalteu assay has been used for over 80 years for the detection and quantitation of phenols. A modification of it, called the Lowry assay, is used for the quantitation of proteins. It has been commonly reported that the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, which is a complex mixture containing sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate, is reactive towards other antioxidants besides phenols. However, until now, no one has done experiments to test this hypothesis. In our study, we tested the reactivity of the reagent towards over 70 compounds. Compound classes included phenols, thiols, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, nucleotide bases, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, inorganic ions, aldehydes and ketones. All phenols, proteins and thiols tested were reactive towards the reagent. Other compounds which showed reactivity included guanine, glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, tyrosine, tryptophan, cysteine, ascorbic acid, Trolox, retinoic acid, pyridoxine, Fe+2, Mn+2, I- and SO3-2. In summary, our study showed that the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent is significantly reactive towards other compounds besides phenols. Therefore, it should be seen as a measure of total antioxidant capacity rather than phenolic content. It would be useful as a general antioxidant assay for measuring antioxidant capacities of compounds of biomedical interest.

  11. The application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent for conducting Appel reactions in flow microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Roper


    Full Text Available Herein we describe the application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent to the Appel reaction in flow-chemistry processing, to generate various brominated products with high purity and in excellent yields, and with no requirement for further off-line purification.

  12. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.


    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a

  13. [Comparative measurement of urine specific gravity: reagent strips, refractometry and hydrometry]. (United States)

    Costa, Christian Elías; Bettendorff, Carolina; Bupo, Sol; Ayuso, Sandra; Vallejo, Graciela


    The urine specific gravity is commonly used in clinical practice to measure the renal concentration/dilution ability. Measurement can be performed by three methods: hydrometry, refractometry and reagent strips. To assess the accuracy of different methods to measure urine specific gravity. We analyzed 156 consecutive urine samples of pediatric patients during April and May 2007. Urine specific gravity was measured by hydrometry (UD), refractometry (RE) and reagent strips (TR), simultaneously. Urine osmolarity was considered as the gold standard and was measured by freezing point depression. Correlation between different methods was calculated by simple linear regression. A positive and acceptable correlation was found with osmolarity for the RE as for the UD (r= 0.81 and r= 0.86, respectively). The reagent strips presented low correlation (r= 0.46). Also, we found good correlation between measurements obtained by UD and RE (r= 0.89). Measurements obtained by TR, however, had bad correlation when compared to UD (r= 0.46). Higher values of specific gravity were observed when measured with RE with respect to UD. Reagent strips are not reliable for measuring urine specific gravity and should not be used as an usual test. However, hydrometry and refractometry are acceptable alternatives for measuring urine specific gravity, as long as the same method is used for follow-up.

  14. Single Molecule Source Reagents for Chemical Vapor Deposition of B- Silicon Carbide (United States)


    Phase I conclusively showed the feasibility of rational design of single molecule -source reagents that could lead to improvements in the chemical...vapor deposition of stoichiometric Beta silicon carbide. Four single molecule sources were synthesized, their decomposition pathways studied, and their

  15. 27 CFR 20.117 - Reagent alcohol general-use formula. (United States)


    .... 3-A, and 5 part (by volume) of isopropyl alcohol. Water may be added at the time of manufacture... following words, as conspicuously as any other words on the labels: “Reagent Alcohol, Specially Denatured... the following words: “danger,” “poison,” “vapor harmful,” “May be fatal or cause blindness if...

  16. Evaluation of standard reagents for radial-immunodiffusion assays. In vitro control of rabies vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICELI Graciela S.


