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Sample records for prussian blue dye

  1. Prussian Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & ... Prussian blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...

  2. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PRUSSIAN BLUE FORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN)6}x H2O) and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1) and high negative entropy of activation (-231 ...

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Adhikamsetty

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  4. Characterization and utilization of Prussian blue and its pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Fernande; Samain, Louise; Long, Gary J

    2016-11-15

    This review deals with our long-range goal of determining why the Prussian blue pigments, typically either the "soluble" KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)6]·xH2O or the alternative "insoluble" Fe[Fe(II)(CN)6]3·xH2O compounds, used by artists from shortly after the discovery of Prussian blue in 1704 and well into the early twentieth century, often fade when exposed to light. In order to achieve this goal it was decided that first, for comparison purposes, we had to prepare and fully characterize Prussian blues prepared by various, often commercially successful, synthetic methods. The characterization has employed a large variety of modern methods to determine both the stoichiometry of the Prussian blues and the arrangement of the voids found in the latter "insoluble" Prussian blues. The refinement of synchrotron radiation derived X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for a formally soluble and an insoluble Prussian blue required refinement in the Pm3[combining macron]m space group and lead to the K1.9[FeFe(CN)18]·{1.9 OH + 7.0H2O}, 1, and FeFe(CN)18·11.0H2O, 2, stoichiometries. The former compound, 1, exhibits an apparently random iron(ii) long-range void arrangement, whereas 2 exhibits a more non-random long-range arrangement, however, a pair distribution function analysis indicates a short-range ordering of the voids in both compounds. After further detailed characterization of many Prussian blue samples, painted samples on linen canvas, were subjected to accelerated light exposure for up to 800 hours either as pure Prussian blues or mixed with (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2, ZnO or TiO2, the white pigments often used by artists to lighten the intense Prussian blue colour. The results indicate that the first two of these white pigments play a significant role in the fading of the colour of Prussian blues. In order to achieve our long-range goal, several Prussian blue samples were prepared from "ancient" recipes published in 1758 and 1779. These so-called "ancient" samples, painted in a

  5. Thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue: implications for prebiotic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rogero, Celia; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José Angel; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2009-09-01

    The complex salt named Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 x 15 H2O, can release cyanide at pH > 10. From the point of view of the origin of life, this fact is of interest, since the oligomers of HCN, formed in the presence of ammonium or amines, leads to a variety of biomolecules. In this work, for the first time, the thermal wet decomposition of Prussian Blue was studied. To establish the influence of temperature and reaction time on the ability of Prussian Blue to release cyanide and to subsequently generate other compounds, suspensions of Prussian Blue were heated at temperatures from room temperature to 150 degrees at pH 12 in NH3 environment for several days. The NH3 wet decomposition of Prussian Blue generated hematite, alpha-Fe2O3, the soluble complex salt (NH4)4[Fe(CN6)] x 1.5 H2O, and several organic compounds, the nature and yield of which depend on the experimental conditions. Urea, lactic acid, 5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and several amino acids and carboxylic acids were identified by their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. HCN, cyanogen (C2N2), and formamide (HCONH2) were detected in the gas phase by GC/MS analysis.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Prussian Blue networked nanocomposites for electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    There has been a great deal of interest recently in Prussian blue functional graphene. Due to they displayed advantage of both Prussian blue and graphene, we presented a one-pot and green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue nanocomposites. Considering that graphene oxide (GO) ....... This kind materials displaying high performance when was used for electrocatalytic reduction H2O2....

  7. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    as electrochemicalcatalysts and supercapacitor electrode materials. Those nanocomposites were systematically characterizedby AFM, SEM, TEM and XPS. The results confirmed all PB nanostructures were well combined withgraphene nanosheets. Furthermore, PB nanostructure functionalized graphene materials were fabricatedinto......Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors...... to energytechnologies. In this presentation, we have explored the combination of redox active Prussian Blue (PB)nanostructures (e.g., core-shell Gold@Prussian Blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs) and interlocked PBnanocubes) with chemically exfoliated graphene to prepare multifunctional composites...

  8. Towards bottom-up nanopatterning of Prussian blue analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgile Trannoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ordered nanoperforated TiO2 monolayers fabricated through sol–gel chemistry were used to grow isolated particles of Prussian blue analogues (PBA. The elaboration of the TiO2/CoFe PBA nanocomposites involves five steps. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS all along the synthesis process. Selected physico-chemical parameters have been varied in order to determine the key steps of the synthesis process and to optimize it. This study is an important step towards the full control of the fabrication process.

  9. Prussian Blue: A Potential Material to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yueying; Li, Bing; Wang, Yunhui; He, Xinyi; Huang, Jianxing; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-02-08

    The Prussian blue, as a potential adsorbent of polysulfides to suppress the dissolution and shuttle of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries, has been studied in this work. Our results show that Prussian blue improves the electrochemical reaction kinetics during discharge/charge processes. More importantly, the cathode with Prussian blue exhibits better cycling stability and higher discharge capacity retention (722 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 100 cycles) than the one without Prussian blue (151 mAh g-1). These improvements of electrochemical performances are ascribed to the fact that Prussian blue is very effective in suppressing the dissolution of polysulfides into liquid electrolyte by chemical adsorption.

  10. Adsorption mechanism of radioactive cesium by Prussian blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Chan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk [Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC), Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Chang Hyun [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, University of Science Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant, Prussian blue (PB) has attracted increasing attention as a material for use in decontaminating the environment. We have focused the fundamental mechanism of specific Cs{sup +} adsorption into PB in order to develop high-performance PB-based Cs{sup +} adsorbents. The ability of PB to adsorb Cs varies considerably according to its origin such as what synthesis method was used, and under what conditions the PB was prepared. It has been commonly accepted that the exclusive abilities of PB to adsorb hydrated Cs{sup +} ions are caused by regular lattice spaces surrounded by cyanido-bridged metals. Cs{sup +} ions are trapped by simple physical adsorption in the regular lattice spaces of PB. Cs{sup +} ions are exclusively trapped by chemical adsorption via the hydrophilic lattice defect sites with proton-exchange from the coordination water. Prussian blue are believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of {sup 1}3{sup 7C}s contaminated water around nuclear facilities and/or after nuclear accidents.

  11. Viral capsids as templates for the production of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Escosura, A; Verwegen, M.; Sikkema, F.D.; Comellas Aragones, M.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, T.; Nolte, Roeland; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2008-01-01

    The use of a viral template has allowed the synthesis of monodisperse Prussian blue nanoparticles with a diameter of 18 ± 1.7 nm and their organization into hexagonal patterns on mica and hydrophilic carbon surfaces.

  12. Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

    2012-11-07

    A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion with Fe(3+) ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H(2)O(2) reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H(2)O(2) formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 μM to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 μM and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm(-2) M(-1). The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.

  13. A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yiwen; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lingling; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-05-01

    A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to Prussian white nanoparticles leading to a decrease of the absorption spectrum, was chosen as the target. And we were able to determine the concentration of sulfite in aqueous solution with a low detection limit and a broad linear relationship.A high performance fluorescence switching system triggered electrochemically by Prussian blue with upconversion nanoparticles was proposed. We synthesized a kind of hexagonal monodisperse β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+,Tm3+ upconversion nanoparticle and manipulated the intensity ratio of red emission (at 653 nm) and green emission at (523 and 541 nm) around 2 : 1, in order to match well with the absorption spectrum of Prussian blue. Based on the efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer and inner-filter effect of the as-synthesized upconversion nanoparticles and Prussian blue, the present fluorescence switching system shows obvious behavior with high fluorescence contrast and good stability. To further extend the application of this system in analysis, sulfite, a kind of important anion in environmental and physiological systems, which could also reduce Prussian blue to

  14. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  15. Prussian Blue-coated interdigitated array electrodes for possible analytical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, M.; Grabner, E.W.; Bergveld, Piet

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) (Prussian Blue) were electrochemically deposited on interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes, yielding systems which can be considered as chemiresistors in sensing alkali metal ion concentrations in an adjacent electrolyte. This is due to the fact that the

  16. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, Marta, E-mail: marta.kowalska@email.cz [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Tian Faming [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo [Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Slechtitelu 813/21, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas [School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {center_dot} An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. {center_dot} Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. {center_dot} CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. {center_dot} Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. {center_dot} The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N{sup 6}-side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  17. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-03-15

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing toxic agents. High quality Prussian blue nanocubes with no or little coordinated water were generated simultaneously. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was thus functionalized by Prussian blue nanocubes via chemical bonding to form a kind of interlocked microstructure with high stability and good conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg(-1), with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance catalysis towards electroreduction of H2O2 with a high sensitivity of 1.5Acm(-2)M(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical charactization of Prussian Blue by using the E-MOSFET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2001-01-01

    Prussian Blue (PB) is the mixed-valent compound, ferric ferrocyanide which can be used in electrocatalytic, electrochromic and charge storage applications. Observations of the electrochemical properties of PB have been done by different methods, e.g. electrochemical and optical. In this paper,

  19. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...

  20. Colour changes due to the fading of Prussian blue in Danish Golden Age paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Buti, David; Vila, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Examination of oil paintings by artists from the so-called Danish Golden Age in the first half of the nineteenth century indicates that a significant degree of deterioration and fading has occurred in a number of cases in some of the blue coloured areas. The occurrence was initially suggested...... by the different appearance of the paint along the edges of the paintings where they had been protected from the light. Technical examination of paintings from the Statens Museum for Kunst collection, by artists such as Christen Købke, Nicolai Abildgaard and C.W. Eckersberg, revealed the presence of Prussian blue......, mixed with lead white and calcium carbonate as a component of the paint in the affected areas. Due to its high tinting strength, Prussian blue was often used – mostly in moderate proportions - mixed with other compounds and pigments. It has been demonstrated by experimental studies that the durability...

  1. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, edged plane pyrolytic graphite electrode EPPGE was modified with functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes and Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB). The modified electrode was characterised by techniques such as TEM, FTIR, XPS, EDX...

  2. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shouqing, E-mail: shouqing_liu@hotmail.com [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Cheng Shi; Feng Lianrong; Wang Xiaomei; Chen Zhigang [Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China)

    2010-10-15

    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R{sub K} > R > R{sub Na} > R{sub Rb} > R{sub Cs}, which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  3. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade

    1978-01-01

    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...... in the dialysis bath and in blood samples. During the 1st 120 h of hemodialysis, 143 mg of Tl was eliminated via the artificial kidney and 110 mg via the urinary tract. The present case of acute Tl intoxication is the 1st in which long-term hemodialysis has been used in the acute phase...

  4. Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for the Enrichment of Radioactive Cesium in Solutions - 13275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles in different form were studied for the adsorptive enrichment of Cs in solutions. Water dispersible nano-PB was found to be highly effective on removing trace level Cs in stagnant waters. The nano-PB loaded filters were effective on collecting Cs in flow systems like river water, thus provides a big relief on controlling the environmental mobility of Cs and its entry to the productive lands via water. Water insoluble nano-PB adsorbent possesses high Cs loading capacity and selectivity and it is found to be the ultimate option for the systems containing high concentration Cs. (authors)

  5. Prussian Blue Modified Solid Carbon Nanorod Whisker Paste Composite Electrodes: Evaluation towards the Electroanalytical Sensing of H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Siimenson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic impurity free solid carbon nanorod “Whiskers” (SCNR Whiskers, a derivative of carbon nanotubes, are explored in the fabrication of a Prussian Blue composite electrode and critically evaluated towards the mediated electroanalytical sensing of H2O2. The sensitivity and detection limits for H2O2 on the paste electrodes containing 20% (w/w Prussian Blue, mineral oil, and carbon nanorod whiskers were explored and found to be 120 mA/(M cm2 and 4.1 μM, respectively, over the concentration range 0.01 to 0.10 mM. Charge transfer constant for the 20% Prussian Blue containing SCNR Whiskers paste electrode was calculated, for the reduction of Prussian Blue to Prussian White, to reveal a value of 1.8±0.2 1/s (α=0.43, N=3. Surprisingly, our studies indicate that these metallic impurity-free SCNR Whiskers, in this configuration, behave electrochemically similar to that of an electrode constructed from graphite.

  6. Synthesis of gold coated magnetic microparticles and their application for electrochemical glucose sensing by the enzymatically precipitated prussian blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye Young; Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun

    2013-05-01

    An enzyme stimulated deposition of prussian blue onto the gold-coated magnetic microparticles is described. We propose to synthesize the continuous outer gold layer on the magnetic particle for a gold working electrode and its superparamagnetic property. In-depth characterization of the gold shell formation was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry. The gold-coated magnetic microparticles offered adhesive layer for the immobilization of glucose oxidase catalyzing the generation of prussian blue in the presence of glucose. The assembled prussian blue on the gold shell surfaces was detected with electrochemical measurements depending on the glucose concentration. With accomplishing the linear response range from 0.2 mM to 10 mM of glucose, this approach successfully proposed the applicability of the magnetic core-gold shell structures to the electrochemical bioassay area.

  7. Alkali Cation Potential and Functionality in the Nanoporous Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cation and/or molecule transfer within nanoporous materials is utilized in lithium-ion secondary battery, ion exchange, hydrogen storage, molecular sensors, molecular filters, and so on. Here, we performed ab initio total energy calculation to derive the alkali cation potential in the Prussian blue analogues, AxM[Fe(CN6]zH2O (A=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; M=Co, Ni, Mn, and Cd, with jungle-gym-type nanoporous framework. The potential curves of larger cations, that is, K+, Rb+ and Cs+, exhibit a barrier at the window of the host framework, while those of the smaller cations, that is, Li+ and Na+, exhibit no barrier. We will discuss the useful functionalities observed in the Prussian blue analogues, that is, (a battery properties mediated by Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation, (b electrochromism mediated by Na+ transfer in all solid device, and (c the elimination of Cs+ from aqueous solution by precipitation, in terms of the alkali cation potentials.

  8. Simultaneous identification of historical pigments Prussian blue and indigo in paintings by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Papoušková, Barbora; Sulovský, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2013-08-01

    A new analytical protocol for identification of Prussian blue (PB) and indigo was proposed. Pigments useful for dating of artworks were detected by flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry after alkalization of their suspensions in water, decomposition of PB to iron (III) hydroxide and hexacyanoferrate (II) and reduction of indigo to soluble leucoindigo using sodium dithionite. Limits of detection (PB 47 pg, indigo 59 pg) complied with requirements for analysis of microsamples of historical paintings. Potential of the developed method was proven in analysis of blue samples of two oil paintings from the 20(th) century. Further, PB was confirmed in a microsample from a painting of 'Crucifixion', St. Sebestian church on St. Hill in Mikulov, Czech Republic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-09-01

    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2015-02-01

    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  11. Buccal Mucosa Exfoliative Cell Prussian Blue Stain Co-Relates with Iron Overload in β-Thalassemia Major Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajaria, Pooja K; Maheshwari, Ujwala M; Borkar, D B; Dhar, Reeta; Pancholi, Varsha

    2017-12-01

    Thalassemics require regular blood transfusion therapy leading to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. We hereby attempted to measure this iron overload by means of exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique. The aims and objectives of our study were: 1. To detect iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl's Prussian blue stain in β-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate staining positivity with serum ferritin levels. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 50 β-thalassemia major patients (who had taken more than 12 transfusions) and 25 healthy subjects of the same age group as controls. Smears were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Blood samples were taken from the study group for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Grading criteria were defined for assessing the Prussian blue positivity. Perl's positivity was observed in 49 out of 50 of thalassemic patients (98%). 1 patient had Grade 0, 7 patients had Grade I, 5 had Grade II, 12 had Grade III, 14 had Grade IV while 11 patients had Grade V positivity. Spearman Rank's Correlation Co-efficient was 0.38, signifying a weak positive correlation between positivity of buccal smears for Perl's Prussian blue staining and respective serum ferritin levels. Perl's Prussian blue staining of exfoliated cells from buccal mucosa can be used to assess iron overload in β-thalassemia major patients, as a screening as well as diagnostic tool. With the grading system we can give a semi-quantitative assessment of the same.

  12. Graphene Paper Doped with Chemically Compatible Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Nanohybrid Electrocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Han, Shuang; Gan, Shiyu

    2013-01-01

    Along with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), water soluble Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs, around 6 nm) are synthesized and broadly characterized. These two types of highly stable, low‐cost and chemically compatible nanomaterials are exploited as building ingredients to prepare electrically...... oxidation and detection of glucose. The present work demonstrates a facile and highly reproducible way to construct free‐standing and flexible graphene paper doped with electroactive catalyst. Thanks to high stability, low‐cost and efficient electrocatalytic characteristics, this kind of nanohybrid material...... enhanced and functionally endorsed nanohybrid electrocatalysts, which are further transformed into free‐standing graphene papers. PBNPs doped graphene papers show highly efficient electrocatalysis towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide and can be used alone as flexible chemical sensors for potential...

  13. A glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue/chitosan hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gu, Haifang; Yin, Fan; Tu, Yifeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and chitosan (CS) directly on gold electrode, a hybrid film of PB/CS has been prepared. PB in this film shows a good stability compared with pure PB film when it worked in neutral and weak alkalescent solution and can act as redox mediator. It provides the potential application of such film in biosensor fabrication. A glucose biosensor was fabricated by electrodepositing glucose oxidase (GOD)/CS film on this PB/CS modified electrode. The optimum experimental conditions of biosensor for the detection of glucose have been studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, a linear dependence of the catalytic current upon glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2x10(-6) to 4x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 3.97x10(-7)M. The resulting biosensor could be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment.

  14. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  15. Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Intercalated into Diamagnetic Mg–Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A heterostructure of diamagnetic magnesium‒aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg‒Al LDHs and photomag‐ netic cobalt‒iron Prussian Blue analogue (Co‒Fe PBA was designed, synthesized and then designated as LDH‒PB. The cyanide-bridged Co‒Fe PBA was two-dimensionally intercalated into the Mg‒Al LDH template by the stepwise anion exchange method. LDH‒PB showed ferrimagnetic properties with in-plane antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, as well as small photo-induced magnetization by visible light illumination due to the low dimensional structures and the characteristic photo-induced electronic states of the mixed valence of FeIII(low spin, S = 1/2‒CN‒ CoII(high spin, S = 3/2‒NC‒FeII (low spin, S = 0.

  16. Planar Amperometric Glucose Sensor Based on Glucose Oxidase Immobilized by Chitosan Film on Prussian Blue Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyou Chen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A planar amperometric glucose microsensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized by chitosan film on Prussian Blue layer has been developed. The experimental results show that the optimum detection potential is 50 mV (versus Ag/AgCl and the optimum pH is 6.5. Under the selective conditions the sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity of 98 nA/M and a linear range of 0.1-6.0 mM. The apparent Michanelis-Menten constant of the sensor is 21 mM. The response time is less than 60 seconds. No apparent change in the response to glucose was observed during one month. Foremost, the interference of ascorbic and uric acids can be avoided due to selective permeability of chitosan film and electrocatalysis of PB layer to H2O2. The sensor has been applied to detect glucose in human blood serum.

  17. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentrati...

  18. Core-shell hybrid nanomaterial based on prussian blue and surface active maghemite nanoparticles as stable electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Baratella, Davide; Salviulo, Gabriella; Polakova, Katerina; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Kaslik, Josef; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-02-15

    A novel core-shell nanomaterial based on prussian blue (PB) coating on peculiar surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), was developed. The synthetic process involves the direct crystallization of Fe(II)(CN)6(4-) onto the surface of SAMNs by simple incubation in water at controlled pH, demonstrating the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) on nanoparticle surface. The coating reaction occurs in a narrow pH range and the synthetic procedure was optimized. The resulting SAMN@PB hybrid nanostructures were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Mössbauer, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The nanomaterial, characterized by high stability in alkaline media, behave as excellent electro-catalyst for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The stability of SAMN@PB hybrid has been investigated as a function of pH, showing excellent stability up to pH 9.0 and demonstrating the feasibility of SAMNs, superficially derivatized with prussian blue, to produce an efficient and extremely stable nanostructured material. This maghemite supported nanostructured prussian blue was applied to develop a sensor, based on a simple carbon paste electrode, which was able to catalyze the electro-reduction of hydrogen peroxide, in aqueous solutions, buffered at pH 7.0, at low applied potentials (0.0 V vs. SCE). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prussian Blue Analogue Mesoframes for Enhanced Aqueous Sodium-ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesostructure engineering is a potential avenue towards the property control of coordination polymers in addition to the traditional structure design on an atomic/molecular scale. Mesoframes, as a class of mesostructures, have short diffusion pathways for guest species and thus can be an ideal platform for fast storage of guest ions. We report a synthesis of Prussian Blue analogue mesoframes by top-down etching of cubic crystals. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the surfaces of the cubic crystals were selectively removed by HCl, leaving the corners, edges, and the cores connected together. The mesoframes were used as a host for the reversible insertion of sodium ions with the help of electrochemistry. The electrochemical intercalation/de-intercalation of Na+ ions in the mesoframes was highly reversible even at a high rate (166.7 C, suggesting that the mesoframes could be a promising cathode material for aqueous sodium ion batteries with excellent rate performance and cycling stability.

  20. Hyaluronic Acid Conjugated Magnetic Prussian Blue@Quantum Dot Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbo; Jing, Lijia; Li, Xiaoda; Lin, Li; Yue, Xiuli; Dai, Zhifei

    2017-01-01

    A multifunctional nanotheranostic agent was developed by conjugating both hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin coated CuInS2-ZnS quantum dots onto the surface of magnetic Prussian blue nanoparticles. The obtained nanoagent could serve as an efficient contrast agent to simultaneously enhance near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging greatly. The coexistence of magnetic core and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid was found to largely improve the specific uptake of the nanoagent by CD44 overexpressed HeLa cells upon applying an external magnetic field. Both NIR fluorescence and MR imaging in vivo proved high accumulation of the nanoagent at tumor site due to its excellent CD44 receptor/magnetic dual targeting capability. After intravenous injection of the nanoagent and treatment of external magnetic field, the tumor in nude mice was efficiently ablated upon NIR laser irradiation and the tumor growth inhibition was more than 89.95%. Such nanotheranostic agent is of crucial importance for accurately identifying the size and location of the tumor before therapy, monitoring the photothermal treatment procedure in real-time during therapy, assessing the effectiveness after therapy.

  1. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Radiocesium Decorporation by a Prussian Blue Treatment and Stockpiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rump, Alexis; Stricklin, Daniela; Lamkowski, Andreas; Eder, Stefan; Port, Matthias

    2017-10-16

    In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL). Treatment costs were based on the market price of PB in Germany. Moreover we considered the holding costs of stockpiling. The benefit of PB treatment increases with its duration up to about 90 days. If treatment initiation is delayed, the maximum achievable benefit is decreased. For a VSL of 1.646 million €, the net benefit of a 90-days treatment started 1 day after the incorporation remains positive up to a stockpiling duration of 10 years. If starting PB treatment as late as the 180th day after incorporation, the costs will surpass the benefit. We conclude that a prompt decision making and early treatment initiation greatly impacts on the medical but also economic efficiency of a PB treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Application of Prussian blue nanoparticles for the radioactive Cs decontamination in Fukushima region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Durga; Kitajima, Akiko; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Yoshino, Kazunori; Funahashi, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Osada, Mitsuo; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Cs decontamination efficiencies of the composites of iron hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were investigated in comparison with commercial Prussian blue and natural zeolite. In pure water solution, the adsorption rate varied with sizes. In ash extract, where Cs adsorbing ability of zeolite was sharply dropped due to its poor selectivity, the impact of coexisting ions was negligible for FeHCF. FeHCF-n11, having the finest primary and secondary particle size, resulted the highest distribution coefficient, which was comparable to the high efficiency analogues, CoHCF or NiHCF. This observation suggested the possibility of preparing the high performance FeHCF by particle size and composition adjustment. FeHCF nanoparticle in bead form was tested for the removal of radioactive Cs in pilot scale. Due to larger secondary particle size, pronounced effect of solution temperature on the Cs adsorption kinetics on FeHCF bead was observed. Adjusting the mass of the adsorbent for the given solution temperature is recommended for achieving high decontamination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-07-13

    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicating the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.

  4. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan

    2017-02-01

    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining

    2016-08-02

    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  6. Prussian blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in humans and beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A

    1998-07-01

    Prussian blue was used to enhance the elimination of {sup 137}Cs from 46 individuals contaminated in an accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987. PB dosages administered to the victims varied from 1 to 3 g.d{sup -1} for children and from 3 to 10 g.d{sup -1} for adolescents and adults. To complement human data in the evaluation of the effectiveness of PB and its relation to age, a 41 day study was conducted using immature (4.7 months old), young adult (2.4 years old) and aged (13.5 years old) male beagle dogs. The mean biological half-times for the Goiania people under PB treatment were 24 {+-} 3 days, 30 {+-} 12 days and 25 {+-} 11 days, for children, adolescents and adults, respectively. The mean reductions of half-times were 43%, 46% and 69%, respectively. The effect of PB was shown to be independent of age and the administered dose. Similar results were found in dogs: the mean biological half-times related to the second component of the equation were 11, 15 and 13 days for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively, indicating a reduction of the clearance half-times of 45%, 45% and 63%. The experiment in dogs has shown that when the PB is administered immediately after caesium intake, its effectiveness is greater in immature than in aged dogs. The percentages of the initial body burden remaining 41 days after caesium intake were 4%, 12% and 8% for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively. This age-related effect correlates with the increased fraction of {sup 137}Cs eliminated with the fast clearance half-time, and was greater in immature than in aged dogs. (author)

  7. Patent blue dye in lymphaticovenular anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yan Lin; Lim, Jane; Shim, Timothy W H; Naidu, Shenthilkumar; Ong, Wei Chen; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2009-08-01

    Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) has been described as a treatment of chronic lymphoedema. This microsurgical technique is new and technically difficult. The small caliber and thin wall lymphatic vessels are difficult to identify and easily destroyed during the dissection. We describe a technique of performing lymphaticovenular anastomosis with patent blue dye enhancement. Our patient is a 50-year-old lady who suffers from chronic lymphoedema of the upper limb after mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer 8 years ago. Patent blue dye is injected subdermally and is taken up readily by the draining lymphatic channels. This allows for easy identification of their course. The visualisation of the lumen of the lymphatic vessel facilitates microsurgical anastomosis. The patency of the anastomosis is also demonstrated by the dynamic pumping action of the lymphatic within the vessels. Patent blue dye staining during lymphaticovenular anastomosis is a simple, effective and safe method for mapping suitable subdermal lymphatics, allowing for speedier dissection of the lymphatic vessels intraoperatively. This technique also helps in the confirmation of the success of the lymphaticovenular anastomosis.

  8. Rhodium-Prussian Blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane Midori

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian Blue was deposited at carbon paste electrode surface from a solution containing 2.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 K3[Fe(CN6], 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 FeCl3 and 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 HCl using two controlled potentials. To improve the stability of the modified electrode it was 50 times cycled in a solution containing 1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 RhCl3, 0.50 mol L-1 KCl and 0.010 mol L-1 HCl in the potential range from - 0.40 V to 0.60 V at 60 mV s-1. The Rh - Prussian Blue carbon paste modified electrode (Rh-PBMCPE showed good stability during amperometric catalytic determination of H2O2 at 0.040 V, without ascorbic and uric acids interferences. The current changed linearly with H2O2 concentrations in the range of 5.0 x 10-5 - 8.6 x 10-4 mol L-1. The estimated detection limit was 2.8 x 10-5 mol L-1 with sensibility changing from 1.32 to 0.96 A mol-1 L cm-2 along five days (180 determinations.

  9. In Situ Growth of Prussian Blue Nanostructures at Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Modified Platinum Electrode for Synergistic Methanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Kang, Inhak; Kim, Kyuwon

    2016-02-23

    Herein, we report a facile synthetic strategy for the in situ growth of Prussian blue nanostructures (PB NSs) at the amine-functionalized silicate sol-gel matrix (TPDT)-RGO composite via the electrostatic interaction. Subsequently, Pt nanostructures are electrodeposited onto the preformed ITO/TPDT-RGO-PB electrode to prepare the RGO/PB/Pt catalyst. The significance of the present method is that the PB NSs are in situ grown by interconnecting the RGO layers, leading to 3D cage-like porous nanostructure. The modified electrodes are characterized by FESEM, EDAX, XRD, XPS, and electrochemical techniques. The RGO/PB/Pt catalyst exhibits synergistic electrocatalytic activity and high stability toward methanol oxidation. The porous nature of the TPDT and PB and unique electron-transfer mediating behavior of PB integrated with RGO in the presence of Pt nanostructures facilitated synergistic electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  10. Prussian blue nanocubes: multi-functional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason R.; Dumani, Diego S.; Kubelick, Kelsey P.; Luci, Jeffrey; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    Imaging modalities utilize contrast agents to improve morphological visualization and to assess functional and molecular/cellular information. Here we present a new type of nanometer scale multi-functional particle that can be used for multi-modal imaging and therapeutic applications. Specifically, we synthesized monodisperse 20 nm Prussian Blue Nanocubes (PBNCs) with desired optical absorption in the near-infrared region and superparamagnetic properties. PBNCs showed excellent contrast in photoacoustic (700 nm wavelength) and MR (3T) imaging. Furthermore, photostability was assessed by exposing the PBNCs to nearly 1,000 laser pulses (5 ns pulse width) with up to 30 mJ/cm2 laser fluences. The PBNCs exhibited insignificant changes in photoacoustic signal, demonstrating enhanced robustness compared to the commonly used gold nanorods (substantial photodegradation with fluences greater than 5 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the PBNCs exhibited superparamagnetism with a magnetic saturation of 105 emu/g, a 5x improvement over superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. PBNCs exhibited enhanced T2 contrast measured using 3T clinical MRI. Because of the excellent optical absorption and magnetism, PBNCs have potential uses in other imaging modalities including optical tomography, microscopy, magneto-motive OCT/ultrasound, etc. In addition to multi-modal imaging, the PBNCs are multi-functional and, for example, can be used to enhance magnetic delivery and as therapeutic agents. Our initial studies show that stem cells can be labeled with PBNCs to perform image-guided magnetic delivery. Overall, PBNCs can act as imaging/therapeutic agents in diverse applications including cancer, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmology, and tissue engineering. Furthermore, PBNCs are based on FDA approved Prussian Blue thus potentially easing clinical translation of PBNCs.

  11. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K2RL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  12. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K 2 RL | Siddiqui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  13. Selective transport of ions and molecules across layer-by-layer assembled membranes of polyelectrolytes, p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes and Prussian Blue-type complex salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieke, Bernd; Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin

    2005-11-30

    Our recent studies in the field of ultrathin membranes prepared upon layer-by-layer assembly of various polyionic compounds such as polyelectrolytes, calixarenes and polyelectrolytes, and metal hexacyanoferrate salts such as Prussian Blue are reviewed. It is demonstrated that polyelectrolyte multilayers can be used (a) as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes suitable for water softening and seawater desalination and (b) as molecular sieves and ion sieves for size-selective separation of neutral and charged aromatic compounds. Furthermore, hybrid membranes of p-sulfonato-calixarenes and cationic polyelectrolytes showing specific host-guest interactions with permeating ions are described. The membranes exhibit high selectivities for distinct metal ions. Finally, it is demonstrated that purely inorganic membranes of Prussian Blue (PB) and analogues can be prepared upon multiple sequential adsorption of transition metal cations and hexacyanoferrate anions. Due to the porous lattice of PB, the membranes are useful as ion filters able to separate cesium from sodium ions, for example.

  14. One-pot green synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes decorated reduced graphene oxide using mushroom extract for efficient 4-nitrophenol reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ruixue; Zhang, Qiuping; Gu, Yue; Tang, Liu; Li, Cong; Zhang, Zhiquan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide was synthesized by mushroom extract. • This methodology avoids toxic reagents. • Detects 4-nitrophenol with low detection. - Abstract: One-pot green approach to the synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/RGO) nanocomposite had been attempted. It was based on the extract of mushroom with K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] and graphene oxide (GO) as precursors, where the reduction of GO and the deposition of PBNCs occurred simultaneously. The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. With the introduction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), the β-CD/PBNCs/RGO system showed linear behavior in the range from 0.01 to 700 μM for 4-nitrophenol with a low detection limit of 2.34 nM (S/N = 3)

  15. Chemical consequences of the nuclear reactions 58Fe(n,γ)59Fe and 57Co(EC)57Fe in soluble Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jes; Maddock, A. G.; Siekierska, K. E.

    1970-01-01

    KFe[Fe(CN)6],H2O was prepared with 58Fe in either the cation or the complex, and both samples were neutron-irradiated and analysed for free and complexed 59Fe. Parallel experiments were performed on K4[Fe(CN)6],3H2O. In Prussian Blue the retention in the hexacyano-complex is ca. 5% and can be inc...

  16. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: From synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Barré, Y. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Vincent, T. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Taulemesse, J.-M. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Center des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Robitzer, M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt – UMR5253, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, ICGM-MACS-R2M2, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, F-34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Guibal, E., E-mail: Eric.Guibal@mines-ales.fr [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Prussian blue microparticles incorporated in chitin sponges. • Efficient Cs(I) sorption after water absorption by dry hybrid sponge. • Water draining after sorption for metal confinement and water decontamination. • High decontamination factors and distribution coefficients for Cs(I) and {sup 137}Cs(I). • Effect of freezing conditions on porous structure and textural characterization. - Abstract: Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water.

  17. Amperometric immunosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue/nanogold-modified electrode for determination of α-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yin, Bing

    2010-12-01

    In this article, a conspicuously simple and highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor based on the sequential electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface is proposed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). By comparison with PB, the MWCNT/PB composite film had been proven to show much better electrochemical stability and a larger response current. The electrodeposited GNP film can be used not only to immobilize biomolecules but also to avoid the leakage of PB and to prevent shedding of MWCNT/PB composite film from the electrode surface. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor for AFP was observed with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) equal to 3 pg/ml (at 3δ), and the linear working range spanned the concentrations of AFP from 0.01 to 300 ng/ml. Moreover, the immunosensor, as well as a commercially available kit, was examined for use in the determination of AFP in real human serum specimens. More significant, the assay mentioned here is simpler than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an excellent correlation of levels of AFP measured was obtained, indicating that the developed immunoassay could be a promising alternative approach for detection of AFP and other tumor markers in the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  19. Glucose biosensor based on three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue bicomponent film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Tian, Rong; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, a three dimensional ordered macroporous self-doped polyaniline/Prussian blue (3DOM SPAN/PB) bicomponent film was fabricated via the inverted crystal template technique using step-by-step electrodeposition. In this bicomponent film, PB not only acted as a redox mediator, but also presented increased stability in neutral or weak alkaline solution by the protection of SPAN layer on the top. A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated based on the large active surface area and excellent conductivity possessed by the 3DOM SPAN/PB film. The applying experimental conditions of the glucose biosensor have been optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a wide linear range over three orders of magnitude in glucose concentrations (from 2 to 1600 μM) and a low detection limit of 0.4 μM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited short response time, high selectivity and excellent operation stability, which can be applied to detect the blood sugar in real samples without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In-situ secondary growth of nanocube-based Prussian-blue film as an ultrasensitive biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A regular nanostructure has been widely confirmed to result ina marked improvement in material performance in biosensing applications. In the present study, a regular nanostructured Prussian blue (PB film with two heterogeneous crystal layers was synthesized in-situ using a secondary growth method. A PB seed layer was first controlled to form uniform cube-like crystal nuclei through an ultrasonic reaction with a single reactant. Then, well-defined 100 nm PB nanocubes were further crystallized on this seed layer using a self-assembly approach. In order to accelerate the electron transfer rate during the enzyme reaction for glucose detection, the graphene was used as the main cross-linker to immobilize glucose oxidase on the PB film. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited high electrocatalysis and electron conductivity for the detection of trace glucose with a sensitivity of 141.5 μA mM−1 cm−2, as well as excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid under a low operation potential of −0.05 V.

  1. Spontaneous Deposition of Prussian Blue on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Application in an Amperometric Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Keung Shiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT materials. Formation of PB deposits was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. The surface morphology of the PB particles deposited on the substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CNT/PB composite modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited an electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide reduction. These modified electrodes exhibited a high sensitivity for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, probably due to the synergistic effect of CNT with PB. Then, CNT/PB modified electrodes were further developed as amperometric glucose biosensors. These biosensors offered a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.1 to 0.9 mM with good selectivity, high sensitivity of 0.102 A M−1 cm−2 and short response time (within 2 s at a negative operation potential of −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl. The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.

