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Sample records for prussian blue dye

  1. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Adhikamsetty

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  3. Temperature Dependence of the Moessbauer Effect on Prussian Blue Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Pingheng; Xue Desheng; Luo Haiqing; Shi Huigang [Lanzhou University, Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE (China)

    2002-09-15

    Highly ordered Prussian blue nanowires with diameter of about 50 nm and length up to 4 {mu}m have been fabricated by an electrodepositing technology with two-step anodizing anodic aluminum oxide films. The Moessbauer spectra taken between 15 and 300 K indicate that the hyperfine parameters decrease as the temperature increases. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting, the isomer shift and the spectra area are discussed. A decrease of Debye temperature for Prussian blue nanowires was found with respect to that of Prussian blue bulk.

  4. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg 2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li + insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg 2+ ; 3.0 V vs Li/Li + ) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g -1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g -1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g -1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  5. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PRUSSIAN BLUE FORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    the 137Cs from radioactive waste solutions [7] and from humans and animals exposed to nuclear accidents [8]. PB and ... ferrocyanide ion resulting in formation of PB is used as a qualitative test for ferric ion. Although. Prussian ..... zeolites [21].

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of graphene-Prussian Blue networked nanocomposites for electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    There has been a great deal of interest recently in Prussian blue functional graphene. Due to they displayed advantage of both Prussian blue and graphene, we presented a one-pot and green method to synthesize interlocked graphene-Prussian Blue nanocomposites. Considering that graphene oxide (GO) ...

  7. Electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue on hydrogen terminated silicon(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianwei; Zhang Yan; Shi Chuanguo; Chen, Hongyuan; Tong Lianming; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue (PB) was performed by cyclic voltammetry on hydrogen terminated n-type Si(111) surface. The characterization of the samples based on atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy showed a nanocrystal form of the PB films on the silicon surface. The thickness of PB films as a function of the potential cycling number was monitored simultaneously by Raman spectroscopy, proving that the growth of the films is in a good controllable manner

  8. Synthesis and magnetic properties of prussian blue modified Fe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, T.; Prakash, K.; Justin Joseyphus, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fe nanoparticles are prepared using a unique polyol process and modified with prussian blue (PB) at various concentrations. The presence of PB in the Fe nanoparticles are confirmed from thermal, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopic analyses. The prussian blue existed on ;the surface of the nanoparticles when the concentration is 200 μM and in excess with 1000 μM. ;Fe nanoparticles are reduced in size using Pt as nucleating agent and modified with the optimum concentration of PB. The saturation magnetization decreases with the concentration of PB whereas the coercivity is influenced by the size of the Fe nanoparticles. The presence of oxide layer in Fe nanoparticles helps in the surface modification with PB. The Fe nanoparticles of particle size 53 nm modified with 200 μM of PB showed a saturation magnetization of 110 emu/g. The magnetic properties suggest that the PB modified Fe nanoparticles are better candidates for detoxification applications. - Highlights: • Fe nanoparticles surface modified with prussian blue (PB) were synthesized. • Optimum PB concentration on size reduced Fe showed better magnetic properties. • Coercivity decreased with increasing concentration of PB. • Fe-PB nanoparticles could be used for detoxification applications

  9. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baiyang; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Yu, Hongwen; Abe, Yoshiteru

    2012-05-30

    We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prussian blue caged in spongiform adsorbents using diatomite and carbon nanotubes for elimination of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Baiyang [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yu, Hongwen [Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Abe, Yoshiteru [Kyoei Engineering Corporation, Niigata 959-1961 (Japan)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue was sealed in cavities of diatomite using carbon nanotubes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The caged Prussian blue after being permanently immobilized in polyurethane spongy showed a 167 mg/g capability for absorbing cesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium elimination was accomplished by simply adding the Prussian-blue based spongiform adsorbent to radioactive water. - Abstract: We developed a spongiform adsorbent that contains Prussian blue, which showed a high capacity for eliminating cesium. An in situ synthesizing approach was used to synthesize Prussian blue inside diatomite cavities. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used to form CNT networks that coated the diatomite to seal in the Prussian blue particles. These ternary (CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue) composites were mixed with polyurethane (PU) prepolymers to produce a quaternary (PU/CNT/diatomite/Prussian-blue), spongiform adsorbent with an in situ foaming procedure. Prussian blue was permanently immobilized in the cell walls of the spongiform matrix and preferentially adsorbed cesium with a theoretical capacity of 167 mg/g cesium. Cesium was absorbed primarily by an ion-exchange mechanism, and the absorption was accomplished by self-uptake of radioactive water by the quaternary spongiform adsorbent.

  11. A new route for obtaining Prussian blue nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Vien; Minh Nguyen Van; Lee, Hyung Ik; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Sung Jin

    2008-01-01

    A new approach for the synthesis of Co-Fe Prussian blue nanoparticles with controlled size has been developed in the present work. Mixture of formamide and water was used as a reaction medium for the chemical synthesis of the nanoparticles at room temperature. It has been found that the size of nanoparticles can be controlled by varying the volume ratios between formamide and water. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption spectra, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms were employed to characterize the products. The optical properties of the nanoparticles depending on particle size were observed

  12. Time resolved XANES illustrates a substrate-mediated redox process in Prussian blue cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Claire; Moretti, Giulia; Lanquille, Marie-Angélique; Réguer, Solenn

    2016-01-01

    The pigment Prussian blue is studied in heritage science because of its capricious fading behavior under light exposure. We show here that XANES can be used to study the photosensitivity of Prussian blue heritage materials despite X-ray radiation damage. We used an original approach based on X-ray photochemistry to investigate in depth the redox process of Prussian blue when it is associated with a cellulosic substrate, as in cyanotypes and watercolors. By modifying cation and proton contents of the paper substrate, we could tune both rate and extent of Prussian blue reduction. These results demonstrate that the photoreduction and fading of Prussian blue is principally mediated by the substrate and its interaction with the oxygen of the environment. (paper)

  13. Adsorption mechanism of radioactive cesium by Prussian blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Chan; Kim, Jun Yeong; Huh, Yun Suk [Biological Engineering, Biohybrid Systems Research Center (BSRC), Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Chang Hyun [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, University of Science Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Since the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant, Prussian blue (PB) has attracted increasing attention as a material for use in decontaminating the environment. We have focused the fundamental mechanism of specific Cs{sup +} adsorption into PB in order to develop high-performance PB-based Cs{sup +} adsorbents. The ability of PB to adsorb Cs varies considerably according to its origin such as what synthesis method was used, and under what conditions the PB was prepared. It has been commonly accepted that the exclusive abilities of PB to adsorb hydrated Cs{sup +} ions are caused by regular lattice spaces surrounded by cyanido-bridged metals. Cs{sup +} ions are trapped by simple physical adsorption in the regular lattice spaces of PB. Cs{sup +} ions are exclusively trapped by chemical adsorption via the hydrophilic lattice defect sites with proton-exchange from the coordination water. Prussian blue are believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of {sup 1}3{sup 7C}s contaminated water around nuclear facilities and/or after nuclear accidents.

  14. In situ synthesis of Prussian blue nanoparticles within a biocompatible reverse micellar system for in vivo Cs"+ uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaud, Cyril; Kajdan, Marilyn; Long, Jerome; Larionova, Joulia; Guari, Yannick; Compte, Elsa; Maurel, Jean-Claude; Him, Josephine Lai Kee; Bron, Patrick; Oliviero, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    A new highly stable Prussian blue reverse micellar system comprising ultra-small Prussian blue nanoparticles in Aonyss (Peceolt, b-sitosterol, lecithin, ethanol and water) acts as an in vivo Cs"+ uptake agent presenting higher efficiency compared to commercially available Prussian blue treatment with a significant dose effect. (authors)

  15. Prussian blue as an antidote for radioactive thallium and cesium poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altagracia-Martinez M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Juan Manuel Martínez-Núñez, Camilo Ríos-Castañeda, Francisco López-NaranjoDepartments of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoBackground: Following the attacks on the US on September 11, 2001, potentially millions of people might experience contamination from radioactive metals. However, before the specter of such accidents arose, Prussian blue was known only as an investigational agent for accidental thallium and cesium poisoning. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the art concerning use of Prussian blue as an effective and safe drug against possible bioterrorism attacks and to disseminate medical information in order to contribute to the production of Prussian blue as a biodefense drug.Methods: We compiled articles from a systematic review conducted from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2011. The electronic databases consulted were Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus.Results: Prussian blue is effective and safe for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Prussian blue as a drug, but there is only one manufacturer providing Prussian blue to the US. Based on the evidence, Prussian blue is effective for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium, but additional clinical research on and production of Prussian blue are needed.Keywords: Prussian blue, radioactive cesium, thallium, intoxication, biodefense drug

  16. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, NO2- (in neutral), and NO (in acidic media) were used as analytical probe to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB) modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrode. Results indicate...

  17. Prussian Blue decorporation of 137Cs in beagles of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected 137 Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected 137 Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary 137 Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The 137 Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of 137 Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as a Versatile Photothermal Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Dacarro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue (PB is a coordination polymer studied since the early 18th century, historically known as a pigment. PB can be prepared in colloidal form with a straightforward synthesis. It has a strong charge-transfer absorption centered at ~700 nm, with a large tail in the Near-IR range. Irradiation of this band results in thermal relaxation and can be exploited to generate a local hyperthermia by irradiating in the so-called bio-transparent Near-IR window. PB nanoparticles are fully biocompatible (PB has already been approved by FDA and biodegradable, this making them ideal candidates for in vivo use. While papers based on the imaging, drug-delivery and absorbing properties of PB nanoparticles have appeared and have been reviewed in the past decades, a very recent interest is flourishing with the use of PB nanoparticles as photothermal agents in biomedical applications. This review summarizes the syntheses and the optical features of PB nanoparticles in relation to their photothermal use and describes the state of the art of PB nanoparticles as photothermal agents, also in combination with diagnostic techniques.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Co-Fe Prussian blue nanoparticles within MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vien Vo; Nguyen Van Minh; Lee, Hyung Ik; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Sung Jin

    2009-01-01

    A Prussian blue analogue, K 0.84 Co 1.08 [Fe(CN) 6 ] is prepared by reaction between [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3- in aqueous solution and ion-exchanged Co 2+ in the channels of MCM-41. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and magnetic measurements were employed to characterize the product. The results show that the Prussian blue analogue is in nanoparticles within the channels and the hexagonal phase of MCM-41 remains intact during the reactions. A particle size effect on optical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles was observed

  20. Mesoporous Prussian blue analogues: template-free synthesis and sodium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Binder, Andrew J; Guo, Bingkun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiao, Zhen-An; Tian, Chengcheng; Dai, Sheng

    2014-03-17

    The synthesis of mesoporous Prussian blue analogues through a template-free methodology and the application of these mesoporous materials as high-performance cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries is presented. Crystalline mesostructures were produced through a synergistically coupled nanocrystal formation and aggregation mechanism. As cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, the Prussian blue analogues all show a reversible capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at low current rate and show excellent cycle stability. The reported method stands as an environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to hard or soft templating for the fabrication of mesoporous materials.