    Full Text Available The RID assay is one of the in vitro methods used for in-process control in the production of rabies vaccines for veterinary use. It has been shown to be very useful for determining antigen concentration in the final bulk product. The work presented in this paper, including the production and standardization of candidate standard reagents for use in the Radial Immunodiffusion Assay (RID was carried out at the Pan American Institute for Food Protection and Zoonoses (INPPAZ/PAHO/WHO. The study was completed with the cooperation of the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, National University of La Plata (NULP, Argentina, where the validation of the proposed standards and the quality control of samples from 28 different batches of rabies vaccines produced with Pasteur strain rabies virus (PV in BHK cells were performed. The activity of the vaccines was determined by in vivo (NIH and in vitro (RIDassays. The results of the candidate reagents for the reagent standardization tests showed stability, sensitivity and reproducibility. The Relative Potency the 1.2 between the problem vaccines and the reference vaccine was estimated by variance and regression analysis. The results of our validation study show that the INPPAZ (PAHO/WHO is capable of producing and distributing the above-mentioned standard reagents, as well as of providing support for the incorporation of the RID technique (sensitive, rapid and inexpensive to the laboratories that manufacture rabies vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  17. Copper-catalysed α-selective allylic alkylation of heteroaryllithium reagents. (United States)

    Vila, Carlos; Hornillos, Valentín; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L


    2-Allyl-substituted thiophenes and furans are synthesised efficiently in a direct procedure using 2-heteroaryllithium reagents and allyl bromides and chlorides catalysed by ligand-free copper(i). The reactions take place under mild conditions, with excellent α-selectivity, high functional group tolerance and good yields for the SN2 products.

  18. Conservative solute approximation to the transport of a remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Cheng, Chung-Ting; Liu, Chen-Wuing


    SummaryThis study presents a novel mathematical model for describing the transport of the remedial reagent in a vertical circulation flow field in an anisotropic aquifer. To develop the mathematical model, the radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are calculated first by using an analytical solution for steady-state drawdown distribution near a vertical circulation well. Next, the obtained radial and vertical components of the pore water velocity are then incorporated into a three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation in cylindrical coordinates from which to build the reagent transport equation. The Laplace transform finite difference technique is applied to solve the three-dimensional axisymmetrical advection-dispersion equation with spatial variable-dependent coefficients. The developed mathematical model is used to investigate the effects of various parameters such as hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, the placement of the extraction and injection screened intervals of the vertical circulation well and the injection modes on the transport regime of the remedial reagent. Results show that those parameters have different degrees of impacts on the distribution of the remedial reagent. The mathematical model provides an effective tool for designing and operating an enhanced groundwater remediation in an anisotropic aquifer using the vertical circulation well technology.

  19. The use of ninhydrin as a reagent for the reversible modification of arginine residues in proteins. (United States)

    Chaplin, M F


    A simple technique was developed for the specific reversible modification of guanidino groups in proteins involving reaction with ninhydrin. The extent of the reaction is easily determined non-destructively by spectrophotometric analysis. The reagent can also be used for the titration of sterically unhindered thiol groups in proteins. PMID:938493

  20. Occurrence of Fungal DNA Contamination in PCR Reagents: Approaches to Control and Decontamination. (United States)

    Czurda, S; Smelik, S; Preuner-Stix, S; Nogueira, F; Lion, T


    Nucleic acid amplification techniques permitting sensitive and rapid screening in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections are an important addition to conventional fungal diagnostic methods. However, contamination with fungal DNA may be a serious threat to the validity of fungal amplification-based assays. Besides rigorous handling procedures to avoid false-positive test results from exogenous sources, we have implemented protocols for comprehensive assessment of fungal contamination in all materials involved in the analytical process. Traces of fungal DNA were found in different commercially available PCR reagents, including lyophilized primers, TaqMan probes, and master mix solutions. These contaminants resulted in a considerable rate of false-positive tests in panfungal real-time PCR analysis. To address this problem, we have established a decontamination protocol based on the activity of a double-strand specific DNase. Using this approach, we have significantly reduced the frequency of false-positive test results attributable to contaminated reagents. On the basis of our findings, we strongly recommend routine monitoring of all reagents used in fungal PCR assays for the presence of relevant contaminants. As long as fungal-grade reagents are not readily available, pretreatment methods facilitating elimination of fungal DNA are critical for reducing the risk of false-positive results in highly sensitive molecular fungal detection assays. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Occurrence of Fungal DNA Contamination in PCR Reagents: Approaches to Control and Decontamination (United States)

    Czurda, S.; Smelik, S.; Preuner-Stix, S.; Nogueira, F.