  2. Electrochemical immunosensor based on hydrophilic polydopamine-coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon for the rapid screening of 3-bromobiphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zihong; Luo, Zhigang; Gan, Cuifen; Fei, Shidong; Liu, Yingju; Lei, Hongtao

    2014-09-15

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for 3-bromobiphenyl (3-BBP) detection was constructed by employing a new polydopamine coated prussian blue-mesoporous carbon (PDOP/PB/CMK-3) nanocomposite as the substrate platform and multi-horseradish peroxidase-double helix carbon nanotubes-secondary antibody (multi-HRP-DHCNTs-Ab2) as the signal label. PB/CMK-3 was firstly successfully in-situ synthesized with the aid of the CMK-3 reduction, which was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. By using PDOP/PB/CMK-3 as the substrate, it can effectively enhance the specific surface for antigen loading due to the three-dimensional structure of the nanocomposites, while large amount of PB that fixed inside or outside the pore of CMK-3 successfully improved the electrochemical response and the PDOP film can provide a biocompatible environment to maintain the activity of antigen availability. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor shows a good current response to 3-BBP in a linear range from 5 pM to 2 nM with a detection limit of 2.25 pM. In addition, the specificity, reproducibility and stability of the immunosensor were also proved to be acceptable, indicating its potential application in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flow injection amperometric determination of persulfate in cosmetic products using a Prussian Blue film-modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R. Stradiotto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A flow-injection system with a glassy carbon disk electrode modified with Prussian Blue film is proposed for the determination of persulfate in commercial samples of hair bleaching boosters by amperometry. The detection was obtained by chronoamperometric technique and the sample is injected into the electrochemical cell in a wall jet configuration. Potassium chloride at concentration of 0.1 mol L-1 acted as sample carrier at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min-1 and supporting-electrolyte. For 0.025 V (vs. Ag/AgCl applied voltage, the proposed system handles ca. 160 samples per hour (1.0 10-4 - 1.0 10-3 mol L-1 of persulfate, consuming about 200 μL sample and 11 mg KCl per determination. Typical linear correlations between electrocatalytic current and persulfate concentration was ca. 0.9998. The detection limit is 9.0 10-5 mol L-1 and the calculated amperometric sensibility 3.6 103 μA L mol-1. Relative standard deviation (n =12 of a 1.0 10-4 mol L-1 sample is about 2.2%. The method was applied to persulfate determination in commercial hair-bleaching samples and results are in agreement with those obtained by titrimetry at 95% confidence level and good recoveries (95 - 112% of spiked samples were found.

  4. Metal-to-metal electron transfer and magnetic interactions in a mixed-valence Prussian Blue analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: ashis62@rediffmail.com; Saha, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Koner, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ksenofontov, V. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Reiman, S. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Guetlich, P. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail: guetlich@uni-mainz.de

    2006-07-15

    In search of a new Prussian Blue analogue exhibiting fascinating magnetic properties, potassium manganese hexacyanoferrate, K{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.66}{sup II}Mn{sub 1.44}{sup III}[Fe{sub 0.2}{sup II}Fe{sub 0.8}{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]O{sub 0.6}= {sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 1.32}], 7.6H{sub 2}O, has been synthesized. This compound undergoes a paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic transition at 10K. Temperature and magnetic field-dependent magnetization studies of this compound have revealed different spin alignments below and above 3K. The nature of possible magnetic interactions between the nearest neighbor magnetic centers has been discussed in order to explore the origin of the observed magnetic interactions. Moessbauer spectroscopic study at different temperatures demonstrates the presence of both Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} in low-spin states in this compound. Quantitative analysis of the Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} ions, and their temperature dependence exhibits the existence of an electron transfer phenomenon between Mn and Fe ions [Fe{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 5}, S=1/2)-CN-Mn{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 2}, S=5/2)]-bar [Fe{sup II} (t{sub 2g}{sup 6}, S=0)-CN-Mn{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 1}, S=2)]. This electron transfer has been remarkably enhanced in the magnetically ordered region.

  5. Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition. The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system.

  6. Surfactant-assisted fabrication of 3D Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel as a self-propelling motor for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Zhang, Zhe; Tang, Jilin

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an ideal candidate for water treatment.Three-dimensional Prussian blue-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel was synthesized with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through a facile hydrothermal method. The hydrogel exhibited strong mechanical properties and was successfully applied as a self-propelling motor for water treatment. During the self-propelling degradation process, SDS facilitated the rapid liberation of oxygen bubbles from the motor and the oxygen bubbles assisted the rapid diffusion of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the well-defined structure increased the number of reaction sites and the synergy between reduced graphene oxide and Prussian blue, which accelerated the degradation efficiency. The self-propelling motor had an average velocity of 0.026 +/- 0.013 cm s-1 in 7.5% H2O2 and 0.069 +/- 0.032 cm s-1 in 22.5% H2O2. Moreover, the self-propelling motor maintained high degradation efficiency even after cycling for 9 times. These excellent properties make the self-propelling motor an

  7. Nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with PEG coating as an effective oral MRI contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Vindya S; Chen, Guojun; Cai, Qing; Huang, Songping D

    2016-03-21

    Biocompatible nanoparticles of gadolinium-incorporated Prussian blue with the empirical formula K(0.94)Gd(0.02)Fe[Fe(CN)6] exhibit extremely high stability against the release of Gd(3+) and CN(-) ions under the acidic conditions similar to stomach juice. The high r1 relaxivity, low cytotoxicity and the ability of such nanoparticles to penetrate the cell membrane suggest that this coordination-polymer structural platform offers a unique opportunity for developing the next generation of T1-weighted oral cellular MRI probes for the early detection of tumors in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Long-range interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis of molecular scale Prussian Blue nanoparticles linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces by different chemical contacting groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    We have explored interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of 5–6 nm Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immobilized on Au(111)-electrode surfaces via molecular wiring with variable-length, and differently functionalized thiol-based self-assembled molecular monolayers...... forming linker molecules. The interfacial ET rate constants were found to depend exponentially on the ET distance for distances longer than a few methylene groups in the chain, with decay factors (β) of 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 per CH2, for SAMs terminated by −NH3+,–COO–, and–CH3, respectively. This feature...

  9. Filling carbon nanotubes with Prussian blue nanoparticles of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity for colorimetric chemo- and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Fu, Yingchun; Chai, Liyuan; Chao, Long; Bu, Lijuan; Meng, Yue; Chen, Chao; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-02-24

    Facile filling of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) of high peroxidase-like catalytic activity was performed to develop novel colorimetric sensing protocols for assaying H2O2 and glucose. Fine control of PBNP growth was achieved by modulating the concentration ratio of K3 [Fe(CN)6] and FeSO4 precursors in an acidic solution containing ultrasonically dispersed MWCNTs, and thus size-matched PBNPs could be robustly immobilized in the cavities of the MWCNTs (MWCNT-PBin). Unlike other reported methods involving complicated procedures and rigorous preparation/separation conditions, this mild one-pot filling method has advantages of easy isolation of final products by centrifugation, good retention of the pristine outer surface of the MWCNT shell, and satisfactory filling yield of (24±2) %. In particular, encapsulation of PBNPs of poor dispersibility and limited functionality in dispersible and multifunctional MWCNT shells creates new and valuable opportunities for quasihomogeneous-phase applications of PB in liquid solutions. The MWCNT-PBin nanocomposites were exploited as a peroxidase mimic for the colorimetric assay of H2O2 in solution by using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as reporter, and they gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 nM. Moreover, glucose oxidase (GOx) was anchored on the outer surface of MWCNT-PBin to form GOx/MWCNT-PBin bionanocomposites. The cooperation of outer-surface biocatalysis with peroxidase-like catalysis of interior PB resulted in a novel cooperative colorimetric biosensing mode for glucose assay. The use of GOx/MWCNT-PBin for colorimetric biosensing of glucose gave a linear absorbance response from 1 μM to 1.0 mM and an LOD of 200 nM. The presented protocols may be extended to other multifunctional nanocomposite systems for broad applications in catalysis and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co

  10. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  11. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  12. A resettable and reprogrammable biomolecular keypad lock with dual outputs based on glucose oxidase-Au nanoclusters-Prussian blue nanocomposite films on an electrode surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Li, Menglu; Li, Tianrui; Zhou, Shuo; Liu, Hongyun

    2016-12-08

    In this work, electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) films were electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and a dispersion mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD), chitosan (CS) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) was then cast on the PB surface to form CS-AuNC-GOD/PB nanocomposite film electrodes. The blue PB component in the films could be changed into its colourless reduced form of Prussian white (PW) upon application of -0.2 V. The addition of glucose to the solution would produce H2O2 with the help of GOD in the films and oxygen in the solution, which could oxidize PW back to PB. In the meantime, the fluorescence emission signal of the AuNCs in the films was greatly influenced by the form of PB/PW. Based on these properties, the amperometric current, fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance of the film electrodes demonstrated potential- and glucose-sensitive ON-OFF behaviors. Thus, a 2-input/3-output biomolecular logic gate system with 3 different types of output signals and a 2-to-1 encoder were developed. Furthermore, a resettable and reprogrammable 3-input biomolecular keypad lock was established with fluorescence intensity and UV-vis absorbance as dual outputs, which greatly enhanced the security level of the keypad lock. This work reported for the first time an enzyme-based keypad lock with dual outputs, which might open a new avenue to design more complicated biomolecular keypad lock systems.

  13. Radiation damages during synchrotron X-ray micro-analyses of Prussian blue and zinc white historic paintings: detection, mitigation and integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, Claire [Bern University of the Arts, Bern (Switzerland); Thoury, Mathieu [IPANEMA, USR 3461 CNRS/MCC, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Reguer, Solenn; Gueriau, Pierre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mass, Jennifer [Winterthur Museum and Country Estate, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)

    2015-11-15

    High-flux synchrotron techniques allow microspectroscopic analyses of artworks that were not feasible even a few years ago, allowing for a more detailed characterization of their constituent materials and a better understanding of their chemistry. However, interaction between high-flux photons and matter at the sub-microscale can generate damages which are not visually detectable. We show here different methodologies allowing to evidence the damages induced by microscopic X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy analysis (μXANES) at the Fe and Zn K-edges of a painting dating from the turn of the twentieth century containing Prussian blue and zinc white. No significant degradation of the pigments was noticed, in agreement with the excellent condition of the painting. However, synchrotron radiation damages occurred at several levels, from chemical changes of the binder, modification of crystal defects in zinc oxide, to Prussian blue photoreduction. They could be identified by using both the μXANES signal during analysis and with photoluminescence imaging in the deep ultraviolet and visible ranges after analysis. We show that recording accurately damaged areas is a key step to prevent misinterpretation of results during future re-examination of the sample. We conclude by proposing good practices that could help in integrating radiation damage avoidance into the analytical pathway. (orig.)

  14. A choline oxidase amperometric bioassay for the detection of mustard agents based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-13

    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (-50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  15. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  16. LA-ICP-MS Allows Quantitative Microscopy of Europium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and is a Possible Alternative to Ambiguous Prussian Blue Iron Staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Müller, Larissa; Wagner, Susanne; Kobayashi, Yuske; Kratz, Harald; Ebert, Monika; Jakubowski, Norbert; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2016-05-01

    The development of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications requires accurate histological evaluation. Prussian blue iron staining is widely used but may be unspecific when tissues contain substantial endogenous iron. Here we tested whether microscopy by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is sensitive enough to analyze accumulation of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) doped with europium in tissue sections. For synthesis of VSOP, a fraction of Fe3+ (5 wt%) was replaced by Eu3+, resulting in particles with 0.66 mol% europium relative to iron (Eu-VSOP) but with otherwise similar properties as VSOP. Eu-VSOP or VSOP was intravenously injected into ApoE-/- mice on Western cholesterol diet and accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques of these animals. Prussian blue staining was positive for ApoE-/- mice with particle injection but also for controls. LA-ICP-MS microscopy resulted in sensitive and specific detection of the europium of Eu-VSOP in liver and atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, calibration with Eu-VSOP allowed calculation of iron and particle concentrations in tissue sections. The combination of europium-doped iron oxide particles and LA-ICP-MS microscopy provides a new tool for specific and quantitative analysis of particle distribution at the tissue level and allows correlation with other elements such as endogenous iron.

  17. Whispering-gallery-mode dye lasers in blue, green, and orange regions using dye-doped, solid, small spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Tamiya; Yamada, Hiroshi; Tanosaki, Shinji; Baba, Mamoru

    1993-01-01

    A whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) dye laser in blue, green, and orange regions is reported using dye-doped, solid, small spheres. A WGM dye laser is pumped by a transversely excited atmospheric UV N2 laser. Some features of the WGM dye laser are demonstrated.

  18. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  19. Determination of carrageenan by means of photometric titration with Methylene Blue and Toluidine Blue dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kaniewska, Agnieszka; Lamkiewicz, Jan; Shyichuk, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A new approach to carrageenan quantitation was described. The method consists in titration of carrageenan solution by Methylene Blue dye or Toluidine Blue dye solution until a certain absorbance value. The optimal wavelengths are 660nm and 640nm when titrating with Methylene Blue dye and Toluidine Blue dye, respectively. Rectilinear calibration plots (R2>0.996) provide carrageenan determination in the concentration range from 2 to 60mg/L with relative standard deviation from 1 to 5%. The proposed method is simple and feasible in use due to optical dip probe providing in situ absorbance measurements. The proposed way of end-point recognition as pre-set voltage is applicable with any automatic titrator. The method was tested on model jelly dessert sachet. No interference was registered from typical ingredients of jellies such as sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, potassium sorbate as well as blue colorant. The neutral polysaccharides such as guar gum and locust bean gum have insignificant interference when their content is fivefold as compared to that of carrageenan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer of graphene/Prussian blue toward simultaneous electrochemical and SPR detection of H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A new type of chemically converted graphene sheets, cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid decorated graphene sheets (PFIL–GS) composite, was synthesized and characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found...... that the presence of PFIL enabled the formation of a very stable aqueous dispersion due to the electrostatic repulsion between PFIL modified graphene sheets. With respect to the excellent dispersibility of this material, we have fabricated a novel PFIL–GS/Prussian blue (PB) nanocomposite multilayer film via classic...... layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. The assembly process was confirmed by UV–vis spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which showed linear responses to the numbers of the deposited PFIL–GS/PB bilayers. Moreover, the as-prepared composite films were used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H...

  1. High-performance complementary electrochromic device based on WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT and prussian blue electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanfang; Li, Haizeng; Li, Kerui; Wang, Jinmin; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Chen, Pei

    2017-11-01

    The device assembly plays an important role in affecting the electrochromic (EC) performance of an electrochromic device (ECD). Here, WO3·0.33H2O films are fabricated by a hydrothermal method and then PEDOT:PSS are spin-coated on the surface of WO3·0.33H2O films. Finally, the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT films are assembled with electrodeposited prussian blue (PB) to fabricate the WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT-PB complementary electrochromic devices (ECDs). Compared with pure WO3·0.33H2O and WO3·0.33H2O/PEDOT single-active-layer structure ECDs, the complementary ECD exhibits higher optical modulation, higher coloration efficiency and faster response time, which would provide a promising platform for energy-saving smart (ESS) window.

  2. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun

    2017-08-14

    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  3. Adverse drug reaction, patent blue V dye and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patent blue vital (PBV dye is used for varied perioperative indications, and has a potential for causing life-threatening allergic reactions. In this retrospective case series study, at a tertiary level neurosciences centre, we analysed the nature, management and outcome of adverse drug reaction to the preoperative use of PBV for marking vertebral level prior to back surgeries. Methods: Patients were identified from the theatre and radiology database. Data were collected from the patients′ notes retrieved from the medical records division. Results: Eleven of 1247 (0.88% patients experienced adverse reactions: 6 (0.48% patients had minor grade I reactions (urticaria, blue hives, pruritis or generalised rash, 4 (0.32% had grade II reactions (transient hypotension/bronchospasm/laryngospasm and grade III reaction (hypotension requiring prolonged vasopressor support was noted in 1 (0.08% patient. No mortality was seen. The time of onset (range 10-45 min frequently coincided with induction of anaesthesia or prone positioning of patient. Seven (63.6% cases were cancelled or postponed (range 2-63 days. Treatment varied independent of the grade of reaction. Allergy workup (often incomplete was done for 6 (54% patients. Conclusion: An awareness of the time of onset and infrequency of life-threatening reactions to patent blue dye may result in better management, less postponement, more complete workup and referral of these events.

  4. Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni(1.5)[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Banerjee, Seemita; Anwar, Sharmistha; Mukadam, Mayuresh D; Meena, Sher Singh; Yusuf, Seikh M

    2014-10-22

    Core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·mH2O@Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·nH2O has been synthesized using a core of Mn1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O, surrounded by a shell of Ni1.5[Cr(CN)6]·7.5H2O compound. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study confirms the core-shell nature of the nanoparticles with an average size of ∼25 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles are investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern reveals that the core-shell compound has a face-centered cubic crystal structure with space group Fm3m. The observation of characteristic absorption bands in the range of 2000-2300 cm(-1) in IR spectra corresponds to the CN stretching frequency of Mn(II)/Ni(II)-N≡C-Cr(III) sequence, confirming the formation of Prussian blue analogues. Hydrogen absorption isotherm measurements have been used to investigate the kinetics of molecular hydrogen adsorption into core-shell compounds of the Prussian blue analogue at low temperature conditions. Interestingly, the core-shell compound shows an enhancement in the hydrogen capacity (2.0 wt % at 123 K) as compared to bare-core and bare-shell compounds. The hydrogen adsorption capacity has been correlated with the specific surface area and TGA analysis of the core-shell compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the hydrogen storage properties of core-shell Prussian blue analogue molecular magnet that could be useful for hydrogen storage applications.

  5. Study of oxidation states of the transition metals in a series of Prussian blue analogs using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States); Hartl, M., E-mail: monika.hartl@esss.se [European Spallation Source ESS AB, 22100, Lund (Sweden); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Daemen, L. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830 (United States); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Fohtung, E.; Nakotte, H. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Systematic XANES measurements on Prussian blue analogs shows oxidation state of transition metals. • Cobal-iron bimetallic hexacyanometallates show unexpected oxidation states. • Iron(II) ions in hexacyanometallates(III) show varying spin state depending on their bond to the “N” end or “C” end of the cyanide ligand. • Thermal expansion coefficients have been linked to the XANES results. - Abstract: There have been renewed interests in metal-organic framework classes of materials such as Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) due to their potential usage in energy storage applications. In particular, due to their high surface areas, controllable structures and excellent electrochemical properties, PBAs such as hexacyanometalates M{sup II}{sub 3}[A{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; A = Co, Fe, Cr; n = no. of water molecules present), M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and mixed hexacyanometalates(III) (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 3}[B{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75; B = Co, Fe) could have possible usage as a new class of cathode and even anode materials for rechargeable batteries. Detailed knowledge of the oxidation states of the transition metals in PBAs is required to improve efficiency and durability of such devices. Furthermore, a link between the thermal expansion observed in these materials and the oxidation state of the transition metal is of interest to synthesize materials with a desired thermal expansion behavior, Here we demonstrate the use of Synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to identify transition metal oxidation states. Our analysis reveals the presence of divalent, trivalent and/or mixed valence transition metals in the materials as well as high-spin and low-spin complexes.

  6. Dual lanthanide role in the designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination (Prussian Blue analogue) nanocages with large internal cavity and mesoporous cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Ronan; Liu, Yibo; Ghasdian, Negar; Hondow, Nicole S.; Ye, Sunjie; Lu, Yun; Brydson, Rik; Wang, Xiaosong

    2011-09-01

    Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies entirely on the periphery coordination event occurring prior to the ester hydrolysis surfactant removal step. Crucially, this one-pot sequential synthesis was achieved using a newly developed metallo-surfactant designed to have a reduced ester hydrolysis rate. Syntheses of this innovative metallo-surfactant, intermediary PB analogue coordination polymer organo-nanoshells and the subsequent conversion to hollow metal coordination nanocages are fully characterised using a wide variety of techniques, including TEM, SEM, EFTEM, EDX, TGA, WAXD, NMR, N2 adsorption, etc., and represent the first designed synthesis of hollow metal coordination nanocages containing a large nanoscale cavity (wall of hollow nanosphere is mesoporous; hence nanocage).Prussian Blue (PB) analogue metal coordination nanocages comprised of mesoporous walls (ca. 3.5 nm pore width) encapsulating a cavity approaching ca. 100 nm in diameter (surfactant free) are presented as an advance in rational metal coordination polymer nanostructure design. The synthesis employs lanthanide ions (Gd3+ or Er3+) which function initially as peripheral coordination crosslinkers of metallo-surfactant templated miniemulsion droplets, and, subsequently, as promoters in the removal of the organic component of those surfactants via metal-assisted ester hydrolysis. The success of this synthetic strategy relies

  7. Adsorption Of Blue-Dye On Activated Carbons Produced From Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activated carbons prepared were used for the adsorption of blue-dye of concentration ranging from 100 to 2000 mg/l from aqueous solution. The results obtained indicated that ferric chloride-activated carbons produced from coconut coirpith are better adsorbents for blue-dye than those prepared from rice husk.

  8. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  9. Stabilization of Prussian blue with polyaniline and carbon nanotubes in neutral media for in vivo determination of glucose in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Guo, Deyin; Ye, Jianshan; Zhang, Meining

    2015-06-07

    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical microbiosensor for selective in vivo monitoring of glucose in rat brains. The microbiosensor is prepared by using Prussian blue (PB)/polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction and determination of H2O2 generated from the glucose oxidase (GOx)-based enzymatic catalytic reaction. PANI and MWNTs are used to stabilize PB nanoparticles in physiological solutions. As a result, the as-formed three-dimensional (3D) PB/PANI/MWNT nanostructure exhibits a stable and large electrochemical response compared to the PB-modified electrode. The use of PB/PANI/MWNTs in this work to replace "natural peroxidase" (i.e., horseradish peroxidase) used in the existing microbiosensors enables the method developed here to be facile but selective for in vivo measurements of glucose virtually interference-free from ascorbic acid and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. This property, along with the good linearity and stability toward glucose, makes this microbiosensor competent for continuous in vivo monitoring of the changes of glucose in rat brains during intraperitoneal injection of insulin. The method demonstrated here can be applied to develop other oxidase-based microbiosensors for other neurochemicals, which would be helpful for understanding the chemical process involved in some physiological and pathological events.

  10. Facile Synthesis of a MoS2-Prussian Blue Nanocube Nanohybrid-Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Hydrogen Peroxide and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shao; Han, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zaiwei; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Dan; Chao, Jie; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-04-12

    Herein, an electrochemical detection platform was designed based on a Prussian blue nanocube-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2-PBNCs) nanocomposite. Shape-controlled and high-dispersion PBNCs were supported on the MoS2 nanosheet surface, which would be simply controlled by varying the experimental conditions. Expectedly, such obtained MoS2-based nanocomposites possessed excellent electrocatalytic ability, which could be employed to construct an electrochemical sensor for nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. More interestingly, MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposites could be utilized to construct a sensor for label-free detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The electrochemical response of the MoS2-based immunosensor was linear with the CEA concentration ranging from 0.005 to 10 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.54 pg mL(-1). The acceptable selectivity and high stability made such immunosensors detect CEA in human serum with satisfactory results. All data indicated that this MoS2-PBNCs nanocomposite may be a promising electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of chemical and biological molecules.

  11. Prussian blue-Au nanocomposites actuated hemin/G-quadruplexes catalysis for amplified detection of DNA, Hg2+ and adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangfeng; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Yanhong; He, Xiuping; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2014-10-21

    In this paper, horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) and Prussian blue (PB)-gold (Au) nanocomposites were designed as versatile electrochemical sensing platforms for the amplified detection of DNA, Hg(2+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By the conjugation of the target probe with the capture probe, a conformational change resulted in the formation of HRP-DNAzyme on the PB-Au modified electrode. The redox of HRP-DNAzyme (red) was efficiently carried out in the presence of H2O2, in which PB acted as a mediator stimulating the biocatalytic functions of HRP-DNAzyme and actuated a catalytic cycle bringing an amplified signal. Specific recognition of the target DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP allowed selective amperometric detection of the target molecule. The detection limits of DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP were 50 nM, 30 pM and 3 nM, respectively. The highlight of this work is that the catalytic cycle between PB-Au nanocomposites and HRP-DNAzyme was adequately utilized in the amplification platform for versatile sensing. The novel electrocatalytic biosensor involving only one-step incubation exhibited a wide linear range, low detection limit, and satisfactory selectivity and operational stability. The proposed approach provided an ease-of-use and universal reporting system with a simple design and easy operations.

  12. Prussian Blue Nanocubes with an Open Framework Structure Coated with PEDOT as High-Capacity Cathodes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Cortie, Michael; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    It is shown that Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) can be a very competitive sulfur host for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Sulfur stored in the large interstitial sites of a PBA host can take advantage of reversible and efficient insertion/extraction of both Li+ and electrons, due to the well-trapped mobile dielectron redox centers in the well-defined host. It is demonstrated that Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ] has a large open framework, and as a cathode, it both stores sulfur and acts as a polysulfide diffusion inhibitor based on the Lewis acid-base bonding effect. The electrochemical testing shows that the S@Na2 Fe[Fe(CN)6 ]@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite achieves excellent reversibility, good stability, and fast kinetics. Its outstanding electrochemical properties should be ascribed to the internal transport of Li+/e- , maximizing the utilization of sulfur. Moreover, the open metal centers serve as the Lewis acid sites with high affinity to the negatively charged polysulfide anions, reducing the diffusion of polysulfides out of the cathode and minimizing the shuttling effect. The fundamental basis of these exceptional performance characteristics is explored through a detailed analysis of the structural and electrochemical behavior of the material. It is believed that the PBAs will have a useful role in ensuring more effective and stable Li-S batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo

    2016-03-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on graphite oxide, Prussian blue, and PTC-NH2 for the detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liuliu; He, Junlin; Xu, Wailan; Zhang, Jing; Hui, Junmin; Guo, Yanlei; Li, Wenjuan; Yu, Chao

    2014-12-15

    α2,6-Sialylated glycans are crucial molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and clinical research. In this work, a novel ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on a graphite oxide (GO), Prussian blue (PB), and PTC-NH2 (an ammonolysis product of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) nanocomposite for the selective detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. To increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were immobilized on a GO-PB-PTC-NH2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sambucus nigra agglutinins (SNAs), which specifically bind with α2,6-sialylated glycans, were covalently immobilized on GNPs for the sensitive detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans in serum. This proposed method can be applied to human serum, and it worked well over a broad linear range (0.1 pg mL(-1)-500 ng mL(-1)) with detection limits of 0.03 pg mL(-1). Moreover, recovery of the spiked samples ranged from 100.2% to 105.0%, suggesting that this excellent electrochemical biosensor can be used for the practical detection of α2,6-sialylated glycans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-assembly mechanism of nanoparticles of Ni-based Prussian Blue analogues at the air/liquid interface: a synchrotron X-ray reflectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Casares, Juan J; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2015-08-24

    Prussian Blue analogue (PBA) nanoparticles can be self-assembled at air/liquid interfaces to build novel materials with interesting magnetic features. Herein, we study the influence of the size of PBA Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 and K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles on the self-assembly behavior by synchrotron X-ray reflectivity. Both nanoparticles show similar Z-potential values. The phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and the amino surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium have been used as Langmuir monolayers to anchor the PBA nanoparticles and study the interplay of forces directing the self-assembly of the nanoparticles at the surfactant/liquid interface. Whereas Cs0.4 Ni[Cr(CN)6 ]0.9 nanoparticles with a diameter of 8 nm form an incomplete layer at the surfactant/water interface, the larger K0.25 Ni[Fe(CN)6 ]0.75 nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm generate complete layers that can be stacked to one another. The size of the PBA nanoparticles is the main parameter determining the final arrangement at the air/liquid interface, due to the different extent of interparticle interaction. This study aims at the rationale design of PBA nanoparticles for an effective interfacial self-assembly, ultimately leading to functional materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Coated Prussian Blue for MR/PA Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Photothermal-Chemotherapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Su, Yunyan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shouju; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yunlei; Tang, Yuxia; Ni, Qianqian; Liu, Wenfei; Dang, Meng; Wang, Chunyan; Zhang, Junjie; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2017-03-01

    Complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. In this work, an imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy strategy for TNBC is developed for the first time based on a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coated Prussian blue (PB@PMO) nanoplatform. The PB@PMOs have organic-inorganic hybrid frameworks, uniform diameter (125 nm), high surface area (866 m(2) g(-1)), large pore size (3.2 nm), excellent photothermal conversion capability, high drug loading capacity (260 µg mg(-1)), and magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging abilities. The MR and PA properties of the PB@PMOs are helpful for imaging the tumor and showing the accumulation of the nanoplatform in the tumor region. The bioluminescence intensity and tumor volume of the MDA-MB-231-Luc tumor-bearing mouse model demonstrate that TNBC can be effectively inhibited by the combined photothermal-chemotherapy than monotherapy strategy. Histopathological analysis further reveals that the combination therapy results in most extensive apoptotic and necrotic cells in the tumor without inducing obvious side effect to major organs.

  17. Light-induced magnetization changes in a coordination polymer heterostructure of a Prussian blue analogue and a Hofmann-like Fe(II) spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Corey R; Peprah, Marcus K; Hosterman, Brian D; Brinzari, Tatiana V; Quintero, Pedro A; Sendova, Mariana; Meisel, Mark W; Talham, Daniel R

    2014-07-16

    Coordination polymer thin film heterostructures of the Prussian blue analogue Ni(II)b[Cr(III)(CN)6](0.7)·nH2O (NiCr-PBA) and the 3D Hofmann-like spin crossover compound Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O {azpy = 4,4'-azopyridine} have been developed, and spin transition properties have been characterized via SQUID magnetometry and Raman spectroscopy. The magnetic response of the ferromagnetic NiCr-PBA layer (T(c) ≈ 70 K) can be altered by inducing the LIESST effect (light-induced excited spin state trapping) in the coupled paramagnetic Fe(II) spin crossover material. Whereas an increase in magnetization is measured for the single-phase Fe(azpy)[Pt(CN)4]·xH2O, a decrease in magnetization is observed for the heterostructure. These results indicate the LIESST effect alone cannot account for the sign and magnitude of the magnetization change in the heterostructure, but the temperature profile of the magnetization shows that significant changes in the NiCr-PBA network are correlated to the spin state of the Hofmann-like SCO network.

  18. Porous Structured Ni-Fe-P Nanocubes Derived from a Prussian Blue Analogue as an Electrocatalyst for Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Cuijuan; Wang, Jie; Xia, Weiwei; Peng, Zongkai; Wu, Zexing; Lei, Wen; Xia, Kedong; Xin, Huolin L; Wang, Deli

    2017-08-09

    Exploring nonprecious metal electrocatalysts to replace the noble metal-based catalysts for full water electrocatalysis is still an ongoing challenge. In this work, porous structured ternary nickel-iron-phosphide (Ni-Fe-P) nanocubes were synthesized through one-step phosphidation of a Ni-Fe-based Prussian blue analogue. The Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit a rough and loose porous structure on their surface under suitable phosphating temperature, which is favorable for the mass transfer and oxygen diffusion during the electrocatalysis process. As a result, Ni-Fe-P obtained at 350 °C with poorer crystallinity offers more unsaturated atoms as active sites to expedite the absorption of reactants. Additionally, the introduction of nickel improved the electronic structure and then reduced the charge-transfer resistance, which would result in a faster electron transport and an enhancement of the intrinsic electrocatalytic activities. Benefiting from the unique porous nanocubes and the chemical composition, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes exhibit excellent hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction activities in alkaline medium, with low overpotentials of 182 and 271 mV for delivering a current density of 10 mA cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the Ni-Fe-P nanocubes show outstanding stability for sustained water splitting in the two-electrode alkaline electrolyzer. This work not only provides a facile approach for designing bifunctional electrocatalysts but also further extends the application of metal-organic frameworks in overall water splitting.

  19. Synthesis of acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and comparison for targeting atherosclerotic plaques: evaluation by MRI, quantitative MPS, and TEM alternative to ambiguous Prussian blue iron staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Kratz, Harald; Wiekhorst, Frank; Warmuth, Carsten; Schnorr, Jörg; Genter, Gesche; Ebert, Monika; Mueller, Susanne; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2015-07-01

    To further optimize citrate-stabilized VSOPs (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) for identification of atherosclerotic plaques, we modified their surface during synthesis using eight other acids for electrostatic stabilization. This approach preserves effective production for clinical application. Five particles were suitable to be investigated in targeting plaques of apoE(-/-) mice. Accumulation was evaluated by ex vivo MRI, TEM, and quantitatively by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS). Citric- (VSOP), etidronic-, tartaric-, and malic-acid-coated particles accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques with highest accumulation for VSOP (0.2‰ of injected dose). Targets were phagolysosomes of macrophages and of altered endothelial cells. In vivo MRI with VSOP allowed for definite plaque identification. Prussian blue staining revealed abundant endogenous iron in plaques, indistinguishable from particle iron. In apoE(-/-) mice, VSOPs are still the best anionic iron oxide particles for imaging atherosclerotic plaques. MPS allows for quantification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in such small specimens. The presence of vulnerable plaques in arteries is important for the prediction of acute coronary events. VSOP (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) have been shown to be very sensitive in identifying atherosclerotic plaques. The authors studied here further modification to the surface of VSOP during synthesis and compared their efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng; Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian; Wang, Qingxiang

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H2O2. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H2O2 concentrations from 5μM to 1mM with a fast response time (less than 3s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H2O2 released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Value Of Trypan Blue Dye In The Training Of Ophthalmology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the value of trypan blue dye in the training of resident doctors in ophthalmology to perform capsulotomy, on important step in cataract extraction. Eight resident were randomized into 2 groups of 4 each. One group used trypan blue while the other group did not. In the trypan blue group, ...

  2. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L

    2012-04-01

    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  4. A comparative study on biosorption characteristics of certain fungi for bromophenol blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeroual, Youssef; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Choel Sang; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang Min

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory investigations of the potential use of dried biomasses of Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., and Aspergillus fumigatus as biosorbents for the removal of bromophenol blue (BPB) dye from aqueous solutions were conducted. Kinetics studies indicated that the BPB dye uptake processes can be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The fungal biomasses exhibited the highest dye biosorption at pH 2.0. The Langmuir adsorption model appears to fit the dye biosorption better than the Freundlich model, with maximum dye uptake capacities ranging from 526 to 1,111 mg/g, depending on the biomass used.

  5. Reliability of assessing dye penetration along root canal fillings using methylene blue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, E.M.; Pappen, F.G.; Shemesh, H.; Bonato-Estrela, C.; Bonetti-Filho, I.

    2009-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) remains the most frequently used tracer for dye penetration tests of endodontic fillings, despite its chemical reactions with different materials. This study checked whether dye penetration displayed by MB is comparable to Rhodamine B (RB). One hundred and seventy-two root canals

  6. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-01

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590 nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH 7, the equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3 mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303 ± 1 °K, respectively.

  7. Use of trypan blue dye during conversion of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Jhanji, Vishal; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Amiel, Howard; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2008-08-01

    We describe a technique that uses trypan blue dye to identify residual recipient corneal stroma and Descemet membrane (DM) during conversion of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). After the host cornea is dissected, trypan blue dye (0.06%) is used to highlight the remaining host corneal stroma and DM, if any. In 8 DALK procedures that had to be converted to PKP because of DM perforation, trypan blue staining identified remnants of DM and parts of the posterior corneal stroma in 7 eyes. Improved visualization of the residual host tissue enabled complete excision and an overall optimal recipient wound profile.

  8. Anaphylaxis due to patent blue dye during lymphography, with negative skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, Mariangiola; Senna, Gianenrico; Dama, Annarita; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    We report here a case of anaphylaxis due to patent blue dye, which was administered to an adult female during a lymphographic intraoperative procedure. The patient was not atopic, and other possible causes of anaphylaxis (anesthetics, latex) had been carefully excluded through routine tests. The skin-prick test and patch test carried out with patent blue (PB) dye were negative, but the intradermal test with 100 microliters of the dye showed a remarkable positivity. There was no available commercial, specific IgE assay for PB dye, but the negativity of prick tests would exclude the involvement of an IgE-mediated mechanism. We want to highlight the possible danger derived from a dye that is considered inert, and that is now increasingly being used in surgical procedures.

  9. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of victoria blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Khatri, Taslimahemad; Bawa, Harpreet; Kaur, Jashandeep

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction has been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method for photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue dye. The synthesized samples were subjected to XRD for microstructural characterization and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation. The typical X-ray diffraction pattern shows exhaustive evolution of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 having crystalline in the range of 34-54 nm. The synthesized samples were applied for degradation of victoria blue dye under UV illumination. ZnO-Fe2O3 heterojunction showed higher photocatalytic activity for dye degradation compared to bare ZnO. This rise in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to enhanced charge separation derived from coupling of ZnO and Fe2O3. In this manuscript, the effect of photocatalyst dose, irradiation time and initial dye concentration on photodegradation of dye is reported in detail.