  1. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing interest recently in mixed-valence inorganic nanostructure functionalized graphene composites, represented by Prussian blue, because they can cost-effectively apply to biosensors and energy devices. In this work, we present a one-pot green method to synthesize interlocked...... graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing...

  2. Prussian Blue acts as a mediator in a reagentless cytokinin biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, Marta; Tian Faming; Smehilova, Maria; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Napier, Richard; Dale, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin. · Constitutive expression system for large-scale protein production. · CKX enzyme entrapment in sol-gel film on the surface of a PrB-modified electrode. · Prussian Blue as an electron mediator between the enzyme and the electrode. · The biosensor was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of several cytokinins. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor for detection of the plant hormone cytokinin is introduced. Cytokinin homeostasis in tissues of many lower and higher plants is controlled largely by the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) that catalyzes an irreversible cleavage of N 6 -side chain of cytokinins. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana CKX2 from Pichia pastoris was used to prepare purified AtCKX2 as the basis of the cytokinin biosensor. Prussian Blue (PrB) was electrodeposited on Pt microelectrodes prior to deposition of the enzyme in a sol-gel matrix. The biosensor gave amperometric responses to several cytokinins. These responses depended on the presence of both the enzyme and the Prussian Blue. Thus Prussian Blue must act as an electron mediator between the FAD centre in CKX2 and the Pt surface.

  3. Prussian blue-nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite as hybrid electrode for energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookhakian, M.; Basirun, W.J.; Teridi, Mohd Asri Mat; Mahmoudian, M.R.; Azarang, Majid; Zalnezhad, Erfan; Yoon, G.H.; Alias, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel and inexpensive Prussian blue-N-graphene composite for hybrid battery- supercapacitor. • Prussian blue leads to a significant increase of the capacity. • Prussian blue leads to enhancement of cycling stability of N-graphene. - Abstract: Water-soluble Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) supported on nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) with high dispersion was fabricated for high performance energy storage hybrid electrodes. An efficient loading of the PB NPs and nitrogen doping of graphene were achieved. The structure and morphology of the composite was determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The energy storage performance was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques. The nanocomposite was fabricated as a hybrid battery-supercapacitor electrode and exhibited excellent performance with the highest capacity of 660 C g −1 at 1 A g −1 , which was higher than pure PB NPs and N-graphene electrodes. Moreover, the synergistic effect of N-graphene and the PB NPs prevented the N-graphene from shrinking and swelling and increased the cycle stability to 84.7% retention after 1500 cycles at 6 A g −1 , compared to the pure N-graphene.

  4. Thallium Intoxication Treated with Long-Term Hemodialysis, Forced Diuresis and Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Solgaard, Per Bent; Freund, L. Gade

    1978-01-01

    A 56 yr old woman, who ingested 2 g of thallium sulfate, was successfully treated with long-term hemodialysis for 200 h during 10 days, combined with forced diuresis and Prussian blue. The effect of the artificial kidney dialysis was determined by repeated analysis of the Tl concentration...

  5. Photoinducedly electrochemical preparation of Prussian blue film and electrochemical modification of the film with cetyltrimethylammonium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shouqing, E-mail: shouqing_liu@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Li Hua; Sun Weihui; Wang Xiaomei; Chen Zhigang [Key Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Xu Jingjuan; Ju Huangxian; Chen Hongyuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Cetyltrimethylammonium cations work as counter ions in Prussian blue film was observed and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction measurements, scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscope for the first time. {yields} Because the cetyltrimethylammonium cations in Prussian blue film are hydrophobic, the Prussian blue film is very stable even in alkali solution, which provides a technical basis for fabrication of stable biosensors. - Abstract: This work presents a photoinducedly electrochemical preparation of Prussian blue from a single sodium nitroprusside and insertion of cetyltrimethylammonium cations into Prussian blue as counter ions. The product of photoinducedly electrochemical reactions has a couple of voltammetric peaks at E{sup o} = 0.266 V in 0.2 mol l{sup -1} KCl solution, the measurements of X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy show that it is Prussian blue (PB). The formation mechanism of a pre-photochemical reaction and subsequent electrochemical reaction is suggested. The cyclic voltammetric treatment of the freshly as-prepared PB film in 1.0 mmol l{sup -1} cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) bromide solution leads to the insertion of cetyltrimethylammonium cations into the channels of Prussian blue, which substitutes for potassium ions as counter ions in Prussian blue. The Prussian blue containing CTA counter ions shows two couples of voltammetric peaks at E{sup o} = -0.106 V and E{sup o} = 0.249 V in 0.2 mol l{sup -1} KCl solution containing 1.0 mmol l{sup -1} cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Compared with the electrochemical behaviors of KFeFe(CN){sub 6} in 0.1 mol l{sup -1} KOH alkali solution, CTAFeFe(CN){sub 6} shows relatively durable voltammetric currents due to the hydrophobic effects of cetyltrimethylammonium. The diffusion coefficients for CTA and potassium cations were estimated to be D{sub CTA} 1.25 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 2} s

  6. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  7. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  8. Radiation-assisted synthesis of Prussian blue nanoparticles using sugar as stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Chang; Shuquan Chang; Wei Han; Zheng Li; Zheng Zhang; Yaodong Dai; Haiqian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a γ radiation route in aqueous solutions using sugar as stabilizer at room temperature and ambient pressure. The particle size and shape can be affected by stabilizer and radiation conditions. When the stabilizer was sucrose and the radiation dose was 30 kGy, well-dispersed and uniform PB nanoparticles were obtained, which are 100-200 nm in diameter. They exhibit good ions exchange properties and have maximal Cs + adsorption capacity of 125.8 mg g -1 , which may be applied in radioactive wastewater treatments, ion battery etc. (author)

  9. Prediction of the equilibrium structures and photomagnetic properties of the Prussian blue analogue RbMn[Fe(CN)(6)] by density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzon, Javier; Castro, Miguel; Vertelman, Esther J.M.; Gengler, Régis Y.N.; van Koningsbruggen, Petra J.; Molodtsova, Olga; Knupfer, Martin; Rudolf, Petra; Loosdrecht, Paul H.M. van; Broer, Ria

    2008-01-01

    A periodic density functional theory method using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation potential is applied to the Prussian blue analogue RbMn[Fe(CN)(6)] to evaluate the suitability of the method for studying, and predicting, the photomagnetic behavior of Prussian blue analogues and related

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30…

  11. Amperometric detection of hydrazine utilizing synergistic action of prussian blue @ silver nanoparticles / graphite felt modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jihua; Liu, Jianxin; Tricard, Simon; Wang, Lei; Liang, Yanling; Cao, Linghua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prussian Blue (PB) deposition on Ag/GF for electrochemical hydrazine sensing; • Lower detection limit of 4.9 × 10 −7 mol L −1 , stable over 24 days; • High sensitivity: 26.06 A mol −1 L. -- Abstract: In this study, a triple-component hydrazine sensor (PB@Ag/GF) was fabricated with freestanding graphite felt (GF), silver nanoparticles (Ag) and prussian blue (PB). The Ag nanoparticles were electrodeposited on GF ultrasonically (Ag/GF), and acted as a catalyst of the chemical deposition of PB. The electrode was characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical behavior of PB@Ag/GF was measured by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurements. The sensor displayed a prominent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrazine oxidation, with a fast response time of 2 s, a low detection limit of 4.9 × 10 −7 mol L −1 and very high detection sensitivity of 26.06 A mol −1 L

  12. New faces of porous Prussian blue: interfacial assembly of integrated hetero-structures for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Biao; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-11-21

    Prussian blue (PB), the oldest synthetic coordination compound, is a classic and fascinating transition metal coordination material. Prussian blue is based on a three-dimensional (3-D) cubic polymeric porous network consisting of alternating ferric and ferrous ions, which provides facile assembly as well as precise interaction with active sites at functional interfaces. A fundamental understanding of the assembly mechanism of PB hetero-interfaces is essential to enable the full potential applications of PB crystals, including chemical sensing, catalysis, gas storage, drug delivery and electronic displays. Developing controlled assembly methods towards functionally integrated hetero-interfaces with adjustable sizes and morphology of PB crystals is necessary. A key point in the functional interface and device integration of PB nanocrystals is the fabrication of hetero-interfaces in a well-defined and oriented fashion on given substrates. This review will bring together these key aspects of the hetero-interfaces of PB nanocrystals, ranging from structure and properties, interfacial assembly strategies, to integrated hetero-structures for diverse sensing.

  13. Thallium Labeled Citrate-Coated Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Potential Imaging Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián Szigeti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticle-based image-contrast platform which is biocompatible, chemically stable, and accessible for radiolabeling with 201Tl. We explored whether this nanoparticle enhanced the T1 signal which might make it an MRI contrast agent as well. Methods. The physical properties of citrate-coated Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs (iron(II;iron(III;octadecacyanide doped with 201Tl isotope were characterized with atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurement. PBNP biodistribution was determined by using SPECT and MRI following intravenous administration into C57BL6 mice. Activity concentrations (MBq/cm3 were calculated from the SPECT scans for each dedicated volume of interest (VOI of liver, kidneys, salivary glands, heart, lungs, and brain. Results. PBNP accumulation peaked at 2 hours after injection predominantly in the kidneys and the liver followed by a gradual decrease in activity in later time points. Conclusion. We synthetized, characterized, and radiolabeled a Prussian blue-based nanoparticle platform for contrast material applications. Its in vivo radiochemical stability and biodistribution open up the way for further diagnostic applications.

  14. Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles for removal of cesium from contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thammawong, Chakrit; Opaprakasit, Pakorn; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Sreearunothai, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive cesium (Cs) has been released into natural environment following the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan in 2011. Much effort has been directed at capturing Cs and remediation of the contaminated environment. However, conventional sorbents, such as Prussian blue and zeolites cannot be easily recovered once spread into an open environment. Here, we develop new nano-sorbent based on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) functionalized with Prussian blue (PB) that possess both high Cs adsorption capacity (96 mg Cs/g sorbent) and large distribution coefficient (3.2 × 10 4 mL/g at 0.5 ppm Cs concentration). The developed sorbents possess good value of saturation magnetization (20 emu/g) allowing for rapid and ease of sorbent separation from the Cs solution after treatment using magnetic field. This Cs magnetic nano-sorbent can offer high potential for the use in large scale remediation of a Cs contaminated environment as well as the possibility of novel Cs decorporation drugs that can be magnetically assisted for accelerated excretion of radiocesium from the human body.

  15. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (<6 s) and a linearity in the range from 6.7x10(-6) to 1.9x10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 6.28 microA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 6x10(-7) M (S/N=3) for the detection of glucose. The apparent activation energy of enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant are 23.9 kJ mol(-1) and 1.9 mM respectively, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. This easy and controllable construction method of glucose biosensor combines the characteristics of the components of the hybrid composites, which favors the fast and sensitive detection of glucose with improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  16. Prussian Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: ... for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: ...