    Nucleic acid amplification techniques permitting sensitive and rapid screening in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections are an important addition to conventional fungal diagnostic methods. However, contamination with fungal DNA may be a serious threat to the validity of fungal amplification-based assays. Besides rigorous handling procedures to avoid false-positive test results from exogenous sources, we have implemented protocols for comprehensive assessment of fungal contamination in all materials involved in the analytical process. Traces of fungal DNA were found in different commercially available PCR reagents, including lyophilized primers, TaqMan probes, and master mix solutions. These contaminants resulted in a considerable rate of false-positive tests in panfungal real-time PCR analysis. To address this problem, we have established a decontamination protocol based on the activity of a double-strand specific DNase. Using this approach, we have significantly reduced the frequency of false-positive test results attributable to contaminated reagents. On the basis of our findings, we strongly recommend routine monitoring of all reagents used in fungal PCR assays for the presence of relevant contaminants. As long as fungal-grade reagents are not readily available, pretreatment methods facilitating elimination of fungal DNA are critical for reducing the risk of false-positive results in highly sensitive molecular fungal detection assays. PMID:26560539

  2. Smartphone-Based Urine Reagent Strip Test in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Choi, Karam; Chang, Ikwan; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Do Kyun; Noh, Seungwoo; Ahn, Heejeong; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kwak, Young Ho; Kim, Sungwan; Kim, Hee Chan


    Although a smartphone could be used for a urine reagent strip test, few studies have reported on the reliability of the test in a clinical setting. The objective of our study was to access the smartphone-based urine reagent strip test in the clinical emergency department (ED). We developed a smartphone-based urine reagent strip reader for a rapid and accurate screening of leukocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite (NIT) in urine. The developed reader was evaluated with the clinical urine samples (n = 81). The detection performance of the reader for LE and NIT was evaluated to assess reliability of the reader; turnaround times (TATs) for analysis and the time for the entire study procedure were also calculated to assess the efficiency of the reader. A photometric analyzer (model US-3100R Plus(®); Eiken Chemical, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used as a reference. The proposed reader showed high accuracy (85.2% for LE and 97.5% for NIT), exhibiting close agreement with the true values (κ = 0.903 for LE; κ = 1.000 for NIT). The reader also exhibited a lower median TAT for analysis than the photometric analyzer (3.0 min versus 33.0 min; p smartphone-based urine reagent strip test, and this reader is expected to enable a more rapid and reliable colorimetric test for screening of LE and NIT at the clinical setting and the point of care.

  3. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of α-Bromo Amides with Grignard Reagents. (United States)

    Barde, E; Guérinot, A; Cossy, J


    A cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling between α-bromo amides and Grignard reagents is disclosed. The reaction is general and allows access to a large variety of α-aryl and β,γ-unsaturated amides. Some mechanistic investigations have been undertaken to determine the nature of the intermediate species.

  4. 1-Isocyano-2-dimethylamino-alkenes: Versatile reagents in diversity-oriented organic synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Illgen, Katrin


    1-Isocyano-2-dimethylamino-alkenes are versatile and multifunctional reagents in organic synthesis. Two useful protocols are given for multicomponent reactions (MCRs) for the assembly of a 6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrazine-2- carboxylic acid methyl ester derivative and a highly substituted thiazole.

  5. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric ring opening of oxabicyclic alkenes with organolithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Pieter H.; Rudolph, Alena; Pérez, Manuel; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Bernard


    A highly efficient method is reported for the asymmetric ring opening of oxabicyclic alkenes with organolithium reagents. Using a copper/chiral phosphoramidite complex together with a Lewis acid (BF3·OEt2), full selectivity for the anti isomer and excellent enantioselectivities were obtained for the

  6. General Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkyl-, Aryl-, and Alkynylaluminum Reagents with Organohalides. (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay; Thapa, Surendra; Gurung, Santosh K; Pike, Ryan A S; Giri, Ramesh