  10. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l-1 with Vmax 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l-1 h-1 and Km 227 ± 41 mg l-1. Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylen blue dye related breast skin necrosis requiring mastectomy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Gorgulu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy is accepted as the gold standard procedure for assessing the status of the axillary lymph node in clinically node-negative breast cancer. The intraoperative blue dye injection is commonly performed to localize the SLN. Systemic allergic complications related to blue dye injection have been well documented, but local adverse effects requiring surgical excision are extremely rare. We report an infrequent case of skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis following subdermal injection of methylen blue (MB dye. A 48-year-old female, diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, was treated by her initial surgeon with lumpectomy and SLN biopsy. For identification of the SLN, periareolar subdermal injection of 4 ml of 1% MB dye was performed. The patient was seen 10 days following discharge when it was noticed that the periareolar injection sites in the left breast had become necrotic. Since the necrosis invaded the majority of breast, mastectomy had to be performed. Histopathologic examination revealed necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the left breast. Although the use of MB dye for SLN biopsy in breast cancer has few systemic reactions, its use has been associated with a number of undesired local complications. Deep parenchymal injections are recommended in order to avoid blue dye-associated skin lesions. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(2.000: 121-123

  12. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  13. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Ayla [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: ayozer@mersin.edu.tr; Akkaya, Goenuel [University of Mersin, Department of Chemical Engineering, 33343 Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey); Turabik, Meral [University of Mersin, Higher Vocational School of Mersin, Chemical Prog., Ciftlikkoey-Mersin (Turkey)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature.

  14. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information.

  15. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes Braga Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions.

  16. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  17. 'Blue' voltage-sensitive dyes for studying spatiotemporal dynamics in the brain: visualizing cortical waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xinling; Wu, Jian-Young

    2017-07-01

    Among many distinct contributions made by Amiram Grinvald's group, the "Blue dyes" is a special gift for visualizing cortical population neuronal activity. The excitation wavelength of blue dyes has minimal overlap with the absorption of hemoglobin, and hence has minimal pulsation artifacts. This advantage leads to high signal-to-noise ratio optical recordings of cortical activity, with sensitivity as good as that of local field potential recordings. High sensitivity imaging allows for recording of spontaneous and evoked activity in single trials without spatial or temporal averaging, and has benefitted many scientists in their research projects. Single trial recording is particularly important for studying the cortex, because spontaneous and ongoing activities interact with sensory evoked events, creating rich dynamics in the wave patterns. Signal averaging in space and time would diminish the dynamic components in the patterns. Here, we discuss how the blue dyes help to achieve high-sensitivity voltage-sensitive dye imaging of spontaneous and evoked cortical activities. Spontaneous cortical activity has a constantly changing spatial pattern and temporal frequency, making it impossible to average in space and time. Amiran Grinvald's invention of blue dyes made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical dynamics, about 15 years before the first useful genetically coded voltage proteins became available.

  18. Determination of the phthalocyanine textile dye, reactive turquoise blue, by electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi Marly E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turquoise blue 15 (AT15 is a reactive dye widely used in the textile industry to color natural fibers. The presence of these dyes in effluent and industrial wastewater is of considerable interest due ecotoxicological and environmental problems. The electrochemical reduction of this dye has been investigated in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and cathodic stripping voltammetry. Optimum conditions for dye discoloration by controlled potential electrolysis use an alkaline medium. Using cathodic stripping voltammetry a linear calibration graph was obtained from 5.00x10-8 mol L-1 to 1.00x10-6 mol L-1 of AT15 at pH 4.0, using accumulation times of 180 and 240 s and an accumulation potential of 0.0 V. The proposed method was applied in direct determination of the dye in tap water and in textile industry effluent.

  19. Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

    2006-02-01

    The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism.

  20. Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiran; Xu, Xiaolin; Wen, Zhu; Kang, Yanshun; Wang, Xinhao; Ren, Youshan; Huang, Danqi

    2017-09-03

    Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L-1) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.

  1. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  2. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K2RL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    effluent containing 10 ppm dye Db K2RL was tested aerobically using sludge in stirred tank reactor. (STR) at 30ºC for ... wastewater. A fair amount of research has been con- ducted assessing the viability of using activated sludge to treat textile effluents (Pagga and Brown, 1986). Aerobic ..... to quaternized cellulose. Textile ...

  3. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Dyes are widely use in textile, paper, plastic, food and cosmetic industries. The wastes coming from these in- dustries can effect on our atmosphere ... with tap water, then distilled water and dried in oven at 60 ± 2°C for over night in order to remove moisture and physiosorbed species. The dry constant was ...

  4. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Oral Use of Blue Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Osman; Kose, Ösman; Safali, Mukerrem

    2011-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe pustular cutaneous adverse reaction characterized by a rapid clinical course with typical histological findings. It is accompanied by fever and acute eruption of non-follicular pustules overlying erythrodermic skin. The causative agents are most frequently antibacterial drugs. We present a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by methylene blue and indigotin dyes. PMID:22016599

  5. kinetics and mechanism of reaction of acidic chlorite with phenoxazine dyes, Nile blue and Meldola’s blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Q. Qwabe

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of two phenoxazine dyes namely Nile blue (7-amino-3-diethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, NB+ and Meldola’s blue (3- dimethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, MB+ with acidic chlorite and hypochlorous acid have been investigated using a UV-visible and a stopped flow equipment. For both Nile blue and Meldola’s blue reactions the rates have first-order dependence on each substrate, chlorite and acid. Both reactions showed negative salt effect indicating the reaction is between the oppositely charged species, likely the substrate cation and chlorite anion. The acidic chlorite reaction with MB+ was very slow compared with NB+ and was studied at higher temperature of 40 oC. The overall third order rate constants for the reaction of acidic chlorite with Nile blue and Meldola’s blue were (0.363 plus or minus 0.005 M-2 s-1 at 25 oC and (3.09 plus or minus 0.08 x 10-3 M-2 s-1 at 40 oC, respectively. The energy parameters for NB+ reaction were Ea = 47.8 kJ mol-1, H = 40.4 kJ mol-1 and S = -233 J K-1 mol-1, while the corresponding values for MB+ reaction were 62.4 kJ mol-1, 54.6 kJ mol-1 and -248 J K-1 mol-1, respectively. The second-order rate coefficients for HOCl reaction with Nile blue and Meldola’s blue at 25 oC were (5.14 plus or minus 0.01 x 103 M-1 s-1 and (1.25 plus or minus 0.03 x 102 M-1 s-1, respectively.

  6. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  7. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianhua, E-mail: lxh@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Kexun, E-mail: likx@nankai.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic oxidation of methylene blue was studied under laser light irradiation. • Fast removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was achieved. • The photocatalyst Ag/AgCl is efficient and stable under 443 nm laser light irritation. • Diode laser is a good light source for photocatalytic degradation of dyes. - Abstract: This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles)

  8. Investigation of the Alamar Blue (resazurin) fluorescent dye for the assessment of mammalian cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Wilson, I; Orton, T; Pognan, F

    2000-09-01

    We show here the identity of Alamar Blue as resazurin. The 'resazurin reduction test' has been used for about 50 years to monitor bacterial and yeast contamination of milk, and also for assessing semen quality. Resazurin (blue and nonfluorescent) is reduced to resorufin (pink and highly fluorescent) which is further reduced to hydroresorufin (uncoloured and nonfluorescent). It is still not known how this reduction occurs, intracellularly via enzyme activity or in the medium as a chemical reaction, although the reduced fluorescent form of Alamar Blue was found in the cytoplasm and of living cells nucleus of dead cells. Recently, the dye has gained popularity as a very simple and versatile way of measuring cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. This dye presents numerous advantages over other cytotoxicity or proliferation tests but we observed several drawbacks to the routine use of Alamar Blue. Tests with several toxicants in different cell lines and rat primary hepatocytes have shown accumulation of the fluorescent product of Alamar Blue in the medium which could lead to an overestimation of cell population. Also, the extensive reduction of Alamar Blue by metabolically active cells led to a final nonfluorescent product, and hence an underestimation of cellular activity.

  9. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  10. Improved coomassie blue dye-based fast staining protocol for proteins separated by SDS-PAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Májek

    Full Text Available The time required to visualize proteins using Coomassie Blue dye has been significantly reduced with the introduction of fast staining protocols based on staining with a Coomassie Blue dye solution at boiling temperatures. However, fast stainings suffer from high gel backgrounds, reducing the signal-to-noise ratio and limiting the number of detectable spots in the case of 2D SDS-PAGE. The aim of this work was to eliminate the high gel background, and thus improve fast staining protocols based on Coomassie Blue dye. We show that merely replacing water with a 4 mM EDTA washing solution at boiling temperatures, results in a transparent gel background within 50 to 60 minutes of destaining. Moreover, when a combination of imidazole-zinc reverse staining and Coomassie Blue-based fast staining is used the sensitivity is improved significantly; nanogram amounts of proteins can be detected using 1D SDS-PAGE, and about 30% to 60% more spots can be detected with 2D SDS-PAGE in plasma, platelet, and rat brain tissue samples. This work represents an optimized fast staining protocol with improved sensitivity, requiring between 60 to 75 minutes to complete protein visualization.

  11. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Batch Removal of Acid Blue 292dye by Biosorption onto Lemna minor: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Joghataei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there has been a great concern about the consumption of dyes because of their toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and persistence in the aquatic environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Lemna minor for Acid Blue 292 (AB292 dye removal from aqueous solution and to determine the optimal conditions. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the batch systems to investigate the effects of parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and Lemna minor biomass dose. Isotherms and kinetic studies of dye adsorption were performed using equilibrium data. Results: According to the results, a maximum removal efficiency of 98.5% was obtained at pH of 3 and the contact time of 90 min; initial dye concentration 10 mg/L and adsorbent dose 3g/L. The adsorption data was best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Conclusion: The results showed that Lemna minor could be used as a cost-effective adsorbent for removing AB292 dye from textile wastewater efficiently.

  13. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L -1 , treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g -1 , respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g -1 was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  14. ADSORPTION OF THE DYE REACTIVE BLUE 5G IN RETORTED SHALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lambrecht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the influence of the volumetric flow rate and feed concentration was investigated for the adsorption of the reactive dye Blue 5G. Experiments were carried out in a bed packed with retorted shale, at 30 ºC. The ranges investigated were flow rate 2 -10 mL/min and the feed concentration 13-105 mg/L. Mathematical models were used to represent the dynamic sorption. The double resistance model considers the effects of the axial dispersion and the mass transfer resistance of the external film and inside the particles. As a result, the mass transfer coefficient of the external film and the internal mass transfer coefficient were estimated. The Thomas model was used to simulate the experimental data. In this model the fitted parameter was the adsorption kinetic constant. The first model provided an acceptable representation of the dynamic uptake of the reactive dye Blue 5G.

  15. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in ...

  16. Experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies of dye modification in synthetic Maya Blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Ramirez, Alejandra; Chianelli, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Maya pigments are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with multiple technology applications that possess unprecedented stability with respect to harsh environment conditions. In this investigation, we address the question of how the organic indigo dye modifies as it binds to the inorganic palygorskite clay to form a pigment similar to Maya Blue after a heating treatment is applied. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic data demonstrate the disappearance of nitrogen-hydrogen (N-H) bonding, as the indigo molecule incorporates into the inorganic palygorskite material. This effect suggests a transformation of the dye from indigo to dehydroindigo. Furthermore, the Raman and infrared absorption results demonstrate partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, which provides further evidence for this conversion. Theoretical spectroscopic studies are also addressed in this investigation to confirm the transformation of the dye into dehydroindigo.

  17. Liquid–liquid extraction of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as an extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-S.Z. El-Ashtoukhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions has been investigated using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate as an extractant. The various diluents used were benzene, toluene, xylene and dichloroethane. Dichloroethane was found to be the most effective diluent for the extraction of the dye. The investigated parameters, governing the extraction of the dye, were equilibrium time, pH of the dye solution, extractant concentration, dye concentration, temperature and aqueous to organic phase ratio. The dye was totally extracted at the optimum conditions. The dye loaded in the organic phase was stripped using various types of acids as stripping agent; complete recovery of the dye was achieved using 0.5 M thiourea in 1 M HCl.

  18. A comparison of Coomassie blue dye with radioiodinated albumin as an indicator for plasma volume estimation in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Ian S.

    1966-01-01

    Plasma volume has been estimated in 10 human subjects using Coomassie blue and 131I radioiodinated human serum albumin dilution methods simultaneously. Three different methods of correction used by previous workers to overcome the error due to early dye loss were applied. Satisfactory agreement with the established radioiodinated albumin method was only obtained by extrapolation of the semilogarithmic plot of Coomassie blue plasma dye concentration between five and 10 minutes to the time of injection. The significance of the controversial Evans blue `mixing curve' is discussed. An analogous phase in the Coomassie blue disappearance slope is considered to be due to initial rapid loss of dye from the circulation rather than to the process of mixing. It is shown that Coomassie blue fulfils the criteria listed in the discussion for plasma volume estimation. PMID:4160095

  19. A rapid two-step bioremediation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 4 by a marine-derived fungus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Naik, C.G.

    Turquoise Blue-G reactive dye by dried Rhizopus arrhizus in batch and continuous systems. Separation and Purification Technology, 48, 24–35. Ali, H. (2010). Biodegradation of synthetic dyes – A review. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 213, 251- 273. APHA... dye by Pseudomonas luteola. Water Science and Technology, 43, 261-269. Kohlmeyer, J., & Kohlmeyer, E. (1979). Marine Mycology: The Higher Fungi. Academic Press, New York. Lizama, C., Freer, J., Baeza, J., & Mansilla, H. D. (2002). Optimized...

  20. Potential biosorbent, Haloxylon recurvum plant stems, for the removal of methylene blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technologies for the removal of dyes from the waste water are proving expensive due to non-regenerable materials used and their high costs. The use of dried biomass from Haloxylon recurvum plant stems (HRS was studied for the removal of methylene blue, a textile dye, from its aqueous solution. FTIR studies revealed a variety of functional groups on the plant surface including carboxyl and amino groups. The pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc was found to be 6.3. The dye uptake by the plant increased with increasing pH, time of contact and dye concentration. Lagergren Pseudo first order and the Ho’s pseudo second order models were used to study the kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium models were studied and the qmax was 22.93 mg/g. The changes in the values of free energy (ΔGo and enthalpy (ΔHo indicated the spontaneous, feasible and exothermic nature of the sorption process. H. recurvum plant is locally available in large quantities, so the powdered stems can act as a cost-effective and ecofriendly biosorbent for the removal of the dye from its aqueous solutions.

  1. Cuprolinic Blue: a specific dye for single-stranded RNA in the presence of magnesium chloride. I. Fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, J.; MENDELSON, D.; NOORDEN, C. J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cationic dye Cuprolinic Blue were investigated with model films of polyacrylamide gel in which RNA, DNA and other biological polyanionic compounds had been incorporated. In the presence of 1 M MgCl2, Curpolinic Blue was found to bind specifically to

  2. Photocatalytic degradation and sorption of methylene blue on the surface of metal oxides in aqueous solutions of the dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Starodubtsev, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    The photocatalytic activity of some metal oxides and sulfides, as well of C60 fullerene, is compared using the method of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue simultaneously with comparison of the efficiency of methylene blue adsorption on solid-phase powders of these oxides, sulfides, and fullerene in aqueous solution of the dye in the absence of irradiation.

  3. Affinity chromatography of serine proteases on the triazine dye ligand Cibacron Blue F3G-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C; Borg, L; Skjødt, K

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between complement component factor B and the triazine dye ligand Cibacron Blue F3G-A coupled to a cross-linked agarose matrix (Blue Sepharose) was found to involve the Bb part of the molecule, and to be inhibited by benzamidine. Human, chicken and rainbow trout factor B which had...

  4. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in the case of Langmuir model, which indicates that monolayer adsorption occurs on finite number of the active adsorption sites on the carbon surface. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo-first, pseudo-second, Elovich and interparticle diffusion model. Pseudo-second order model and Elovich model showed the best results of the kinetic data. The increasing of the solution pH led to a higher uptake of methylene blue due to the fact that competitive adsorption of methylene blue cation and proton exists in acidic solutions. The adsorption capacity for methylene blue in equilibrium study was significant (168.93 mg g-1. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of methylene blue onto activated carbons derived from various alternative precursors proves chestnut kernel to be efficient and low-cost material which could be substantially deployed in the future.

  5. Sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis using methylene blue dye technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Penile carcinoma is a common disease in India. This paper shows the results of sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue and discusses the incidence of false-negative rates. Materials and Methods: From September 2005 to March 2008, 22 newly diagnosed penile carcinoma patients (T1, T2, N0 were included in this prospective study. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was done using methylene blue dye and the sentinel node was identified and removed. Lymphadenectomy was performed for positive inguinal lymph node metastasis. Results : There were 22 patients (mean age 52.7. The tumors were mostly located in the glans (73%. Eighty six percent was T1 lesions and 14% was T2. Ninety one percent of the patients underwent partial penectomy, and 9% underwent total penectomy. Sentinel node was identified in 20 patients (90.9%. In total, 49 sentinel nodes were identified (2.45 nodes per person. Only one patient had a positive pathological lymph node metastasis at the time of the surgery. Additionally, two patients became inguinal lymph node positive at the follow-up. This data yielded a sensitivity rate of 33% and a false-negative rate of 66%. There were no complications due to methylene blue. Conclusion : Sentinel node biopsy using only methylene blue for penile carcinoma has a very low sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. However, methylene blue can be used as a substitute for lymphazurin.

  6. Clinical utility of the additional use of blue dye for indocyanine green for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinan; Luo, Ningbin; Jiang, Yi; Li, Qiuyun; Wei, Wei; Yang, Huawei; Liu, Jianlun

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used as a tracer in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of patients with breast cancer. Whether SLNB performance can be improved by supplementing ICG with methylene blue dye remains controversial. This study compared the performance of SLNB when ICG was used alone or with blue dye. Consecutive patients with T1-3 primary breast cancer at our hospital were recruited into our study and randomized to undergo SLNB with ICG alone (n = 62) or with the combination of ICG and blue dye (n = 65). We compared the two methods in terms of identification rate, number and detection time of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) removed. SLN identification rate were similar in the absence (95.2%) or presence of blue dye (98.5%, P = 0.578) but significantly, more average nodes were removed when blue dye was used (3.8 ± 1.5 versus 2.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.000), and the average time for detecting each SLN was significantly shorter (3.91 ± 1.87 versus 5.65 ± 2.95 min; P = 0.000). No patient in the study experienced severe adverse reactions or complications. Recurrence of axillary node was detected in one patient (1.6%) using ICG alone but not in any patients using ICG and blue dye. The efficiency and sensitivity of SLNB can be improved by combining ICG with blue dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of methylene blue, a basic dye, from aqueous solutions using nano-zerovalent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Simin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the preparation of nanoparticles of Fe(0) (nano-zerovalent iron, NZVI) as adsorbent is discussed and the capability of adsorbing methylene blue (MB) is studied. The morphology of the adsorbent was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Batch studies were performed to delineate the influence of various experimental parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Optimum conditions for MB removal were found to be pH 9.5, adsorbent dosage of 0.5 g L(-1) and equilibrium time of 1 min. The experimental equilibrium data were adjusted by the adsorption isotherms from Langmuir and Freundlich models, and their equilibrium parameters were determined. The adsorption of MB dye by NZVI obeyed both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption capacity of NZVI for MB in terms of monolayer adsorption was 208.33 mg g(-1).

  10. Trypan blue dye enters viable cells incubated with the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seav-Ly Tran

    Full Text Available Trypan blue is a dye that has been widely used for selective staining of dead tissues or cells. Here, we show that the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus allows trypan blue staining of macrophage cells, despite the cells remaining viable and metabolically active. These findings suggest that the dye enters viable cells through the pores. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that trypan blue may enter viable cells. Consequently, the use of trypan blue staining as a marker of vital status should be interpreted with caution. The blue coloration does not necessarily indicate cell lysis, but may rather indicate pore formation in the cell membranes and more generally increased membrane permeability.

  11. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  12. The Application of Low-Cost Adsorbent for Reactive Blue 19 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution: Lemna Minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to widespread use and adverse effect of dyes, the removal of dyes from effluents is necessary. This study was aimed to remove the reactive blue 19 dye removal from aqueous solution by dried Lemna minor. Materials and Methods:  The effect of various parameters including contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dosage and dye concentration was investigated in this experimental-lab study, Also, the isotherm and kinetic studies was performed for RB19 dye adsorption process. Results: The results indicated that RB19 dye removal efficiency increases by increasing of contact time and adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time was 75 min ad the maximum dye removal efficiency was obtained in pH=3. Also, the dye removal efficiency decreases by increasing of pH and initial concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data was best follow by Langmuier isotherm. Also, the pseudo-second-kinetic model was best applicable for RB 19 dye adsorption. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dried Lemna minor can be considered as an effective adsorbent to remove the RB19 dye.

  13. Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hwan Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required.

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue and methyl red dyes from aqueous solutions onto modified zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Z; Karasavvidis, Ch; Dimirkou, A; Antoniadis, V

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite, hematite, modified zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were examined for their ability to remove methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR) from their aqueous solutions. Modified zeolite and hematite were produced according to the Schwertmann and Cornell method while zeolite and commercial activated charcoal were obtained from S&B and Fluka AG companies, respectively. Adsorption experiments were conducted at three different adsorbent-to-solution ratios, namely 8, 16 and 24 g/L under environmental conditions and continuous stirring. Equilibrium isotherms of MB and MR were studied at different initial concentrations (from 5 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) g/L). MB adsorption kinetics were also studied. The maximum adsorption of MB and MR from their aqueous solutions was achieved at 24 g/L (adsorbent-to-dye solution ratio) after 1 h and was equal to 100% (MB) on modified zeolite and 99% (MR) on commercial activated charcoal, respectively. All the other materials achieved intermediate values of dye adsorption. From the applied kinetic models, the pseudo-second-order equation best described the adsorption of MB and MR. Consequently, modified zeolite showed the highest adsorption capacity for MB, while commercial activated charcoal showed the highest adsorption capacity of MR. The studied adsorbents can be used as filters to remove dyes from wastewaters.

  15. Removal of methylene blue dye from water by a spent bleaching earth biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaine, Ali; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Tayebi, Kamel; Ghomari, Abdelhamid; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    This work is about the valorization of spent bleaching earth (SBE) at low cost from the AFIA oil refinery in Algeria's western region. The biowaste has been burned to eliminate the oil traces, then it has been valorized in two ways: (i) chemically, using phosphoric acid to obtain SBEC and (ii) thermally at 750 °C to create SBEH. The obtained materials were used for the first time as biosorbents in the wastewater treatment field. The three biomaterials show very interesting adsorption properties, with specific surfaces of 194.2, 784.6 and 888.5 m2 g-1 for SBE, SBEC and SBEH, respectively. The analysis has revealed that the obtained materials are alumino-silicates. The three biowastes have been used to remove methylene blue dye from water. The dye was totally eliminated by a physisorption mechanism in the presence of 1 g L-1 of each biowaste after 8, 10, 20 min of contact time. The highest correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.99) was related to the Langmuir isotherm, indicating a good fit with this model, and explaining the biosorption as a monolayer process. According to this model, the adsorption capacities were 123.3, 185.2 and 188.7 mg g-1 for SBE, SBEH and SBEC, respectively. This study shows that SBE can be used as an alternative to commercial adsorbents for dye removal from water.

  16. Adsorptive Removal of Acid Blue 80 Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Cu-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Johanna Puentes-Cárdenas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption performance of a Cu-TiO2 composite for removing acid blue 80 (AB80 dye from aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamics. The effect of operating variables, such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature, on AB80 adsorption was studied in batch experiments. AB80 adsorption increased with increasing contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature and with decreasing solution pH. Modeling of adsorption kinetics showed good agreement of experimental data with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The experimental equilibrium data for AB80 adsorption were evaluated for compliance with different two-parameter, three-parameter, and four-parameter isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model best described the AB80 adsorption equilibrium data. The thermodynamic data revealed that the AB80 adsorption process was endothermic and nonspontaneous. Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic results indicate that Cu-TiO2 adsorbs AB80 by a chemical sorption reaction.

  17. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  18. An electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with highly efficient bi-functional glucose oxidase-polydopamine nanocomposites and Prussian blue modified screen-printed interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2016-09-21

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria in foods has always been a great threat to the wellbeing of people and the revenue of food manufacturers. Therefore, the demand for advanced detection methods that can sensitively and rapidly detect these pathogens has been of great importance. This study reports an electrochemical biosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 with the integration of bifunctional glucose oxidase (GOx)-polydopamine (PDA) based polymeric nanocomposites (PMNCs) and Prussian blue (PB) modified screen-printed interdigitated microelectrodes (SP-IDMEs). The core-shell magnetic beads (MBs)-GOx@PDA PMNCs were first synthesized by the self-polymerization of dopamine (DA). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were dispersed on the surface of PMNCs through biochemical synthesis to achieve further highly efficient adsorption of antibodies (ABs) and GOx. The final product ABs/GOxext/AuNPs/MBs-GOx@PDA PMNCs served as the carrier to separate target bacteria from food matrices as well as the amplifier for electrochemical measurement. The unbound PMNCs were separated by a filtration step and transferred into glucose solution to allow the enzymatic reaction to occur. The change of the current response was measured with an electrochemical detector using PB-modified SP-IDMEs. The constructed biosensor has been proven to be able to detect E. coli O157:H7 with the detection limit of 10(2) cfu ml(-1). The bifunctional PMNCs contain a high load of enzyme and can optimally utilize the binding sites on bacterial cells, which efficiently amplify the signals for measurement. The biosensor in this study exhibited good specificity, reproducibility, and stability and is expected to have a great impact on applications in the detection of foodborne pathogens.

  19. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the electronic structures of the MnFe Prussian blue analogs (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsook; Seong, Seungho; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, D. H.; Thakur, Nidhi; Yusuf, S. M.; Kim, Bongjae; Min, B. I.; Kim, Younghak; Kim, J.-Y.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Kang, J.-S.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structures of Prussian blue analog (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] cyanides have been investigated by employing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe and Mn L (2 p ) edges. The measured XAS spectra have been analyzed with the configuration-interaction (CI) cluster model calculations. The valence states of the Fe and Mn ions are found to be Fe2 +-Fe3 + mixed valent, with an average valency of v (Fe )˜2.8 and nearly divalent (Mn2 +), respectively. Our Mn/Fe 2 p XMCD study supports that Mn2 + ions are in the high-spin states while Fe2 +-Fe3 + ions are in the low-spin states. The Fe and Mn 2 p XAS spectra are found to be essentially the same for 80 ≤T ≤ 300 K, suggesting that a simple charge transfer upon cooling from Fe3 +-CN -Mn2 + to Fe2 +-CN -Mn3 + does not occur in (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] . According to the CI cluster model analysis, it is necessary to take into account both the ligand-to-metal charge transfer and the metal-to-ligand charge transfer in describing Fe 2 p XAS, while the effect of charge transfer is negligible in describing Mn 2 p XAS. The CI cluster model analysis also shows that the trivalent Fe3 + ions have a strong covalent bonding with the C ≡N ligands and are under a large crystal-field energy of 10 D q ˜3 eV, in contrast to the weak covalency effect and a small 10 D q ˜0.6 eV for the divalent Mn2 + ions.

  20. Separation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Triton X-114 Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Appusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction energy between Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue or water and methylene blue + water was investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF theory with 6-31G* basis set. The results of structures and interaction energies show that these complexes have good physical and chemical interactions at atom and molecular levels. However, the Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue complex shows stronger molecular interaction compared to other complexes systems. The order of the interaction energy is 4303.472023 (Triton X-114 surfactant + water > -1222.962 (methylene blue + water > -3573.28 (Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue kJ·mole−1. Subsequently, the cloud point extraction was carried out for 15 ppm of methylene blue in a mixture at 313.15 and 323.15 K over the surfactant concentration range from 0.01 M to 0.1 M. From the measured data, the excess molar volume was calculated for both phases. The results show a positive deviation in the dilute phase and a negative deviation in the surfactant rich phase. It is confirmed that the interaction between Triton X-114 and methylene blue is stronger than other complex systems due to the presence of chemical and structural orientation. The concentration of dyes and surfactant in the feed mixture and temperature effect in both phases has been studied. In addition, the thermodynamics feasibility and efficiency of the process have also been investigated.

  1. Application of Synthetic Layered Sodium Silicate Magadiite Nanosheets for Environmental Remediation of Methylene Blue Dye in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    The removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from water was investigated using synthetic nano-clay magadiite (SNCM). SNCM was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure. A rosette-shaped single mesoporous magadiite phase with 16.63 nm average crystallite size and 33 m2?g?1 Braunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)-surface area was recorded. The adsorption results indicated the pronounced affinity of the SNCM to the MB dye molecules, which reached an adsorption uptake of 20.0 mg MB dye/g o...

  2. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  3. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  4. Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Netterstrøm, B; Faber, J

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that long-term oral exposure to cobalt can cause goiter and myxedema. The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed...

  5. Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Netterstrøm, B; Faber, J

    1992-01-01

    referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17 micrograms.mmol-1...

  6. Inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy with only blue dye in lower extremity malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omranipour R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy has become the standard of care in malignant melanoma, it is commonly identified by intradermal injection of both radiocolloid tracer and Patent Blue Dye (PBD around the tumor. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of PBD in identifying inguinal SLN and also the accuracy of SLN mapping performed by peritumoral injection of PBD without combined radioisotope in malignant melanoma of lower extremity.Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with primary melanoma of lower exteremity who were referred to Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Science between March 2003 to March 2006 were enrolled in this study. All patients had a preoperative pathologic diagnosis of malignant melanoma, median breslow thickness (range 1-4 mm and none had clinical or radiologic evidence of nodal involvement or distant metastases. At surgery PBD was injected around the lesion or scar of excisionl biopsy. Subsequently with a 5cm groin incision SLN Biopsy and complete lymph node dissection was done and all lymph nodes were sent for histopathologic examination. SLN examined by both hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining.Results: SLN identification rate was 100%. No complication directly related to PBD injection was seen. Forty-eight sentinel lymph nodes and 195 non sentinel lymph nodes were harvested. Nineteen SLNS were found to be metastasic in 13 patients (47%. In these patients metastases were found in other inguinal lymph nodes.In the remaining 17 patients, both the SLN itself and the other removed nodes were negative for the metastatic involvement. Conclusions: Patent blue dye may be enough to identify superficial inguinal SLN in lower extremity melanoma.

  7. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  8. Removal of COD and color from Direct Blue 71 azo dye wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Ertugay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, degradation of Direct Blue 71 (DB71 by Fenton’s oxidation process was investigated. The effect of initial pH, dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2, dye concentration and temperature on the color and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was studied in a batch reactor. The optimal conditions for the decolorization and COD removal of DB71 were determined as pH = 3.0, Fe2+ = 3 mg L−1 and H2O2 = 125 mg L−1. Under the optimal conditions 94% color and 50.7% COD removal efficiency of the dye in 100 mg L−1 aqueous solution were achieved after 20 min of reaction. Results indicated that the removal efficiency was strongly dependent on initial pH, initial concentration of Fenton’s reagents, initial DB71 concentration and reaction temperature. Additionally increasing the reaction temperature from 20 to 60 °C showed a positive effect on the decolorization efficiency of DB71. The experimental data were analyzed using the first and second-order and Behnajady–Modirshahla–Ghanbery (BMG kinetic models. BMG model provides the best correlation of the data. The present study can provide guidance to relational industry operators and planners to effectively treat the DB71 contaminated wastewater by Fenton’s oxidation process.

  9. ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaqian; Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Chengwu; Cao, Meng; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from water under UV light. The SEM and TEM observations demonstrate that the microsphere morphologies of the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite is composed of ZnO microspheres anchored on rGO sheets, confirming the formation of ZnO microspheres-rGO composites. Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both of the reduction of GO tight contact between ZnO and rGO are achieved during the high temperature calcination process. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison with ZnO microspheres and P25 TiO2, the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite shows improved photodegradation of MB dye, because the rGO sheets could reduce the charge recombination in electron-transfer processes. According to the scavenger experiments, the possible MB degradation mechanism is contributed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (rad O2-).

  10. ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Jiaqian, E-mail: jiaqian.q@chula.ac.th [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Zhang, Xinyu, E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Chengwu; Cao, Meng; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposites were prepared via a solution method. • ZnO microspheres anchored on the rGO sheets is observed using SEM and TEM. • The obtained nanocomposites exhibit good photocatalytic degradation of MB under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO microspheres-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple solution method and used for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye from water under UV light. The SEM and TEM observations demonstrate that the microsphere morphologies of the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite is composed of ZnO microspheres anchored on rGO sheets, confirming the formation of ZnO microspheres-rGO composites. Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that both of the reduction of GO tight contact between ZnO and rGO are achieved during the high temperature calcination process. During the photocatalytic test, in comparison with ZnO microspheres and P25 TiO2, the ZnO microspheres-rGO nanocomposite shows improved photodegradation of MB dye, because the rGO sheets could reduce the charge recombination in electron-transfer processes. According to the scavenger experiments, the possible MB degradation mechanism is contributed mainly to the generation of active species induced by the photogenerated holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}).

  11. Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goek, Ozer; Ozcan, A. Safa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey); Ozcan, Adnan, E-mail: aozcan@anadolu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic parameters of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) onto modified bentonite from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were investigated in the experimentally. Natural bentonite was modified by using 1,6-diamino hexane (DAH) as a modifying agent. The characterization of modified bentonite (DAH-bentonite) was accomplished by using FTIR, TGA, BET and elemental analysis techniques. The optimum pH value for the adsorption experiments was found to be 1.5 and all the experiments were carried out at this pH value. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model agrees very well with the experimental results. Equilibrium data were also fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model in the studied concentration range of RB19 at 20 deg. C. The results indicate that DAH-modified bentonite is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.

  12. Biodegradation of redox dye Methylene Blue by up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Soon-An; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hirata, Makoto; Hano, Tadashi

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the decolorization of Methylene Blue (MB) by an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated under batch condition with total treatment volume of 3l and operation time of 24 h per batch. It was found that the color of MB disappeared within a few minutes after entering into the UASB reactor due to reduction by anaerobic biomass. However, the reduced MB was re-oxidized again by air after discharged from the reactor and thus caused low color removal efficiency. The presence of suitable amount of organic content (sucrose and peptone) as an electron donor played an important factor for color removal. It was observed that more than 90% of color removal efficiency was achieved in the UASB reactor with 0.627 mmoll(-1) of MB concentration and the presence of low amount of organic content (<0.45 g COD/(ld)). Biological dye reduction kinetics depends on the concentration of dye and reducing equivalents. The kinetic behavior of MB biodegradation by microbes was also investigated to determine the model involved in the process.

  13. Laccase Immobilization on Poly(p-Phenylenediamine/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite for Reactive Blue 19 Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxun Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic poly(p-phenylenediamine (PpPD nanocomposite was synthesized via mixing p-phenylenediamine solution and Fe3O4 nanoparticles and used as a carrier for immobilized enzymes. Successful synthesis of PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Laccase (Lac was immobilized on the surface of PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber through covalent bonding for reactive blue 19 dye removal. The immobilized Lac-nanofiber conjugates could be recovered from the reaction solution using a magnet. The optimum reaction pH and temperature for the immobilized Lac were 3.5 and 65 °C, respectively. The storage, operational stability, and thermal stability of the immobilized Lac were higher than those of its free counterpart. The dye removal efficiency of immobilized Lac was about 80% in the first 1 h of incubation, while that of free Lac was about 20%. It was found that the unique electronic properties of PpPD might underlie the high dye removal efficiency of immobilized Lac. Over a period of repeated operation, the dye removal efficiency was above 90% during the first two cycles and remained at about 43% after eight cycles. Immobilized Lac on PpPD/Fe3O4 nanofiber showed high stability, easy recovery, reuse capabilities, and a high removal efficiency for reactive blue 19 dye; therefore, it provides an optional tool for dye removal from wastewater.

  14. Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell for methylene blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Subramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846 g/L, 50 mg/L and 63 min for complete removal of MB dye respectively.