  17. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2015-02-01

    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  18. Surface effects and discontinuity behavior in nano-systems composed of Prussian blue analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Zriouel, S.; Bahmad, L.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic properties and hysteresis loops of a nano-ferrimagnetic surface-bulk Prussian blue analogues (PBA) have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We have reported the effects of the magnetic and the crystal fields, as well as the intermediate and the bulk couplings, the temperature and the size on the phase diagram, the magnetization, the susceptibility, the hysteresis loops, the critical and the discontinuity temperatures of the model. The thermal dependence of the coercivity and the remanent magnetization are also discussed. This study shows a number of characteristic behaviors, such as the discontinuities in the magnetizations, the existence of Q- and N-types behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature and the occurrence of single and triple hysteresis loops with high number of step-like plateaus. The obtained results make ferrimagnetic surface-bulk PBA useful for technological applications such as thermo-optical recording.

  19. Prussian blue-modified nanoporous gold film electrode for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Seyran; Mehrgardi, Masoud Ayatollahi

    2014-08-01

    In this manuscript, the electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxides on Prussian blue (PB) modified nanoporous gold film (NPGF) electrode is described. The PB/NPGF is prepared by simple anodizing of a smooth gold film followed by PB film electrodeposition method. The morphology of the PB/NPGF electrode is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of solution pH and the scan rates on the voltammetric responses of hydrogen peroxide have also been examined. The amperometric determination of H2O2 shows two linear dynamic responses over the concentration range of 1μM-10μM and 10μM-100μM with a detection limit of 3.6×10(-7)M. Furthermore, this electrode demonstrated good stability, repeatability and selectivity remarkably. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  1. The ternary alloy with a structure of Prussian blue analogs in a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of applied transverse field on transition and compensation temperatures of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of spins S A =3/2 , S B =2, and S C =5/2 are investigated by the use of a mean-field theory. The structure and the spin values of the model correspond to the Prussian blue analog of the type (Fe p II Mn 1-p II ) 1.5 [Cr III (CN) 6 ].nH 2 O. We find that two or even three compensation points may be induced by a transverse field for the system with appropriate values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian. In particular, the influence of a transverse field on the compensation point in the ground state is examined

  2. Co–Fe Prussian Blue Analogue Intercalated into Diamagnetic Mg–Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijuan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A heterostructure of diamagnetic magnesium‒aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg‒Al LDHs and photomag‐ netic cobalt‒iron Prussian Blue analogue (Co‒Fe PBA was designed, synthesized and then designated as LDH‒PB. The cyanide-bridged Co‒Fe PBA was two-dimensionally intercalated into the Mg‒Al LDH template by the stepwise anion exchange method. LDH‒PB showed ferrimagnetic properties with in-plane antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, as well as small photo-induced magnetization by visible light illumination due to the low dimensional structures and the characteristic photo-induced electronic states of the mixed valence of FeIII(low spin, S = 1/2‒CN‒ CoII(high spin, S = 3/2‒NC‒FeII (low spin, S = 0.

  3. Ultralight mesoporous magnetic frameworks by interfacial assembly of Prussian blue nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Biao; Tang, Jing; Wu, Zhangxiong; Wei, Jing; Wu, Hao; Wang, Yongcheng; Zheng, Gengfeng; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2014-03-10

    A facile approach for the synthesis of ultralight iron oxide hierarchical structures with tailorable macro- and mesoporosity is reported. This method entails the growth of porous Prussian blue (PB) single crystals on the surface of a polyurethane sponge, followed by in situ thermal conversion of PB crystals into three-dimensional mesoporous iron oxide (3DMI) architectures. Compared to previously reported ultralight materials, the 3DMI architectures possess hierarchical macro- and mesoporous frameworks with multiple advantageous features, including high surface area (ca. 117 m(2) g(-1)) and ultralow density (6-11 mg cm(-3)). Furthermore, they can be synthesized on a kilogram scale. More importantly, these 3DMI structures exhibit superparamagnetism and tunable hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, thus allowing for efficient multiphase interfacial adsorption and fast multiphase catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Simple synthesis of three primary colour nanoparticle inks of Prussian blue and its analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Akihito; Uchida, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Manabu; Satoh, Tetsutaro; Kaga, Shinichi; Okamoto, Shusuke; Ohta, Masaki; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Kawamoto, Tohru; Tanaka, Hisashi; Tokumoto, Madoka; Hara, Shigeo; Shiozaki, Hirofumi; Yamada, Mami; Miyake, Mikio; Kurihara, Masato

    2007-01-01

    Historic Prussian blue (PB) pigment is easily obtained as an insoluble precipitate in quantitative yield from an aqueous mixture of Fe 3+ and [Fe II (CN) 6 ] 4- (Fe 2+ and [Fe III (CN) 6 ] 3- ). It has been found that the PB pigment is inherently an agglomerate of 10-20 nm nanoparticles, based on powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) line broadenings and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The PB pigment has been revived as both organic-solvent-soluble and water-soluble nanoparticle inks. Through crystal surface modification with aliphatic amines, the nanoparticles are stably dispersed from the insoluble agglomerate into usual organic solvents to afford a transparent blue solution. Identical modification with [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4- yields water-soluble PB nanoparticles. A similar ink preparation is applicable to Ni-PBA and Co-PBA (nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrates). The PB (blue), Ni-PBA (yellow), and Co-PBA (red) nanoparticles function as three primary colour inks

  5. Thermal expansion in 3d-metal Prussian Blue Analogs-A survey study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, Sourav; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Williams, Darrick; Summerhill, Jennifer; Nakotte, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the structural properties and the thermal expansion behavior of 17 different Prussian Blue Analogs (PBAs) with compositions M II 3 [(M') III (CN) 6 ] 2 .nH 2 O and M II 2 [Fe II (CN) 6 ].nH 2 O, where M II =Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, (M') III =Co, Fe and n is the number of water molecules, which range from 5 to 18 for these compounds. The PBAs were synthesized via standard chemical precipitation methods, and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction studies were performed in the temperature range between -150 deg. C (123 K) and room-temperature. The vast majority of the studied PBAs were found to crystallize in cubic structures of space groups Fm3-bar m, F4-bar 3m and Pm3-bar m. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters was taken to compute an average coefficient of linear thermal expansion in the studied temperature range. Of the 17 compounds, 9 display negative values for the average coefficient of linear thermal expansion, which can be as large as 39.7x 1 0 -6 K -1 for Co 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 .12H 2 O. All of the M II 3 [Co III (CN) 6 ] 2 .nH 2 O compounds show negative thermal expansion behavior, which correlates with the Irving-Williams series for metal complex stability. The thermal expansion behavior for the PBAs of the M II 3 [Fe III (CN) 6 ] 2 .nH 2 O family are found to switch between positive (for M=Mn, Co, Ni) and negative (M=Cu, Zn) behavior, depending on the choice of the metal cation (M). On the other hand, all of the M II 2 [Fe II (CN) 6 ].nH 2 O compounds show positive thermal expansion behavior. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of Prussian Blue analogs (PBAs) consists of two types of metal centered octahedral units connected by cyanide ligand. Lattice and interstitial water molecules are present in these framework structures. All the PBAs of the M 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 .nH 2 O family show negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior. The lattice parameters and magnitude of NTE correlates inversely with the Irving

  6. Electrocatalytic analysis of superoxide anion radical using nitrogen-doped graphene supported Prussian Blue as a biomimetic superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; Niu, Xiangheng; Shi, Libo; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Hongli; Lana, Minbo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prussian Blue (PB) cubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) were synthesized using a simple and scalable method, and the utilization of the PB-NGS hybrid as an efficient superoxide dismutase mimic in the electrochemical sensing of O 2 ·− was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Facile and scalable synthesis of Prussian Blue cubes supported on nitrogen-doped graphene; • Nitrogen-doped graphene supported Prussian Blue as an efficient biomimetic superoxide dismutase for the electrocatalytic sensing of superoxide anion; • Good sensitivity, excellent selectivity and attractive long-term stability for superoxide anion sensing. - Abstract: Considering the double-sided roles of superoxide anion radical, monitoring of its track in living systems is attracting increasing academic and practical interest. Here we synthesized Prussian Blue (PB) cubes that were supported on nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGS) using a facile and scalable method, and explored their potential utilization in the electrochemical sensing of superoxide anion. As an efficient superoxide dismutase mimic, direct electron transfer of the prepared PB-NGS hybrid immobilized on a screen-printed gold electrode was harvested in physiological media. With the bifunctional activities, the synthetic mimic could catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion via the redox cycle of active iron. By capturing the electro-reduction amperometric responses of superoxide anion radical to hydrogen peroxide in the cathodic polarization, highly sensitive determination (a sensitivity of as high as 0.32 μA cm −2 μM −1 ) of the target was achieved, with no interference from common coexisting species including ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid observed. Compared to natural superoxide dismutases, the artificial enzyme mimic exhibited favorable activity stability, indicating its promising applications in the in vivo long-term monitoring of superoxide anion

  7. Portable amperometric immunosensor for histamine detection using Prussian blue-chitosan-gold nanoparticle nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Jin-Yi; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Mao, Chuanbin; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Lei, Hong-Tao; Shen, Yu-Dong; Beier, Ross C; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2017-12-15

    Histamine (HA) is a biogenic amine that can accumulate to high concentration levels in food as a result of microbial activity and can cause toxic effects in consumers. In this work, a portable electrochemical immunosensor capable of detecting HA with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed. Prussian blue-chitosan-gold nanoparticle (PB-CS-AuNP) nanocomposite films with excellent biocompatibility were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The PB-CS-AuNP were coated onto a screen-printed electrode by one-step electrodeposition and used to conjugate the HA ovalbumin conjugate (HA-Ag). HA was determined by a competition between the coating HA-Ag and the HRP labeled HA antibody (HRP-HA-Ab). After careful optimization of assay conditions and Box-Behnken analysis, the developed immunosensor showed a linear range from 0.01 to 100μg/mL for HA in fish samples. The average recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 97.25% to 105%. The biosensor also showed good specificity, reproducibility, and stability, indicating its potential application in monitoring HA in a simple and low cost manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Prussian Blue in Eliminating the Compositional Effects of 137Cs Internal Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.; Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy male albino rats of two ages: growing (2-months age, 102 + 10 g /rat) and adults (4- months age, 280 + 15 g / rat) were used in this study. The rats were fed on a balanced diet (21% crude proteins, 3% crude fats and 4% crude fibers). The treatments of oral administration of a single dose (3700 Bq/growing rat and 7400 Bq/adult rat) of 137 Cs ( 137 Cs Cl salt) and prussian blue (PB, 300 mg/kg body weight/day for 60 days) were as the following combinations: [1] without 137 Cs or PB, [2] 137 Cs only, [3] PB only, [4] PB one day before 137 Cs, [5] PB immediately after 137 Cs, [6] PB one day after 137 Cs, and [7] PB one week after 137 Cs. All of body weight, total body water (TBW), fat-free body (FFB), total body fat (TBF), fat-free dry body (FFDB), total body protein (TBP), and total body ash (TBA). The data revealed that: adult rats had a significant (P 137 Cs treatment caused decreases in final body weight; % change of body weight, TBW, FFB, FFDB, TBP, TBA. In both growing and adult rats, PB administration, only before or at the same time of irradiation, could eliminate the effects of 137 Cs-gamma irradiation on : final body weight, % change in body weight, FFB, FFDB, TBP. However, PB administration, one or seven days post treatment, eliminated 137 Cs treatments effects on TBF