    We report the first example of a very general Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling of organoaluminum reagents with organohalides. The reactions proceed for the couplings of alkyl-, aryl-, and alkynylaluminum reagents with aryl and heteroaryl halides and vinyl bromides, affording the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. Both primary and secondary alkylaluminum reagents can be utilized as organometallic coupling partners. These reactions are not complicated by β-hydride elimination, and as a result rearranged products are not observed with secondary alkylaluminum reagents even for couplings with heteroaryl halides under "ligand-free" conditions. Radical clock experiment with a radical probe and relative reactivity study of Ph3Al with two haloarenes, 1-bromonaphthalene and 4-chlorobenzonitrile, having two different redox potentials indicates that the reaction does not involve free aryl radicals and radical anions as intermediates. These results combined with the result of the Hammett plot obtained by reacting Ph3Al with iodoarenes containing p-H, p-Me, p-F, and p-CF3 substituents, which shows a linear curve (R(2) = 0.99) with a ρ value of +1.06, suggest that the current transformation follows an oxidative addition-reductive elimination pathway.

  7. Statistical assessment of DNA extraction reagent lot variability in real-time quantitative PCR (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Kephart, C.M.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan


    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in lots of a DNA extraction kit using real-time PCR assays for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae. Methods and Results: Replicate aliquots of three bacteria were processed in duplicate with three different lots of a commercial DNA extraction kit. This experiment was repeated in triplicate. Results showed that cycle threshold values were statistically different among the different lots. Conclusions: Differences in DNA extraction reagent lots were found to be a significant source of variability for qPCR results. Steps should be taken to ensure the quality and consistency of reagents. Minimally, we propose that standard curves should be constructed for each new lot of extraction reagents, so that lot-to-lot variation is accounted for in data interpretation. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the importance of evaluating variability in DNA extraction procedures, especially when different reagent lots are used. Consideration of this variability in data interpretation should be an integral part of studies investigating environmental samples with unknown concentrations of organisms. ?? 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinate salts using an electrophilic trifluoromethylation reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiaoxi


    A copper-catalyzed method for the trifluoromethylation of arylsulfinates with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording aryltrifluoromethylsulfones in moderate to good yields. A wide range of functional groups in arylsulfinates are compatible with the reaction conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of Some Aryl Chalcones Using Silica-Sulphuric Acid Reagent under Solvent Free Conditions


    G. Thirunarayanan; Vanangamudi, G.


    There are two series of α, β-unsaturated ketones derived form Biphenyl and 9H-Fluorenyl, and ketones with various substituted benzaldehydes under solvent free conditions using silica-sulphuric acid as a reagent in an oven. The catalyst silica is reusable and the yields of chalcones are more than 90%. These chalcones are characterized by physical constants and spectral data.

  10. One pot direct synthesis of amides or oxazolines from carboxylic acids using Deoxo-Fluor reagent


    Kangani, Cyrous O.; Kelley, David E.


    A mild and highly efficient one pot–one step condensation and/or condensation–cyclization of various acids to amides and/or oxazolines using Deoxo-Fluor reagents is described. Parallel syntheses of various free fatty acids with 2-amino-2, 2-dimethyl-1-propanol resulted with excellent yields.

  11. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H.L. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)


    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  12. Beckmann Fragmentation and Successive Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Using Grignard Reagents via Phosphonium Salt Intermediates. (United States)

    Fujioka, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Nao; Kuboki, Yuichi; Mitsukane, Hidenobu; Ohta, Reiya; Kimura, Takashi; Murai, Kenichi


    The intermediates formed during the Beckmann fragmentation of α-alkoxy and α-alkoxy-α-alkyl oxime acetates have been successfully trapped as phosphonium salts, which were subsequently reacted with a variety of Grignard reagents to give the corresponding substituted products in good yields. Notably, this reaction proceeded smoothly even from α-alkoxy-α-alkyl oxime acetates.

  13. New versatile staining reagents for biological transmission electron microscopy that substitute for uranyl acetate. (United States)

    Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Nishioka, Hideo; Katayama, Eisaku


    Aqueous uranyl acetate has been extensively used as a superb staining reagent for transmission electron microscopy of biological materials. However, recent regulation of nuclear fuel material severely restricts its use even for purely scientific purposes. Since uranyl salts are hazardous due to biological toxicity and remaining radioactivity, development of safe and non-radioactive substitutes is greatly anticipated. We examined two lanthanide salts, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate, and found that 1-10% solution of these reagents was safe but still possess excellent capability for staining thin sections of plastic-embedded materials of animal and plant origin. Although post-fixation with osmium tetroxide was essential for high-contrast staining, post-staining with lead citrate could be eliminated if a slow-scan CCD camera is available for observation. These lanthanide salts can also be utilized as good negative-staining reagents to study supramolecular architecture of biological macromolecules. They were not as effective as a fixative of protein assembly, reflecting the non-hazardous nature of the reagents.