  15. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of nile blue dye in aqueous BiOCl suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwan, Bhawna, E-mail: sarbhawna@gmail.com [Laboratory of Photocatalysis, Department of Chemistry, Madhav Science Post Graduate College, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Pare, B. [Laboratory of Photocatalysis, Department of Chemistry, Madhav Science Post Graduate College, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010, Madhya Pradesh (India); Acharya, A.D. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of NB dye was carried out by using synthesized BiOCl. • Hydrolysis method was presented. • Formation of {sup •} OH verified by fluorescence technology. • BiOCl possessed highly adsorption capacity for organic dye. • The intermediates and the final products of degradation were detected. • Mineralization of NB confirmed by TOC and nitrate anions production. - Abstract: Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was synthesized by hydrolysis method. Several analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic, and energy-dispersive spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the sample. The prepared material had average pore diameter of about 7–10 nm and the BET surface area of BiOCl was 40 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The analysis of hydroxyl radicals ({sup •} OH) formation was performed by fluorescence technique. The intermediates and the final products of degradation were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-DAD-MS) technology. The degradation of nile blue (NB) dye was mainly attributed to the destruction of the conjugated structure, and after that the intermediates were transformed into small molecules mainly phenol, aniline, etc., which were mineralized to water and carbon dioxide. During three recycles, the catalyst did not exhibit any significant loss of photocatalytic activity, confirming that the photocatalyst is essentially stable. The NB oxidation was evaluated by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content. The formation of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and the evolution of CO{sub 2} revealed complete mineralization of aqueous NB during the photocatalytic process by this photocatalyst.

  16. Kinetic and isotherm study of methylene blue dye adsorption by powdered natural pumice from the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Azo groups of dyes used widely for coloring yarn. Methylene blue is one of this group's dyes therefore with benzene rings in its structure caused the toxicity and its persistence in the environment. So that the its deficiency of proper treatment can cause the irreparable damage to the environment. One of the ways to removal these dyes from natural sources are absorbed by the absorbent. So the aim of this study is Kinetic and isotherm study of methylene blue adsorption by powdered pumice from the aquatic environment. Methods: Adsorption process was investigated in vitro at neutral pH, a constant concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. The residual concentration of the dye solution through adsorption was measured at a wavelength nm 665 by using a spectrophotometer (Cary 50 manufacturers of Perkin Elmer. In order to understand how to adsorption, obtained data were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Harikens-jura and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and Pseudo –first –order, Pesedo – second – order, Intraparticle diffusion and Elovich Kinetics. Results: Results showed that in the between of five isotherm models, the adsorption process is most obeyed of Harikens-jura isotherm (R2=0.9914. Also the adsorption process has appropriate obeyed of both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms (R2=0.9633 and R2=0.9365 and it is means that the adsorption process occurs in a mono- layer and multi-layer. The low of mean free energy (E= 0.323 KJ/mol in Dubinin-Radushkevich showed that the physical absorption process is dominant adsorption. Also adsorption process is obeyed of pseudo – second – order model. Conclusion: According to the results, can say Methylene blue adsorption multi -layer is most occurs than mono- layer and the pumice is the effectiveness adsorbent for removal methylene blue dye (RL=0.2.

  17. Brilliant Blue FCF as an Alternative Dye for Saphenous Vein Graft Marking Effect on Conduit Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresensky, Igor V.; Wise, Eric S.; Hocking, Kyle M.; Li, Fan Dong; Osgood, Michael J.; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Surgical skin markers are used off-label to mark human saphenous veins (HSVs) to maintain orientation before implantation as aortocoronary or peripheral arterial bypass grafts. These surgical skin markers impair functional responses of the HSV tissue. OBJECTIVES To investigate the effect of brilliant blue dye 1 (brilliant blue FCF [for food coloring]; hereinafter, FCF) as a nontoxic alternative marking dye and to determine whether FCF has pharmacological properties. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Segments of HSVs were collected in university hospitals from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting procedures immediately after harvest (unmanipulated) or after typical intraoperative surgical graft preparation (after manipulation). Rat inferior venae cavae were used to determine the pharmacological properties and cellular targets of FCF. Endothelial and smooth muscle functional responses were determined in a muscle bath, and intimal thickening in HSVs was determined after 14 days in organ culture. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Contractile responses were measured in force and converted to stress. Smooth muscle function was expressed as maximal responses to potassium chloride depolarization contractions. Endothelial function was defined as the percentage of relaxation of maximal agonist-induced contraction. Neointimal thickness was measured by histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS Human saphenous veins stored in the presence of FCF had no loss of endothelial or smooth muscle function. Unmanipulated HSVs preserved in the presence of FCF demonstrated a significant increase in endothelial-dependent relaxation (mean [SEM], 25.2% [6.4%] vs 30.2% [6.7%]; P = .02). Application of FCF to functionally nonviable tissue significantly enhanced the smooth muscle responses (mean [SEM], 0.018 [0.004] × 105N/m2 vs 0.057 [0.016] × 105 N/m2; P = .05). Treatment with FCF reduced intimal thickness in organ culture (mean [SEM], −17.5% [2.1%] for unmanipulated HSVs vs

  18. Spectroscopic Characterization of Niagara Blue Dye in the Restricted Geometry of Layer-By Self-Assembled Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indra; Das, Bandana; Nath, Ranendu Kumar; Ganguly, Banti; Mishra, Bijay Kumar; Pal, Ajitesh

    2016-06-01

    Multilayer films can be precisely engineered on solid substrate via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assemble technique using negatively charged organic dye and positively charged polyelectrolytes or surfactants. This communication first time reports the successful incorporation of an anionic dye Niagara blue (NB) in Polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) by electrostatic sequential alternative LbL adsorption. The photo-physical characteristics of LbL films are investigated by varying different parameters such as number of deposited layer, dipping time in dye solution, pH of PAH solution, concentration of the dye, etc. In addition, the interaction of NB with double tail surfactant Didodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) at different concentrations is also studied in the light of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis reveals that NB has been successfully anchored to PAH or DDAB through electrostatic self-assembled technique and forms molecular aggregates. The formation of aggregates is further confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) study.

  19. Adsorption of a textile dye 'Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4)' from aqueous solutions onto smectite-rich clayey rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaari, Islem, E-mail: chaari_islem@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Georessources, CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia); Feki, Mongi [Unite de chimie industrielle I, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, Mounir [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Bouzid, Jalel [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Emna; Jamoussi, Fakher [Laboratoire de Georessources, CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of a textile dye, namely, Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4) onto smectite-rich clayey rock (AYD) and its sulphuric acid-activated products (AYDS) in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH, and temperature. The adsorbents employed were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge were also estimated. The effect of contact time on dye adsorption showed that the equilibrium was reached after a contact time of 40 min for the both adsorbents. The optimum pH for dye retention was found 6.0 for AYDS and 7.3 for AYD. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacities (Q{sub m}) for AYD and AYDS were found 13.92 mg/g and 17.85 mg/g, respectively. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was also investigated; adsorption of Indanthrene Blue RS is an endothermic process. This study demonstrates that all the considered adsorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment.

  20. Monitoring of cell viability and cell growth in a hollow-fiber bioreactor by use of the dye Alamar Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, H; Jonuleit, T; Lemke, H D

    2001-06-01

    We describe a method for monitoring cell proliferation in a small-scale hollow-fiber bioreactor (culture volume: 1 ml) by use of the Alamar Blue dye. Alamar Blue is a non-fluorescent compound, which yields a fluorescent product after reduction, e.g. by living cells. In contrast to the MTT-assay, the Alamar Blue assay does not lead to cell death. However, when not removed from the cells, the Alamar Blue dye shows a reversible, time- and concentration-dependent growth inhibition as observed for the leukemic cell lines CCRF-CEM, HL-60 and REH. When applied in the medium compartment of a hollow-fiber bioreactor system, the dye is delivered to the cells across the hollow-fiber membrane, reduced by the cells and released from the cell into the medium compartment back again. Thus, fluorescence intensity can be measured in medium samples reflecting growth of the cells in the cell compartment. This procedure offers several advantages. First, exposure of the cells to the dye can be reduced compared to conventional culture in plates. Second, handling steps are minimized since no sample of the cells needs to be taken for readout. Moreover, for the exchange of medium, a centrifugation step can be avoided and the cells can be cultivated further. Third, the method allows discriminating between cell densities of 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) of proliferating HL-60 cells cultivated in the cell compartment of the bioreactor. Measurement of fluorescence in the medium compartment is more sensitive compared to glucose or lactate measurement for cell counts below 10(6) cells/ml, in particular. We conclude that the Alamar Blue-assay combined with a hollow-fiber bioreactor offers distinct advantages for the non-invasive monitoring of cell viability and proliferation in a closed system.

  1. Novel tannin-based adsorbent in removing cationic dye (Methylene Blue) from aqueous solution. Kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; González-Velasco, M; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Gragera-Carvajal, J; Salguero-Fernández, J

    2010-02-15

    Natural tannin-based adsorbent has been prepared on the basis of the gelification of Quebracho bark extract. The resulting product, Quebracho Tannin Gel (QTG) was tested as cationic dye adsorbent with Methylene Blue (MB). Kinetics of adsorption process were studied out and a period of 15 days was determined for reaching equilibrium. The influences of pH and temperature were evaluated. As pH or temperature raise q capacity of QTG increases. Theoretical modelization of dye-QTG adsorption was carried out by multiparametric adjustment according to Langmuir's hypothesis. Values of the k(l1), k(l2) and activation energies were calculated.

  2. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PRUSSIAN BLUE FORMATION ...

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    industrial applications such as in removal of heavy metal ions in wine production [4], electrochemical application as battery building [5], electronic switching and ... (3.0 x 10-2 M) and at limiting concentration of ferrocyanide (4.0 x 10-4 M). The profiles of the absorption-time plots were not sharp curves due to the sparse ...

  3. Decolorization and detoxification of a sulfonated triphenylmethane dye aniline blue by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmin; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Cancan; Cao, Danming; Du, Daolin

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the extracellular decolorization of aniline blue, a sulfonated triphenylmethane dye, by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was confirmed. S. oneidensis MR-1 showed a high capacity for decolorizing aniline blue even at a concentration of up to 1,000 mg/l under anaerobic conditions. Maximum decolorization efficiency appeared at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Lactate was a better candidate of electron donor for the decolorization of aniline blue. The addition of nitrate, hydrous ferric oxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide all could cause a significant decline of decolorization efficiency. The Mtr respiratory pathway was found to be involved into the decolorization of aniline blue by S. oneidensis MR-1. The toxicity evaluation through phytotoxicity and genotoxicity showed that S. oneidensis MR-1 could decrease the toxicity of aniline blue during the decolorization process. Thus, this work may facilitate a better understanding on the degradation mechanisms of the triphenylmethane dyes by Shewanella and is beneficial to their application in bioremediation.

  4. Removal of Disperse Blue 56 and Disperse Red 135 dyes from aqueous dispersions by modified montmorillonite nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadishoar Javad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study modified montmorillonite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of two selected disperse dyes i.e., Disperse Blue 56 (DB and Disperse Red 135 (DR from dye dispersions. The adsorption equilibrium data of dyes adsorption were investigated by using Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed by using different models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intraparticle diffusion model. The Freundlich isotherm was found to be the most appropriate model for describing the sorption of the dyes on modified nanoclay. The best fit to the experimental results was obtained by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, which satisfactorily described the process of dye adsorption. Although different kinetic models may control the rate of the adsorption process, the results indicated that the main rate limiting step was the intraparticle diffusion. The results showed that the proposed modified montmorillonite could be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of disperse dyes even from highly concentrated dispersions.

  5. Column performance of carbon nanotube packed bed for methylene blue and orange red dye removal from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G. K.; Mubarak, N. M.; Nizamuddin, S.; Al-Salim, H. S.; Sahu, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental issues have always been a major issue among human kind for the past decades. As the time passes by, the technology field has grown and has helped a lot in order to reduce these environmental issues. Industries such as metal plating facilities, mining operations and batteries production are a few examples that involves in the environmental issues. Carbon nanotube is proven to possess excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue and orange red dyes. The effect of process parameters such as pH and contact time was investigated The results revealed that optimized conditions for the highest removal for methylene blue (MB) (97%) and orange red (94%) are at pH 10, CNTs dosage of 1 grams, and 15 minutes for each dyes removal respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data obtained was best fit to Freundlich model, while kinetic data can be characterized by the pseudo second-order rate kinetics.

  6. Bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs for remediation of methylene blue dye in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Keskin, Nalan Oya San; Celebioglu, Asli; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, preparation and application of novel biocomposite materials that were produced by encapsulation of bacterial cells within electrospun nanofibrous webs are described. A commercial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which has methylene blue (MB) dye remediation capability was selected for encapsulation, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were selected as the polymer matrices for the electrospinning of bacteria encapsulated nanofibrous webs. Encapsulation of bacterial cells was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy, and the viability of encapsulated bacteria was checked by live/dead staining and viable cell counting assay. Both bacteria/PVA and bacteria/PEO webs have shown a great potential for remediation of MB, yet bacteria/PEO web has shown higher removal performances than bacteria/PVA web, which was probably due to the differences in the initial viable bacterial cells for those two samples. The bacteria encapsulated electrospun nanofibrous webs were stored at 4°C for three months and they were found as potentially storable for keeping encapsulated bacterial cells alive. Overall, the results suggest that electrospun nanofibrous webs are suitable platforms for preservation of living bacterial cells and they can be used directly as a starting inoculum for bioremediation of water systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalytic decolorization of Acid blue 29 dye by H2O2 and a heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Salem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The montmorillonite K10-Cu(IIethylenediamine (MMTK10-Cu(en2 catalyst has been prepared by intercalation of copper-ethylenediamine [Cu(en2]2+ complex onto the montmorillonite K10. The intercalation process is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements. The decolorization of the Acid blue29 was conducted using MMTK10-Cu(en2 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The effect of reactants concentrations and the temperature on the decolorization efficiency was studied. It was found that the efficiency of decolorization process increases with increasing the concentration of H2O2 and the dye and the temperature. The results indicated that complete removal of AB29 was achieved in 15 min when the concentrations of H2O2 and AB29 were 0.4 and 5 × 10−5 M respectively and 0.1 g of the catalyst at 30 °C. The activation parameters of the decolorization process were determined. Two possible mechanisms were proposed.

  8. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated.

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction of Red-Green-Blue Fluorescent Dyes into a Metal-Organic Framework for Tunable White Light Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhuo, Chao; Su, Shaodong; Li, Haoran; Hu, Shengmin; Zhu, Qi-Long; Wu, Xintao

    2017-10-01

    The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively. Furthermore, this study introduces the red-, green-, and blue-emitting dyes into a MOF together for the first time, producing white-light materials with nearly ideal Commission International ed'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, high color-rendering index values (up to 92%) and quantum yields (up to 26%), and moderate correlated color temperature values. The white light is tunable by changing the content or type of the three dye guests, or the excitation wavelength. Significantly, the introduction of blue-emitting guests in the methodology makes the available MOF host more extensive, and the final white-light output more tunable and high-quality. Such strategy can be widely adopted to design and prepare white-light-emitting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Identification of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve by Injection of Blue Dye into the Inferior Thyroid Artery in Elusive Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Hepgul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroidectomy creates a potential risk for all parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN. The identification and dissection of the RLN is the gold standard for preserving its function. In some cases, it may be quite difficult to identify the nerve localization. In such elusive locations, we aimed to identify RLNs using peroperative injection of a blue dye into the inferior thyroid artery. Materials and Methods. This study included 10 selected patients whose RLN identification had been difficult peroperatively during the period from April 2008 to June 2009. When the RLNs became elusive in location, the branches of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA on the capsule of the thyroid lobe were isolated, and then 0.5 mL isosulphan blue dye was injected into the artery. Results. RLN was carefully dissected in the tracheoesophageal groove. RLN was clearly visualized, in all patients. All RLNs were identified along their course in the dyed surrounding tissue. No RLN palsy was encountered. Conclusion. The injection of blue dye into the ITA branches can be used as an alternate method in case of difficulty in identification of RLNs.

  12. Spectrophotometric investigation of the interactions between cationic (C.I. Basic Blue 9) and anionic (C.I. Acid Blue 25) dyes in adsorption onto extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanic in single and binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Douissa, Najoua; Dridi-Dhaouadi, Sonia; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Extracted cellulose from Posidonia oceanica was used as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic (Basic blue 9, BB) and anionic textile dye (Acid blue 25, AB) from aqueous solution in single dye system. Characterization of the extracted cellulose and extracted cellulose-dye systems were performed using several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential and Boehm acid-base titration method. Adsorption tests showed that the extracted cellulose presented higher adsorption of BB than AB in single dye system, revealing that electrostatic interactions are responsible, in the first instance, for the dye-adsorbent interaction. In single dye systems, the extracted cellulose presented the maximum adsorption capacities of BB and AB at 0.955 mmol.g(-1) and 0.370 mmol.g(-1), respectively. Adsorption experiments of AB dye on extracted cellulose saturated by BB dye exhibited the release of the latter dye from the sorbent which lead to dye-dye interaction in aqueous solution due to electrostatic attraction between both species. Interaction of BB and AB dyes were investigated using spectrophotometric analysis and results demonstrated the formation of a molecular complex detected at wavelengths 510 and 705 nm when anionic (AB) and cationic (BB) dye were taken in equimolar proportions. The adsorption isotherm of AB, taking into account the dye-dye interaction was investigated and showed that BB dye was released proportionately by AB equilibrium concentration. It was also observed that AB adsorption is widely enhanced when the formation of the molecular complex is disadvantaged.

  13. The Birmingham experience of high-pressure methylene blue dye test during primary and revisional bariatric surgery: A retrospective cohort study

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    G.C. Kirby

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Despite routine use of methylene blue dye test in 924 patients, there were only two positive tests. Whilst HPMB may demonstrate technical failure, this study suggests that there is no role for its routine use in primary bariatric surgery. Discontinuation of this practice would reduce risk of anaphylaxis to the dye, cost, and intra-operative time.

  14. Concordance of peritumoral technetium 99m colloid and subareolar blue dye injection in breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozaran, Hamed; Shah, Mona; Li, Yueju; Beckett, Laurel; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Schneider, Philip D; Khatri, Vijay P

    2007-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as a less invasive method for axillary lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer. Blue dye and radioisotopes are commonly used agents to localize SLNs, but the optimal site for the injection of these agents continues to be debated. In this study, we evaluated whether subareolar injection of blue dye led to the identification of the same SLNs as peritumoral injection of technetium colloid. From March 2003 to August 2006, 124 patients with invasive breast cancer, diagnosed by core needle biopsy, were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Approximately 1 h prior to surgery, all patients had peritumoral injection of 37 Mbq of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In the operating room, 3 to 5 mL of 1% lymphazurin was injected into the subareolar area. SLNs were categorized as radio-labeled-only, blue-only, or radio-labeled + blue. Data were analyzed with 95% exact confidence intervals, Spearman rank coefficient and kappa coefficient. The mean number of SLNs identified was 1.9 (range 1-5). With the combination of two methods 122 out of 124 patients (98.4%) had successful identification of SLNs. One hundred fifteen patients (92.7%) had SLNs that were blue and 121 patients (97.6%) had radio-labeled SLNs. One hundred fourteen patients had at least one SLN that was both blue and radio-labeled, yielding a concordance rate of 91.9% (95% CI, 0.88-0.98). Metastatic disease was identified in SLNs of 28 patients. All lymph nodes with evidence of metastasis were both blue and radio-labeled. Our study showed a high degree of concordance between subareolar blue dye and peritumoral radiocolloid in identification of SLNs. These results further support that the breast parenchyma and subareolar plexus drain to similar SLNs within the axilla. These two techniques can complement each other in localizing SLNs with a high success rate.

  15. Degradation of textile dyes Remazol Brilliant Blue using plasma electrolysis method with the addition of microbubble and Fe2+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainah, Saksono, Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Dye waste is a liquid waste that mostly generated from the textile industry and is very dangerous for the environment. Plasma electrolysis method is an effective method in degrading dye waste because of its ability to produce radical OH in large quantities. This study aims to test the ability of plasma electrolysis method to degrade one of the textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue, with the addition of Fe2+ ion and microbubble. The dye waste degredation reached 99.74% for 180 minutes with the addition of 40 mg/L of Fe2+ ion as a result of fenton reaction. The addition of microbubble will also increase OH radical production by up to 4.8% and be able to reduce energy consumption by 11.3%. The COD value decreased until 20.56 mg/L and has fulfilled the Government standard of 50 mg/L. In addition, the dye waste concentration decreased significantly from 150 mg/L to 0.388 mg/L. Maximum conditions are obtained by using 0.02 M Na2SO4, 700 Volt operating voltage, and 1 cm anode depth.

  16. Adsorption of rhodamine B and methylene blue dyes using waste of seeds of Aleurites Moluccana, a low cost adsorbent

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    Debora Luiza Postai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of the cationic dyes rhodamine B (RhB and methylene blue (MB by waste seeds Aleurites moluccana (WAM was studied in a batch system. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, point of zero charge measurement, and the Boehm titration method. The effects of contact time and pH were investigated for the removal of cationic dyes. An increase in pH from 3 to 9 was accompanied by an approximately three-fold increase in the amount of dye adsorbed. The adsorptions equilibrium values were obtained and analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, and Redlich–Peterson equations, the Sips isotherm being the one that showed the best correlation with the experimental values. The maximum adsorption capacities of the dyes were 178 mg/g for the MB and 117 mg/g for the RhB. The kinetic sorption was evaluated by the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models, where it was observed that sorption follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The study of thermodynamics showed that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results indicate that waste seeds of A. moluccana could be used as a low cost material for the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.

  17. The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 is a selective inhibitor of the ATP release channel Panx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Jackson, David George; Dahl, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    The food dye FD&C Blue No. 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF [BB FCF]) is structurally similar to the purinergic receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG), which is a well-known inhibitor of the ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R functionally interacts with the membrane channel protein pannexin 1 (Panx1) in inflammasome signaling. Intriguingly, ligands to the P2X7R, regardless of whether they are acting as agonists or antagonists at the receptor, inhibit Panx1 channels. Thus, because both P2X7R and Panx1 are inhibited by BBG, the diagnostic value of the drug is limited. Here, we show that the food dye BB FCF is a selective inhibitor of Panx1 channels, with an IC50 of 0.27 µM. No significant effect was observed with concentrations as high as 100 µM of BB FCF on P2X7R. Differing by just one hydroxyl group from BB FCF, the food dye FD&C Green No. 3 exhibited similar selective inhibition of Panx1 channels. A reverse selectivity was observed for the P2X7R antagonist, oxidized ATP, which in contrast to other P2X7R antagonists had no significant inhibitory effect on Panx1 channels. Based on its selective action, BB FCF can be added to the repertoire of drugs to study the physiology of Panx1 channels. Furthermore, because Panx1 channels appear to be involved directly or indirectly through P2X7Rs in several disorders, BB FCF and derivatives of this "safe" food dye should be given serious consideration for pharmacological intervention of conditions such as acute Crohn's disease, stroke, and injuries to the central nervous system.

  18. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  19. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  20. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngieng Ngui Sing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L−1 on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater.

  1. Decolourisation Capabilities of Ligninolytic Enzymes Produced by Marasmius cladophyllus UMAS MS8 on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Other Azo Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Ngieng Ngui; Husaini, Ahmad; Zulkharnain, Azham; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2017-01-01

    Marasmius cladophyllus was examined for its ability to degradatively decolourise the recalcitrant dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and screened for the production of ligninolytic enzymes using specific substrates. Monitoring dye decolourisation by the decrease in absorbance ratio of A592/A500 shows that the decolourisation of RBBR dye was associated with the dye degradation. Marasmius cladophyllus produces laccase and lignin peroxidase in glucose minimal liquid medium containing RBBR. Both enzyme activities were increased, with laccase activity recorded 70 times higher reaching up to 390 U L-1 on day 12. Further in vitro RBBR dye decolourisation using the culture medium shows that laccase activity was correlated with the dye decolourisation. Fresh RBBR dye continuously supplemented into the decolourised culture medium was further decolourised much faster in the subsequent round of the RBBR dye decolourisation. In vitro dye decolourisation using the crude laccase not only decolourised 76% of RBBR dye in just 19 hours but also decolourised 54% of Orange G and 33% of Congo red at the same period of time without the use of any exogenous mediator. This rapid dye decolourisation ability of the enzymes produced by M. cladophyllus thus suggested its possible application in the bioremediation of dye containing wastewater.

  2. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  3. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for adsorptive removal of dye Basic Blue 9 by ground nut shells and Eichhornia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanjit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of dye Basic Blue 9 (BB9 was studied using ground nut shells charcoal (GNC, and Eichhornia charcoal (EC as adsorbents. The characterization was done with FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Batch adsorption studies have been investigated by measuring the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, contact time, temperature, and ionic strength. Adsorption of the dye increased with increase in contact time, temperature, amount of adsorbent and initial concentration. The kinetic experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, Elovich model and Bangham’s model and corresponding constants were calculated and discussed. Pseudo-second order kinetics was found to describe the adsorption of dye BB9 on both the adsorbents and rate is mainly controlled by intra particle diffusion. A study of five isotherm models; Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin and Radushkevich and generalized isotherms have been made and important thermodynamic parameters have been obtained. The adsorption of BB9 onto GNC and EC was spontaneous and endothermic as concluded from thermodynamic assays. Experimental results confirmed that dye BB9 can be successfully removed from the aqueous solutions economically and efficiently.

  4. Adsorptive removal of acid blue 113 and tartrazine by fly ash from single and binary dye solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pura, S.; Atun, G. [Istanbul University, Avcilar (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyestuffs, acid blue 113 (AB) and tartrazine (TA), has been studied from their single and binary solutions by using fly ash (FA) as an adsorbent. The S shaped isotherms observed for dye adsorption from single solutions show that both acid dyes are not preferred at a low concentration region whereas adsorption of the dyes from binary solutions is enhanced via solute-solute interactions. Although the L-shaped isotherm is observed in binary solutions adsorbability of AB decreases in concentrated solutions with respect to single one, time dependency of adsorption is well described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as the linear relation of Bt vs. t plots (not passing through origin) indicates that film diffusion is effective on dye adsorption. Modeled isotherm curves using isotherm parameters of the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations adequately fit to experimental equilibrium data. Equilibrium adsorption of AB in binary solutions has been quite well predicted by the extended Freundlich and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) models. In general, the isotherm curves constructed in the temperature range of 298-328K show that the optimum temperature is 318K for AB removal from both single and binary solutions.

  5. Removal of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile wastewater by pomegranate seed powder: Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the evaluation of adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile synthetic wastewater by pomegranate seed powder. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental research, which was performed in laboratory scale. In this study, the parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH and retention time, initial concentration of dye and agitation rate have been investigated. After washing and boiling of pomegranate seeds for 2 h, they dried, milled and finally pulverized by standard ASTM sieves (40-100 mesh. Maximum adsorption wave length (λmax by spectrophotometer ultra violet/visible (model SP-3000 Plus 592 nm was determined. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were analyzed. Results: According to results, the removal efficiency with adsorbent dose, retention time and agitation rate has a direct relation. Maximum adsorption occurred in the first 60 min. The removal efficiency with initial concentration of dye and pH of solution has indirect relation. The Freundlich isotherm fits the experimental data better than the other isotherms. It was recognized that the adsorption followed by pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99. Conclusion: Based on the results, pomegranate seeds as a new natural sorbent can be used in removal of dye and other environmental pollutants with desirable absorption capacity.

  6. High catalytic activity of monometallic Ag, Cu nanostructures in the degradation of acid blue 113 dye: an electron relay effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Pandiyarajan, T.; Karthikeyan, B.; Mansilla, Héctor D.

    2017-09-01

    This report discusses the observed faster decoloration of an azo dye with an enhanced degradation rate constant achieved using metal nanostructures as a catalyst. Silver and copper nanostructures were synthesized by reducing the corresponding nitrate salts using hydrazine and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The influence of HMTA was clearly evident from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images; with increasing concentration it caused agglomeration and the formation of net-like nanostructures. An x-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of monometallic Ag and Cu nanostructures. The prepared nanostructures exhibited dipole and multipole surface plasmon resonance-related optical absorption bands which were size and shape dependent. The degradation of the azo dye acid blue 113 (AB113) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was taken as model system for studying the catalytic activity of the metal nanostructures. From the optical absorption spectral studies of dye degradation it was observed that the rate constant (k) was of the order of k Cu   >  k Ag   >  k no catalyst. From the dye degradation studies a high catalytic activity was observed for Cu nanostructures with a rate constant of 20.93  ×  10-4 s-1.

  7. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Lee

    Full Text Available We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature.

  8. Dynamical studies of the mechanisms for optical nonlinearities of methyl-red dye doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-08-24

    Dynamical grating diffraction experiments and reflection/transmission polarization spectroscopy have been conducted on azo-dye doped Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal (BPLC) to investigate the mechanisms responsible for laser induced refractive index changes. The underlying mechanisms for the transient grating diffraction components are attributed to thermal indexing and lattice distortion, whereas the persistent component is due to lattice distortion/expansion caused by laser excited dye molecule isomerization. These mechanisms were distinguishable by their response dynamics and gave rise to the observed reflection spectra and photonic bandgap shift, polarization dependency and optical activity. Some preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using these mechanisms for coherent holographic and direct image writing operations.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10 -3 and 12.4 × 10 -3  min -1 , respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  10. DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of enhanced nonlinear optical responses of methyl-red-doped blue-phase liquid crystals by application of a DC field. We have observed strong multi-order nonlinear grating diffractions characterized by a nonlinear index coefficient n(2)∼0.5  cm(2)/W using unfocused CW laser power of ∼1  mW and a DC field of a few V/μm. The underlying mechanisms are crystalline lattice and director axis reorientations by torques exerted by the DC field and photo-excited dye molecules.

  11. Biodegradation of azo dyes acid red 183, direct blue 15 and direct red 75 by the isolate Penicillium oxalicum SAR-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Samta; Kumar, Karunesh; Pareek, Nidhi; Prasad, R; Singh, R P

    2014-07-01

    Soils contaminated with dyes were collected and screened for obtaining potential fungal strains for the degradation of azo dyes. A strain that demonstrated broad spectrum ability for catabolizing different azo dyes viz. Acid Red 183 (AR 183), Direct Blue 15 (DB 15) and Direct Red 75 (DR 75) at 100 mg L(-1) concentration was subsequently identified as Penicillium oxalicum SAR-3 based on 18S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain has shown remarkably higher levels of degradation (95-100%) for almost all the dyes within 120 h at 30°C at pH 7.0. Notable levels of manganese peroxidase (659.4 ± 20 UL(-1)) during dye decolorization indicated the involvement of this enzyme in the decolorization process. The dyes following decolorization were catabolized as evident by spectroscopic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The sentinel node procedure with Patent Blue V dye in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, M R; Boschin, I M; Toniato, A; Bernante, P; Piotto, A; Rinaldo, A; Ferlito, A

    2001-04-01

    How far to extend the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still an open question. A contribution may come from intra-operative lymphatic mapping because, in other malignancies, the procedure has become an important aid in defining lymph node status. To assess the feasibility of using the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique with the intratumoral injection of Patent Blue V dye to guide nodal dissection in PTC, 29 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of PTC and no clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of nodal involvement underwent cervicotomy and exposure of the thyroid gland, followed by Patent Blue V dye injection into the thyroid nodule. Total thyroidectomy was subsequently performed, resecting the lymph nodes at levels III, IV, VI and VII. The thyroid, SLN and the other lymph nodes were snap-frozen and submitted for both intra-operative and subsequent definitive pathological evaluation. Intra-operative lymphatic mapping located the SLN in 22/29 patients (75.9%) and the SLN revealed neoplastic involvement in 4/22 (18.2%); other lymph nodes were also positive in 2 cases. In the 18 patients whose SLNs were not metastatic, the other nodes were also disease-free. The SLN technique thus seems helpful in avoiding unnecessary lymph node dissection in PTC without spread to the SLN.

  13. Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan: stirring rate effect in kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, G L; Pinto, L A A

    2011-03-15

    Adsorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan was studied. Stirring rate influence on kinetics and mechanism was verified. Infra-red analysis was carried out before and after adsorption in order to verify the adsorption nature. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems with different stirring rates (15-400 rpm). Kinetic behavior was analyzed through the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Adsorption mechanism was verified according to the film diffusion model and HSDM model. Pseudo-second-order and Elovich models were satisfactory in order to represent experimental data in all stirring rates. For both dyes, adsorption occurred by film and intraparticle diffusion, and the stirring rate increase caused a decrease in film diffusion resistance. Therefore, the film diffusivity increased the adsorption capacity and, consequently, intraparticle diffusivity increased. In all stirring rates, the rate-limiting step was film diffusion. Adsorption of acid blue 9 and food yellow 3 onto chitosan occurred by chemiosorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of indanthrene blue dye using Ti/Ru-based electrodes prepared by a modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupo, Marilia M.S.; Costa, Lucas S. da; Figueiredo, Aile C.; Eguiluz, Katlin I. B.; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R., E-mail: gianrsb@gmail.com [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Ronaldo S. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica. Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos Avancados; Cunha, Frederico G.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-03-15

    Photoelectrodes were used to treat synthetic textile wastewater contaminated with indanthrene blue dye. Two media of treatment were used (NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), with variations on temperature, pH, current density, dye and chloride concentration. A modified Pechini method was applied to obtain Ti/Ru-based electrodes (Ti, Ru, Ti{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}, Ti{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25} and Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75}) containing anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and a color degradation analysis was done. Physical (atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry) and electrochemical characterizations (cyclic voltammetry) were considered. The condition that yielded highest color removal for the system presented 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl, 100 mA cm-2, 35 Degree-Sign C and pH 7, independent of the dye concentration for the Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75} electrode. (author)

  15. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  16. Removal of reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R from aqueous solutions by using anaerobically digested sewage sludge based adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçimen Didem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorbents were produced from sewage sludge via chemical and thermal activation processes. Experiments were carried out in a tubular furnace at the heating rate of 20˚C min-1 and temperature of 550 ˚C with a nitrogen flow rate of 400 mL min-1 for 1 h. Dye adsorption experiments were performed with Remazol Brilliant Blue R for its several concentrations under batch equilibrium conditions by comparing sewage sludge based adsorbents with raw material and a commercial activated carbon. Maximum adsorption capacities of carbonized sewage sludge (CSWS and activated sewage sludge (ASWS were found as 7.413 mg g-1 and 9.376 mg g-1 for 100 mg L-1 dye solution, whereas commercial activated carbon had a capacity of 11.561 mg g-1. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to explain the adsorption mechanism together with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Langmuir isotherm, which had adsorption capacities of 34.60 mg g-1 (CSWS and 72.99 mg g-1 (ASWS, provided better fit to the equilibrium data than that of Freundlich isotherm. Pseudo second-order, model which had adsorption capacities of 7.451 mg g-1 (CSWS and 9.319 mg g-1 (ASWS, was very favorable to explain the adsorption kinetics of the dye with high regression coefficients.

  17. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika; Grover, Shekhar

    2015-12-01

    Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study, the study emphasizes the need for standardization of methods

  18. Investigation of the Alamar Blue (resazurin) fluorescent dye for the assessment of mammalian cell cytotoxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, J; Wilson, I; Orton, T; Pognan, F

    2000-01-01

    We show here the identity of Alamar Blue as resazurin. The 'resazurin reduction test' has been used for about 50 years to monitor bacterial and yeast contamination of milk, and also for assessing semen quality. Resazurin...

  19. Thin wetted film cylindrical flow photo reactor for the degradation of Procion blue H-B dye over TiO2 and ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelavannan, M G; Basha, C Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    A thin wetted film cylindrical flow reactor was fabricated for photocatalytic oxidation of Procion blue H-B dye in textile washwater with the suspensions of TiO2 and ZnO. The disappearance of colour and organic reduction were studied in terms of the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Operating parameters such as effect of pH, UV irradiation with and without catalyst, initial concentration of dye and effect of flow rate were studied and kinetics of Procion blue H-B dye has been studied over TiO2 and ZnO surfaces. Since adsorption is the prerequisite condition for decolorization/degradation of dye molecules in the presence of heterogeneous catalysis, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined to verify the adsorption intensity. The results clearly demonstrated that, the optimum loading of the photocatalyst was found to be 300 and 400 mg/L of TiO2 and ZnO, respectively. The maximum COD reduction efficiency was 68% for TiO2 and 58% for ZnO. On the other hand, the colour removal efficiency was found to be 74% and 69%, respectively for TiO2- and ZnO-assisted systems under optimum conditions. Conclusively, these two semiconductors could degrade Procion blue H-B dye at different time intervals and both isotherms fit well.