  9. Determination of hydrogen peroxide using a Prussian Blue modified macroporous gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiao; Lin, Meng; Cho, MiSuk; Lee, Youngkwan

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) that is making use of Prussian Blue (PB) electrodeposited on a macroporous (mp) gold skeleton electrode. An mp-Cu film was first prepared as a template and the converted into an mp-Au film through a replacement reaction without destructing the structure. Next, a layer of PB was electrochemically deposited on the surface of the mp-Au film. The surface morphology of the electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to confirm the structural features. The mp-PB/Au film electrode displays high electro-catalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 at a working potential of −50 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) and is very stable. It has a linear response to H 2 O 2 in the 50 μM to 11.3 mM concentration range and a sensitivity of 767 μA∙mM −1 cm −2 . The electrode also revealed good selectivity in the presence of electro-active species such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. (author)

  10. Investigation of Prussian Blue Analogs by XMCD at the K-edge of transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordage, A; Bleuzen, A; Nataf, L; Baudelet, F

    2016-01-01

    Despite transition metal (TM) K-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) seems an interesting tool to get magnetic and structural information at the atomic scale, the effects originating this signal are still poorly understood. We thus initiated a deep investigation of the TM K-edge XMCD using Prussian Blue analogs (PBA) as model-compounds. In a recent study of the NiFe PBA family, we demonstrated that the XMCD signals at the TM K-edges strongly vary with external (mechanical) or internal (chemical) pressure and so that they are highly sensitive to small structural distortions. Following these first results, we extended this approach to the MnFe and CoFe families to evaluate the effect of electronic parameters (number of unpaired electrons of the M II TM) on the XMCD signal. All the results set milestones in the disentanglement of the components originating the XMCD signals at the K-edge of TM and will eventually help in a better understanding of the photomagnetic properties of PBAs. (paper)

  11. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Heterostructured Films of Prussian Blue Analogues and Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, P. A.; Jeen, H.; Knowles, E. S.; Biswas, A.; Meisel, M. W.; Andrus, M. J.; Talham, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of heterostructured films consisting of Prussian blue analogues, Aj M' k [M(CN)6 ]l . n H2 O (M' M-PBA), where A is an alkali ion and M' ,M are transition metals, and manganites have been studied. Specifically, NiCr-PBA and CoFe-PBA films of ~ 100 ~nm thickness have been deposited on perovskite (La 1-y Pr y)0.67 Ca 0.33 Mn O3 (LPCMO) manganese films of ~ 30 ~nm thickness. The effect of the ferromagnetic NiCr-PBA, Tc ~ 70 ~K, and the photo-controllable ferrimagnetic CoFe-PBA, Tc ~ 20 ~K, on the I-V properties of the LPCMO will be reported, where special attention will be given to the changes of the transition temperatures of the ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) and the charge-ordered insulating (COI) phases in the LPCMO substrate. ** Supported by NSF DMR-0701400 (MWM), DMR-0804452 (AB), DMR-1005581 (DRT), DMR-0654118 (NHMFL), and by scholarship from the Organization of American States (PAQ). D.M.~Pajerowski et al., J.~Am.~Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 4058.

  12. Characterization of the Pseudocapacitive Nature of Surface Bound Prussian Blue Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Hampton, Jennifer

    With the increased use of intermittent renewable energy sources, more efficient methods of energy storage must be explored. Electrochemical capacitors provide a larger volumetric charge density than physical capacitors while maintaining fast charge and discharge rates. Prussian Blue analogues (nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate) are ideal pseudocapacitors for frequent charge and discharge cycles since the crystalline structure does not physically change during switching, causing less stress on the film. This project examines the charge transfer and diffusion coefficients for nickel and nickel-cobalt thin films modified with potassium hexacyanoferrate. The films were examined using a scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope and an electrochemical workstation to determine their composition, topography and psuedocapacitive nature. Preliminary data suggest that nickel-cobalt films have a larger quantity of charge and have a lower diffusion coefficient per charge than nickel films. This work is supported by the Hope College Nyenhuis Faculty Development Fund, the Hope College Department of Physics Guess Research Fund, and the National Science Foundation under Grants RUI-DMR-1104725, MRI-CHE-0959282, and MRI-CHE-1126462.

  13. Thallium(I) sorption using Prussian blue immobilized in alginate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Thierry; Taulemesse, Jean-Marie; Dauvergne, Agnès; Chanut, Thomas; Testa, Flaviano; Guibal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Prussian blue (PB) was immobilized in alginate capsules. The composite sorbent was used for the recovery of Tl(I) ions from slightly acidic solutions: optimum pH being close to 4. The sorption isotherm can be described by the bi-site Langmuir sorption isotherm. This means that the metal ion can be bound through two different sorption sites: one having a strong affinity for Tl(I) (probably PB), the other having a lower affinity (probably the encapsulating material). The kinetics are described by either the pseudo-second order rate equation or the Crank's equation (resistance to intraparticle diffusion). The ionic strength (increased by addition of NaCl, KCl or CaCl₂) slightly decreased sorption capacity. The SEM-EDX analysis of PB-alginate capsules (before and after Tl(I) sorption) shows that the PB is homogeneously distributed in the capsules and that all reactive groups remain available for metal binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-throughput screening for cellobiose dehydrogenases by Prussian Blue in situ formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Liliya G; Ludwig, Roland; Yershevich, Olga P; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

    2012-07-01

    Extracellular fungal flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a promising enzyme for both bioelectronics and lignocellulose bioconversion. A selective high-throughput screening assay for CDH in the presence of various fungal oxidoreductases was developed. It is based on Prussian Blue (PB) in situ formation in the presence of cellobiose (<0.25 mM), ferric acetate, and ferricyanide. CDH induces PB formation via both reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide reacting with an excess of Fe³⁺ (pathway 1) and reduction of ferric ions to Fe²⁺ reacting with the excess of ferricyanide (pathway 2). Basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDH formed PB optimally at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. In contrast to the holoenzyme CDH, its FAD-containing dehydrogenase domain lacking the cytochrome domain formed PB only via pathway 1 and was less active than the parent enzyme. The assay can be applied on active growing cultures on agar plates or on fungal culture supernatants in 96-well plates under aerobic conditions. Neither other carbohydrate oxidoreductases (pyranose dehydrogenase, FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase) nor laccase interfered with CDH activity in this assay. Applicability of the developed assay for the selection of new ascomycetous CDH producers as well as possibility of the controlled synthesis of new PB nanocomposites by CDH are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth.

  17. Photocatalytic enhancement of cesium removal by Prussian blue-deposited TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuncheol; Kim, Minsun; Kim, Wooyul; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Soonhyun

    2018-06-19

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, tremendous efforts were made to treat radiocesium, radiostrontium, and other radioactive materials. For the first time, we demonstrate that a TiO 2 photocatalyst can significantly enhance Cs adsorption by Prussian blue-deposited TiO 2 (PB/TiO 2 ) under UV irradiation. In this study, we synthesized PB/TiO 2 using the photodeposition method. After the Cs ions were adsorbed on the PB/TiO 2 in darkness, we then exposed the PB/TiO 2 to UV light irradiation. This resulted in a further increase in Cs ion adsorption of more than 10 times the amount adsorbed in darkness. This photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions was not observed on PB mixed with SiO 2 , nor under visible light irradiation. We investigated the effects of PB concentration, PB/TiO 2 concentration, and gas purging on both dark and photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions by PB/TiO 2 . Based on the results, we suggest that the photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions on PB/TiO 2 is due to photocatalytic reduction of PB, which leads to additional adsorption of Cs ions. The change in solution color before and after the reaction, and the change in solution pH in the dark and during UV irradiation strongly support this suggestion. The photocatalytic-enhanced adsorption of Cs ions was equivalent during radioactive 137 Cs removal, indicating important applications for pollutant removal from contaminated water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of electrochemical properties of the Prussian blue obtained via pentacyanidoferrate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Marcio Cristiano; Toledo, Kalil Cristhian Figueiredo; Pires, Bruno Morandi; Bonacin, Juliano Alves, E-mail: monteiromarcioc@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Wick, Rene [University of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Prussian blue (PB) is one the most important compounds used in electrochemical sensing of molecular targets as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Many diseases or biochemical abnormalities can be diagnosed by analysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The properties found in PB comes from the electronic structure of this material which is formed by Fe{sup 2+} bonded to iron Fe{sup 3+} by cyanide bridged arranged in a 3D structure. Furthermore, the intervalence observed allows to achieve different levels of oxidation in the same process[1]. The challenge in this area is how to control and modulate specific features of PB. Because of this, we are interested in evaluating how the ligand Nmethylpyrazinium affects the structure and reactivity of the N-methylpyraziniumpentacyanidoferrate(II)(PCF) and its PB corresponding. According to XRD, the PB obtained from PCF produces an amorphous structure instead of the highly ordered structure of PB obtained by classical methods. The stoichiometry of formation of the PB(classic) obtained by the Job's method is 1: 1 (Fe(III): [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-}), on the other hand, in PB-PCF the stoichiometry is 1: 2 (Fe(III):PCF). The reported features cause differences in the oxidation potential of the films, PB(classic) Eox=0.167V and PB-PCF Eox=0.219V. In terms of sensing of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the PB(classic) presented LOD= 1.2 10{sup -4} M and PB-mpz LOD= 5.8 10{sup -5}M. We have concluded that different sources of iron complexes cause alterations in the organization and electronic structure of the PB. Reference: [1] B. M. Pires, S. A. V. Jannuzzi, A. L. B. Formiga, J. A. Bonacin, Eur J Inorg Chem, 5812, (2014). (author)

  19. Facile preparation of a Pt/Prussian blue/graphene composite and its application as an enhanced catalyst for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zonghua; Shi, Guoyu; Xia, Jianfei; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Feifei; Xia, Lin; Song, Daimin; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Yanhui; Xia, Linhua; Brito, Manuel E.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pt/Prussian blue/graphene catalyst was easily synthesized by the sequential electrodeposition method. • Prussian blue can promote the homogeneous growth of small Pt nanoparticles. • The as-made catalyst exhibited enhanced electro-catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. • The interplay of Prussian blue and Pt plays a significant role in reducing CO poisoning of the catalyst. - Abstract: Graphene nanosheets (GN) are modified by electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) followed by shape-regulated depositing of small Pt nanoparticles via the interaction between PB and PtCl 6 2− to form a novel catalyst Pt/PB/GN. The Pt/PB/GN composite exhibits significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity with a mass activity of 445 mA mg −1 Pt (at 0.68 V vs. SCE) and high stability towards methanol oxidation. The high catalytic activity can be attributed to the unique porous architecture and peculiar electrical property of Prussian blue integrated with graphene layers which can not only well accommodate Pt nanoparticles but also provide multidimensional pathways to facilitate the mass and electron transport for methanol oxidation. This strategy can be readily extended to fabrication of other graphene-based hybrid supports for precious metal catalysts in fuel cell applications