  14. Students' Dilemmas in Reaction Stoichiometry Problem Solving: Deducing the Limiting Reagent in Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Waldrip, Bruce G.; Chandrasegaran, Antonia


    A qualitative case study was conducted to investigate the understanding of the limiting reagent concept and the strategies used by five Year 11 students when solving four reaction stoichiometry problems. Students' written problem-solving strategies were studied using the think-aloud protocol during problem-solving, and retrospective verbalisations…

  15. Biologically-Inspired Peptide Reagents for Enhancing IMS-MS Analysis of Carbohydrates (United States)

    Bohrer, Brian C.; Clemmer, David E.


    The binding properties of a peptidoglycan recognition protein are translated via combinatorial chemistry into short peptides. Non-adjacent histidine, tyrosine, and arginine residues in the protein's binding cleft that associate specifically with the glycan moiety of a peptidoglycan substrate are incorporated into linear sequences creating a library of 27 candidate tripeptide reagents (three possible residues permutated across three positions). Upon electrospraying the peptide library and carbohydrate mixtures, some noncovalent complexes are observed. The binding efficiencies of the peptides vary according to their amino acid composition as well as the disaccharide linkage and carbohydrate ring-type. In addition to providing a charge-carrier for the carbohydrate, peptide reagents can also be used to differentiate carbohydrate isomers by ion mobility spectrometry. The utility of these peptide reagents as a means of enhancing ion mobility analysis of carbohydrates is illustrated by examining four glucose-containing disaccharide isomers, including a pair that is not resolved by ion mobility alone. The specificity and stoichiometry of the peptide-carbohydrate complexes are also investigated. Trihistidine demonstrates both suitable binding efficiency and successful resolution of disaccharides isomers, suggesting it may be a useful reagent in IMS analyses of carbohydrates.

  16. One pot direct synthesis of amides or oxazolines from carboxylic acids using Deoxo-Fluor reagent. (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E


    A mild and highly efficient one pot-one step condensation and/or condensation-cyclization of various acids to amides and/or oxazolines using Deoxo-Fluor reagents is described. Parallel syntheses of various free fatty acids with 2-amino-2, 2-dimethyl-1-propanol resulted with excellent yields.

  17. Mild copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes using an electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagent

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang


    A catalytic process for trifluoromethylation of terminal alkynes with Togni\\'s reagent has been developed, affording trifluoromethylated acetylenes in good to excellent yields. The reaction is conducted at room temperature and exhibits tolerance to a range of functional groups. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Tropaeolin 000-1 as a Colorimetric Reagent for Assay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the application of tropaeolin 000-1 reagent for the rapid, precise and accurate determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DX) and escitalopram maleate (ECT). Methods: Determination of DX and ECT was based on the formation of complexes between the dye, DX and ECT in 0.1 M HCl. The resulting ...

  19. Nanoporous magnesium aluminometasilicate tablets for precise, controlled, and continuous dosing of chemical reagents and catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhland, T.; Nielsen, S.D.; Holm, P.


    Mechanically robust tablets of nanoporous magnesium aluminometasilicate with high surface area and porosity can be loaded with a variety of organic and inorganic reagents and catalysts. The scope of this novel dosing methodology is demonstrated through the evaluation of 14 diverse organic reactions...

  20. (BNBBS): a Safe, Neutral and Efficient Reagent for the Oxidation of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    N,N'-Dibromo-N,N' 1,2-ethanediylbis(benzenesulphonamide). (BNBBS): a Safe, Neutral and Efficient Reagent for the. Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols to. Corresponding Carbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions. Amin Rostami,a Marjan Mahboubifarb and Ardeshir Khazaeib*. aDepartment of Chemistry ...