  20. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  1. The value of using loupe magnification and methylene blue dye in intra-operative identification of thyroglossal duct tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman E. M. Ezzat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This was a comparative randomised study to find out the value of using loupe magnification and methylene blue dye in identification of the thyroglossal duct and to compare between them. Patients and Methods: Twenty-two patients who presented with infrahyoid thyroglossal duct cyst were subjected to excision of the cyst with two methods for identification of thyroglossal duct track during the operation. Data were anlysed for identification of multiple tracts, the tract relation to the hyoid bone, incidence of complications and operative time. Results: We found that multiple tracts were present in 9.1% of the patients in Group I and 36.3% in Group II, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The incidence of complications was 27.2% in Group I and 9.1% in Group II, with no statistically significant difference between both groups. However, the incidence of identification of the tract, and its relation to the hyoid bone was higher in Group II (90.9% than in Group I (45.5% , with a statistically significant difference between both groups. Also the incidence of identification of the extension level of the tract above the hyoid bone and up to the tongue base was significantly higher in Group II (72.8% as compared to Group I (9.1%. The operative time was significantly shorter in Group II (54.35 min and was 76.55 min in Group I, (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Intra-operative identification of the thyroglossal tract is an essential step in the removal of the thyroglossal duct cyst. Both loupe magnification and methylene blue dye help in the tract identification, however, the usage of surgical loupes enhances better and safe results.

  2. Removal of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution using lala clam (Orbicularia orbiculata) shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljiedi, Arwa Alseddig Ahmed; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    Textile effluents are considered as potential sources of water pollution because they contain toxic dyes. In the present study, lala clam shell was used as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of two harmful dyes, namely methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out by varying experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pH values for MO and MB removal were pH 2.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. At an initial MO and MB concentration of 20 mg/L, the maximum removal percentage of MO and MB were 18.9 % and 81.3 %, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The biomass adsorbent was characterised using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Results from this study suggest that lala clam shell, a fishery waste, can be beneficial for water treatment.

  3. Application of Casuarina equisetifolia needle for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khairud Dahri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of Casuarina equisetifolia needle (CEN on the removal of two important dyes, methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG, by batch adsorption experiments. Characterisation of CEN’s functional groups was done using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy while elemental analysis was carried out using CHNS analysis and X-ray fluorescence. The experiments were carried out by varying the adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time and initial dye concentration. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model best represented the experimental data for both CEN-MB and CEN-MG systems. The Weber–Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limited step for both adsorbates, while the Boyd model suggested both systems could be controlled by film diffusion. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models were used for describing the adsorption process. Of these, the Langmuir model best represented both adsorbents systems (CEN-MB and CEN-MG giving maximum adsorption capacity (qm of 110.8 and 77.6 mg g−1, respectively, at 25 °C. Thermodynamics studies showed that both adsorption systems are spontaneous and endothermic.

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes/silver nanocomposite as effective SERS platform for detection of methylene blue dye in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Xuan Dinh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a functional nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Ag was successfully synthesized using a two-step chemical process. The MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite has been studied as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS sensing platform for detection of methylene blue (MB dye in an aqueous medium. The obtained results reveal that the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite exhibits higher SERS detection activity than that of pure Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The calculated enhancement factors are 1.51 × 106 for pure Ag-NPs and 4.68 × 106 for the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite. MB detection has been achieved as low as 1 ppm. The SERS enhancement of the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be attributed to the combination of both an electromagnetic (EM effect and a chemical effect (CE. With exhibited properties, the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be effectively used for detection of various organic dyes in water solution.

  5. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Nevine Kamal, E-mail: nkamalamin@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R{sup 2} > 0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), and the activation energy (E{sub a}) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  6. Biodegradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 by Nasturtium officinale: Study of Some Physiological Responses and Metabolic Fate of Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, S; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of aquatic vascular plant, Nasturtium officinale, for degradation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92). The effect of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration, plant biomass, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of biological decolorization process was determined. The reusability of the plant in long term repetitive operations confirmed the biological degradation process. The by-products formed during biodegradation process were identified by GC-MS technique. The effects of the dye on several plant physiological responses such as photosynthetic pigments content and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoids was significantly reduced at 20 mg/L of the dye. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were remarkably increased in the plant root verifying their importance in plant tolerance to the dye contamination.

  7. Low-Cost Biodegradation and Detoxification of Textile Azo Dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 by Providencia rettgeri Strain HSL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study focuses on exploitation of agricultural waste wheat bran (WB as growth medium for degradation of textile azo dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 (RB 172 using a single bacterium P. rettgeri strain HSL1 (GenBank accession number JX853768.1. The bacterium was found to completely decolorize 50 mg L−1 of dye RB 172 within 20 h at 30 ± 0.2°C under microaerophilic incubation conditions. Additionally, significant reduction in COD (85% and TOC (52% contents of dye decolorized medium was observed which suggested its mineralization. Induction in the activities of azoreductase (159% and NADH-DCIP reductase (88% provided an evidence for reductive cleavage of dye RB 172. The HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis of decolorized products confirmed the degradation of dye into various metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathway for biodegradation of RB 172 has been elucidated which showed the formation of 2 intermediate metabolites, namely, 4-(ethenylsulfonyl aniline and 1-amino-1-(4-aminophenyl propan-2-one. The acute and phytotoxicity evaluation of degraded metabolites suggests that bacterial strain favors the detoxification of dye RB 172. Thus, WB could be utilized as a low-cost growth medium for the enrichment of bacteria and their further use for biodegradation of azo dyes and its derivatives containing wastes into nontoxic form.

  8. Removal of blue cat 41 dye from aqueous solutions with ZnO nanoparticles in combination with US and US-H2O2 advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Golmohammadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of ultrasound/hydrogen peroxide processes and ultrasound/hydrogen peroxide/ZnO nanoparticles in the removal of blue cat 41 dye from aqueous solutions. Methods: ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using the hydrothermal method. Variables including pH, concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, initial dye concentration, concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and contact time were investigated. Results: H 2O2 alone is not effective in dye removal. In conditions of H2O2= 20 mg/L and US= 30 kHz, removal efficiency rates of 6.5%, 23.5%, 30%, 51.8%, and 55%, respectively, were obtained. The maximum removal efficiency rate was obtained at the nanoparticle concentration of 3 g/l. Also, removal efficiency was reduced when the initial dye concentration was increased. Conclusion: The combination of nanoparticles and US and H2O2 is very effective in removing blue cat 41 dye. As a result, photo catalytic processes can be considered to effectively remove environmental pollutants.

  9. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  10. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  11. Long-term results of trypan blue dye irrigation in the capsular bag to prevent posterior capsule opacification: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Hussain, Murtaza Saifuddin

    2017-12-01

    To study the effect of capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye (0.06%) on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification. This was a randomized, trial conducted at a tertiary eye care center in central India. The study included 50 patients (100 eyes) with senile cataracts who were scheduled for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and were willing to undergo bilateral cataract surgery. One eye of each patient was randomized to one of two groups. The dye group received 0.2 ml of trypan blue injected in the capsular bag after cortical cleanup under air. The control group (other eye of the same patient) received 0.2 ml of balanced salt solution injected in a similar manner. PCO in the central 3 mm area of IOL optic was analyzed by a masked observer using an evaluation of PCO software computer analysis system at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. The average age of patients was 62.05 ± 6.22 in the dye group and 64.92 ± 7.16 years in the control group. The mean PCO score at 6 months was significantly lower in the dye group (0.10 ± 0.15) than in the control group (0.22 ± 0.30). There were no significant differences in the PCO scores between the two groups from 12 to 36 months. At the end of 3 years, eight eyes in the dye group and seven in the control group required YAG capsulotomy (P = 0.21). Capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye decreased the PCO score at 6 months, but it had no effect at 36 months.

  12. Long-term results of trypan blue dye irrigation in the capsular bag to prevent posterior capsule opacification: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Subhash Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye (0.06% on posterior capsular opacification (PCO in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification. Methods: This was a randomized, trial conducted at a tertiary eye care center in central India. The study included 50 patients (100 eyes with senile cataracts who were scheduled for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation and were willing to undergo bilateral cataract surgery. One eye of each patient was randomized to one of two groups. The dye group received 0.2 ml of trypan blue injected in the capsular bag after cortical cleanup under air. The control group (other eye of the same patient received 0.2 ml of balanced salt solution injected in a similar manner. PCO in the central 3 mm area of IOL optic was analyzed by a masked observer using an evaluation of PCO software computer analysis system at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: The average age of patients was 62.05 ± 6.22 in the dye group and 64.92 ± 7.16 years in the control group. The mean PCO score at 6 months was significantly lower in the dye group (0.10 ± 0.15 than in the control group (0.22 ± 0.30. There were no significant differences in the PCO scores between the two groups from 12 to 36 months. At the end of 3 years, eight eyes in the dye group and seven in the control group required YAG capsulotomy (P = 0.21. Conclusion: Capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye decreased the PCO score at 6 months, but it had no effect at 36 months.

  13. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tetrazolium salts as heterocyclic organic compounds are known to form highly coloured, water insoluble formazans by reduction, which can be utilized in radiation processing dosimetry. Radiochromic films containing nitro blue tetrazolium dissolved in a polymer matrix were found suitable for dose...... determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...

  14. Fenton oxidative decolorization of the azo dye Direct Blue 15 in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Shi, Shao-Hui; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2009-01-01

    and kinetic of the DB15 were studied, the operating parameters were preferred by changing one factor at one time while the other parameters were kept constant. The optimal conditions for the decolorization of DB15 were determined as pH=4.0, [H2O2] = 2.8x10(-3) mol/L, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio = 100: 1, H2O2/dye ratio...... the reaction temperature from 20 to 40 degrees C showed a positive effect on the decolorization efficiency of DB15. The present study can provide guidance to relational industry operators and planners to effectively treat the DB15 contaminated wastewater by Fenton oxidation process. (C) 2009 Elsevier B. V. All...

  15. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nasrullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET, respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB, initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R2 of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  16. Efficacy of SnO2 nanoparticles toward photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-02-01

    Maximum pollutants in the industrial and domestic waste water effluents from any sources include pathogens and organic chemicals, which can be removed before discharging into the water bodies. Methylene blue has been considered as one of the major water contaminated pollutants. Such pollutant is dominant in surface water and groundwater. It will cause irreversible hazards to human and aquatic life. Nanotechnology plays a major role in degrading such type of pollutant. In order to fulfill today's requirement, we have decided to handle the green synthesis of nanoparticles and its application by merging important fields like chemistry, environmental science, and biotechnology. Here our work emphasizes on the biological synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using the methanolic extract of Cyphomandra betacea (C.betacea), and it was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, particle size analyzer, zeta potential, and TEM. The obtained results stated that the synthesized SnO2 NPs were in rod shape with an average size of 21nm, which resulted in a product of nanobiotechnology. Further, we have utilized the environmental-friendly synthesized SnO2 NPs photocatalytic degradation of environmental concern methylene blue with first-order kinetics. In this paper, we have attempted to prove that secondary metabolite-entrapped SnO2 NPs are non-toxic to the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential biosorbent derived from Calligonum polygonoides for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  18. Targeting ribonucleic acids by toxic small molecules: structural perturbation and energetics of interaction of phenothiazinium dyes thionine and toluidine blue O to tRNA phe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Puja; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2013-12-15

    This study was designed to examine the toxic interaction of two phenothiazinium dyes thionine (TO) and toluidine blue O (TBO) with tRNA(phe) by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. While phenothiazinium dye complexation with DNA is known, their bindings to RNA are not fully investigated. The non cooperative binding of both the dyes to tRNA was revealed from absorbance and fluorescence studies. From absorption, steady-state emission, the effect of ferrocyanide ion-induced steady-state fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism, the mode of binding of these dyes into the tRNA helix has been substantiated to be principally by intercalative in nature. Both dyes enhanced the thermal stability of tRNA. Circular dichroism studies provided evidence for the structural perturbations associated with the tRNA structure with induction of optical activity in the CD inactive dye molecules. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments suggested that the binding of both dyes was predominantly entropy driven with a smaller but favorable enthalpy term that increased with temperature. The binding was dependent on the Na(+) concentration, but had a larger non-electrostatic contribution to the Gibbs energy. A small heat capacity value and the enthalpy-entropy compensation in the energetics of the interaction characterized the binding of the dyes to tRNA. This study confirms that the tRNA(phe) binding affinity is greater for TO compared to TBO. The utility of the present work lies in understanding the potential binding and consequent damage to tRNA by these toxic dyes in their development as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-02-01

    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanomaterials for methylene blue dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deuk Yong; Son, Siwon; Jeon, Min-Seok; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Bae-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    TiO2 nanomaterials were prepared by a sol-gel derived electrospinning, calcination from 500°C to 650°C, and subsequent mechanical grinding to investigate the effect of calcination temperature on crystal structure, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of methylene blue (MB). XRD results indicated that TiO2 nanorods calcined at 500°C is composed of anatase TiO2 only. However, mixed crystals of anatase and rutile were observed for TiO2 calcined above 550°C. Higher MB degradation was found for the TiO2 nanorods calcined at 550°C probably due to the mixed crystals and larger surface area. However, the improved photocatalytic activity was achieved for TiO2 nanotube due to the synergic combinations of mixed crystals, larger specific surface area, and light trapping effect.

  1. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Colpini, L.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Palotina, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis

    2011-07-15

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gave a result similar to that of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  2. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  3. Meta-analysis of superficial versus deep injection of radioactive tracer and blue dye for lymphatic mapping and detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Purushotham, A D; Horgan, K; Klaase, J M; Douek, M

    2015-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in early breast cancer. Currently, no consensus exists on the optimal site of injection of the radioactive tracer or blue dye. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing superficial and deep injections of radioactive tracer or blue dye for lymphatic mapping and SLNB was performed. The axillary and extra-axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rates obtained by lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative SLNB were evaluated. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 per cent c.i. were estimated using fixed-effect analyses, or random-effects analyses if there was statistically significant heterogeneity (P deep injections of radioactive tracer for axillary SLN identification on lymphoscintigraphy (OR 1·59, 95 per cent c.i. 0·79 to 3·17), during surgery (OR 1·27, 0·60 to 2·68) and for SLN identification using blue dye (OR 1·40, 0·83 to 2·35). The rate of extra-axillary SLN identification was significantly greater when deep rather than superficial injection was used (OR 3·00, 1·92 to 4·67). The discordance rate between superficial and deep injections ranged from 4 to 73 per cent for axillary and from 0 to 61 per cent for internal mammary node mapping. Both superficial and deep injections of radioactive tracer and blue dye are effective for axillary SLN identification. Clinical consequences of discordance rates between the two injection techniques are unclear. Deep injections are associated with significantly greater extra-axillary SLN identification; however, this may not have a significant impact on clinical management. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Study on the interaction of the antiviral drug, zidovudine with DNA using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabadi, Nahid, E-mail: nahidshahabadi@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Neda Hossein pour [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The interaction between the drug, zidovudine and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes as a spectral probes by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the conformational changes in DNA helix induced by zidovudine are the reason for the fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. In addition, by increasing zidovudine to DNA-MB solution, the fluorescence has no change. From the experimental results, it was found that zidovudine can cause structural changes on CT-DNA and bind with DNA via groove binding mode. At the same time, the paper proved that conformational changes of DNA can also lead to the fluorescence decrease of DNA-probe systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Search for new molecular structures which exhibit effective antitumor activities among popular drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DRUG can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several spectroscopic techniques have been used in this research.

  5. White organic light-emitting devices based on blue fluorescent dye combined with dual sub-monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huishan, E-mail: yanghuishan1697@163.com

    2013-10-15

    White organic light-emitting devices have been realized by using highly blue fluorescent dye 4,4′-Bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)-4,4′-di-(tert-butyl)phenyl(p-TDPVBi) and [2-methyl-6-[2-(2, 3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H, red fluorescent dye 5H-benzo[ij] quinolizin-9-yl) ethenyl]-4H-pyran-4-ylidene] propane-dinitrile(DCM2), together with well known green fluorescent dye quinacridone (QAD). The fabrication of multilayer WOLEDs did not involve the hard-to-control doping process. The structure of the device is ITO/m-MTDATA (45 nm)/NPB(8 nm)/p-TDPVBi(15 nm)/DCM2(x nm)/Alq{sub 3} (5 nm)/QAD(y nm)/Alq{sub 3}(55 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al, where 4,4′,4′′-tris{N,-(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamine}triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) acts as a hole injection layer, N,N′-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N′-diphenyl-1, 1′-biph-enyl-4, 4′-diamine (NPB) acts as a hole transport layer, p-TDPVBi acts as a blue emitting layer, DCM2 acts as a red emitting layer, QAD acts as a green emitting layer, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) acts as an electron transport layer, and WOLEDs of devices A, B, C and D are different in layer thickness of DCM2 and QAD, respectively. To change the thickness of dual sub-monolayer DCM2 and QAD, the WOLEDs were obtained. When x, y=0.05, 0.1, the Commission Internationale de 1’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device change from (0.4458, 0.4589) at 3 V to (0.3137, 0.3455) at 12 V that are well in the white region, and the color temperature and color rendering index were 5348 K and 85 at 8 V, respectively. Its maximum luminance was 35260 cd/m{sup 2} at 12 V, and maximum current efficiency and maximum power efficiency were 13.54 cd/A at 12 V and 6.68 lm/W at 5 V, respectively. Moreover, the current efficiency is largely insensitive to the applied voltage. The electroluminescence intensity of white EL devices varied only little at deferent dual sub-monolayer. Device D exhibited relatively high color rendering index (CRI) in the range of 88–90, which was essentially

  6. Removal of the blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions using ferric zeolite; Remocion del colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas utilizando zeolita ferrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo H, S. Y.

    2010-07-01

    Water is essential to all life forms, including humans. In recent years water use has increased substantially, also has been altered in its capacity as a result of various human activities, such as domestic, industrial and agricultural, also by natural activity. Undoubtedly one of the main pollutants today are the waste generated by the food industry, due to the use of dyes for the production of their products. So it is necessary to restore water quality through treatment systems to remove contaminants, and thus prevent disease and imbalance of ecosystems. Due to the above, it is important to conduct research directed towards finding new ways to remove dyes such as blue 1 used in the food industry, using low cost materials and abundant in nature as zeolites. To accomplish the above, the present study has the purpose to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the blue dye 1 in aqueous solutions. To accomplish that objective, the zeolite material was reconditioned to improve its sorption properties of the material and provide the ability to adsorb pollutants such as this dye. The zeolite material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. To evaluate the ability of blue 1 dye sorption the kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined; the experimental results were adjusted to mathematical models such as pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and Elovich to describe the kinetic process, and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich to describe sorption isotherms. The results showed that ferric zeolite surface is a heterogeneous material and has a considerable adsorption capacity, which makes it a potential adsorbent for removing color from aqueous streams. Also the sorption of the dye was evaluated at different ph values; the most sorption was carried out at ph values 1, 3 and 11. We also evaluated the change in mass where the sorption capacities for the blue 1 increase by increasing

  7. A new optical probe for the detection of the sentinel lymph node using patent blue V dye in breast cancer: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, F; Poulet, P; Ghnassia, J P; Wilt, M; Weitbruch, D; Rodier, J F

    2013-01-01

    The present study presents a novel near-infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in breast cancer patients, based on the recording of scattered photons. The aim of this study was to improve the detection of patent blue V (PBV), a dye routinely injected during clinical practice. A combined injection of the dye and radioactive colloid was used in the 24 patients enrolled in the study. The clinical results of the ex vivo detection of 70 dye-marked SLNs are reported, subsequent to the injection of various quantities of PBV (0.25-2 ml). The accuracy and success rate of an isotopic probe for the detection of radioactive colloid tracer, the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon and the use of a new optical probe were examined. The radio-labeled and dye-marked sentinel lymph nodes were all detected by the radio-isotopic probe, as opposed to the 75% detected by the eye visibility threshold of the surgeon. The optical probe detected all of the nodes, regardless of the volume of the dye injected. The relative PBV concentration computed by the probe facing SLNs with infravisible/visually undetectable dye-mark was relatively constant at 5.5±1.4 μmol/l. The optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes using PBV and the probe presented in this study have the potential to reduce the false negative detection rate. This instrument is likely to provide surgeons with a simple diagnostic tool, without significantly changing their surgical procedures.

  8. Removal of Anionic Dyes (Direct Blue 106 and Acid Green 25 from Aqueous Solutions Using Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose:The presence of dyes in wastewaters may cause serious problems for the environment because of their high toxicity to aquatic organisms and unfavorable aesthetical impact. In the present study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were used for removal of anionic dyes Direct Blue 106 (DB106 and Acid Green 25 (AG25, from water samples. Materials and Methods:MWCNTs were oxidized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In batch tests, the effects of various parameters such as pH solution (2.0-7.0, oxidized MWCNT dose (0.01-0.04 g, contact time (7-60 minutes, initial dye concentration (30-350 mg/l, and temperature (25-55° C were investigated. Results:The optimum pH for removing of investigated anionic dyes from water solutions was found to be 2.0. The adsorption of the dyes reached equilibrium at 15 minutes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were used to study the adsorption isotherms and the equilibrium adsorption was best described by Langmuir isotherm model. Kinetic adsorption data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order kinetic model and pseudo-second-order model. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics was more accurately represented by pseudo-second-order model. Conclusion:The results suggest that oxidized MWCNT could be employed as an effective material for the removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 500 and 333 mg/g for DB106 and AG25, respectively.

  9. Synthesis of Mesoporous Titania-Silica Monolith Composites — A Comprehensive Study on their Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 113 Dye Under UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejaswini, Thurlapathi Vl; Prabhakaran, Deivasigamani

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of bi-continuous macro and mesoporous crack-free titania-silica monoliths, with well-defined structural dimensions and high surface area. The work also highlights their potential photocatalytic environmental applications. The highly ordered titania-silica monoliths are synthesized through direct surface template method using organic precursors of silica and titania in the presence of surface directing agents such as pluronic P123 and PEG, under acetic acid medium. The monoliths are synthesized with different Ti/Si ratios to obtain monolithic designs that exhibit better photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. The titania-silica monoliths are characterized using XRD, SEM, EDAX, FT-IR, TG-DTA and BET analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized monoliths is tested on the photodegradation of a textile dye (acid blue 113). It is observed that the monolith with 7:3 ratio of Ti/Si showed significant photocatalysis behavior in the presence of UV light. The influence of various physico-chemical properties such as, solution pH, photocatalyst dosage, light intensity, dye concentration, effect of oxidants, etc. are analyzed and optimized using a customized photoreactor set-up. Under optimized conditions, the monoliths exhibited superior degradation kinetics, with the dye dissipation complete within 10min of photolysis. The mesoporous catalysts are recoverable and reusable up to four cycles of repeated usage.

  10. Comparative Study of Ni-Zn LHS and Mg-Al LDH Adsorbents of Navy Blue and Yellow F3G Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Yulia Ikhsani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of disperse dyes from wastewater onto Ni-Zn LHS (layered hydroxide salts and Mg-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides has been compared in this study. Effects of initial pH solution, contact time and initial dye concentration were investigated. The ability of the adsorbent to be reused was also studied. The results showed that acidic condition was favorable for the adsorption of each dyes onto both adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Santosa’s kinetics models. The experimental data fits well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results showed that adsorption of navy blue onto both adsorbent followed Freundlich isotherm adsorption, while yellow F3G followed Langmuir isotherm adsorption. In the application for the adsorption the wastewater containing dyes, Ni-Zn LHS has a better adsorption capacity of 52.33 mg/g than that of Mg-Al LDH that 30.54 mg/g. Calcination of the adsorbent which has already been used increased the adsorption capacity of Mg-Al LDH to 84.75 mg/g, but decreased the adsorption capacity of the Ni-Zn LHS to 42.65 mg/g.

  11. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  12. Reactive Blue 19 Dye Adsorption Behavior on Jujube Stems Powder from Syntetic Textile Wastewater: Isotherm and Kinetic Adsorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2014-06-01

    Results: The results showed that removing RB19 dye with Jujube stems powder as a natural biosorbent had the best efficiency in alkaline condition (pH=10 and by increasing the pH from 3 to 10, the dye removal efficiency increased. By decreasing of initial dye concentration and increasing the time and adsorbent dose, dye removal efficiency increased. In this study, the best fit of the adsorption isotherm data was obtained using the Langmuir model. Kinetic analysis of our results showed that the results well fitted by pseudo-second-order reaction. Conclusion: We can conclude that Jujube stems powder could be used as a biosorbent for dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using silver ion-doped TiO₂ and its application to the degradation of real textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K; Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue dye (MB) was degraded photocatalytically in aqueous solution using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation. The degradations of the dye using untreated TiO(2) and Ag(+) doped TiO(2) were compared. Ag(+) doped TiO(2) was found to be more efficient. Using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) the filtration process was eliminated, as the particles became more settleable. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, depth of solution, degree of adsorption, pH and O(2) on dye degradation was studied. The extent of mineralization was studied by observing the COD removal at different time intervals. The effects of various interfering ions such as Cl(-), NO(3) (-), CO(3) (2-), SO(4) (2-), Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) and electron acceptors such as H(2)O(2), KBrO(3) and (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) on the dye degradation was also studied. The degradation kinetics fitted well to Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo first order rate law. An aqueous solution of MB (20ppm) degraded by more than 99% after UV irradiation for 180 min with Ag(+) doped TiO(2) (2 g/L) and by more than 95% with untreated TiO(2) (2 g/L)(.) The COD removal was more than 91% with Ag(+)doped TiO(2) and more than 86% with untreated TiO(2) after 240 min. The degradation and COD removal of 5 times diluted textile wastewater was more than 98% and 79% respectively with 1 g/L Ag(+) doped TiO(2) after UV irradiation for 420 min.

  14. Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using high-power blue light-emitting diode and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, C; Aoki, A; Takeuchi, Y; Sasaki, Y; Hiratsuka, K; Abiko, Y; Izumi, Y

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) using a combination of red-colored laser/light-emitting diode (LED) and blue dye has been employed for periodontal therapy and the antimicrobial effect seems promising. Blue light, which has favorable wavelength properties, would be more effective as a light source for a-PDT because blue light itself possesses an antimicrobial effect. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a-PDT using a novel combination of high-power blue LED and red-dye agent on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 suspension was irradiated with blue LED (BL) (425-470 nm) or red LED (RL) (625-635 nm) at 30-90 J/cm(2) , or was mixed with erythrosine (ER), phloxine B (PB) or rose bengal (RB) with or without BL irradiation (30 J/cm(2) ). RL (30 J/cm(2) ) in combination with toluidine blue was employed as positive control. All the suspensions of P. gingivalis were serially diluted, plated and incubated anaerobically, and the numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted on day 7. BL irradiation at 60 and 90 J/cm(2) demonstrated a significant reduction in the numbers of CFUs. ER, PB and RB solutions at 160 μg/mL showed almost no or only a minimal reduction in the numbers of CFUs. BL at 30 J/cm(2) combined with ER, PB or RB at 160 μg/mL resulted in a log reduction of 0.9, 1.0 and 7.1, respectively, in the numbers of CFUs; 30 J/cm(2) BL with RB at 1.6, 16 and 160 μg/mL demonstrated a log reduction of 6.3, 8.0 and 5.5, respectively; and a log reduction of 5.2 was obtained after 30 J/cm(2) RL with 16 μg/mL TB. Within the limits of this study, BL was found to have an antimicrobial/growth-inhibiting effect on P. gingivalis, and a-PDT using a combination of BL and RB shows promise as a new technical modality for bacterial elimination in periodontal therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  16. Removal of Evans Blue and Yellow thiazole dyes from aqueous solution by Mg-Al-CO3 Layered Double Hydroxides as anion-exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bouraada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mg-Al-CO3 Layered double hydroxide (LDH was prepared by co-precipitation method at constant pH, and subsequently used to remove Evans Blue (EB and Yellow thiazole (YT dyes from aqueous solutions. The obtained material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis and BET. The kinetic and equilibrium aspects of sorption of the anionic dyes from aqueous solution by Mg-Al-CO3 were investigated in batch mode. The sorption kinetic data were found to be consistent with the pseudo-second-order model. Data for YT and EB sorption by Mg-Al-CO3 were fitted better by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich equation based on the determination coefficient values R2 . The maximum adsorption capacities of 222.2 mgg-1 for Yellow thiazole and 107.5 mgg-1 for Evans blue. The thermodynamic parameters including Gibbs free energy (G°, standard enthalpy change (H°, and standard entropy change (S° for the process were calculated. The negative G° value indicates the spontaneity of the removal process.

  17. 21. The Franco-Prussian War

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, David

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades of the nineteenth century the number of new German children’s books that were translated into English declined, although earlier books continued to be reissued. Germany did not cease to be of interest, but the interest was expressed in different ways. What I want to discuss in this chapter is the way in which British writers dealt with contemporary Germany through novels centred on the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). This may seem an unlikely subject for British c...

  18. Synthesis of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles assisted by brown seaweed Turbinaria decurrens for removal of reactive navy blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleelullah, Mohamed Mathar Sahib Ibrahim; Murugan, Muralidharan; Radha, K. V.; Thiyagarajan, Devasena; Shimura, Yosuke; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-10-01

    Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized using Turbinaria decurrens extract for the first time. The produced Fe3O4 was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The XRD results showed the presence of crystalline Fe3O4, while the FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of organic molecules on the Fe3O4 surface. The homogeneous distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles was observed from the TEM images. The super-paramagnetic nature of the particles was revealed by the VSM studies. The SPIONs also showed good adsorption ability for navy blue dye, with the adsorption kinetics following the Langmuir pattern.

  19. Effect of clay in controlling the non-fluorescence H-dimeric states of a cationic dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in hybrid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Chandan; Shil, Ashis; Hussain, S. A.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication reports the effect of amphiphilic matrices and nano-clay platelets on the aggregation properties of a water soluble cationic fluorescent dye Nile Blue Chloride (NBC) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. In-situ Brewster Angle Microscopic (BAM) studies showed distinct domain structures of complex and hybrid Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. UV-vis absorption spectra showed non-fluorescent H-dimeric band in concentrated aqueous solution of NBC and in complex LB film of NBC with stearic acid. By changing various parameters, a great control over H-dimeric states has been achieved in clay incorporated hybrid LB films. These films can act as efficient fluorescence probe.

  20. Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a 660 nm laser and methyline blue dye for inactivating Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; Silva, Francine Cristina da; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2015-06-01

    New therapeutic modalities such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been investigated in order to be a valid alternative to the treatment of infections caused by different microorganisms. This work evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) using 660 nm laser combined with methylene blue dye to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens. Eighty specimens of compact bone and 80 specimens of cancellous bone were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37°C to induce the formation of biofilms. The specimens were then divided into groups (n = 10) according to the established treatment: PS-L- (control--no treatment), PS+L- (only AM for 5 min in the dark), PS-L+90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L+180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L+300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed by ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental treatments showed a significant reduction (log 10 CFU/mL) of S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bones specimens compared with the control group, and the APDT group was the most effective. Compact specimens treated with APDT showed the greatest reduction in biofilms compared with cancellous specimens, regardless of length of treatment. APDT with methylene blue dye and a 660 nm laser proved to be effective in inactivating S. aureus biofilms formed in compact and cancellous bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Green Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by an Alginate Mediated Ion-Exchange Process and a case study for Photocatalysis of Methylene Blue Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, Choo Cheng; Sunitha Vivek, Yamini; Salamatinia, Babak; Amini Horri, Bahman

    2017-04-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared via extrusion-dripping method through an ion exchange mediated process using sodium alginate. The samples were synthesized at 500 °C and 600 °C to study the effect of calcination temperature. The morphology, microstructure and optical activity of the calcined ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed by TGA, FESEM and XRD. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles synthesized at 600 °C was of higher purity with high crystallinity. To enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of zinc oxide, ZnO/NCC films were synthesized at varying ZnO loading fractions of 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt% and 25 wt% and were evaluated by photodegradation of Methylene blue dye and the highest dye percentage removal is found to be 96% which is obtained at ZnO loadings of 25 wt%. The usage of ion-exchange process has shown promising results in producing ZnO of desirable characteristics.

  2. Application of central composite design and artificial neural network in modeling of reactive blue 21 dye removal by photo-ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrizad, Ali; Gharbani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with use of central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) in modeling and optimization of reactive blue 21 (RB21) removal from aqueous media under photo-ozonation process. Four effective operational parameters (including: initial concentration of RB21, O(3) concentration, UV light intensity and reaction time) were chosen and the experiments were designed by CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained results from the CCD model were used in modeling the process by ANN. Under optimum condition (O(3) concentration of 3.95 mg L(-1), UV intensity of 20.5 W m(-2), reaction time of 7.77 min and initial dye concentration of 40.21 mg L(-1)), RB21 removal efficiency reached to up 98.88%. A topology of ANN with a three-layer consisting of four input neurons, 14 hidden neurons and one output neuron was designed. The relative significance of each major factor was calculated based on the connection weights of the ANN model. Dye and ozone concentrations were the most important variables in the photo-ozonation of RB21, followed by reaction time and UV light intensity. The comparison of predicted values by CCD and ANN with experimental results showed that both methods were highly efficient in the modeling of the process.

  3. Selective adsorption of organic dye methylene blue by Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O in presence of methyl orange and Rhodamine-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Mahboubeh; Seghatoleslami, Zhaleh Sadr; Rahimi, Rahmatollah

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a heterometallic polyoxometalate Cs4H2PMo11FeO40·6H2O with Keggin structure was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The as-prepared polyoxometalate has been utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. The effective factors on the adsorption of this pollutant dye such as amount of adsorbent and adsorption time were examined. The adsorption efficiency and amount of adsorption (qe) were up to 97.4% and 140.84 mgg-1, respectively at the optimum conditions (0.4 gL-1 of adsorbent, 20 mgL-1 concentration of methylene blue and 2 min adsorption time). Furthermore, selective adsorption of methylene blue in the presence of methyl orange and rhodamine-B was demonstrated.

  4. Savant officials in the Prussian mining administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly 'hybrid' experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural inquiry. Among these savant experts there was a particular sub-group that is at the centre of this paper: mining officials who were also recognized as mineralogists, geologists and chemists. The paper describes and analyses the training and the varied technical and scientific activities of these 'savant officials'. At the centre of attention are the travels of inspection of the mineralogist and mining official Carl Abraham Gerhard (1738-1821) in the late 1760s. I argue that Gerhard's travels of inspection were at the same time geological travels and that savant officials like Gerhard made a significant contribution to the fledgling science of geology.

  5. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Solís, Christian; Juárez-Ramírez, Isaías; Moctezuma, Edgar; Torres-Martínez, Leticia M

    2012-05-30

    Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450°C, SiC-TiO(2) catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO(2) anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m(2)g(-1), and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO(2) (P25), SiC-TiO(2) catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO(2) particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO(2) catalysts. TiO(2) nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO(2) semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Solis, Christian [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias, E-mail: isajua13@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol-gel SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO{sub 2} particles on SiC surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better activity than TiO{sub 2} (P25) on organic dyes degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 Degree-Sign C, SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO{sub 2} anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO{sub 2} (P25), SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO{sub 2} particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  8. Removal of Dye (Blue 56 From Aqueous Solution via Adsorption onto Pistachio Shell: kinetic and isotherm study of removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravanpaykar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, shells of pistachio are used as adsorbents and they have been successfully used for the removal of Blue 56, from water samples. The effect of various parameters such as: pH, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles and contact time on removal processing were investigated. Inthisstudy Freundlichabsorptionisotherms and Langmuir were investigated. The experimental data were correlated reasonably well by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and isotherm parameters were calculated. In order to investigate the efficiency of Blue 56 adsorption on the pistachio shell, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. Themodel that hadgoodcorrelationtoattractFreundlichwas chosenasthemodel. Its kineticsfollowsthepseudosecond order reaction.

  9. Adsorption of CI Basic Blue 3 Dye Molecules from Aqueous Media by Sulfuric Acid-Activated Montmorillonite Mineral

    OpenAIRE

    Taşar, Şeyda; Fatih KAYA; Özer, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Many industries (especially textile, paper, plastic) which use chemicals and colorants, generate considerable amount of waste water since they use excessive amounts of water in their operations. and they These waste waters form a significant reason of worldwide water pollution, and if they are released before being treated, they bring an important harm to these waters.  Therefore, In this paper, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of CI Basic Blue 3 (BB3) from aqueous media using sul...