  20. Interaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III)-Does it lead to gold analogue of Prussian blue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harish, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India); Joseph, James, E-mail: jameskavlam@yahoo.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India); Phani, K.L.N. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > In group IB, Cu and Ag form Prussian blue analogues but similar formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was not found in the literature and non-existence of gold hexacyanoferrate remains a mystery. > Potential cycling of gold chloride and potassium ferro/ferri cyanide was resulted in the formation of Au-PB nano-composite. > Redox reaction between gold chloride and potassium ferrocyanide ion is spontaneous but no reaction occurs when gold chloride and potassium ferricyanide is mixed. > We are proposing the formation of a compound with general formula 'KFe{sub x}[Au(CN){sub 2}]{sub y}' and discussing the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate is not feasible by simple chemical or electrochemical reaction in contrast to other PB analogues. - Abstract: Prussian blue analogues are a class of compounds formed by the reaction between metal salt and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III). In our earlier report, the formation of Au-Prussian blue nano-composite was noticed on potential cycling the glassy carbon electrode in a medium containing gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). Hence in this work, the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was attempted by a simple chemical reaction. The reaction of gold (III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III) was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and found that there is no redox reaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). However, the redox reaction occurs between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) leading to the formation of charge transfer band and the conversion of hexacyanoferrate (II) to hexacyanoferrate (III) was evidenced by the emergence of new absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectra. The oxidation state of gold in Au-Fe complex was found to be +1 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the Au-Fe complex was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the presence of high spin iron in Au

  1. Interaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III)-Does it lead to gold analogue of Prussian blue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, S.; Joseph, James; Phani, K.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In group IB, Cu and Ag form Prussian blue analogues but similar formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was not found in the literature and non-existence of gold hexacyanoferrate remains a mystery. → Potential cycling of gold chloride and potassium ferro/ferri cyanide was resulted in the formation of Au-PB nano-composite. → Redox reaction between gold chloride and potassium ferrocyanide ion is spontaneous but no reaction occurs when gold chloride and potassium ferricyanide is mixed. → We are proposing the formation of a compound with general formula 'KFe x [Au(CN) 2 ] y ' and discussing the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate is not feasible by simple chemical or electrochemical reaction in contrast to other PB analogues. - Abstract: Prussian blue analogues are a class of compounds formed by the reaction between metal salt and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III). In our earlier report, the formation of Au-Prussian blue nano-composite was noticed on potential cycling the glassy carbon electrode in a medium containing gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). Hence in this work, the formation of gold hexacyanoferrate was attempted by a simple chemical reaction. The reaction of gold (III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate (II/III) was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and found that there is no redox reaction between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (III). However, the redox reaction occurs between gold (III) chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) leading to the formation of charge transfer band and the conversion of hexacyanoferrate (II) to hexacyanoferrate (III) was evidenced by the emergence of new absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectra. The oxidation state of gold in Au-Fe complex was found to be +1 from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stability of the Au-Fe complex was also studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated the presence of high spin iron in Au-Fe complex. Hence 'as

  2. The use of Prussian Blue to reduce radiocaesium contamination of milk and meat produced on territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. Report of United Nations Project E 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Within the framework of a collaborative project investigations were conducted between 1990 and 1995 to evaluate the use in cattle of Prussian Blue compounds (in the form of boli, salt licks, or direct addition to the diet) for reducing the radiocaesium content of milk and meat, and the subsequent effect of dung from treated animals on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants. In association with these studies, investigations were conducted to monitor the possible effects of Prussian Blue administration on milk and meat composition and the physiological well-being of cattle. The possible toxicological effects of feeding rats with milk and meat from animals treated with Prussian Blue was also investigated. Figs, tabs

  3. The use of Prussian Blue to reduce radiocaesium contamination of milk and meat produced on territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. Report of United Nations Project E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    Within the framework of a collaborative project investigations were conducted between 1990 and 1995 to evaluate the use in cattle of Prussian Blue compounds (in the form of boli, salt licks, or direct addition to the diet) for reducing the radiocaesium content of milk and meat, and the subsequent effect of dung from treated animals on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants. In association with these studies, investigations were conducted to monitor the possible effects of Prussian Blue administration on milk and meat composition and the physiological well-being of cattle. The possible toxicological effects of feeding rats with milk and meat from animals treated with Prussian Blue was also investigated

  4. A Prussian Blue-Based Core-Shell Hollow-Structured Mesoporous Nanoparticle as a Smart Theranostic Agent with Ultrahigh pH-Responsive Longitudinal Relaxivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaojun; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ming; Wu, Meiying; Zhang, Linlin; Zheng, Yuanyi; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-11-04

    Novel core-shell hollow mesoporous Prussian blue @ Mn-containing Prussian blue analogue (HMPB@MnPBA) nanoparticles, designated as HMPB-Mn) as an intelligent theranostic nanoagent, are successfully constructed by coating a similarly crystal-structured MnPBA onto HMPB. This can be used as a pH-responsive T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent with ultrahigh longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 7.43 m m(-1) s(-1) ), and achieves the real-time monitoring of drug release. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rhodium-Prussian Blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivama Viviane Midori

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian Blue was deposited at carbon paste electrode surface from a solution containing 2.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 K3[Fe(CN6], 3.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 FeCl3 and 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 HCl using two controlled potentials. To improve the stability of the modified electrode it was 50 times cycled in a solution containing 1.0 x 10-3 mol L-1 RhCl3, 0.50 mol L-1 KCl and 0.010 mol L-1 HCl in the potential range from - 0.40 V to 0.60 V at 60 mV s-1. The Rh - Prussian Blue carbon paste modified electrode (Rh-PBMCPE showed good stability during amperometric catalytic determination of H2O2 at 0.040 V, without ascorbic and uric acids interferences. The current changed linearly with H2O2 concentrations in the range of 5.0 x 10-5 - 8.6 x 10-4 mol L-1. The estimated detection limit was 2.8 x 10-5 mol L-1 with sensibility changing from 1.32 to 0.96 A mol-1 L cm-2 along five days (180 determinations.

  6. Origin of the ESR spectrum in the Prussian blue analog RbMn[Fe(CN)(6)]center dot H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antal, A.; Janossy, A.; Forro, L.; Vertelman, E. J. M.; van Koningsbruggen, P. J.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present an electron spin resonance (ESR) study at excitation frequencies of 9.4 and 222.4 GHz of powders and single crystals of a Prussian blue analog (PBA), RbMn[Fe(CN)(6)]center dot H2O in which Fe and Mn undergoes a charge-transfer transition between 175 and 300 K. The ESR of PBA powders, also

  7. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K 2 RL | Siddiqui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drimarene Blue (Db) K2RL is a reactive anthraquinone dye, used extensively in textile industry, due to poor adsorbability to textile fiber; it has a higher exhaustion rate in wastewater. The dye is toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and resistant to degradation. Decolorization of this dye was studied in two different systems.

  8. Thermal oxidation of cesium loaded Prussian blue as a precaution for exothermic phase change in extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Akira; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Cesium adsorbed Prussian blue is studied for the thermal oxidation. The TG-DTA shows exothermic phase change of micro aggregates of nano-PB at above 270°C. For this reason, Cs loaded PB was heated between 180 to 260°C. Heating at 180 removed only the water. Neither the oxidation of Iron nor the removal of cyanide is observed at this temperature. Oxidation of cyanide is observed upon heating above 200°C while loaded Cs is released after heating at >250°C followed by washing with water. Thermal oxidation between 200 to 220°C for more than 2 h showed control on exothermic phase change and loaded Cs is also not solubilized. (author)

  9. Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Inkjet-Printed Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to optimize the PBNP layer thickness and electroanalytical conditions for optimum measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Sensor optimization resulted in a limit of detection of 2 × 10−7 M, a linear range from 0 to 4.5 mM and a sensitivity of 762 μA∙mM–1∙cm–2 which was achieved using 20 layers of printed PBNPs. Sensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility (<5% rsd.

  10. Functionalization of electrochemically deposited chitosan films with alginate and Prussian blue for enhanced performance of microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R, Navanietha Krishnaraj; R, Karthikeyan; Berchmans, Sheela; Chandran, Saravanan; Pal, Parimal

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of biocompatible chitosan–alginate electrode. • The synergism between Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus. • Better biofilm formation and enhanced electricity generation. • Immobilized Prussian blue system replaces the conventional ferricyanide system. - Abstract: This work is aimed at finding new strategies for the modification of anode and cathode that can lead to improved performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The electrochemical deposition of chitosan onto carbon felt followed by further modification with alginate led to the formation of a biocompatible platform for the prolific growth of microorganisms on the anode (Chit–Alg/carbon felt anode). The novel modification strategy for the formation of Prussian blue film, on the electrochemically deposited chitosan layer, has helped in circumventing the disadvantages of using ferricyanide in the cathode compartment and also for improving the electron transfer characteristics of the film in phosphate buffer. The anode was tested for its efficacy with four different substrates viz., glucose, ethanol, acetate and grape juice in a two compartment MFC. The synergistic effect of the mixed culture of Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter roseus was utilized for current generation. The electrocatalytic activity of the biofilm and its morphology were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The power densities were found to be 1.55 W/m 3 , 2.80 W/m 3 , 1.73 W/m 3 and 3.87 W/m 3 for glucose, ethanol, acetate and grape juice, respectively. The performance improved by 20.75% when compared to the bare electrode

  11. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode.

  12. Prussian blue nanocubes: multi-functional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason R.; Dumani, Diego S.; Kubelick, Kelsey P.; Luci, Jeffrey; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    Imaging modalities utilize contrast agents to improve morphological visualization and to assess functional and molecular/cellular information. Here we present a new type of nanometer scale multi-functional particle that can be used for multi-modal imaging and therapeutic applications. Specifically, we synthesized monodisperse 20 nm Prussian Blue Nanocubes (PBNCs) with desired optical absorption in the near-infrared region and superparamagnetic properties. PBNCs showed excellent contrast in photoacoustic (700 nm wavelength) and MR (3T) imaging. Furthermore, photostability was assessed by exposing the PBNCs to nearly 1,000 laser pulses (5 ns pulse width) with up to 30 mJ/cm2 laser fluences. The PBNCs exhibited insignificant changes in photoacoustic signal, demonstrating enhanced robustness compared to the commonly used gold nanorods (substantial photodegradation with fluences greater than 5 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the PBNCs exhibited superparamagnetism with a magnetic saturation of 105 emu/g, a 5x improvement over superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. PBNCs exhibited enhanced T2 contrast measured using 3T clinical MRI. Because of the excellent optical absorption and magnetism, PBNCs have potential uses in other imaging modalities including optical tomography, microscopy, magneto-motive OCT/ultrasound, etc. In addition to multi-modal imaging, the PBNCs are multi-functional and, for example, can be used to enhance magnetic delivery and as therapeutic agents. Our initial studies show that stem cells can be labeled with PBNCs to perform image-guided magnetic delivery. Overall, PBNCs can act as imaging/therapeutic agents in diverse applications including cancer, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmology, and tissue engineering. Furthermore, PBNCs are based on FDA approved Prussian Blue thus potentially easing clinical translation of PBNCs.