  10. Modeling of Reactive Blue 19 azo dye removal from colored textile wastewater using L-arginine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Optimization, reusability, kinetic and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvand, Arash; Nabizadeh, Ramin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Ganjali, Mohammad [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoobi, Mehdi [Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazmara, Shahrokh [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Mahvi, Amir, E-mail: ahmahvi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the removal of Reactive Blue 19 from colored wastewater using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles modified with L-arginine (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on dye removal and determining the optimum condition, the Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Applying Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles for dye removal showed that; by increasing adsorbent dose and decreasing pH, dye concentration, and ionic strength dye removal has been increased. In the optimum condition, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were able to remove dye as high as 96.34% at an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 0.74 g/L, and pH 3. The findings indicated that dye removal followed pseudo-second-order kinetic (R{sup 2}=0.999) and Freundlich isotherm (R{sup 2}=0.989). Based on the obtained results, as an efficient and reusable adsorbent, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles can be successfully applied for dye removal from colored wastewater. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine removed RB 19 azo dye from wastewater efficiently. • BBD under RSM was used to analyze and optimize the adsorption process. • pH was the most influential parameter in dye removal.

  11. Removal of acid blue 9, food yellow 3 and FD&C yellow nº 5 dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon, activated earth, diatomaceous earth, chitin and chitosan: equilibrium studies and thermodynamic

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Luiz Dotto; Mery Luiza Garcia Vieira; Janaína Oliveira Gonçalves; Luiz Antônio de Almeida Pinto

    2011-01-01

    This work compared activated carbon, activated earth, diatomaceous earth, chitin and chitosan to removal acid blue 9, food yellow 3 and FD&C yellow nº 5 dyes from aqueous solutions with different pH values (2-10). In the best process condition for each dye, equilibrium studies were carried out at different temperatures (from 298 to 328 K) and Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted with experimental data. In addition, entropy change, Gibbs fr...

  12. A novel colorimetric assay of β-D-glucans in basidiomycete strains by alcian blue dye in a 96-well microtiter plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Semedo, Magda; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Basidiomycete strains synthesize several types of β-d-glucans, which play a major role in the medicinal properties of mushrooms. Therefore, the specific quantification of these β-d-glucans in mushroom strains is of great biochemical importance. Because published assay methods for these β-d-glucans present some disadvantages, a novel colorimetric assay method for β-d-glucan with alcian blue dye was developed. The complex formation was detected by following the decrease in absorbance in the range of 620 nm and by hypsochromic shift from 620 to 606 nm (∼14 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Analysis of variance was used for optimization of the slope of the calibration curve by using the assay mixture containing 0.017% (w/v) alcian blue in 2% (v/v) acetic acid at pH 3.0. The high-throughput colorimetric assay method on microtiter plates was used for quantification of β-d-glucans in the range of 0-0.8 μg, with a slope of 44.15 × 10(-2) and a limit of detection of 0.017 μg/well. Recovery experiments were carried out by using a sample of Hericium erinaceus, which exhibited a recovery of 95.8% for β-1,3-d-glucan. The present assay method exhibited a 10-fold higher sensitivity and a 59-fold lower limit of detection compared with the published method with congo red. β-d-glucans of several mushrooms strains were isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia, and they were quantified by this assay method. This assay method is fast, specific, simple, and it can be used to quantify β-d-glucans from other biological sources. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Cobalt iron selenide/sulfide porous nanocubes as high-performance electrocatalysts for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiqing; Qian, Xing; Niu, Yudi; Shao, Li; Zhu, Changli; Hou, Linxi

    2017-11-01

    A novel series of ternary compounds, namely cobalt iron selenide/sulfide nanocubes, are successfully synthesized as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which deliver excellent performances. Homogeneous cobalt iron Prussian-blue-analog (PBA) nanocubes are prepared as the templates and are subsequently dealt with selenation/sulfidation processes via hydrothermal methods. Owing to their unique morphology, porous structure, high surface area, small charge transfer resistance and high diffusion coefficient, the Co-Fe-Se/S nanocubes possess high catalytic activity and excellent conductivity, which are tested and verified by electrochemical measurements. Meanwhile, cobalt iron selenide/sulfide nanocubes CEs achieve high efficiencies of 9.58% and 9.06%, respectively, which are both higher than that of Pt CE (8.16%). All these prominent merits make them outstanding and promising participants among Pt-free CE materials of DSSCs with lower production costs and higher power conversion efficiency.

  14. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  15. Assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull Blue dye for relative output factor measurements of the Leksell Gamma Knife® PerfexionTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubikova, P.; Solc, J.; Novotny, J., Jr.; Pilarova, K.; Pipek, J.; Koncekova, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform assessment of radiochromic gel dosimeter based on Turnbull blue dye formed by irradiation (TB gel dosimeter) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfexionTM. All measurements have been carried out using home-made spherical Perspex glass phantom of diameter 160 mm. TB gel dosimeters were scanned using homemade optical CT scanner. The results are compared with vendor recommended Monte Carlo calculated ROFs values of 0.814 and 0.900 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The comparisons between the gel measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are presented in the form of 2D isodoses for the central slices and 1D profile. Measured ROF 0.746 and 0.874 for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators respectively are in a reasonable agreement with vendor recommended values and measured relative dose distribution in a central slice and measured profiles of all shots show excellent correspondence with TPS.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of CeO2-SiO2 Nanoparticles by Microwave-Assisted Irradiation Method for Photocatalytic Oxidation of Methylene Blue Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time by a facile microwave-assisted irradiation process. The effect of irradiation time of microwave was studied. The materials were characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, UV-vis/DR, and TEM. All solids showed mesoporous textures with high surface areas, relatively small pore size diameters, and large pore volume. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that the as-synthesized nanoparticles exhibited cubic CeO2 without impurities and amorphous silica. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the particle size of CeO2-SiO2 nanoparticles, which were prepared by microwave method for 30 min irradiation times, was around 8 nm. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue dye under UV light irradiations. The results showed that the irradiation under the microwave produced CeO2-SiO2 nanoparticles, which have the best crystallinity under a shorter irradiation time. This indicates that the introduction of the microwave really can save energy and time with faster kinetics of crystallization. The sample prepared by 30 min microwave irradiation time exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic activity of CeO2-SiO2 nanoparticles, which were prepared by 30 min irradiation times was found to have better performance than commercial reference P25.

  17. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and bromophenol blue dyes in water using sol-gel synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman analysis, Photoluminescence (PL) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are in pure anatase phase with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated for the degradation of 10 ppm methyl orange (MO) and bromophenol blue (BPB) dye using 10 mg of catalyst. Anatase TiO2 exhibited the removal of 67.12% and 85.51% of MO and BPB, respectively, within 240 min. The photocatalytic degradation process is explained using pseudo second order kinetics and fits well with the higher correlation coefficient.

  19. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decolourisation potential of growing Rhizopus arrhizus fungal strain in liquid medium containing thiamine was investigated for the removal of anionic reactive dyes such as Reactive Red RB (RR), Reactive Black B (RBB) and Remazol Blue (RB) and a cationic basic dye Methylene Blue (MB). To determine the optimal ...

  20. Cytotoxicity of erythrosine (E-127, brilliant blue (E-133 and red 40 (E-129 food dyes in a plant test system - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18419

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virna Aguiar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes erythrosine, brilliant blue and red 40 on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at doses of 0.4 and 4.0 ml, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, in onion root tip cells. Cells and the presence of chromosomal aberrations were analyzed throughout the whole cell cycle, totaling 5,000 cells for each group of bulbs. The mitotic index was calculated and the statistical analysis was conducted through the Chi-square test (p < 0.05. From the obtained results, it was verified that the food additives erythrosine and brilliant blue were not cytotoxic to the cells of the test system. However, the red 40 dye, at the two evaluated doses and the two exposure times used in this bioassay have promoted a significant reduction in cell division and induced the emergence of anaphasic and telophasic bridge aberrations and micronucleated cells. Additional cytotoxicity studies should be conducted to add information to these and other previously obtained results in order to evaluate, with property, the action of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  1. Visual detection of the human metapneumovirus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a major cause of acute respiratory infections ranging from wheezing to bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children worldwide. The objective of this study is to develop a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of hMPV and applied to the clinical samples. Results In this study, visual RT-LAMP assay for hMPV was performed in one step with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB, and were used to detect respiratory samples. Six primers, including two outer primers (F3 and B3, two inner primers (FIP, BIP and two loop primers (LF and LB, were designed for hMPV N gene by the online software. Moreover, the RT-LAMP assay showed good specificity and no cross-reactivity was observed with human rhinovirus (HRV, human respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV, or influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately ten viral RNA copies, lower than that of traditional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR 100 RNA copies. In the 176 nasopharyngeal samples, 23 (13.1% were conformed as hMPV positive by RT-LAMP, but 18 (10.2% positive by RT-PCR. Conclusion Compared with conventional RT-PCR, the visual hMPV RT-LAMP assay performed well in the aspect of detect time, sensitivity, specificity and visibility. It is anticipated that the RT-LAMP will be used for clinical tests in hospital or field testing during outbreaks and in emergency.

  2. MnCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} for the removal of reactive dye Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA from synthetic textile wastewaters: An adsorption/aggregation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyakoub, A.Z., E-mail: zbouyakoub@yahoo.fr [Nancy University - LEM-ENSG/INPL-CNRS, Pole de l' Eau, 15 Avenue du Charmois, BP 40 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); University of DjillaliLiabes - LMSR, BP 89, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Lartiges, B.S., E-mail: bruno.lartiges@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [Nancy University - LEM-ENSG/INPL-CNRS, Pole de l' Eau, 15 Avenue du Charmois, BP 40 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); University of Toulouse (UPS) - Geosciences Environment Toulouse UMR 5563, 14 Av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Ouhib, R.; Kacha, S. [University of DjillaliLiabes - LMSR, BP 89, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); El Samrani, A.G. [Lebanese University - Graduate School of Sciences and Technologies, Campus Rafic Hariri-Hadath Beyrouth (Lebanon); Ghanbaja, J. [Nancy University - SCMEM-FST/UHP, 7137 boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Barres, O. [Nancy University - LEM-ENSG/INPL-CNRS, Pole de l' Eau, 15 Avenue du Charmois, BP 40 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH){sub 2}) particles are formed when applying MgCl{sub 2} to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite ({beta}-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is obtained when using MnCl{sub 2}. More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.

  3. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142, and Patent Blue V (E131 by erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Jérôme Leba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC50 ≤ 2 μM and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC50 ≤ 800 nM against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8 and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206. In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142 is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC50 ≃ 17 μM whereas Patent Blue V (E131 is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142 by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131 could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Keywords: Antimalarial dyes, Transmission blocking, Triarylmethanes, Drug uptake, Brilliant green, Food dyes

  4. The Prussian Academy of Sciences during the Third Reich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzoldt, Peter; Walther, Peter Th.

    2004-01-01

    In 1933, the Prussian Academy of Sciences and Humanities was an exclusive learned society, out of touch with modern methods and funding, which had also failed to re-establish itself as a "centre of research". During the Nazi regime, it was at best peripherally involved in the restructuring of German academia. While some of its members…

  5. The Prussian Reform Movement: A Case Study in Defense Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    trans. B. Battershaw, Westview Press, 1985. Goethe , J.W., Faust , trans. W. Kaufmann, Doubleday, 1963. Gordon, M.R., "Bush Pact Would Affect Only Older...time a "’people’s army’ had defeated the old order." Although the immediate csults appeared less than noteworthy. Goethe . accompanying the Prussians

  6. Toxicology of food dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylewski, Sarah; Jacobson, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Food dyes, synthesized originally from coal tar and now petroleum, have long been controversial because of safety concerns. Many dyes have been banned because of their adverse effects on laboratory animals or inadequate testing. This review finds that all of the nine currently US-approved dyes raise health concerns of varying degrees. Red 3 causes cancer in animals, and there is evidence that several other dyes also are carcinogenic. Three dyes (Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6) have been found to be contaminated with benzidine or other carcinogens. At least four dyes (Blue 1, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6) cause hypersensitivity reactions. Numerous microbiological and rodent studies of Yellow 5 were positive for genotoxicity. Toxicity tests on two dyes (Citrus Red 2 and Orange B) also suggest safety concerns, but Citrus Red 2 is used at low levels and only on some Florida oranges and Orange B has not been used for several years. The inadequacy of much of the testing and the evidence for carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and hypersensitivity, coupled with the fact that dyes do not improve the safety or nutritional quality of foods, indicates that all of the currently used dyes should be removed from the food supply and replaced, if at all, by safer colorings. It is recommended that regulatory authorities require better and independent toxicity testing, exercise greater caution regarding continued approval of these dyes, and in the future approve only well-tested, safe dyes.

  7. On the performance of Fe and Fe,F doped Ti-Pt/PbO2 electrodes in the electrooxidation of the Blue Reactive 19 dye in simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo S; Ruotolo, Luís Augusto M; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso; Biaggio, Sonia R; Iniesta, Jesús; García-Garcia, Vicente; Montiel, Vicente

    2007-02-01

    The electrochemical performance of pure Ti-Pt/beta-PbO2 electrodes, or doped with Fe and F (together or separately), in the oxidation of simulated wastewaters containing the Blue Reactive 19 dye (BR-19), using a filter-press reactor, was investigated and then compared with that of a boron-doped diamond electrode supported on a niobium substrate (Nb/BDD). The electrooxidation of the dye simulated wastewater (volume of 0.1 l, with a BR-19 initial concentration of 25 mg l(-1)) was carried out under the following conditions: current density of 50 mA cm(-2), volume flow rate of 2.4 l h(-1), temperature of 25 degrees C and electrode area of 5 cm2. The performances of the electrodes in the dye decolorization were quite similar, achieving 100% decolorization, and in some cases 90% decolorization was achieved by applying only ca. 0.3 A h l(-1) (8 min of electrolysis). The reduction of the simulated wastewater organic load, monitored by its total organic carbon content (TOC), was greater for the Ti-Pt/beta-PbO2-Fe,F electrode obtained from an electrodeposition bath containing 1 mM Fe3+ and 30 mM F-. In this case, after 2 h of electrolysis the obtained TOC reduction was 95%, while for the pure beta-PbO2 and the Nb/BDD electrodes the reductions were 84% and 82%, respectively.

  8. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride; Remocion de colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas con una arcilla modificada con cloruro de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, {Delta}S and {Delta}G and {Delta}H) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of

  9. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane, U. V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

  10. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"m...... for the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by untreated dyes......, whereas Fenton-treated dyes had no inhibitory effect on aerobic glucose degradation....

  11. Optimization of degration Basic blue 47 dye Without the use of oxidizing agents by ultrasound-electrochemical techniques and central composite design ( CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atefeh sadat rezaei tousi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intruoduction: One of the most important environmental pollutant is dye compounds. Accordingly, numerous methods have already been proposed for removing these pollutants from industrial waste especially the textile industry. One of the methods that has received a great deal of attention in recent years sono-electrochemical method. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a batch laboratory scale. In this approach, using the Central Composite Design (CCD statistical method, the interactive effects of four important variables of pH, the dye solution concentration, decolorization time, and potential were analyzed and investigated. Results: Based on the conducted experiments and the results obtained in the absence of the hydrogen peroxide oxidant agent, the best conditions for decolorization in the optimal conditions of pH=9, dye concentration=303.3 μM, contact time of 93 min, and a potential of 0.81 V corresponding to the design by the software was 92.8% which was obtained experimentally as 92.34% . Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was mention according optimized conditions by the combination of ultrasound-electrochemical process 96%  in this study. Conclusion: CCD was used as an effective method to measuring the concurrent effect of some important variables on BB47 dye removal. Based on the gained model. Accordingly, the optimal conditions (pH=9, dye concentration of 303/3μM, contact time of 93 min, and a potential of 0/81 V were determined by the software. The predicted decolorization percentage by the model was 92/8%  in these conditions, where it was obtained as 92/34 % after the experimental test. The closeness of these responses are indicative of appropriacy of the model.

  12. Treatment of textile effluent containing indigo blue dye by a UASB reactor coupled with pottery clay adsorption - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.13091

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater containing the blue indigo dye in a UASB (upflow anaerobic reactor, on a bench scale, followed by pottery clay adsorption. The system monitoring was verified by the following physical and chemical parameters: pH, alkalinity, volatile acids, COD and removal of color. The adsorption tests using pottery clay (construction debris as an alternative adsorbent material were performed on a jar test equipment. The results showed satisfactory effectiveness in removing color and organic matter (COD by the UASB, at the order of 69 and 81.2%, respectively. The color removal using ceramic clay as an alternative adsorbent material was 97% for the concentration of 200 g L-1 of adsorbent, evidencing that the use of pottery clay as adsorbent material had significant and promising results, and may be used as a post-treatment unit for removal of dyes present in textile effluents, and since construction debris currently represents a major environmental problem, its use in wastewater treatment may become an alternative to a proper destination of this waste.  

  13. Shape induced (spherical, sheets and rods) optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under ultra-violet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Kumar, Sachin; Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K., E-mail: animesh@mnnit.ac.in

    2016-09-15

    CdS nanostructures of different shapes such as, nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NS) and nanorods (NRs) have been synthesized by one step chemical solvothermal method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, UV–visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The effect of shape on optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures was studied. The optical band gap and emission spectra are found to be shape dependent. CdS NRs were found to have high saturation (Ms) magnetization than that of CdS NPs and NS. The role of shape on photocatalytic performance of CdS NPs, NS and NRs was investigated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under the UV irradiation of wavelength 365 nm. The lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs and larger surface area as reactive facets for adsorption of MB dye molecules in CdS NS are mainly lead to the better photocatalytic performance of CdS NS compared to NPs and NRs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS nanostructures with different shapes (spherical, rod and sheet) by easy and low cost solvothermal method. • Shape induced optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures have been investigated. • The shapes of nanostructures play an important role for photocatalytic performance of CdS nanostructures.

  14. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail: bibhutoshadhikary@yahoo.in

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  15. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  16. Cadmium oxide nanoparticles grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K; Walkenfort, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO-CdO nanocomposites have been synthesized using one step hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of CdO NPs, rGO, and rGO-CdO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The rGO has a sharp 2D peak compared to GO. The sharp nature of 2D band may be due to the larger contribution from single layer sheet. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples has been investigated under UV irradiation. The results of photocatalytic measurements revealed that ~80% of MB dye is degraded by adding the rGO-CdO nanocomposites as photocatalysts into the dye solution. The decrease in the intensity of emission peaks indicates that the photogenerated charge carriers have been transferred from CdO NPs to rGO sheets, which causes to increase the density of O2(-) and OH radicals in the dye solution. The CdO nanoparticles gown on the rGO sheets showed enhanced ferromagnetism (FM) at room temperature, which may be attributed to the short range magnetic interaction of magnetic moments of CdO NPs and spin units present on the rGO sheets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postpartum Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Baby blues after pregnancy Baby blues after pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... tell your health care provider. What are the baby blues? Baby blues are feelings of sadness a woman ...

  18. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  19. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  20. Synthesis of an efficient white-light photocatalyst composite of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles: Application to methylene blue dye decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Muhammad Mohsin [Department of Chemistry and Bioactive Material Sciences, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Bon-Cheol, E-mail: cnt@kist.re.kr [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Jae Ryang, E-mail: jrhahn@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Bioactive Material Sciences, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, 2401 Research Dr, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene-ZnO nanoparticle composite was produced by in situ solvothermal process. • Composite absorbs light from vis to near IR and is highly electrically conductive. • Aggregated ZnO nanoparticles on the graphene enables absorption degradation of dye. • Oxygen vacancies are created in ZnO matrix and Zn atoms are bonded to C=O groups. • There is a strong interaction between the graphene surface and ZnO nanoparticles. - Abstract: A graphene–ZnO nanoparticle composite was fabricated by an in situ solvothermal process at low temperatures without catalytic assistance. The as-prepared composite absorbs light at an extended range of wavelengths from the visible to the near IR (400–1665 nm), efficiently absorbs high-intensity light in the near IR region, and exhibits high electrical conductivity. The highly porous structure of aggregated ZnO nanoparticles on the graphene surface enables these particles to absorb dye and degrade it. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that a number of oxygen vacancy defects are created in the ZnO matrix and that Zn atoms are chemically bonded to C=O groups at the relatively amorphous sites of the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy analysis indicates a strong interaction between the graphene surface and ZnO nanoparticles. Further analyses using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible–near-IR absorption, band gap calculations, electrical conductivity measurements, and photocatalysis show that the incorporation of graphene with ZnO nanoparticles narrows the band gap of ZnO, facilitates an extended range of light absorption, improves the electrical conductivity of ZnO, creates oxygen vacancy defects in the ZnO crystal, and enhances stability against photocorrosion.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of the diazo dye naphthol blue black in water using MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 nanocomposites under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamba, Gcina; Mbianda, Xavier Yangkou; Mishra, Ajay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    A simple sol-gel method was employed to prepare gadolinium, nitrogen and sulphur tridoped titania decorated on oxidised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2), using titanium (IV) butoxide and thiourea as titanium and nitrogen and sulphur source, respectively. Samples of varying gadolinium loadings (0.2%, 0.6%, 1.0% and 3.0% Gd3+) relative to titania were prepared to investigate the effect of gadolinium loading and the amounts of carbon nanotubes, nitrogen and sulphur were kept constant for all the samples. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated for the degradation of naphthol blue black (NBB) in water under simulated solar light irradiation. Higher degradation efficiency (95.7%) was recorded for the MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) nanocomposites. The higher photocatalytic activity is attributed to the combined effect of improved visible light absorption and charge separation due to the synergistic effect of Gd, MWCNTs, N, S and TiO2. Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis revealed a higher degree of complete mineralisation of naphthol blue black (78.0% TOC removal) which minimises the possible formation of toxic degradation by-products such as the aromatic amines. The MWCNT/Gd,N,S-TiO2 (0.6% Gd) was fairly stable and could be re-used for five times, reaching a maximum degradation efficiency of 91.8% after the five cycles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Color Transformation and Fluorescence of Prussian Blue–Positive Cells: Implications for Histologic Verification of Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frank

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles, either modified or in combination with other macromolecules, are being used for magnetic labeling of stem cells and other cells to monitor cell trafficking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in experimental models. The correlation of histology to MRI depends on the ability to detect SPIO-labeled cells using Prussian blue (PB stain and fluorescent tags to cell surface markers. Exposure of PB-positive sections to ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 365 nm commonly used fluorescence microscopy can result in color transformation of PB-positive material from blue to brown. Although the PB color transformation is primarily an artifact that may occur during fluorescence microscopy, the transformation can be manipulated using imaging process software for the detection of low levels of iron labeled cells in tissues samples

  3. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  4. Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) nano-photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmapriya, G.; Manikandan, A.; Krishnasamy, V.; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Antony, S. Arul

    2016-09-01

    Spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0 to 1.0) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using metal nitrates as raw materials and glycine as the fuel. The structural, morphological and opto-magnetic properties of the spinel NixZn1-xFe2O4 ferrites were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Powder XRD, and EDX analysis was confirmed the formation of pure phase of spinel ferrites. HR-SEM and HR-TEM analysis was confirmed the formation of sphere like-particle morphology of the samples with smaller agglomeration. VSM analysis clearly showed the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nature of the samples. The Ms value is 3.851 emu/g for undoped ZnFe2O4 sample and it increased with increase in Ni content. Photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue (MB) dye using the samples were carried out and observed good PCD results.

  5. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  6. Facile one-pot fabrication of nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites and their application in methylene blue dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zongjun; Zhang, Yue; Li, Zhengjie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Guangtu; Zou, Ping; Chen, Huaping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2017-01-01

    Nano-Fe3O4/carboxyl-functionalized baker's yeast composites (NF/CF-BYs) were prepared for the first time based on the ultrasonic cavitation assisted oxygen implosion method using single Fe2+ as iron source. The series of characterization analysis results showed that the obtained NF/CF-BYs had not only the superparamagnetic properties of nano-Fe3O4, but their surface also had plenty of functional groups (especially carboxyl groups) introduced by strong oxidization. The adsorption properties of NF/CF-BYs for methylene blue (MB) were also evaluated. The results displayed that the uptakes of NF/CF-BYs for MB were higher than that of pristine baker's yeast (P-BYs), and the adsorption process was followed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of NF/CF-BYs for MB was estimated to be 141.75 mg g-1 at pH 6. The regeneration efficiency of the obtained NF/CF-BYs was attained to be more than 90%.

  7. Experimental canine model for sentinel lymph node biopsy in the vulva using technetium and patent blue dye Modelo canino experimental para a pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela na vulva usando tecnécio e azul patente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ulcijara Aquino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This paper aims to study and define the experimental model of sentinel lymph node biopsy of the vulva in bitches. METHODS: 0.2 ml of 99mTc phytate was injected intradermally, using a fine gauge insulin needle in the anterior commissure of the vulva. Thirty minutes after 99mTc injection, the inguinal mapping was performed using a gamma probe. After this, 0.5 ml of blue dye (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5% was injected in the same place. After 15 minutes, a 3 cm long inguinal incision was made at point maximum uptake followed by careful dissection, guided by visualization of a bluish afferent lymphatic system that points to the sentinel lymph node (SLN. RESULTS: It was observed that 88% of SLN were identified. It wasn´t found a significant difference among the presence or not of sentinel lymph node in the sides, which is an indication of a good consistency. It was observed a high (88% and significant (χ2=12.89 and p=0.0003 intercession between both methods (blue dye and radiation. CONCLUSION: The experimental model adopted is feasible, becoming advantageous in applying the association of Patent blue and 99mTc.OBJETIVO: Definir um modelo experimental para a pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela na vulva de cadelas. MÉTODOS: 0,2 ml de tecnécio diluído em fitato (99mTc foi injetado por via intradérmica na comissura anterior da vulva. Trinta minutos após a injeção de 99mTc, o mapeamento inguinal foi realizada utilizando uma sonda gama. Após isto, 0,5 ml de corante azul (bleu Patente Guerbet V 2,5% foram injetados no mesmo lugar. Após 15 minutos, uma incisão inguinal de três centímetros foi feita no ponto de captação máxima seguido de dissecção cuidadosa, guiada através da visualização de um sistema linfático aferente corado em azul que apontava para o linfonodo sentinela (LS. RESULTADOS: Foi observado que em 88% das vezes o LS foi identificado. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre a presença ou não de linfonodo

  8. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access wit...

  9. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  10. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  11. Synthesis and studies of water-soluble Prussian Blue-type nanoparticles into chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Benjamin; Larionova, Joulia; Guari, Yannick; Molvinger, Karine; Luna, Carlos; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Caneschi, Andrea; Guérin, Christian

    2010-10-21

    A new approach to the synthesis of highly stable aqueous colloids of coordination polymer nanoparticles was developed by using water-soluble chitosan beads as template and as stabilizing agent. The method consists in the synthesis of nanocomposite beads containing cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles via step-by-step coordination of the metal ions and the hexacyanometallate precursors into the chitosan pores and then water solubilization of these as-obtained nanocomposite beads. We obtain a large range of M(2+)/[M'(CN)(6)](3-)/chitosan (where M(2+) = Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) and M' = Fe(3+) and Cr(3+)) nanocomposite beads and their respective aqueous colloids containing coordination polymer core/chitosan shell nanoparticles. The nanocomposite beads and the corresponding aqueous colloids were studied by Infrared (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption (BET), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic analyses, which reveal the presence of homogeneously dispersed uniformly-sized cyano-bridged coordination polymer nanoparticles. The detailed studies of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of these nanoparticles show the occurrence of a spin-glass like behavior presumably produced by intra-particle spin disorder due to the low spin exchange energy characterizing these materials.

  12. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available % in the analytes. The electrode’s limit of detection and catalytic rate constant were 6.26 µM (4.37 x 106 cm3 mol-1 s-1) and 4.9 µM (6.35 x 105 cm3mol-1s-1) for nitrite and nitric oxide respectively. The fabricated electrode is not difficult to prepare and could...

  13. Organic-inorganic composites consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Prussian Blue analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna, E-mail: alo@pg.gda.p [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Wilamowska, Monika [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Jasulaitiene, Vitalija [Institute of Chemistry, Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2011-04-01

    The organic-inorganic material consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (pEDOT) and copper hexacyanoferrate (Cuhcf) was synthesized. The pEDOT film with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} as counter-ions potentiodynamically polarized in aqueous CuCl{sub 2} electrolyte brings about stable hybrid material (pEDOT/Cuhcf) performing single redox activity of Fe{sup II/III} at a formal potential E{sub f} = 0.61 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/0.1 M KCl) and less clearly shaped two redox coming from copper ions entrapped inside the film. XPS ex situ measurements show three different binding energies for copper (Cu 2p{sub 3/2}: 932.2, 934.8 and 936.3 eV) and two for iron (Fe 2p{sub 3/2}: 708.2 and 709.0 eV). Spectroelectrochemical measurements allowed to establish an order in the energy band gap (E{sub g}) for the investigated hybrids pEDOT/Mehcf (Me = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) as follows: E{sub g(pEDOT/Fehcf)} = 1.40 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Cohcf)} = 1.48 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Nihcf)} = 1.52 eV < E{sub g(pEDOT/Cuhcf)} = 1.6 eV. The hybrid materials were examined as electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Copper centres in pEDOT/Cuhcf as well as high spin iron centres in pEDOT/Fehcf were found to be electrocatalytically active towards hydrogen peroxide reduction.

  14. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of some novel Schiff bases and their Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes: A new route for Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Aly, Hisham M.; Abdelrahman, Ehab A.; Moustafa, Moustafa E.

    2017-09-01

    Six novel Co(II) and Ni(II)-triazole Schiff base complexes have been successfully synthesized by refluxing the prepared triazole Schiff bases with CoCl2·6H2O or NiCl2·6H2O. The Schiff base ligands were prepared through condensation of 3-R-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazole with dibenzoylmethane [Rdbnd H, CH3, and CH2CH3; namely, L1, L2, and L3, respectively]. The prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been identified using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, conductivity, and thermal analysis. On the basis of the conductance results, it was concluded that all the prepared complexes are nonelectrolytes. Interestingly, the prepared Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were employed as precursors for producing of Co3O4 and NiO nanoparticles, respectively. The produced nanostructures have been identified by XRD, HR-TEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra. The produced nanoparticles revealed good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV illumination in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The percent of degradation was estimated to be 55.71% in 420.0 min and 90.43% in 360.0 min for Co3O4 and NiO, respectively. Moreover, the synthesized complexes, nano-sized Co3O4, and NiO products have been examined, employing modified Bauer- Kirby method, for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) and antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) activities.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye and magneto-optical studies of magnetically recyclable spinel NixMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathubala, G.; Manikandan, A.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramar, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel doped spinel manganese ferrite (NixMn1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles were prepared successfully by a superficial microwave irradiation technique using urea as the fuel. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was recognized the configuration of single phase spinel structure of NixMn1-xFe2O4. Debye Sherrer's formula was used to calculate the average crystallite size of the samples, which were found in the range of 15-20 nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the samples, which showed the particle like-morphology with smaller agglomeration, and it was also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental composition, which also evidence for the formation of single pure phase. Microwave heating method produced well crystalline nature of the products, which was confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to calculate the energy band gap and the observed values are increased slightly from 2.05 eV to 2.44 eV with increasing the Ni-dapant. Magnetic characterization of the samples were analyzed by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique and the observed magnetization (Ms) values are decreased with increasing Ni content, due to the different magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Ni2+ cations. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue dye was carried out by self designed photo-catalytic reactor. It was observed that PCD efficiency is increased with increase in concentration of Ni and the sample Ni0.6Mn0.4Fe2O4 shows better photocatalytic activity (96.73%) than other samples.

  18. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  19. Dyeing of Polyester Woven Fabric with Disperse Dye Using Conventional and Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric is generally dyed using high temperature dyeing technique and carrier. Both techniques require high energy consumption while few carriers are toxic in nature. In this study, 100% polyester woven fabric was dyed by microwave and conventional dyeing technique with disperse dye; Foron Blue RD GLN by an exhaust method for short dyeing cycle (15 and 30 min. The fabric samples were dyed using conventional high temperature dyeing technique using recommended recipe. Moreover, samples were also dyed using microwave technique with recommended recipe and by the addition of salt and urea, pre-treatment with caustic and organic solvent for improving the dye uptake value and fastness properties. The dyeing assessment; (K/S?max value by Datacolor spectrophotometer, dye uniformity by optical microscope and washing fastness by grey scale were measured. It has been observed that over conventional dyeing method, microwave irradiation dyed sample gives almost 70% high (K/S?max value and uniform dye penetration and good to very good washing fastness property. In addition, microwave dyeing gives excellent dyeing behavior at short dyeing cycle; 15 min; hence saves energy and sustainable dyeing process

  20. Dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

  1. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  2. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  3. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhisha Jassal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN6]3 (FeHCF, K2Cu3[Fe(CN6]2 (KCuHCF, K2Ni[Fe(CN6]·3H2O (KNiHCF, and K2Co[Fe(CN6] (KCoHCF have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG, Eriochrome Black T (EBT, Methyl Orange (MO, and Methylene Blue (MB. Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71% followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%, KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  5. Chemical Modification on Reactive Dye Adsorption Capacity of Castor Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dharmalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The roles played by four major functional groups (amine, carboxyl, azo, hydroxyl groups in the biomass of castor seeds in adsorption of seven dyes were investigated. These functional groups in castor seeds were chemically modified individually to determine their contribution to the adsorption of ionic dyes. The dyes used were remazol red B, procino yellow, fast green FCF, brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue, neutral red, red-141. It was found that hydroxyl group inhibited the adsorption of anionic dyes but it was major functional group in the adsorption of cationic dyes, hydroxyl group was important functional group in the adsorption of all seven dyes and the effect of methylation of amino group was not significant on the adsorption of seven dyes.

  6. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  7. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  8. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naithani Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  9. Textile dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Guaratini, Cláudia C. I. [UNESP; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [UNESP

    2000-01-01

    A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

  10. Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich

    2012-10-15

    The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  12. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  13. Amazonian açai and food dyes for staining arbuscular- micorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourdes Martins Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae microscopy requires differential staining of typical structures. Dyes employed, such as trypan blue, pose risks to health and environment. Alternative dyes such as pen ink and aniline have variable coloring efficiency. In this work, Brachiaria decumbens roots, discolored with caustic soda (NaOH, were stained with açai, annatto, saffron, trypan blue and pen inks. There were significant differences among dyes regarding stained mycorrhizal structures and pictures quality. Acai was considered the best alternative dye, with similar results to trypan blue.

  14. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  15. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  16. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  17. Hair Dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cosmetics, temporary tattoos, photographic development and lithography plates, photocopying and printing inks, black rubber, oils, greases and gasoline [2]. PPD is the most common constituent of hair dye formulations. It is often the key ingredient but can also be used for color enhancement. PPD is commonly used.

  18. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Laser Dyes. G S Shankarling K J Jarag. General Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September ... Author Affiliations. G S Shankarling1 K J Jarag1. Dyestuff Technology, Department Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga Mumbai 400 019, India.

  19. What Is Happening when the Blue Bottle Bleaches: An Investigation of the Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Air Oxidation of Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurens; Wittkopp, Stacy M.; Painter, Christopher J.; Liegel, Jessica J.; Schreiner, Rodney; Bell, Jerry A.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the Blue Bottle Experiment, a well-known lecture demonstration reaction involving the dye-catalyzed air oxidation of a reducing sugar in alkaline solution, has delineated the sequence of reactions leading to the bleaching of the dye, the regeneration of color, and so forth. Enolization of the sugar is proposed as a key step in…

  20. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Blue 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Basic Blue 99 is a direct, nonoxidative hair colorant used in temporary and semipermanent hair dyes. According to current reported usage data, Basic Blue 99 is used at concentrations from 0.004% to 2% and the most often reported use is in hair tints. Hair dyes containing Basic Blue 99, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Preliminary testing on or by individuals should be done using an open patch test that is evaluated at 48 h after application of the test material. Users, therefore, would be able to determine their individual reactions to hair dye products containing Basic Blue 99. Basic Blue 99 dye is approximately 60% to 63% dye, whereas the remainder of the mixture is composed of sugar ( approximately 25.7%), volatile matter/water crystallization ( approximately 1.8%), and inorganic salts (bringing the mixture to 100%). The dermal absorption of Basic Blue 99 is low in both rats and humans. The LD(50) values of Basic Blue 99 in mice and rats were 2.7 g/kg and between 1.0 g/kg and greater than 2.0 g/kg, respectively. Mice and rats orally administered Basic Blue 99 for 90 days did not show any indications of cumulative toxicity. Discoloration of organs involved in the elimination of Basic Blue 99 from the animals was noted in both test species. In rabbits, Basic Blue 99 did not cause ocular irritation, but some discoloration was noted. Basic Blue 99 caused minimal dermal irritation in rabbits. Sensitization occurred in animals exposed to Basic Blue 99 in a DMSO vehicle, but not in a water vehicle in guinea pigs and mice. Basic Blue 99 administered by gavage did not cause developmental toxicity in rats. Basic Blue 99 was a weak mutagen with and without metabolic activation in the Ames test, producing

  2. Waterless Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    ODABAŞOĞLU, Hakkı Yasin; AVİNÇ, Osman Ozan; YAVAŞ, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO), having liquid-like densities, hereby provides hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can lead to shorter dyeing durations compared to conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a novel dyeing process, is an anhydrous dyeing and this process involves the use of less energy and chemicals than conventional water dyeing processes resulting in a potential of up to 50% low...