  13. Chemical consequences of the nuclear reactions 58Fe(n,γ)59Fe and 57Co(EC)57Fe in soluble Prussian Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jes; Maddock, A. G.; Siekierska, K. E.

    1970-01-01

    KFe[Fe(CN)6],H2O was prepared with 58Fe in either the cation or the complex, and both samples were neutron-irradiated and analysed for free and complexed 59Fe. Parallel experiments were performed on K4[Fe(CN)6],3H2O. In Prussian Blue the retention in the hexacyano-complex is ca. 5% and can be inc...

  14. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: From synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Barré, Y. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SPDE/LPSD,BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Vincent, T. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Taulemesse, J.-M. [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Center des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France); Robitzer, M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt – UMR5253, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, ICGM-MACS-R2M2, 8 rue de l' Ecole Normale, F-34296 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Guibal, E., E-mail: Eric.Guibal@mines-ales.fr [Ecole des mines d' Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d' Alès, C2MA/MPA/BCI, 6 avenue de Clavières, F-30319 Alès Cedex (France)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Prussian blue microparticles incorporated in chitin sponges. • Efficient Cs(I) sorption after water absorption by dry hybrid sponge. • Water draining after sorption for metal confinement and water decontamination. • High decontamination factors and distribution coefficients for Cs(I) and {sup 137}Cs(I). • Effect of freezing conditions on porous structure and textural characterization. - Abstract: Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water.

  15. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  16. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyuha; Kim, A-Young; Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO 4 salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode

  17. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  18. Rational Synthesis of Hollow Prussian Blue Analogue Through Coordination Replication and Controlled-Etching for Cs-Ion Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Bu, Fan-Xing; Guo, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ming; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2018-05-01

    Radioactive cesium pollution have received considerable attention due to the increasing risks in development of the nuclear power plants in the world. Although various functional porous materials are utilized to adsorb Cs+ ions in water, Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are an impressive class of candidates because of their super affinity of Cs+ ions. The adsorption ability of the PBAs strongly relate to the mesostructure and interstitial sites. To design a hollow PBA with large number of interstitial sites, the traditional hollowing methods are not suitable owing to the difficulty in processing the specific PBAs with large number of interstitial sites. In this work, we empolyed a rational strategy which was to form a "metal oxide"@"PBA" core-shell structure via coordination replication at first, then utilized a mild etching to remove the metal oxide core, led to hollow PBA finally. The obtained hollow PBAs were of high crystallinity and large number of interstitial sites, showing a super adsorption performance for Cs+ ions (221.6 mg/g) within a short period (10 min).

  19. Amperometric immunosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Prussian blue/nanogold-modified electrode for determination of α-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yin, Bing

    2010-12-01

    In this article, a conspicuously simple and highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor based on the sequential electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface is proposed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). By comparison with PB, the MWCNT/PB composite film had been proven to show much better electrochemical stability and a larger response current. The electrodeposited GNP film can be used not only to immobilize biomolecules but also to avoid the leakage of PB and to prevent shedding of MWCNT/PB composite film from the electrode surface. The performance and factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed immunosensor for AFP was observed with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) equal to 3 pg/ml (at 3δ), and the linear working range spanned the concentrations of AFP from 0.01 to 300 ng/ml. Moreover, the immunosensor, as well as a commercially available kit, was examined for use in the determination of AFP in real human serum specimens. More significant, the assay mentioned here is simpler than the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an excellent correlation of levels of AFP measured was obtained, indicating that the developed immunoassay could be a promising alternative approach for detection of AFP and other tumor markers in the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of the electrochemical and electrocatalytic behavior of Prussian blue/carbon nanotubes composite via ionic liquid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keihan, A.H.; Sajjadi, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the greatly improved electrochemical properties of Prussian blue/carbon nanotubes (PB/CNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode via a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) treatment. Firstly, the GC electrodes were modified with nanocomposites of RTIL/CNTs. Then, the PB nanoparticles were electrodeposited onto the modified electrode surface. Compared with the PB/CNTs/GC, the PB/RTIL/CNTs/GC electrodes showed higher PB surface concentration value of 2.42 × 10 −9 mol cm −2 , indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved by 1.8 fold. The apparent diffusion coefficient for K + displayed value of 5.77 × 10 −11 cm 2 s −1 , which was one order of magnitude higher than that in the absence of RTIL. PB/RTIL/CNTs/GC modified electrodes showed higher electron transfer rate of 2.44 s −1 (2.35 times as much as that of PB/CNTs/GC electrodes). RTIL modified electrodes also displayed high sensitivity toward H 2 O 2 reduction (185.90 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with low detection limit of 0.49 μM. The RTIL modified electrodes stored dry at room temperature preserved almost 100% of their initial currents over a period of 1 month, a useful property for commercial applications

  1. In-situ secondary growth of nanocube-based Prussian-blue film as an ultrasensitive biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A regular nanostructure has been widely confirmed to result ina marked improvement in material performance in biosensing applications. In the present study, a regular nanostructured Prussian blue (PB film with two heterogeneous crystal layers was synthesized in-situ using a secondary growth method. A PB seed layer was first controlled to form uniform cube-like crystal nuclei through an ultrasonic reaction with a single reactant. Then, well-defined 100 nm PB nanocubes were further crystallized on this seed layer using a self-assembly approach. In order to accelerate the electron transfer rate during the enzyme reaction for glucose detection, the graphene was used as the main cross-linker to immobilize glucose oxidase on the PB film. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited high electrocatalysis and electron conductivity for the detection of trace glucose with a sensitivity of 141.5 μA mM−1 cm−2, as well as excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid under a low operation potential of −0.05 V.

  2. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  3. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T.; Diaz N, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  4. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  5. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  6. Novel synthesis of Prussian blue nanoparticles and nanocomposite sol: Electro-analytical application in hydrogen peroxide sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Prem C.; Pandey, Ashish K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel process for the synthesis of PBNPs sol of 15.8 nm size is reported. ► The PBNPs sol shows the electron transfer rate constant to the order of 32.1 s −1 ► The PBNPs sol has shown the functional activity for making the nanocomposite. ► The nanocomposite with tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium shows photoluminiscent ability. ► The PBNPs and its nanocomposite (PB-Rubpy) show high sensitivity for H 2 O 2 sensing. - Abstract: This paper reports a new method for the synthesis of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) sol of homogeneous dispersion with average particle size to the order of 15.8 nm. The new method of PBNPs sol synthesis is based on the interaction of active concentrations of 3-aminopropylalkoxysilane, cyclohexanone and single precursor potassium ferricyanide under ambient conditions. The PBNPs sol shows excellent electrochemistry with electron transfer rate constant to the order of 32.1 s −1 . The resulting PBNPs sol has been found highly stable for practical applications and shows functional activity for making nanocomposite sol with tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium (Rubpy). The PB-Rubpy nanocomposite shows high sensitivity for H 2 O 2 electrochemical sensing to the order of 1102.0 μA mM −1 cm −2 and storage stability of the materials for more than 3 months. In addition, these nanocomposite exhibits excellent electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensing with catalytic rate constant to the order of 3.14 × 10 3 M −1 s −1 . The PB-Rubpy nanocomposite sol, apart from electrocatalytic application, shows photoluminiscent ability for many opto-electroanalytical applications. In addition to that functional property of PBNPs sol for making nanodispersion with several known nanoparticles of gold, silver, palladium along with in situ synthesis of mixed metal hexacyanoferrate have also been observed.

  7. A solid-state hybrid density functional theory study of Prussian blue analogues and related chlorides at pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middlemiss, Derek S; Lawton, Lorreta M; Wilson, Chick C [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM Research School, University Avenue, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.c.wilson@chem.gla.ac.uk

    2008-08-20

    The variations with pressure in the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of a series of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) K{sup I}M{sup II}[Cr{sup III}(CN){sub 6}] (M = V{sup II}, Mn{sup II} and Ni{sup II}) and associated isomorphous chlorides K{sup I}M{sup II}Cr{sup III}Cl{sub 6} are investigated within a series of solid-state hybrid density functional calculations. The sensitivity of the computed properties to the choice of Hamiltonian is tested by application of functionals containing 35%, 65% and 100% admixtures of Fock exchange. Magnetic coupling constants (J) are obtained at a range of cell volumes (V), with fits of the Bloch relationship (J {proportional_to} V{sup -{epsilon}}, {epsilon} typically 3-4) yielding exponents {epsilon} in the ranges 5.16-6.34, 8.48-12.07 and 4.00-4.51 for the antiferromagnetic (AF) V{sup II}Cr{sup III}-, ferrimagnetic (FI) Mn{sup II}Cr{sup III}- and ferromagnetic (FO) Ni{sup II}Cr{sup III} PBAs, respectively; and 3.33-4.99, 1.86-3.09 and 1.65-3.28 for the AF V{sup II}Cr{sup III}-, FO Mn{sup II}Cr{sup III}- and FO Ni{sup II}Cr{sup III} chlorides, respectively. The Mn{sup II}Cr{sup III} PBA range encloses the high values {epsilon}{approx}9-10 obtained in a recent joint experimental and theoretical study, and it is suggested that this strong magnetostructural effect arises due to the presence of competing AF and FO interactions in this material. Estimates of the spin ordering temperatures derived from the combination of the 35%-functional couplings with a mean field approach are in good agreement with experiment in the V{sup II}Cr{sup III} and Ni{sup II}Cr{sup III} PBAs, but are too low in the Mn{sup II}Cr{sup III} system. The variations with pressure in the structural parameters, charges and spin moments are also detailed, the PBA and chloride energy-volume data yielding bulk moduli in the ranges 39-53 and 36-50 GPa, respectively. Finally, the energies governing CN{sup -} ligand isomerization are estimated and successfully