  3. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9 using ower wastes (FW as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D, dye concentration (C and contact time (t, were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%, allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosage of 7,8 gL-1, dye concentration of 7,11 mgL-1 and contact time of 104 min. These results suggest that owers wastes are an alternative and potential adsorbent material for the treatment of dissolved acid dyes. En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9 a través de un diseño factorial completo 23 y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box-Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D, concentración de colorante (C y tiempo de contacto (t. El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó un adecuado coeficiente de ajuste (R2 = 99,18 %, permitiendo alcanzar una remoción del 98,5% con una dosificación de 7,8 gL-1, concentración de colorante de 11,7 mgL-1 y tiempo de contacto de 104 min. Estos resultados sugieren que los residuos de flores constituyen un material adsorbente alternativo y potencial para el tratamiento de colorantes ácidos disueltos.

  4. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  6. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Reactive Red (33%) and Coloron Violet (66%) were decolorized moderately.The dye Coloron Black (9%) was highly ... ues into river and lakes lead to higher biological oxygen demand (BOD) causing serious ... Reactive Red, Reactive Blue were purchased from Evergreen Ind- ustries, Ahmedabad, India.

  7. The Use of Vital Dyes during Vitreoretinal Surgery - Chromovitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Maurício; Penha, Fernando M; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. It is well known that indocyanine green is toxic to the retina and consequently not the ideal dye for chromovitrectomy. Different vital dyes has been tested for chromovitrectomy including trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein and brilliant blue. Brilliant blue seems to be the ideal dye for internal limiting membrane due to its afinity, lower toxic profile and to reduce the appearance of apoptosis. Besides the dye itself, the injection technique is crucial to avoid additional toxicity, slow injection, far from the retina and protection of the macular hole are some tips. More recently the use of dyes has been applied to stain perfluorcarbon liquids that may enhance its visualization during vitrectomy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Chitosan/Fe spheres on the blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light; Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradacao do corante azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kely V. de; Zamora, Patricio G.P.; Zawadzki, Sonia F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: zawadzki@quimica.ufpr.br

    2010-07-15

    The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a long time. The purpose of this study is the use of photo-Fenton processes assisted by artificial or solar light, using immobilized iron on chitosan beads, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, for the anthraquinone type compound Blue QR-19 standard dye degradation in aqueous solutions. The obtained spheres showed a regular size and 4.0 mm diameter. The results showed 90% discoloration of the system within 180 minutes and a 60% total organic carbon (TOC)reduction for the photo-Fenton system using artificial light. For the system using sunlight, the total discoloration was achieved in 120 minutes and the TOC value decreased 70%. Also observed was that iron remained in the polymeric matrix after the treatment, thus allowing reuse. (author)

  9. [Experimental study of immune reactivity in Swiss mice due to topical administration of three textile dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavăt, C C; Lupuşoru, R V; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena

    2010-01-01

    Reactive Red 183, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Blue 204 (red dye, green dye and blue dye) are three reactive dyes frequently used in textile industry. In some atmospheric conditions ( high temperature, perspiration, pH values, UV/IR radiations), some quantities of these hydrolyzed dyes, could pass from textile clothes directly into the human skin. There were used 4 groups of white Swiss mice (with similar weight and number of both sexes), control group and 3 groups, treated once daily with a retro-auricular application of different reactive dyes. After 14 days of treatment, blood samples were taken from retro-orbitary plexus to assess leukocyte count, phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils, serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages, splenic T lymphocytes with rossetting capacity and spleen cells forming Jerne plaques. The retro-acuricular and latero-cervical nodes were weighted. Red dye did not influence the weight of the studied nodes, but determined statistically significant modifications on non-specific immune system parameters. Blue and grena dyes determined modifications of weight especially of retroauricular nodes. Grena dye determined important effects of non-specific immune system parameters (serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages). The blue dye did not determine a biological response. Red and green dye determined important effects on non-specific immune system parameters.

  10. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  11. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, University of California Davis, Davis CA 95616 USA; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  12. Removal of synthetic food dyes in aqueous solution by Octolig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dean F; Alessio, Rachael J; McCane, Cheryl H

    2013-01-01

    We studied six of the seven food dyes commonly used, e.g., FD&C Blue No. 1 and No. 2, Green No. 3, Red No. 3 and No. 40, Yellow No. 5 and No. 6. Quantitative removal was achieved by passage of dyes in aqueous solutions over chromatography columns packed with Octolig, a polyethylenediimine covalently attached to high-surface-area silica. A structural feature most of the dyes have in common are the presence of sulfonate groups attached to aromatic molecules. Prior studies and the current one indicated that the seventh food dye (Green No. 3) should also be quantitatively removed. Matrix effects were considered, but none were observed.

  13. Decolorisation of disperse dark blue 148 with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, S.; Yetisir, I.; Eren, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is decolorisation of CI Disperse Dark Blue 148 dye by ozone treatment which is one of the most attractive alternatives for solving the problem of color in textile dyeing effluents. A venturi injection system added dyeing chamber for getting ozone from the ozone generator. And additive (acetic acid and dispersing agent) put in the dyeing. After the coloration, the experimental color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, temperature (°C) and conductivity (μS/cm) were measured. The results encourage the use of the system for decolorisation trials as well as dyebath effluent recycling.

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002703.htm Hair dye poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint ...

  15. A comparative spectroscopic study of thiourea effect on the photophysical and molecular association behavior of various phenothiazine dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Dezhampanah, H.; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the role of a structure breaking additive (thiourea) on the photophysical and molecular association of a series of phenothiazine dyes in aqueous media using the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods for the first time. The studied dyes were thionine, azure A, azure B, toluidine blue, and methylene blue. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM program. Relevant spectral parameters in the dye solutions were estimated and discussed based on the chemical structure of the additive and excitonic treatment. The observation of spectral changes in the spectral data of the (water-additive-dye) system indicates the possible structure formation between the dye and additive molecules. However, it is found that in the high concentrations of thiourea the dimer geometries (H- and J-type dimers) are influenced by the dye-additive interactions. As a result, a competition between the dye-additive and dye-dye interactions was also observed.

  16. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  17. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinu, R.; Akki, Spurti U. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute Of Science, Bangalore, 560012, Karnataka (India); Madras, Giridhar, E-mail: giridhar@chemeng.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute Of Science, Bangalore, 560012, Karnataka (India)

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO{sub 2} (CS TiO{sub 2}) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2} (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO{sub 2} followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O {approx} acriflavine {approx} safranin O. CS TiO{sub 2} showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO{sub 2} and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye.

  18. Investigation of dye functional group on the photocatalytic degradation of dyes by nano-TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinu, R; Akki, Spurti U; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of five anionic, eight cationic and three solvent dyes using combustion-synthesized nano-TiO(2) (CS TiO(2)) and commercial Degussa P-25 TiO(2) (DP-25) were evaluated to determine the effect of the functional group in the dye. The degradation of the dyes was quantified using the initial rate of decolorization and mineralization. The decolorization of the anionic dyes with CS TiO(2) followed the order: indigo carmine > eosin Y > amido black 10B > alizarin cyanine green > orange G. The decolorization of the cationic dyes with DP-25 followed the order: malachite green > pyronin Y > rhodamine 6G > azure B > nile blue sulfate > auramine O approximately = acriflavine approximately = safranin O. CS TiO(2) showed higher rates of decolorization and mineralization for all the anionic dyes compared to DP-25, while DP-25 was better in terms of decolorization for most of the cationic dyes. The solvent dyes exhibited adsorption dependent decolorization. The order of decolorization and mineralization of the anionic and cationic dyes (a) with CS TiO(2) and DP-25 was different and correlated with the surface properties of these catalysts (b) were rationalized with the molecular structure of the dye and the degradation pathway of the dye. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical properties of cyanine dyes in nanotubes of chrysotile asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoytov, Anton A.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.; Belotitskii, Vladimir I.; Kumzerov, Yuri A.; Sysoeva, Anna A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of cyanine dye molecules incorporated in nanotubes of natural chrysotile asbestos are studied. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of dye in asbestos have the similar shapes as in the ethanol solution, apart from small blue shift of the maxima. The Stokes shift in asbestos is smaller than in the ethanol solution. The fluorescence decay times of the dyes in asbestos nanotubes are found to be larger than that in the case of thin films of the same dyes formed on the transparent dielectric supports. This observation is rationalized in terms of the stereoisomerization hindrance in the excited electronic state of dye molecules. At the same time linear dichroism and fluorescence anisotropy observed in the experiment indicate that the embedded dye molecules are well-isolated monomer oriented predominantly along asbestos nanotubes.

  20. Amine-Reactive Dyes for Dead Cell Discrimination in Fixed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Stephen P.; Chattopadhyay, Pratip K.; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Nguyen, Richard; Ambrozak, David; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Amine-reactive dyes, also known as LIVE/DEAD® fixable dead cell stains, are a class of viability dyes suitable for identifying dead cells in samples that will be fixed. These dyes cross the cell membranes of dead cells, and react with free amines in the cytoplasm. Live cells exclude these dyes because their cell membranes are intact, and free dye is washed away after staining. Notably, the reaction is irreversible; therefore, when cells are fixed and permeabilized (as with intracellular staining procedures), the bound dye remains associated with the dead cells (unlike other viability dyes). Since amine-reactive dyes are fluorescent when excited by lasers, dead cells can be identified by flow cytometry. This unit describes procedures, troubleshooting, and outcomes for using the two most commonly used amine-reactive dyes, ViViD and Aqua Blue. PMID:20578108

  1. Dyeing of hydrophobic fabrics with disperse dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITHAL SOMA PATEL

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of disperse dyes has been synthesized by diazotisation of 2,6-dibromo-4-nitroaniline and coupled with various N-arylmaleimides. The dyes were characterized by IR spectral studies, visible absorption spectroscopy and elemental analysis. All the dyes were applied as disperse dyes on nylon, cellulose triacetate and polyester fabrics. These dyeswere found to give yellowish orange to deep brown shades with very good depth, levelness and brightness on different fabrics. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on fabrics were found to be very good. The light, washing, rubbing, perspiration and sublimation fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were found to be good to excellent.

  2. Neurology and Neurologists during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) ended with the firm establishment of the French Republic and with German unity under Prussian leadership. After describing the events leading to the war, we explain how this conflict was the first involving the use of machine guns; soldiers were struck down by the thousands. Confronted with smallpox and typhus epidemics, military surgeons were quickly overwhelmed and gave priority to limb injuries, considering other wounds as inevitably fatal. Here, we present detailed descriptions of spinal and cranial injuries by Léon Legouest and of asepsis prior to trepanning by Ernst von Bergmann. Both the war and the Commune had disastrous effects on Paris. Jean-Martin Charcot continued to work intensely through the conflict, caring for numerous patients at La Salpêtrière Hospital according to his son Jean-Baptiste's account, which we've also excerpted below. As for young Dejerine, he treated the wounded from France who had taken refuge in Switzerland. Désiré-Magloire Bourneville also took heroic initiatives, as did Charles Lasègue, Alfred Vulpian, Alix Joffroy and Victor Cornil. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Efficient sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films with cyanine and merocyanine organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, Kazuhiro; Hara, Kohjiro; Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Photoreaction Control Research Center (PCRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Shingo; Mori, Tohru; Abe, Yoshimoto [Tokyo Science Univ., Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpou, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Labs. Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-10-15

    Various kinds of cyanine and merocyanine organic dyes having short anchoring groups as sensitizers on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} electrodes were investigated to promote the short-circuit photocurrent (J{sub sc}) and the solar light-to-power conversion efficiency ({eta}{sub sun}). The J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} improved when the three different dyes (yellow and red cyanine dyes, and blue squarylium cyanine dye) were adsorbed simultaneously on a TiO2 electrode, as compared with the J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} of the TiO2 electrodes adsorbed by each single dye. The maximum {eta}{sub sun} was 3.1 % (AM-l.5, 100 mW/cm{sup -2}). The J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} were influenced by the solvents for the dye adsorption on the TiO{sub 2} electrode, and the efficiencies were improved by the addition of some cholic acids into the dye solution for adsorption. The electron transfer and/or the energy transfer from the red cyanine dye to the blue cyanine dye was observed on a SiO{sub 2} film using emission spectroscopy, suggesting a strong interaction between two dyes. The J-like aggregates of the blue cyanine dyes hardly showed sensitization efficiency. (Author)

  4. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-01-01

    .... This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise...

  5. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  6. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  7. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were....... Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was demonstrated to be due to electroluminescence pumping of the zinc-porphyrin moieties that were covalently linked to homopolymer material. When only one zinc-porphyrin dye was incorporated into the backbone...

  8. Spectophotometric Study of Interaction between Sodium Carrageenate and Cationic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes, namely, methylene (MB and acridine orange (AO with an anionic polyelectrolyte, namely, sodium carrageenate (NaCar has been investigated by spectrophotometric method and spectrofluorimetric method. The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths.The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and sodium carrageenate was found to be lesser than that formed between methylene blue and sodium carrageenate. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea, surfactants and electrolytes. The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and sodium carrageenate was mainly due to electrostatic interaction while that between methylene blue and carrageenate is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye and its relation to metachromasy has been discussed.

  9. Mechanistic study of a diazo dye degradation by Soybean Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsoom, Umme; Ashraf, Syed Salman; Meetani, Mohammed A; Rauf, Muhammad A; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Enzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published. Results The present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as e...

  10. optimization of crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maje malamiyo

    pretreated peel for removal of methylene blue from simulated wastewater. At optimum dose (1.0g) and contact time (45min) maximum colour removal efficiencies of the peel was found to be 99% from a. 12.32mg/L aqueous dye solution. The study showed that pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage play a vital role in dye ...

  11. Assessment of different dyes used in leakage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Ferk, Stephan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Deckert, Andreas; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the most suitable dye for endodontic dye leakage studies, which could be a further step towards standardisation. The root canals of 70 extracted, single-rooted human adult teeth were enlarged to apical size 50 using hand instruments. The teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each), and all root canals were completely filled by injection with one of the following dyes: methylene blue 0.5% and 5%, blue ink, black ink, eosin 5%, basic fuchsin 0.5% and drawing ink. Transverse root sections from the coronal, middle and apical part of the roots were examined, and the percentage of the dentine penetrated by dye was evaluated by software-supported light microscopy. In addition, the range of particle size of drawing ink particles was evaluated. There were conspicuous differences in the relative dye penetration into the root dentine and the penetration behaviour in the different root sections (two-way ANOVA, both p < 0.0001). One dye (drawing ink) penetrated less into the root dentine compared with all the others (p <0.0001). The particle size of this agent (0.1-2 microm) corresponds best with the size range of a representative selection of 21 species of pathogenic endodontic bacteria. Compared to the other dyes tested, drawing ink appears to be superior for use in endodontic dye leakage studies. The penetration behaviour into the root dentine of all the other dyes tested might be one factor that limits the applicability of these dyes in dye leakage studies.

  12. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  13. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  14. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An organic white light-emitting dye: very small molecular architecture displays panchromatic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2010-11-14

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a new white-light fluorophore is described. The optimization of excitation wavelengths allows the naphthalimide (NI) dyes to display blue, green or white light emission depending on the excitation wavelength.

  16. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  17. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  18. Comparing the mode of action of intraocular lutein-based dyes with synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Martins, Diogo; Caseli, Luciano; Figueiredo, Mafalda C; Sa E Cunha, Claudia; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Souza-Lima, Acácio; Belfort, Rubens; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Maia, Mauricio

    2015-02-19

    To investigate and compare the mechanism by which lutein-based and synthetic intraocular dyes interact with their target membranes during ophthalmic surgeries. Surrogate membrane models were used in order to simulate the different intraocular membranes: internal limiting membrane (ILM), vitreous, anterior capsule (AC), and epiretinal membrane (ERM). Different lutein-based dyes, such as Phacodyne, Retidyne, Retidyne Plus, and Vitreodyne were tested, as well as Trypan Blue (TB), Indocyanine Green (ICG), Brilliant Blue (BB), and Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA). The interactions between the film components occurring at the air-water interface were investigated with surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). With the exception of TA and ICG, none of the tested dyes revealed toxicity to the analyzed membranes. The interaction of TA with the vitreous model affected deeply the biointerface structure of the model. A significant condensation of the monolayer is noted when ICG contacted with ILM by the isotherms or even a solubilization of part of the monolayer toward the aqueous subphase. Retidyne Plus may provide the fluidization of the membrane, but maintains intact the structure of proteins present in the model. The present study demonstrates for the first time that lutein-based dyes interact through a physical mechanism of action with membrane models of structures present in human eye. On the other hand, the chemical interaction of synthetic dyes TA and ICG resulted in an alteration of the membrane models. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) evaluation as optical dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguezan Neto, E.; Batistuti, M. R.; Pavoni, J. F.; Bachmann, L.

    2017-05-01

    The radiochromic Turnbull Blue Gel (TBG) is sensitive to X- and γ-rays. When exposed to high-energy radiation, TBG can simulate biological tissues, so this gel has potential use in ionizing radiation dosimetry. After irradiation, the yellow TBG changes to the blue Turnbull Blue dye. This work aims to evaluate how TBG responds to exposure to ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation from the sun. The gel was irradiated with a solar simulator, which sensitized TBG and transformed it into the Turnbull Blue dye; a change in the optical absorption ensued. The fluence values delivered by the source did not provide a linear response, but it was still possible to use TBG as an optical dosimeter. In conclusion, TBG can be applied to detect solar radiation because it is sensitive enough to measure sun exposure values at time intervals of few minutes.

  20. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  1. A switchable digital microfluidic droplet dye-laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Alexander J C; Gather, Malte C; Eydelnant, Irwin A; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Weitz, David A; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2011-11-07

    Digital microfluidic devices allow the manipulation of droplets between two parallel electrodes. These electrodes can act as mirrors generating a micro-cavity, which can be exploited for a droplet dye-laser. Three representative laser-dyes with emission wavelengths spanning the whole visible spectrum are chosen to show the applicability of this concept. Sub-microlitre droplets of laser-dye solution are moved in and out of a lasing site on-chip to down-convert the UV-excitation light into blue, green and red laser-pulses. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. Solar efficiency of a photo catalytic nonwoven: dye removal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, C.; Disdier, J.; Herrmann, J. M.; Monnet, C.; Dussaud, J.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.

    2003-07-01

    A specially designed titania photo catalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photo catalytic support, with Millennium anatase PC50 and PC500 at different mass coatings. Several types of reactants were treated: formetanate (pesticide), Remazole (azo-dye), Amaranth (azo-dye) and Methylene Blue (model dye). Supported catalysts installed in a new solar photo reactor (STEP) were compared to the well-known CPCs working with slurries (0.5 g/L) of the same catalysts. Efficiency of both photo catalytic system was very similar for formetanate removal but not for dye degradation, for which the CPC was more efficient. Solar UV light adsorption by dyes is proposed as the reason for these results. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  4. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  5. Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Zulkarnain [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)]. E-mail: zulkar@fsas.upm.edu.my; Hui, Lee Kong [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)]. E-mail: gs11613@hotmail.com; Hussein, Mohd Zobir [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Abdullah, Abdul Halim [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ramli, Irmawati [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2005-10-17

    The photodegradation of various dyes in aqueous solution was studied. Experiments were carried out using glass coated titanium dioxide thin film as photocatalyst. Photodegradation processes of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), indigo carmine (IC), chicago sky blue 6B (CSB), and mixed dye (MD, mixture of the four mentioned single dye) were reported. As each photodegradation system is pH dependent, the photodegradation experiment was carried out in each dye photodegradation reactive pH range at {approx}28 deg C. The dyes removal efficiency was studied and compared using UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis. The total removal of each dye was: methylene blue (90.3%), methyl orange (98.5%), indigo carmine (92.4%), chicago sky blue 6B (60.3%), and mixed dyes (70.1%), respectively. The characteristic of the photocatalyst was investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The amount of each dye intermediate produced in the photodegradation process was also determined with the help of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis.

  6. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  7. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    animals have been identified as potentially rich in natural dye contents, and some of them have been used for natural dyeing for quite some time. Various parts of plants like roots, stems, barks, leaves, fruits and seeds may contain colouring matter which can be exploited. Normally natural dyes are extracted from the roots ...

  8. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of different methods of application of selected mordants on dyeing woven cotton with natural dyes from the leaves of ... INTRODUCTION. In Uganda, plants have traditionally been utilized as a source of colorants for dyeing mats, ropes and other home based materials for a long time.

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of

  10. Skin discoloration with blue food coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, A J; Kuhn, R J; Petersen, T J

    2000-01-01

    To describe a pediatric patient who developed a clinical cyanotic appearance after receiving an excessive amount of blue food coloring. An 11-year-old white girl with cerebral palsy was admitted for unresolving aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered. During the hospital course, enteral nutrition containing blue food coloring was also administered. Twelve hours after the start of enteral nutrition, the patient appeared cyanotic despite a regular respiratory rate and normal oxygen saturation. The pediatric code response team was called. Enteral nutrition was stopped and then restarted without blue food coloring. Over the next 24 hours, the cyanotic appearance resolved and no further complications developed. At our institution, blue food coloring is used with enteral nutrition for detecting aspiration of stomach contents. The dietary department supplies food coloring to each nursing unit in pint-sized medicine bottles. Nurses place an unstandardized amount of blue food coloring into each enteral nutrition bag. This child received an unspecified amount of FD&C Blue No. 1 food coloring. No toxicity studies exist for acute or human ingestion, but the National Academy of Sciences lists 363 mg/d of FD&C Blue No. 1 as a safe level for humans. We estimated this child ingested 780-3,940 mg of dye over a 12-hour period. This is the first known report of an adverse effect from blue food coloring. To prevent similar occurrences within our institution, the blue food coloring for tube feedings will be dispensed by the pharmacy department in standardized units.

  11. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  12. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. DECOLORISATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SYNTHETIC DYES BY Lentinus polychrous Lév. CULTIVATED ON CASSAVA RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirachaya Boonyarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava rhizomes are left in fields after harvesting. This agricultural waste is rich in lignocellulosic material which is a substrate for white rot fungi. Disposal of synthetic dyes poses a problem to the environment and it needs to be addressed. The ability of Lentinus polychrous Lév., a white rot fungus, grown on the cassava rhizome chips, to decolorise three kinds of synthetic dye was studied. The effects of the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome used for fungal cultivation, the temperature during the decolorisation, and the pH of synthetic dye solution on the extent of decolorisation were investigated. The decolorisations of Reactive blue 49, Navy blue and Acid blue 62 were affected by the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome. The highest extents of decolorisation of these dyestuffs were observed when the fungus was cultivated at 70% initial moisture content. Temperatures of 30, 37 and 45oC did not alter the extent of decolorisation of the dyestuffs. The most extensive decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62 (anthraquinone dyes were at pH 3.0 while that of Navy blue (azo dye was at pH 7.0. Adsorption was the main mechanism of decolorisation of Navy blue. However, both enzymic degradation and adsorption were involved in the decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62.

  14. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  15. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Mohammad Fadhil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  16. Experimental Study of Dye Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Technologies of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fadhil Abid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration?=?65 mg/L, feed temperature?=?39?C and pressure?=?8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  17. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  18. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of hazardous dye Ponceau-S by using Chitin:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sr030111Bin Comp

    Solar photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue in water, Chemosphere,45: 77-83. Mckay G, Porter JF, Prasad GR (1998).The removal of dye colors from aqueous solution by adsorption on low-cost materials, water, Air, soil. Pollut.,114: 423-438. McMullan G, Meehan C, Connely A, Kirby N, Robinson T, Nigam P,.

  20. Column studies for biosorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the beads, but Congo Red and Disperse Red 1 were minimally desorbed. The beads in the column retained a high adsorption capacity (91%) for Acid Blue 29 in the second cycle, which suggested that the system using A. niger biomass can be developed for the removal of certain dyes. WaterSA Vol.29(4) 2003: 465-472 ...

  1. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  2. Silver and gold nanocluster catalyzed reduction of methylene blue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Arsenic can be determined in parts-per-million (ppm) level by absorbance measurement. This method is based on the quantitative colour bleaching of the dye, methylene blue by arsine catalyzed by nanoparticles in micellar medium. The arsine has been generated in situ from sodium arsenate by NaBH4 reduction.

  3. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  4. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  5. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    order kinetics, the oxidation of the dye occurred ... coloured and polluted.1 In this communication we focus on the degradation of Brilliant Blue-R ... water.10 We have also reported the oxidation kinetics and mecha- nisms of reactions of triaryl11 ...

  7. An evaluation of the Methylene Blue Reduction Method Used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples 9130) taken from raw milk received at Swaziland Dairy Board processing plant were analyzed for dye reduction and plate counts. Samples were highest in ... This supported the conclusion that the methylene blue test did not accurately estimate the bacterial load of the raw milk in Swaziland. UNISWA Research ...

  8. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro

    2013-11-15

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing–thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  9. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-15

    Aug 15, 2013 ... Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes. (Reactive Red RB, Reactive Black B, ... Keywords: Rhizopus arrhizus, wastewater treatment, decolourisation, textile dye. INTRODUCTION. Dyeing effluents ... as bacteria, yeasts, algae and fungi, are able to remove differ- ent classes of dyes (Fu and ...

  10. Selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes from aqueous solution on polydopamine microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianwei; Xin, Qianqian; Wu, Xuechen; Chen, Zhonghui; Yan, Ya; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Minghuan; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) microspheres, synthesized by a facile oxidation polymerization route, were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for selective adsorption and separation of organic dyes. The adsorption processes towards nine water-soluble dyes (anionic dyes: methyl orange (MO), eosin-Y (EY), eosin-B (EB), acid chrome blue K (ACBK), neutral dye: neutral red (NR), and cationic dyes: rhodamine B (RhB), malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), safranine T (ST)) were thoroughly investigated. The adsorption selectivity of organic dyes onto PDA microspheres was successfully applied for the separation of dyes mixtures. Various influential factors such as solution pH, temperature, and contact time were employed to ascertain the optimal condition for adsorption of representative organic dyes including MB, MG and NR. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were used to fit the adsorption kinetics process. Five isothermal adsorption models (Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich, Temkin, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura) were used to investigate the adsorption thermodynamics properties. The results showed that the PDA microspheres owned good selective adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. The adsorption kinetics process conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model was more appropriate for tracing the adsorption behavior than other isotherm models. Thus, we can conclude PDA microspheres may be a high-efficiency selective adsorbent towards some cationic dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE REGISTERING SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIATION NONDESTRUCTIVE CONTROL ON THE BASIS OF THE THREE-COMPONENT ORGANIC DYES SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Papechyts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral properties of a number of three-component organic dyes of various classes solutions subjected to radiation by gamma and x-ray radiation are investigated. Based on the criteria for the selection of multi-component dye solutions for radiation defectoscopy (presence of dyes intense absorption bands in the visible region of the spectrum, good solubility in the selected solvent, no chemical interaction with each other and with the product of dyes radiation degradation, a significant difference in the rates of radiation degradation of dyes, low feding, it shows that the most promising solutions of the following pairs of dyes (one of which absorbs short-wave, the other – in the longer wavelengths of the visible spectrum: acid yellow fast light + acid green anthraquinone N2B, acid yellow fast light + acid bright blue G, trypaflavine + methylene blue, acid scarlet + methylene blue, uraninite + methylene blue, rhodamine 6G + acid bright blue G, eosin sodium + acid bright blue G, eosin sodium + acid green anthraquinone N2B, lanazol orange + acid bright blue G , lanazol orange + acid green anthraquinone N2B. 

  12. Effect Of Metal Ions On Triphenylmethane Dye Decolorization By Laccase From Trametes Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmelová Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Laccase activity was inhibited by monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Ag+ but the presence of divalent ions increased laccase activity at the concentration of 10 mmol/l. The effect of metal ions on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes with different structures namely Bromochlorophenol Blue, Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Blue and Phenol Red was tested. The presence of metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ slightly decreased triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from T. versicolor except Na+ and Mg2+, which caused the increase of decolorization for all tested dyes. Decolorization of selected dyes showed that the presence of low-molecular-weight compounds is necessary for effective decolorization. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT is the most frequently used. Although HBT belongs to most frequently used redox mediator and generally increase decolorization efficiency, so its presence decreased decolorization percentage of Bromophenol Blue and Bromochlorophenol Blue, the influence of metal ions to dye decolorization by laccase has the similar course with or without presence of redox mediator HBT.

  13. Formation of shaped barium sulfate-dye hybrids: waste dye utilization for eco-friendly treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Lin, Jing; Li, Wei-Ying; Hu, Zhang-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Lei

    2010-01-01

    Owing to the present complexity and difficulty of concentrated dye wastewater treatment, this work aimed to synthesize a reproducible waste-sorbing material for the treatment of wastewater by forming the dye-conjugating complex hybrid. The inorganic/organic hybridization was applied to prepare the objective material by immobilizing waster dye-Mordant blue 9 (MB) with barium sulfate (BaSO4). The composition and pattern of the formed material were determined by spectrometry and characterized by SEM and XRD, and their formation process was clarified. The adsorption of cationic dye-basic blue BO (BB) and copper ion was investigated. The hybrid of MB alone into growing BaSO4 formed the pineapple-like particles while that of the MB/BB-conjugating complex was the rhombus material. The adsorption of BB on the MB-BaSO4 hybrid was probably attributed to ion-pair equilibrium and that of Cu2+ may result from the complexation. The treatment of dye and heavy metal wastewaters indicated that the MB hybrid material removed 99.8% BB and 97% Cu2+ and the dye-conjugating hybrid with growing BaSO4 100% MB, 99.5% BB, and 44% Cu2+. The waste MB-BaSO4 hybrid material is efficient to treat cationic dye and Cu2+ wastewater. The dye-conjugating hybridization method is the first to be advanced for in situ wastewater treatment, and it showed a combined effect for the removal of both organic dyes and heavy metals.

  14. Pyrenoimidazole-based deep-blue-emitting materials: optical, electrochemical, and electroluminescent characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhirendra; Thomas, K R Justin; Lin, Ching-Chiao; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2013-09-01

    A series of pyrenoimidazoles that contained various functional chromophores, such as anthracene, pyrene, triphenylamine, carbazole, and fluorene, were synthesized and characterized by optical, electrochemical, and theoretical studies. The absorption spectra of the dyes are dominated by electronic transitions that arise from the pyrenoimidazole core and the additional chromophore. All of the dyes exhibited blue-light photoluminescence with moderate-to-high quantum efficiencies. They also displayed high thermal stability and their thermal-decomposition temperatures fell within the range 462-512 °C; the highest decomposition temperature was recorded for a carbazole-containing dye. The oxidation propensity of the dyes increased on the introduction of electron-rich chromophores, such as triphenylamine or carbazole. The application of selected dyes that featured additional chromophores such as pyrene, carbazole, and triphenylamine as blue-emissive dopants into multilayered organic light-emitting diodes with a 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host was investigated. Devices that were based on triphenylamine- and carbazole-containing dyes exhibited deep-blue emission (CIE 0.157, 0.054 and 0.163, 0.041), whereas a device that was based on a pyrene-containing dye showed a bright-blue emission (CIE 0.156, 0.135). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Patch testing with a textile dye mix – a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Kristina; Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers. However, they are not included in the majority of commercially available baseline patch test series. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcome of patch testing with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of eight disperse dyes at dermatology...... and 17, all at 1.0%, and Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124, each at 0.3%, provisionally included in the baseline series. Eighty-seven per cent of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the eight separate dyes. RESULTS: Contact allergy to TDM was found in 108 patients (3.......7%). The frequency of contact allergy varied from 2.1% to 6.9% in different centres. Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 57 of the TDM-positive patients (53%). The most frequent dye allergen among the TDM-positive patients was Disperse Orange 3. The contact allergy could have explained...

  16. Code Blue: The Blues as Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Explores the basic features and background of "the blues" as a musical tool, or archetype, for understanding the universal condition of human suffering, for confronting diseases of disability and separation, and for coping or adapting to such suffering. Offers the blues as a method for looking at the spirit of human tragedy and…

  17. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  18. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  19. Oxidative degradation of azo dyes using tourmaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Li; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the catalyzed degradation ability of tourmaline on the dyes methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), and congo red (CR) at different pH values. Interestingly, tourmaline strongly adsorbed anionic dyes, but it did not adsorb cationic dyes. When H₂O₂ was introduced into the tourmaline-dye systems, the degradation percentage for CR catalysis by tourmaline was lower than the percentage of adsorption, whereas the opposite was true for MB and RhB systems. Notably, the catalyzed degradation decreased from 100% to 45% for MB, 100% to 15% for RhB and 100% to 25% for CR as the pH increased from 3.0 to 10.0, respectively, which was much greater than the degradation obtained for previously reported materials at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 10.0. Tourmaline catalytically degraded the dyes over a broad range of pH values, which was attributed to tourmaline automatically adjusting the pH of the dye solutions to approximately 5.5 from an initial range of 4.2-10.0. An electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping technique observed peroxyl (ROO·) and alkoxy (RO·) or alkyl (R·) radicals originated from the attack of ·OH radicals and O₂(·-) radicals, indicating that these radicals were involved in the catalyzed degradation of MB. Importantly, four intermediate products of MB at m/z 383, 316, 203 and 181 were observed by LC/MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene linker: Photophysical properties and solvent effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Clàudia; Carreras, Abel; Alemany, Pere; Casanova, David

    2016-10-01

    In the present work we perform a computational study of the properties of a push-pull organic dye with a quinoidal thiophene unit as the conjugated linker between the electron donor and acceptor groups. We investigate the photophysical properties of the dye related to its potential use as a molecular sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. We rationalize the solvation effects on the absorption band of the dye in protic and aprotic solvents, identifying the interaction of alcohol solvents with the amine in the donor group as the source for the blue shift of the absorption band with respect to aprotic solvents.

  1. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Ingrid; Ibn Hadj Hassine, Aziza; Haj Hamouda, Yosra; Mnif, Wissem; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; De Waard, Michel; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textile wastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured using the Yeast Estrogen Screen bioassay (YES) that evaluates estrogen receptor binding-dependent transcriptional and translational activities. The estrogenic potencies of the dyes and wastewater samples were evaluated by dose-response curves and compared to the dose-response curve of 17β-estradiol (E2), the reference compound. The dose-dependent anti-estrogenic activities of the dyes and wastewater samples were normalized to the known antagonistic effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on the induction of the lac Z reporter gene by E2. About half azo textile dyes have anti-estrogenic activity with the most active being Blue HFRL. Most azo dyes however have no or weak estrogenic activity. E2/dye or E2/waste water ER competitive binding assays show activity of Blue HFRL, benzopurpurine 4B, Everzol Navy Blue FBN, direct red 89 BNL 200% and waste water samples indicating a mechanism of action common to E2. Our results indicate that several textile dyes are potential endocrine disrupting agents. The presence of some of these dyes in textile industry wastewater may thus impact the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Direct Blending Dye Wastewater and Recycling of Dye Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Li Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD, was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto the BSD material approached to 39.36 mg/g. The sorption of EV changed little with pH from 3 to 12 while it increased with increasing levels of electrolyte. A dye wastewater sampled from Jinjiang Chemicals was treated, and the color removal rate was more than the COD removal rate. In addition, the cationic dye-BSD sludge was utilized as a colorant fill-in coating. The light stability and thermal stability of the colorant was measured and exhibited good features. This work provided a simple and eco-friendly method for dye wastewater treatment with recycling of waste.

  3. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mafra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

  4. Reutilização de efluente de tingimentos de fibras acrílicas pós-tratamento fotoeletroquímico Reuse of a effluent from the dyeing of acrylic fabrics after photoelectrochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE between 1.86 and 0.3.

  5. Oxazine laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  6. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  7. Indigo Dye Derived from Indigofera Tinctoria as Natural Food Colorant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Wardani, D. K.; Aini, F. N.; Sari, P. L.; Tamtama, B. P. N.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the uses of dyes are increasingly widespread especially in foods and beverages as food colors to attract the consumers. The dye that currently attracts is indigo. Indigo is a group of carbonyl compounds, one of the oldest known dyes in terms of natural blue dye derived from the Indigofera tinctoria plant. The use of indigo as a natural food dye intended to reduce the use of synthetic dyes are carcinogenic impact. The method used in this study includes the analysis of indigo using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis. Based on the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer analysis results with the various concentrations of 0.002 mg/mL; 0.004 mg/mL; 0.006 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL were obtained maximum absorption peak at wavelength of 550-700 nm. The indigo dyes in various concentrations produce a stable pH at an average pH 9, therefore it can make the colors not easily fade (strong staining). Based on infrared spectrophotometer measurement were obtained absorption spectrum at 3100-3500 cm-1 as primary N-H and secondary amine, 1600 cm-1 as aromatic C=C, 1000-1350 cm-1 as aromatic C-N, 690-900 cm-1 as aromatic C-H.

  8. Harvesting of microalgae cell using oxidized dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Park, Doyoung; Oh, You-Kwan; Yoon, Sukhwan; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    In this study, oxidized dye wastewaters were tested for their potential to be used as a cheap coagulant for microalgae harvesting. Two dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO)) were selected as model dyes, and the Fenton-like reaction under high temperature (90 °C, 1 min) employed as an oxidative treatment option. A maximum harvesting efficiency over 90% was obtained with both MB and MO at a dilution ratio of 5:1 (dye wastewater: cell culture), when the optimal oxidation condition was 20 mg/L of dye, 1 mM of FeCl3, and 0.5% of H2O2 concentration. This phenomenon could be explained by the possibility that amine groups are formed and exposed in oxidized dyes, which act as a kind of amine-based coagulant just like chitosan. This study clearly showed that dye wastewater, when properly oxidized, could serve as a potent coagulant for microalgae harvesting, potentially rendering the harvesting cost reduced to a substantial degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    long time. The purpose of this study is the use of photo-Fenton processes assisted by artificial or solar light, using immobilized iron on chitosan beads, crosslinked with glutaraldheyde, for the antraquinone type compound Blue QR-19 standard dye degradation in aqueous solutions. The obtained spheres showed a regular size and 4.0 mm diameter. The results showed 90% discolouration of the system within 180 minutes and a 60% total organic carbon (TOC reduction for the photo-Fenton system using artificial light. For the system using sunlight, the total discolouration was achieved in 120 minutes and the TOC value decreased 70%. Also observed was that iron remained in the polymeric matrix after the treatment, thus allowing reuse.

  10. In liquid laser treated graphene oxide for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paola, E-mail: rsspla1@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); D’Urso, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Hu, Anming [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 57996-2210 (United States); Zhou, Norman [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Compagnini, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide were tested as adsorbents for dye removal from water. • Reduced graphene oxide was obtained after laser irradiation of a colloidal suspension of graphene oxide. • Methylene blue was chosen as the dye to test graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: The presence of dyes, pharmaceuticals and many other pollutants in wastewaters is critical due to severe effects on the human beings and on the environment. Here, solutions of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were tested as adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB), a cationic dye, from aqueous media. The reduced forms of graphene oxide were obtained after laser irradiation of colloidal suspensions of graphene oxide, obtained by the Hummers and Offeman's method. We observed that both graphene oxide and its reduced forms are excellent adsorbents towards methylene blue. In particular, rGO showed a higher adsorption capacity than GO, suggesting that a strict control of laser irradiation time permits to obtain rGO with different degrees of reduction and therefore the residual oxygenated functional groups may influence the adsorption behaviour more or less. Characterization of the samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that produced rGO sheets via laser irradiation exhibited a discontinuous surface where some holes could be detected contributing to an enhancement of the rGO surface area that is a higher adsorption capacity.

  11. MUTAGENICITY EVALUATION OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT CI DISPERSE BLUE 291 USING DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF THE SALMONELLA ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textile dyes can enter the water ecosystem through wastewater discharges potentially exposing humans through the consumption of water and food. The commercial disperse dye product C.I. Disperse Blue 291 containing the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylam...

  12. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  13. Prussian *Grubrius ‘god of spring and vegetation’ in perspective of the Italic pantheon 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Blažek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The god originally called *Grubrius (or merely *Grubius, worshipped by Old Prussians in connection with vegetation, seems originally to bear a name of a specific tree species. The etymological analysis suggests a relation to the Slavic dendronym *grabъ & *grabrъ "hornbeam".The Latin and German chronicles recorded his name together with the prefix per / par "for" that was part of the name of the festival dedicated to this god. In the level of theonyms, the closest cognate appears in the Umbrian theonym *Grā̌bovius, serving as an epithet of three Umbrian gods, Vofionos, Mars, and especially Iove (Iuppiter, the thunder-god.

  14. Methylene Blue for Bronchopleural Fistula Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kenneth K; Nasim, Faria; Schiavo, Dante N; Nelson, Darlene R; Kern, Ryan M; Mullon, John J

    2017-09-20

    A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. BPFs are challenging to diagnose and are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Sequential balloon occlusion is commonly used for localization of a BPF. We describe our experience with 4 cases of successful localization of the BPF by instillation of methylene blue into the pleural space through a pigtail catheter, with simultaneous bronchoscopic visualization of dye in the tracheobronchial tree. Two patients were treated with endobronchial valves and 3 had a surgical thoracic muscle flap placed.

  15. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  16. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shuhua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  17. Chitosan-edible oil based materials as upgraded adsorbents for textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Clayane Carvalho; Mouta, Rodolpho; Junior, Manoel Carvalho Castro; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu; Silva, Hildo Antonio Dos Santos; Bezerra, Cícero Wellington Brito

    2018-01-15

    Biopolymer chitosan is a low cost, abundant, environmentally friendly, very selective and efficient anionic dyes adsorbent, being a promising material for large-scale removal of dyes from wastewater. However, raw chitosan (CS) is an ineffective cationic dyes adsorbent and its performance is pH sensitive, thus, CS modifications that address these issues need to be developed. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two new CS modifications using edible oils (soybean oil or babassu oil), and their adsorption performance for two dyes, one anionic (remazol red, RR) and one cationic (methylene blue, MB). Both modifications extended the pH range of RR adsorption. The babassu oil modification increased adsorption capacity of the cationic dye MB, whereas the soybean oil modification increased that of RR. Such improvements demonstrate the potential of these two new CS modifications as adsorbent candidates for controlling dyes pollution in effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  19. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  20. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  1. Effects of intracameral brilliant blue on the corneal endothelium of swine: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Terzariol

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim was to investigate the ultrastructural changes in the corneal endothelium of pigs induced by intracameral 0.05% brilliant blue. Twenty swine corneas were separated into two groups, the right eye bulbs (control group and the left eye bulbs (experimental group of the same animal. All the eye bulbs were evaluated with specular microscopy. The cornea of the right eye bulbs was excised and in the left eye bulbs 0.2ml of 0.05% brilliant blue vital dye (OPTH-blue± was injected into the anterior chamber, where it remained for one minute. Then the anterior chamber was cleaned with a balanced salt solution injection and the cornea was excised too. All the corneas were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the changes on the endothelium caused by the brilliant blue dye. There were no significant differences between the right corneal endothelium cells and the left corneal endothelium cells with scanning electron microscopy after intracameral use of 0.05% brilliant blue dye. The 0.05% brilliant blue dye concentration did not cause deleterious effects for the swine corneal endothelium after intracameral use and can be a choice for safe staining of the anterior capsule of the lens in cataract surgery.

  2. Drug: D05647 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05647 Drug Prussian blue insoluble (USAN); Ferric hexacyanoferrate (II); Radiogard...PRODUCTS V03AB Antidotes V03AB31 Prussian blue D05647 Prussian blue insoluble (USAN) CAS: 14038-43-8 PubChem

  3. Polyacrylamide-Phytic Acid-Polydopamine Conducting Porous Hydrogel for Efficient Removal of Water-Soluble Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhen; Li, Leijiao; Geleta, Girma Selale; Ma, Lina; Wang, Zhenxin

    2017-01-01

    Removal of toxic dyes from wastewater has become a hot topic in both academic and industrial fields since there is growing concern about the threat of sewage to human health. Herein, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional porous polyacrylamide-phytic acid-polydopamine (termed as PAAM/PA/PDA) hydrogel can be served as reusable adsorbent with high efficiency for either anionic or cationic dyes. Using methyl blue (MB), methylene blue (YMB), methyl violet (MV) and neutral red (NR) as model dye...

  4. Decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude and purified laccases from Coprinus comatus grown under different cultures: the role of major isoenzyme in dyes decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Ten, Zhen; Ding, Shaojun

    2013-01-01

    Coprinus comatus laccase isoenzyme induction and its effect on decolorization were investigated. The C/N ratio, together with aromatic compounds and copper, significantly influenced laccase isoenzyme profile and enzyme activity. This fungus produced six laccase isoenzymes in high-nitrogen low-carbon cultures but much less in low-nitrogen high-carbon (LNHC) cultures. The highest laccase level (3.25 IU/ml), equivalent to a 12.6-fold increase compared with unsupplemented controls (0.257 IU/ml), was recorded after 13 days in LNHC cultures supplemented with 2.0 mM 2-toluidine. Decolorization of twelve synthetic dyes belonging to anthraquinone, azo, and triphenylmethane dyes, by crude laccases with different proportion of isoenzymes produced under selected culture conditions, illustrated that the LacA is the key isoenzyme contributed to dyes decolorization especially in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazol, which was further confirmed by dyes decolorization with purified LacA in the same condition. The crude laccase only was able to decolorize over 90 % of Reactive Brilliant Blue K-3R, Reactive Dark Blue KR, and Malachite Green, and higher decolorization for broader spectrum of synthetic dyes was obtained in presence of redox mediator, suggesting that C. comatus had high potential to decolorize various synthetic dyes as well as the recalcitrant azo dyes.

  5. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  6. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption studies of cationic, anionic and azo-dyes via monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Saharan, Priya; Kumar, Arun; Mehta, S K; Mor, Suman; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    The present paper reports the applicability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as an adsorbent for the removal of three dyes viz. Acridine orange (cationic dye), Comassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (anionic dye) and Congo red (azo dye) from their aqueous solution. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via simple chemical precipitation method using CTAB, as surfactant. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties by using transmission electron microscopy X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements. The dye removal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs have been determined by investigating several factors such as effect of pH, amount of adsorbent dose and effect of contact time on different dye concentrations. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms have also been studied to explain the interaction of dyes. The experimental data indicate that the adsorption rate follows pseudo- second-order kinetics for the removal of all the three dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles and the adsorbed dyes were desorbed. The identities of recovered nanoparticles as well as the three dyes have been found, as same and were reused.

  8. Adsorption of a textile dye from aqueous solutions by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando M.; Bergmann, Carlos P., E-mail: fernando.machado@hotmail.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais; Lima, Eder C.; Adebayo, Matthew A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fagan, Solange B. [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2014-08-15

    Multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes were used as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Blue 4 textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of pH, agitation time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region, the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium isotherms at 298-323 K was fixed at 4 hours for both adsorbents. For Reactive Blue 4 dye, Liu isotherm model gave the best fit for the equilibrium data. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, attaining values of 502.5 and 567.7 mg g{sup -1} for MWCNT and SWCNT, respectively. (author)

  9. The Application of Functionalized Pillared Porous Phosphate Heterostructures for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jiménez-Jiménez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesized functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructure (PPH, surface functionalized phenyl group, has been used to remove the dye Acid Blue 113 from wastewater. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to study its structure. The specific surface area of this was 498 m2/g. The adsorption capacities of PPH and phenyl surface functionalized (Φ-PPH were 0.0400 and 0.0967 mmol/g, respectively, with a dye concentration of 10−5 M when well fitted with SIPS and Langmuir isotherms respectively (pH 6.5, 25 °C. The incorporation of the dye to the adsorbent material was monitored by the S content of the dye. It is suggested as an alternative for Acid Blue 113 remediation.

  10. Photosensitized Oxidation of 9,10-Dimethylanthracene on Dye-Doped Silica Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elim Albiter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB, safranin O (SF, toluidine blue (TB, and neutral red (NR, were successfully incorporated into a silica matrix by using ultrasound irradiation during the Stöber process. Several analyses were performed, including scanning dynamic light scattering (DLS, electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen physisorption, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The entrapped dyes on silica were evaluated in singlet oxygen (1O2 generation under visible light irradiation, by means of the photosensitized oxidation of 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA. According to the results, the photocatalytic performance of the silica composites was improved, and the leakage of the dye from the particles was suppressed. Among these four different types of dye-doped silica composites, the SiO2-SF composite showed the most efficient delivery of 1O2.

  11. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual Detection and Determination of Melamine Using Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Thimmasandra Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used spectroscopic technique for the detection of melamine. The effect of melamine on the colour as well as the pH of bromophenol, methyl red and alizarin red dye solutions was examined at different mole ratios. It is found that we observe color transition and the absorption maxima for bromophenol were at 598 nm, while for methyl red, and alizarin red-S dye they are at 520 nm and 423 nm, respectively. We observe an increase in the absorption intensities at 598 nm with increase in the concentration of melamine in bromophenol blue dye. The absorption intensities at 520 nm decreases and new peak at 420 nm emerges in methyl red dye-melamine mixture. While the absorption intensities at 420 nm decreases and 520 nm peak emerges in alizarin red S dye-melamine at higher mole ratios. The results indicate that we can choose the appropriate dye of suitable range to detect the concentration of melamine from 3 to 206 mg dm−3. The results demonstrate possible use of the simple method for the qualitative and quantitative detection of melamine in adulterated food samples.

  13. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  14. Degradation of textile dyes using immobilized lignin peroxidase-like metalloporphines under mild experimental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zucca Paolo; Rescigno Antonio; Pintus Manuela; Rinaldi Andrea C; Sanjust Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Synthetic dyes represent a broad and heterogeneous class of durable pollutants, that are released in large amounts by the textile industry. The ability of two immobilized metalloporphines (structurally emulating the ligninolytic peroxidases) to bleach six chosen dyes (alizarin red S, phenosafranine, xylenol orange, methylene blue, methyl green, and methyl orange) was compared to enzymatic catalysts. To achieve a green and sustainable process, very mild conditions were chos...

  15. Inhibitory effect of azo dyes on ammoni-n oxidation by nitrtosomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential inhibitory effect of five azo dyes on ammonia-N oxidation was investigated. Ammonia-N oxidation was inhibited by the dyes: Mordant Black 17, Direct Red 2, Reactive Red 4, Reactive Yellow 2 and Direct Blue 14 at the concentrations (0.01mgL-1 to 100mgL-1) tested. Inhibition of ammonia-N oxidation ...

  16. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing basidiomycetes strains

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Neto, S. L.; Solange I. Mussatto; Machado, K. M. G.; Milagres, Adriane M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Ciba...

  17. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Sobańska, Anna W.; Jarosław Pyzowski; Elżbieta Brzezińska

    2017-01-01

    Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine) were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages) by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1?:?3?:?1 (v/v/v) as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using qu...

  18. Decolorization of a textile vat dye by adsorption on waste ash

    OpenAIRE

    MIODRAG ŠMELCEROVIĆ; DRAGAN ĐORĐEVIĆ; MILE NOVAKOVIĆ; MIRJANA MIZDRAKOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    An adsorption process using cheap adsorbents could be described as a simple, selective and low cost alternative for the treatment of colored waste water compared to conventional physical and chemical processes. In this study the use of a natural waste adsorbent–ash was investigated for the removal of a textile vat dye Ostanthren blue GCD remaining after the dyeing of cotton textile. The ash obtained as a waste material during the burning of brown coal in the heating station of Leskovac (Serbi...

  19. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  20. Molecular Engineering of Near Infrared Absorbing Thienopyrazine Double Donor Double Acceptor Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Hammad; Peddapuram, Adithya; Adams, Rebecca E; McNamara, Louis; Hunt, Leigh Anna; Le, Ngoc; Watkins, Davita L; Hammer, Nathan I; Schmehl, Russell H; Delcamp, Jared H

    2017-12-01

    The thienopyrazine (TPz) building block allows for NIR photon absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) when used as a π-bridge. We synthesized and characterized 7 organic sensitizers employing thienopyrazine (TPz) as a π-bridge in a double donor, double acceptor organic dye design. Donor groups are varied based on electron donating strength and sterics at the donor-π bridge bond with the acceptor groups varied as either carboxylic acids or benzoic acids on the π-bridge. This dye design was found to be remarkably tunable with solution absorption onsets ranging from 750 to near 1000 nm. Interestingly, the solution absorption measurements do not accurately approximate the dye absorption on TiO2 films with up to a 250 nm blue-shift of the dye absorption onset on TiO2. This shift in absorption and the effect on electron transfer properties is investigated via computational analysis, time-correlated single photon counting studies, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Structure-performance relationships were analyzed for the dyes in DSC devices with the highest performance observed at 17.6 mA/cm2 of photocurrent and 7.5% PCE for a cosensitized device with a panchromatic IPCE onset of 800 nm.

  1. Anthrax surrogate spores are destroyed by PDT mediated by phenothiazinium dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Some Gram-positive bacteria (including the causative agent of anthrax - Bacillus anthracis) survive conditions of stress and starvation by producing dormant stage spores. The spore"s multilayered capsule consists of inner and outer membranes, cortex, proteinaceous spore coat, and in some species an exosporium. These outer layers enclose dehydrated and condensed DNA, saturated with small, acid-soluble proteins. These protective structures make spores highly resistant to damage by heat, radiation, and commonly employed anti-bacterial agents. Previously Bacillus spores have been shown to be resistant to photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using dyes and light that easily destroy the corresponding vegetative bacteria, but recently we have discovered that they are susceptible to PDI. Photoinactivation, however, is only possible if phenothiazinium dyes are used. Dimethylmethylene blue, methylene blue, new methylene blue and toluidine blue O are all effective photosensitizers. Alternative photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal, polylysine chlorin(e6) conjugate, a tricationic porphyrin and benzoporphyrin derivative are ineffective against spores even though they can easily kill vegetative cells. Spores of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are most susceptible, B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus are also killed, while B. megaterium is resistant. Photoinactivation is most effective when excess dye is washed from the spores showing that the dye binds to the spores and that excess dye in solution can quench light delivery. The relatively mild conditions needed for spore killing could have applications for treating wounds contaminated by anthrax spores and for which conventional sporicides would have unacceptable tissue toxicity.

  2. Assessment of cell proliferation with resazurin-based fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekanska, Ewa M

    2011-01-01

    The Alamar Blue assay is based on enzymatic reduction of indicator dye by viable cells and serves as an effective tool for assessing cell proliferation and as a screening technique. It can be applied in studies concentrating on animal, plant, yeast, and bacteria cells. Among the various methods for cell viability and cytotoxicity, it utilises all features of ideal and reliable test; it is one-step, sensitive, safe, non-toxic for cells, and cost-effective.

  3. Mg-based amorphous alloys for decolorization of azo dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqin; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Haifeng

    The authors recently found that Mg-based amorphous ribbons had a prominent effect on the decolorization of azo dyes. Direct Blue 2B and Acid Orange II solutions of 100 mg/L could be decolorized nearly completely by the ribbons within 30 min. Decolorization mechanism was discussed briefly, and kinetic analysis based on the experimental data indicated that physical adsorption and reductive degradation for the azo dye solutions mediated by Mg63Cu16.8Ag11.2Er9 amorphous ribbons could proceed in an elegant and rapid manner. This new finding seems attractive, valuable and promising for the raw effluent generated by textile dye manufacturing company in the future.

  4. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  5. Brilliant blue in vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the preclinical effects of brilliant blue G (BBG) on the morphology and functions of the retina, and reports on a pilot study of BBG staining and subsequent peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitreoretinal surgery. BBG solution was injected into rat eyes and investigated using light microscopy and electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and electroretinography (ERG). No pathological changes were caused by the BBG intravitreous injection. Although electron microscopy revealed that high doses of BBG induced vacuolization in the inner retinal cells, there was no reduction in the amplitude of the ERG waves and no detectable toxic effects. In the primate eyes, the ILM was clearly visualized by BBG staining, and peeled off easily from the retina. In the clinical study, BBG improved visualization of the ILM, allowing peeling and surgery to be performed successfully on patients with various vitroretinal diseases. Improvement of postoperative visual acuity was obtained in most cases, and no adverse effects were observed postoperatively. In conclusion, BBG has low toxicity, high staining ability, and is easy to handle, making it a good candidate dye for visualizing vitreoretinal disease surgery without adverse effects.

  6. Mordant dyes as sensitisers in dye-sensitised solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, Keith R.; Fincher, Keith W.; King, A. Lee [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Textile and Fibre Technology, P.O. Box 21, Belmont, Vic. 3216 (Australia)

    2007-10-15

    Many mordant dyes commonly used in the textile industry form coordination complexes at the surface of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}. Dyes having a salicylate chelating group are particularly effective. Forty-nine commercial mordant dyes were studied as sensitisers in a non-optimised dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and their performance compared to the N3 ruthenium complex. Although N3 produced the highest output, six mordant dyes produced photocurrents >0.2 mA. UV-visible spectra of the dye-complexed photoanodes suggest that some mordant dyes are more strongly bound to the TiO{sub 2} surface than N3. Photocatalytic oxidation of these dyes does not appear to occur in a DSSC environment. (author)

  7. Methylene blue, curcumin and ion pairing nanoparticles effects on photodynamic therapy of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to use methylene blue-curcumin ion pair nanoparticles and single dyes as photosensitizer for comparison of photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, also various light sources effect on activation of photosensitizer (PS) was considered. Ion pair nanoparticles were synthesized using opposite charge ions precipitation and lyophilized. The PDT experiments were designed and the effect of PSs and light sources (Red LED (630nm; power density: 30mWcm -2 ) and blue LED (465nm; power density: 34mWcm -2 )) on the human breast cancer cell line were examined. The effect of PS concentration (0-75μg.mL -1 ), incubation time, irradiation time and light sources, and priority in irradiation of blue or red lights were determined. The results show that the ion pairing of methylene blue and curcumin enhance the photodynamic activity of both dyes and the cytotoxicity of ion pair nanoparticles on the MDA-231 breast cancer cell line. Blue and red LED light sources were used for photo activation of photosensitizers. The results demonstrated that both dyes can activate using red light LED better than blue light LED for singlet oxygen producing. Nano scale ion pair precipitating of methylene blue-curcumin enhanced the cell penetrating and subsequently cytotoxicity of both dyes together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photothermal therapy of cancer cells mediated by blue hydrogel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Taeyjuana; Epstein, Tamir; Smith, Ron; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the utility of biologically compatible, nontoxic and cell-specific targetable hydrogel nanoparticles (NPs), which have Coomassie® Brilliant Blue G dye (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix, as candidates for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells. Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye covalently linked into their polyacrylamide matrix were fabricated using a reverse micelle microemulsion polymerization method and were found to be 80-95 nm in diameter, with an absorbance value of 0.52. PTT-induced hyperthermia/thermolysis was achieved at 37°C using an inexpensive, portable, light-emitting diode array light source (590 nm, 25 mW/cm(2)). Hydrogel NPs with Coomassie Brilliant Blue G dye linked into their polyacrylamide matrix are effective in causing PTT-induced thermolysis in immortalized human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) cells for varying NP concentrations and treatment times. These multifunctional particles have previously been used in cancer studies to enable delineation, for glioma surgery and in photoacoustic imaging studies. The addition of the PTT function would enable a three-pronged theranostic approach to cancer medicine, such as guided tumor surgery with intra-operative photoacoustic imaging and intra-operative PTT.

  9. Ratiometric Alcohol Sensor based on a Polymeric Nile Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sterilizable ratiometric fluorescent ethanol sensor with sensitivity over a wide range (0-100% of ethanol concentration v/v. The sensor is composed of a near infra red fluorescent solvatochromic dye, nile blue methacrylamide polymerized into a polyethylene (glycol dimethacrylate matrix. The dye can typically exhibit two or more wavelength dependent shifts in the fluorescence intensities based on its different micropolar environments. Two different concentrations of the nile blue methacrylamide dye were prepared and polymerized into homogenous films. The fluorescence properties of the two different films were investigated with a view to determining their ethanol sensing capabilities. The sensor was immersed in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. Excitation of the dye was performed at 470 nm. The range of emission wavelengths was 480-800 nm. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at 620 nm and 554 nm was obtained for ethanol concentrations varying from 0-100% and the calibration curve of the ratiometric fluorescence intensities over the entire concentration range of ethanol was plotted. A ratiometric intensity change of over 33% has been obtained for pure ethanol compared to that obtained for pure water. The sensor response was rapid (≤10 minutes. The sterilizable ethanol sensor exhibits good potential for on-line monitoring of the ethanol generated in an LB fermentation chamber.

  10. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  11. Adsorption properties of p-methyl red monomeric-to-pentameric dye aggregates on anatase (101) titania surfaces: first-principles calculations of dye/TiO₂ photoanode interfaces for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2014-09-24

    The optical and electronic properties of dye aggregates of p-methyl red on a TiO2 anatase (101) surface were modeled as a function of aggregation order (monomer to pentameric dye) via first-principles calculations. A progressive red-shifting and intensity increase toward the visible region in UV-vis absorption spectra is observed from monomeric-to-tetrameric dyes, with each molecule in a given aggregate binding to one of the four possible TiO2 (101) adsorption sites. The pentamer exhibits a blue-shifted peak wavelength in the UV-vis absorption spectra and less absorption intensity in the visible region in comparison; a corresponding manifestation of H-aggregation occurs since one of these five molecules cannot occupy an adsorption site. This finding is consistent with experiment. Calculated density of states (DOS) and partial DOS spectra reveal similar dye···TiO2 nanocomposite conduction band characteristics but different valence band features. Associated molecular orbital distributions reveal dye-to-TiO2 interfacial charge transfer in all five differing aggregate orders; meanwhile, the level of intramolecular charge transfer in the dye becomes progressively localized around its azo- and electron-donating groups, up to the tetrameric dye/TiO2 species. Dye adsorption energies and dye coverage levels are calculated and compared with experiment. Overall, the findings of this case study serve to aid the molecular design of azo dyes toward better performing DSSC devices wherein they are incorporated. In addition, they provide a helpful example reference for understanding the effects of dye aggregation on the adsorbate···TiO2 interfacial optical and electronic properties.

  12. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric “bimesogenic” and “bent-core” materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  13. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  14. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  15. Eduard Hitzig's experiences in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): the case of Joseph Masseau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that Fritsch and Hitzig published the results of their experiments on cortical stimulation in 1870, the year in which the Franco-Prussian War (FPW) broke out. Several tall stories are found about Hitzig's role in the FPW; stories that have not been well documented. During this war, he worked at the military hospital in Nancy, where he was allowed to admit to his ward soldiers with head wounds. He made a close observation of the 20-year-old French soldier Joseph Masseau, who suffered from a right-sided cerebral abscess following a gunshot wound sustained during the Loire campaign on December 10, 1870 and was looked after in the military hospital of Nancy in January and February 1871. Hitzig related the clinical and autopsy observations to his recent experimental findings. A translation into English of part of the case report is provided.

  16. Association constants and enthalpies of formation of heteroassociates of anions of cresol red and thymol blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The tendency of anions of sulfophthaleine dyes to heteroassociation was studied in aqueous solutions of phenol red, cresol red, thymol blue, and non-substituted phenol red. It was spectrophotometrically determined that single (HAn-) and doubly charged anions (An2-) of sulfophthaleines can form stable heteroassociates of the composition Ct+ · HAn- and (Ct+)2 · An2- with cations (Ct+) of polymethine dyes, pinacyanol, and quinaldine red. The values of enthalpy formation of ions of dyes and heteroassociates were calculated semi-empirically and compared with experimentally determined values of the equilibrium association constants.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of trypan blue synthetic wastewater and its degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trypan blue (TB dye synthetic wastewater was treated in presence of chloride ions by electrochemical method. The effect of current density, pH, initial concentration of dye and supporting electrolyte on color and COD removal were investigated. The UV-Vis ab­sorption intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis were conducted to investigate the kinetics and degradation pathway of TB dye.

  18. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  19. Degradation and toxicity depletion of RB19 anthraquinone dye in water by ozone-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, María E; Fiasconaro, María L; Martín, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) anthraquinone dye by single ozonation, single UV radiation and ozonation jointed with UV radiation (O3/UV). The problem was approached from two points of view: with the objective of color removal or the mineralization of solution. In each case, the optimum operating conditions were different. Ozonation was the most effective treatment for color removal, while the combined O3/UV treatment was for mineralization. Major intermediates of the dye degradation were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a degradation pathway was proposed. In addition, a clear decrease of the toxicity of the dye was achieved at the end of the experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, ozone dose, and UV radiation on the degradation of the dye and decrease of total organic carbon was investigated, in order to establish the optimal operating conditions to achieve discoloration, mineralization or a combination of both.

  20. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of thiophene based azo dyes incorporating pyrazolone moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Gouda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of thiophene incorporating pyrazolone moieties 5a–f and 6a–c were synthesized via diazo coupling of diazonium salt of 3-substituted-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophenes 1a–c with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one or 3-amino-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, respectively. Newly synthesized dyes were applied to polyester fabric as disperse dyes in which their color measurements and fastness properties were evaluated. These dyes showed generally red to blue shifted color with high extinction coefficient in comparison with aniline-based azo dyes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized dyes was evaluated. The results showed clearly that most of them exhibited good activity and compounds 5c and 5d exhibited moderate activity.

  1. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  2. Characterization of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth of Trametes versicolor CBR43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung Suk

    2016-09-23

    The dye decolorization rate in a cell-free culture broth of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor CBR43 was studied, including the effects of inhibitors of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization activity. The maximum rates of dye decolorization in cell-free culture broth were 1410, 44.7, 41.2, and 0.19 μmol L-1 min-1 for Acid Blue 62, Acid Black 175, Reactive Blue 4, and Acid Red 114, respectively. The inhibition effects of NaCl, Zn(II), and Cd(II) on dye decolorization were quantitatively compared using the half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50), which indicates the concentration of an inhibitor required for 50% inhibition. Based on IC50 values, dye decolorization in the cell-free culture broth of CBR43 was most potently inhibited by Cd(II), whereas the inhibitory effect of NaCl was relatively low. The dye decolorization rates and IC50 data can be used in the design and development of a dye-wastewater treatment process using T. versicolor CBR43 and its operating factors.

  3. Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mathiyalagan, Siva; Dalavai, Ramesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2017-11-01

    Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100Å). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments’ masses analyses.

  4. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  5. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2018-01-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density ( I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage ( V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies ( η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Extracts from Four Cassia Flowers as Natural Sensitizers: Studies on Dye Ingredient Effect on Photovoltaic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Singh, Shalini; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2017-09-01

    Natural dyes extracted from four different flowers, namely, Cassia surattensis, Cassia tora, Cassia alata and Cassia occidentalis were used as sensitizers for TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The dye extracts from flowers were obtained by a simple extraction technique and used without any further purification. Optical characteristics of dye extracts were studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to identify the constituents of extracted dyes. The photovoltaic performance of DSSC employing dye-capped TiO2 photoanodes was measured. The sensitization performance related to anchoring groups present and interaction between dyes with TiO2 surface is demonstrated. An attempt has been made to rationalize the observations by light absorption of the dye extracts and their adsorption on TiO2. The short-circuit current density (I SC) values ranged from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.20 mA/cm2; open circuit voltage (V OC) from 0.292 V to 0.833 V; fill factor (FF) from 0.7 to 0.9; efficiencies (η) from 0.013% to 0.15% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency from 13% to 20%, were obtained for DSSC using these natural dye extracts. Cassia occidentalis showed the highest current density of 0.20 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency of 0.15%, which was due to better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl group of the anthocyanin molecule of C. occidentalis and surface of TiO2 film. The red and blue shift of absorption wavelength of C. surattensis and the blue shift of absorption wavelength of the C. tora, C. alata and C. occidentalis extract in ethanol solution compared to that on TiO2 film has been used for the interpretation of obtained results.

  7. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  8. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  9. Determination of Patent Blue V and Carmoisine in Gelatine Desserts By Derivative Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yüksel; AKKAN, Ayşe Arzu

    2014-01-01

    A first-derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of two synthetic organic dyes, Carmoisine and Patent Blue V, which are under governmental regulations all over the world because of their toxicity and carcinogenity. In this study, Carmoisine and Patent Blue V were simultaneously determined in their binary mixtures by first-derivative spectrophotometry. The method was applied to different gelatine desserts. The first-derivative derivative metho...

  10. Filtering absorption and visual detection of methylene blue by nitrated cellulose acetate membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shengbin; Fang, He; Xu, Xiaoping [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Wastewater-containing industrial dyes are quite harmful since most dyes are stable and toxic to humans. Detection and removing of those dyes from wastewater is necessary to ensure water supply safety. In present work, a nitrated cellulose acetate (NCA) microfiltration membrane was developed for specific absorption and visible detection of methylene blue (MB). The NCA microfiltration membrane overcomes the defect of high driven pressure in nanofiltration or ultrafiltration process. By absorption effect, the NCA membrane also overcomes the defect of low retention rate of traditional microfiltration membrane to dyes. The residual MB can be removed quickly and thoroughly by microfiltration absorption. The microfiltration membrane can also be used for visual detection of MB by concentrating the MB on membrane. The limit of detection is as low as 0.001 mg/L. The detection method is simple and free of large-scale instrument, and can be used as a portable device for spot detection of dye-contaminated water.

  11. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  12. Dataset of the absorption, emission and excitation spectra and fluorescence intensity graphs of fluorescent cyanine dyes for the quantification of low amounts of dsDNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijns, Brigitte Bibiche; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    This article describes data related to a research article entitled “Fluorescent cyanine dyes for the quantification of low amounts of dsDNA” (B. Bruijns, R. Tiggelaar, J. Gardeniers, 2016) [1]. Six cyanine dsDNA dyes - EvaGreen, SYBR Green, PicoGreen, AccuClear, AccuBlue NextGen and YOYO-1 – are

  13. Blue Holes & Hurricanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Levin

    2017-01-01

    A blue hole in the ocean is a striking sight. Fly over remote areas of the Caribbean Sea and you'll see shallow turquoise water stretching for miles, interrupted only by occasional sand bars and coral reefs...

  14. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  15. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  16. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  17. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  18. [Quadri-chromic staining in routine cutaneous histopathology (hematoxylin, eosin, saffron and astra blue)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Grosshans, E

    1995-01-01

    The routine histologic stains used in dermatopathology are usually hematoxylin-eosin-safran. In order to stain the mucins, specific dyes are necessary. The purpose of this study was to perform a routine quadrichromic stain which included Astra blue as specific dye of mucins. The applications of this hematoxylin-eosin-safran-Astra blue stain were evaluated after 5 years of systematic use. The quadrichromic stain was realized by Varistain (Shandon). The time of coloration was 15 minutes for Astra blue pH 2.5, 10 minutes for hematoxylin, 45 seconds for eosin and 4 minutes for safran. A total of 56,000 samples were analyzed using the quadrichromic stain. When mucin was present, it was colored in blue and the contrast with the other dyes was enhanced. Astra blue stained specifically the mucin deposits and it did not modify the other colours. The mucin deposits present in primary and secondary cutaneous mucinoses were most often visible after quadrichromic stain. Because of the variability of the mucin composition, the Astra blue did not react with all mucins. This stain was particularly useful in extramammary Paget's disease and in atrophic malignant papulosis. This new stain was easy to perform and allowed a specific coloration of mucin deposits in many cases. The use of four colours therefore improves the results of a routine stain, with a high quality of coloration.

  19. Flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on a blue emitting polyfluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Palilis, L.C.; Botsialas, A.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Bayiati, P.; Vourdas, N.; Argitis, P. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' 153 10 Athens (Greece); Petrou, P.S. [Immunoassay Laboratory, I/R-RP, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' 153 10 Athens (Greece); Pistolis, G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' 153 10 Athens (Greece); Stathopoulos, N.A. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, Aegaleo 12244 (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    Flexible OLEDs were demonstrated using a highly efficient blue electroluminescent polyfluorene derivative. The flexible devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a sheet resistance of 35 {omega} per sq. The emitting layer was poly[9,9-di-(2'-ethylhexyl)fluorenyl-2,7-diyl] (PF). A significant improvement of the luminance and device efficiency was achieved by confining the exciton formation zone within PF by two wide band-gap materials, namely PVK as a hole transport layer (HTL) and an inorganic oxide layer (IOL) as an electron transport and hole blocking layer. In order to achieve full-color LEDs based on a common host material, we probed the use of suitable dye emitters dispersed in PF at appropriate concentrations. The selection of the emitters is based on their capability to be effective energy transfer acceptors from the blue emitting PF. In particular, energy transfer was demonstrated from blue to green for PF-doped with the green dye emitter 1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5,-triene (DMA-DPH), and from blue to red for PF-doped with the red dye emitter (4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene) (DANS). This demonstration paves the way for developing highly efficient blue, green and red flexible OLEDs based on a common blue emitting PF host. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Biosorption of Methyl Blue Onto Tartaric Acid Modified Wheat Bran From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Yao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made thismaterial a suitable adsorbent to remove 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that theoverall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of theLangmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methylblue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.