  8. Voltammetric determination of paracetamole using a glassy carbon electrode modified with Prussian Blue and a molecularly imprinted polymer, and ratiometric read-out of two signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yunlong; Li, Xueyan; Lu, Xiaojing; Kan, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on a ratiometric electrochemical sensor for paracetamole (PR) which was fabricated by successively electropolymerizing a layer of Prussian blue (PB) and a layer of molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIP) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The binding of PR molecules to the MIP has two effects: The first is an increase of the oxidation current for PR at 0.42 V (vs. SCE), and the second is a decrease in the current for PB (at 0.18 V) due to partial blocking of the channels which results in reduced electron transmissivity. Both currents, and in particular their ratio, can serve as analytical information. Under optimized conditions, the sensor displays enhanced sensitivity for PR in the 1.0 nM to 0.1 mM concentration range and a 0.53 nM lower limit of detection. The sensor was applied to the determination of PR in tablets and urines where it gave recoveries in the range between 94.6 and 104.9 %. This dual-signal (ratiometric) detection scheme (using electro polymerized Prussian Blue and analyte-specific MIP) in our perception has a wide scope in that it may be applied to numerous other electro active species for which specific MIP can be made available. (author)

  9. Radiation damages during synchrotron X-ray micro-analyses of Prussian blue and zinc white historic paintings: detection, mitigation and integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, Claire [Bern University of the Arts, Bern (Switzerland); Thoury, Mathieu [IPANEMA, USR 3461 CNRS/MCC, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Reguer, Solenn; Gueriau, Pierre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mass, Jennifer [Winterthur Museum and Country Estate, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)

    2015-11-15

    High-flux synchrotron techniques allow microspectroscopic analyses of artworks that were not feasible even a few years ago, allowing for a more detailed characterization of their constituent materials and a better understanding of their chemistry. However, interaction between high-flux photons and matter at the sub-microscale can generate damages which are not visually detectable. We show here different methodologies allowing to evidence the damages induced by microscopic X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy analysis (μXANES) at the Fe and Zn K-edges of a painting dating from the turn of the twentieth century containing Prussian blue and zinc white. No significant degradation of the pigments was noticed, in agreement with the excellent condition of the painting. However, synchrotron radiation damages occurred at several levels, from chemical changes of the binder, modification of crystal defects in zinc oxide, to Prussian blue photoreduction. They could be identified by using both the μXANES signal during analysis and with photoluminescence imaging in the deep ultraviolet and visible ranges after analysis. We show that recording accurately damaged areas is a key step to prevent misinterpretation of results during future re-examination of the sample. We conclude by proposing good practices that could help in integrating radiation damage avoidance into the analytical pathway. (orig.)

  10. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  11. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue - a quality assessment of water content and thallium binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Adil; Faustino, Patrick J; Khan, Mansoor A; Yang, Yongsheng

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue (PB) drug product (DP) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) under laboratory storage conditions by monitoring the loss in water content and the corresponding change of the in vitro thallium binding capacity that represents product performance. The bound water content and the in vitro thallium binding capacity of PB DPs and APIs were measured in 2003 and 2013, respectively. Water content, a critical quality attribute that directly correlates to the thallium (Tl) binding capacity was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thallium binding study was conducted by testing PB in buffered solutions over the human gastrointestinal pH range with thallium concentrations ranging from 600 to 1,500 ppm. Samples were incubated at physiological temperature of 37°C in a shaking water bath to mimic gastric flux and intestinal transport. The binding equilibrium was reached at 24h. Following incubation, each sample was filtered and the free thallium was analyzed using a validated inductively coupled plasma spectroscopic method (ICP). The Langmuir isotherm was plotted to calculate maximum binding capacity (MBC). Compared with 2003, the water content of DP-1 decreased by about 14.1% (from 15.6 to 13.4 mol), and the MBC of DP-1 decreased by about 12.5% (from 714 to 625 mg/g) at pH 7.5. When low concentration of thallium (600 ppm) was used at pH 7.5, the Tl binding remained comparable for both API-1 (286 vs 276 mg/g) and DP-1 (286 vs 268 mg/g). Similarly, the Tl binding remained unchanged for both API-1 (237 vs 255 mg/g) and DP-1 (234 vs 236 mg/g) at pH 5.0. However, at pH 1.0 the binding was reduced 32.3% and 25.9% for API-1 and DP-1, respectively. Since the majority of binding takes place in the upper GI tract where pH around 5 can be expected, and therefore, the Tl binding capacity of PB should be comparable for new and aged samples. The findings that Tl binding changes with the water

  12. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun; Liang, Hanfeng; Ming, Fangwang; Qi, Zhengbing; Xie, Yaqiang; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  13. Improvement of the Heat Resistance of Prussian Blue Nanoparticles in a Clay Film Composed of Smectite Clay and ε-Caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kenta; Nakamura, Takashi; Ebina, Takeo; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kurihara, Masato

    2018-06-04

    Prussian blue (PB) is limited in its application by its breakdown at elevated temperatures. To improve the heat resistance of PB, we prepared a composite film comprising PB nanoparticles (NPs), smectite clay, and an organic compound. The composite film had a microstructure in which PB NPs were intercalated between smectite/organic compound layers. The predominant oxidation temperature of the PB NPs in the composite film was around 500 °C in air, higher than the oxidation temperature of bulk PB in air (250 °C). This improvement in the oxidation temperature may be due to the composite film acting as a barrier to oxygen gas. These results indicate the effectiveness of clay materials for the improvement of heat resistance for low-temperature decomposition compounds, not only PB but also other porous coordination polymers.

  14. Prussian Blue Analogues Derived Penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 Nanocages Anchored on 3D Graphene Aerogel for Efficient Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xun

    2017-08-14

    Efficient water splitting demands highly active, low cost, and robust electrocatalysts. In this study, we report the synthesis of penroseite (Ni,Co)Se2 nanocages anchored on 3D graphene aerogel using Prussian blue analogues as precursor and further their applications in overall water splitting electrolysis. The synergy between the high activity of (Ni,Co)Se2 and the good conductivity of graphene leads to superior performance of the hybrid toward the water splitting in basic solutions. The (Ni,Co)Se2-GA only requires a low cell voltage of 1.60 V to reach the current density of 10 mA cm-2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2-GA hybrid a competitive alternative to noble metal based catalysts for water splitting.

  15. Long-range interfacial electron transfer and electrocatalysis of molecular scale Prussian Blue nanoparticles linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces by different chemical contacting groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    We have explored interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and electrocatalysis of 5–6 nm Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) immobilized on Au(111)-electrode surfaces via molecular wiring with variable-length, and differently functionalized thiol-based self-assembled molecular monolayers...... (SAMs). The SAMs contain positively (−NH3+) or negatively charged (–COO–) terminal group, as well an electrostatically neutral hydrophobic terminal group (–CH3). The surface microscopic structures of the immobilized PBNPs were characterized by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) directly...... in aqueous electrolyte solution under the same conditions as for electrochemical measurements. The PBNPs displayed fast and reversible interfacial ET on all the surfaces, notably in multi-ET steps as reflected in narrow voltammetric peaks. The ET kinetics can be controlled by adjusting the length of the SAM...

  16. A resettable and reprogrammable keypad lock based on electrochromic Prussian blue films and biocatalysis of immobilized glucose oxidase in a bipolar electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Liang, Jiying; Yang, Tiangang; Gong, Mengjie; Xi, Dongman; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-01-15

    Herein, a resettable and reprogrammable biomolecular keypad lock on the basis of a closed bipolar electrode (BPE) system was established. In this system, one ITO electrode with immobilized chitosan (CS) and glucose oxidase (GOD), designated as CS-GOD, acted as one pole of BPE in the sensing cell; another ITO with electrodeposited Prussian blue (PB) films as the other pole in the reporting cell. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) in the sensing cell with driving voltage (V tot ) at +2.5V would make the PB films become Prussian white (PW) in the reporting cell, accompanied by the color change from blue to nearly transparent. On the other hand, with the help of oxygen, the addition of glucose in the sensing cell with V tot at -1.5V would induce PW back to PB. The change of color and the corresponding UV-vis absorbance at 700nm for the PB/PW films in the reporting cell could be reversibly switched by changing the solute in the sensing cell between AA and glucose and then switching V tot between +2.5 and -1.5V. Based on these, a keypad lock was developed with AA, glucose and V tot as 3 inputs, and the color change of the PB/PW films as the output. This keypad lock system combined enzymatic catalysis with bipolar electrochemistry, demonstrating some unique advantages such as good reprogrammability, easy resettability and visual readout by naked eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption Of Blue-Dye On Activated Carbons Produced From Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activated carbons prepared were used for the adsorption of blue-dye of concentration ranging from 100 to 2000 mg/l from aqueous solution. The results obtained indicated that ferric chloride-activated carbons produced from coconut coirpith are better adsorbents for blue-dye than those prepared from rice husk.

  18. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Encapsulation of ferro- and ferricyanide complexes inside ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized from rice straw: Implications for synthesis of Prussian blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ibraheem O.; Salama, Tarek M.; Thabet, Mohamed S.; El-Nasser, Karam S.; Hassan, Ali M.

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulation of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4− and [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− complexes in the intracrystalline pores of ZSM-5 zeolite, Fe II L/Z and Fe III L/Z respectively, by the zeolite synthesis method was reported. The modified zeolites were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms allow for the evaluation of pore structure of the complex-modified zeolites, whereas the thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) measurements provide insight into the decomposition products of the immobilized complexes. The modified zeolites exhibited smaller pore volumes and surface areas as compared with those of unpromoted ZSM-5, suggesting the inclusion of iron cyanides inside the interconnecting channels of ZSM-5. While the ferricyanide complex enhanced the formation of highly crystalline zeolite, the ferrocyanide one resulted in a lesser effect. The electronic spectra of the colloidal species developed when Fe III L/Z brought in contact with an aqueous solution of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− exhibit absorptions attributed to CN − → iron charge-transfer. New bands at 294 and 319 nm due to d–d transitions of Fe III tetrahedral monomeric moieties were emitted concurrently under successive adsorption of [Fe(CN) 6 ] aq 3− over Fe III L/Z, along with a broad band at 555 nm assigned to polymeric [Fe II –C–N–Fe III ] of Prussian blue (PB). The FT-IR spectra of Fe III/II L/Z devoted to the adsorption of an aqueous solution of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− showed a band at 2092 cm −1 assigned to the C–N stretch in the Fe II –CN–Fe III linkages. The vibrations attributable to Fe–O–Si bonding along with hydrocarbon and nitroprusside appeared only in the spectrum of Fe III L/Z, thus was found to be strong evidence for the mutual interaction between [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3− and the latter sample. - Highlights: • We synthesized ferrous and ferric cyanide complexes inside ZSM-5 zeolite. • The decomposition of the encapsulated complexes occurred at high temperatures.

  20. Encapsulation of ferro- and ferricyanide complexes inside ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized from rice straw: Implications for synthesis of Prussian blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ibraheem O.; Salama, Tarek M., E-mail: tm_salama@yahoo.com; Thabet, Mohamed S.; El-Nasser, Karam S.; Hassan, Ali M.

    2013-06-15

    Encapsulation of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4−} and [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} complexes in the intracrystalline pores of ZSM-5 zeolite, Fe{sup II}L/Z and Fe{sup III}L/Z respectively, by the zeolite synthesis method was reported. The modified zeolites were characterized by powder XRD, FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms allow for the evaluation of pore structure of the complex-modified zeolites, whereas the thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) measurements provide insight into the decomposition products of the immobilized complexes. The modified zeolites exhibited smaller pore volumes and surface areas as compared with those of unpromoted ZSM-5, suggesting the inclusion of iron cyanides inside the interconnecting channels of ZSM-5. While the ferricyanide complex enhanced the formation of highly crystalline zeolite, the ferrocyanide one resulted in a lesser effect. The electronic spectra of the colloidal species developed when Fe{sup III}L/Z brought in contact with an aqueous solution of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} exhibit absorptions attributed to CN{sup −} → iron charge-transfer. New bands at 294 and 319 nm due to d–d transitions of Fe{sup III} tetrahedral monomeric moieties were emitted concurrently under successive adsorption of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub aq}{sup 3−} over Fe{sup III}L/Z, along with a broad band at 555 nm assigned to polymeric [Fe{sup II}–C–N–Fe{sup III}] of Prussian blue (PB). The FT-IR spectra of Fe{sup III/II}L/Z devoted to the adsorption of an aqueous solution of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} showed a band at 2092 cm{sup −1} assigned to the C–N stretch in the Fe{sup II}–CN–Fe{sup III} linkages. The vibrations attributable to Fe–O–Si bonding along with hydrocarbon and nitroprusside appeared only in the spectrum of Fe{sup III}L/Z, thus was found to be strong evidence for the mutual interaction between [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} and the latter sample. - Highlights: • We synthesized ferrous and ferric cyanide

  1. Study of oxidation states of the transition metals in a series of Prussian blue analogs using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States); Hartl, M., E-mail: monika.hartl@esss.se [European Spallation Source ESS AB, 22100, Lund (Sweden); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Daemen, L. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830 (United States); Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE-LC), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Fohtung, E.; Nakotte, H. [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Systematic XANES measurements on Prussian blue analogs shows oxidation state of transition metals. • Cobal-iron bimetallic hexacyanometallates show unexpected oxidation states. • Iron(II) ions in hexacyanometallates(III) show varying spin state depending on their bond to the “N” end or “C” end of the cyanide ligand. • Thermal expansion coefficients have been linked to the XANES results. - Abstract: There have been renewed interests in metal-organic framework classes of materials such as Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) due to their potential usage in energy storage applications. In particular, due to their high surface areas, controllable structures and excellent electrochemical properties, PBAs such as hexacyanometalates M{sup II}{sub 3}[A{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; A = Co, Fe, Cr; n = no. of water molecules present), M{sup II}{sub 2}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2*}nH{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and mixed hexacyanometalates(III) (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 3}[B{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75; B = Co, Fe) could have possible usage as a new class of cathode and even anode materials for rechargeable batteries. Detailed knowledge of the oxidation states of the transition metals in PBAs is required to improve efficiency and durability of such devices. Furthermore, a link between the thermal expansion observed in these materials and the oxidation state of the transition metal is of interest to synthesize materials with a desired thermal expansion behavior, Here we demonstrate the use of Synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra to identify transition metal oxidation states. Our analysis reveals the presence of divalent, trivalent and/or mixed valence transition metals in the materials as well as high-spin and low-spin complexes.

  2. Evans Blue Dye: A Revisit of Its Applications in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linpeng; Xue, Xing; Yu, Peipei; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Evans blue (EB) dye has owned a long history as a biological dye and diagnostic agent since its first staining application by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. Due to its high water solubility and slow excretion, as well as its tight binding to serum albumin, EB has been widely used in biomedicine, including its use in estimating blood volume and vascular permeability, detecting lymph nodes, and localizing the tumor lesions. Recently, a series of EB derivatives have been labeled with PET isotopes and can be used as theranostics with a broad potential due to their improved half-life in the blood and reduced release. Some of EB derivatives have even been used in translational applications in clinics. In addition, a novel necrosis-avid feature of EB has recently been reported in some preclinical animal studies. Given all these interesting and important advances in EB study, a comprehensive revisiting of EB has been made in its biomedical applications in the review.

  3. Can methylene blue dye be used as an alternative to patent blue dye to find the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB is standard care to evaluate axillary involvement in early breast cancer. It has fewer complications than complete lymph node dissection; however, using blue dye in SLNB is controversial. We have evaluated the detection rate and local complications associated with methylene blue dye (MBD used in SLNB in early breast cancer patients and compared these results to patent blue dye (PBD. Materials and Methods : In a cohort prospective study, 312 patients with early breast cancer without axillary lymph node involvement were divided into two groups according to dye type. All of the patients received radiotracer and one type of blue dye. We filled out a checklist for the patients that contained demographic data, size of tumor, stage, detection of sentinel lymph node, and complications and then analyzed the data. Results: Demographic and histopathologic characteristics were not significantly different in both groups. Mean (standard deviation [SD] tumor size in all patients was 2.4 (0.8 cm. Detection rate in the MBD group was 77.5% with dye alone and 94.2% with dye and radioisotope; and in the PBD group it was 80.1% and 92.9% respectively (P > 0.05. We had blue discoloration of the skin in 23.7% in the PBD and 14.1% in the MBD group (P < 0.05 local inflammation was detected in one patient in the PBD and five in the MBD group (P < 0.05. Skin necrosis and systemic complications were not observed. Conclusion: Methylene blue has an acceptable detection rate, which may be a good alternative in SLNB. Complication such as blue discoloration of the skin was also lower with MBD.

  4. Electrolyte influence on sorption behaviours of Direct Blue 71 dye on ramie fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramie loose fibre was dyed using Direct Blue 71 dye at 70, 80, 90 and 100°C without and with NaCl electrolyte in order to investigate the distinction of dye sorption behaviours. The results show that the dye exhaustion increases with addition of NaCl and shortens the equilibrium dyeing time. The dye adsorption process of dyeing without and with NaCl followed pseudo second-order kinetics, but the rate constant of sorption is larger for the latter compared to the former.

  5. Characteristics of Alcian-blue Dye Adsorption of Natural Biofilm Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Sukandar; Guntur

    2018-01-01

    In this study, natural biofilm matrices formed on stones have been used for the adsorption of Alcian blue dye. Alcian blue is a member of polyvalent basic dyes that largely used from laboratory until industrial dying purposes. The adsorption of the dye onto the biofilm matrix has been carried out at different experimental conditions such as adsorption isotherm and kinetic of adsorption. The electric charge properties of biofilm matrix and its changes related to the adsorption of Alcian blue have been also investigated. Moreover, the results of Alcian blue adsorption to the biofilm were compared to those onto the acidic and neutral resin. The kinetics of adsorption result showed that the adsorption of the Alcian blue dye reached to a maximum adsorption amount within 60 minutes. The adsorption amount of Alcian blue to biofilm increased monotonously, and the maximum adsorption amount was greater compared to the resins. On the contrary, Alcian blue did not attach to the neutral resin having no electric charge. It seems that Alcian blue attached to the acidic resins due to electrostatic attractive force, and the same seems to be the case for adsorption of Alcian blue to biofilm. The adsorption of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins fitted to Langmuir type indicates that the binding of Alcian blue to the biofilm and acidic resins occurred in a monolayer like form. The maximum adsorption amount of Alcian blue on the biofilm (0.24 mmol/dry-g) was greater than those of acidic resin (0.025 mmol/dry-g). This indicates that the biofilm has many more sites for Alcian blue attachment than acidic resins. According to the result of this study, the biofilm matrix can be a good adsorbent for dye such as Alcian blue or other dyes that causing hazards in nature.

  6. Prussian blue/serum albumin/indocyanine green as a multifunctional nanotheranostic agent for bimodal imaging guided laser mediated combinatorial phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhishek; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hye Gyeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-28

    Developing novel nanotheranostic agent using only clinically approved materials is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, we combined three clinically approved materials, Prussian blue (PB), serum albumin (BSA), and indocyanine green (ICG), by a simple and biocompatible method to prepare a multifunctional theranostic PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle. The multifunctional nanoparticle system could provide dual mode magnetic resonance (MR) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as well as combined photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy in response to a single NIR laser. This nanoparticle showed an excellent stability in physiological solutions and could suppress the photo-instability of ICG. In the absence of light, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity, but significant cell death was induced through combined PTT-PDT effect after irradiation with NIR laser light. A high tumor accumulation and minimal nonspecific uptake by other major organs of PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle were observed in vivo, analyzed by T1-weighted MR and NIR fluorescence bimodal imaging in tumor xenograft mice after intravenous injection. The nanoparticles efficiently suppressed the tumor growth through combinatorial phototherapy with no tumor recurrence upon a single NIR laser irradiation. These results demonstrated that PB-BSA-ICG is potentially an interesting nanotheranostic agent for imaging guided cancer therapy by overcoming the limitations of each technology and enhancing the therapeutic efficiency as well as reducing side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prussian blue-gold nanoparticles-ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as label for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Liu, Na; Ma, Zhanfang

    2014-06-04

    In this work, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) protected Prussian blue/gold nanoparticles/ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (IL-rGO-Au-PDDA-PB) nanocomposite was fabricated. The resulting nanocomposite exhibited high biocompatibility, conductivity and catalytic activity. To assess the performance of the nanocomposite, a sensitive sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed for detecting alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Greatly enhanced sensitivity for this immunosensor was based on triple signal amplification strategies. Firstly, IL-rGO modified electrode was used as biosensor platform to capture a large amount of antibody due to its increased surface area, thus amplifying the detection response. Secondly, a large number of Au-PDDA-PB was conjugated on the surface of IL-rGO, which meant the enrichment of the signal and the more immobilization of label antibody. Finally, the catalytic reaction between H2O2 and the IL-rGO-Au-PDDA-PB nanocomposite further enhanced the signal response. The signals increased linearly with AFP concentrations in the range of 0.01-100 ng mL(-1). The detection limit for AFP was 4.6 pg mL(-1). The immunosensor showed high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and good stability. Moreover, the immunosensor was applied to the analysis of AFP in serum sample with satisfactory result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo

    2016-03-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Na-rich Prussian blue analogues containing Mn, Fe, Co, and Fe for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Kubota, Kei; Hosaka, Tomooki; Chihara, Kuniko; Komaba, Shinichi

    2018-02-01

    Electrochemical performance of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) as positive electrode materials for non-aqueous Na-ion batteries is known to be highly dependent on their synthesis conditions according to the previous researches. Na-rich PBAs, NaxM[Fe(CN)6]·nH2O where M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, are prepared via precipitation method under the same condition. The structure, chemical composition, morphology, valence of the transition metals, and electrochemical property of these samples are comparatively researched. The PBA with Mn shows large reversible capacity of 126 mAh g-1 in 2.0-4.2 V at a current density of 30 mA g-1 and the highest working voltage owning to high redox potential of Mn2+/3+ in MnN6 and Fe2+/3+ in FeC6. While, the PBA with Ni exhibits the best cyclability and rate performance though only 66 mAh g-1 is delivered. The significant differences in electrochemical behaviors of the PBAs originate from the various properties depending on different transition metals.

  11. Facile synthesis of Prussian blue nanocubes/silver nanowires network as a water-based ink for the direct screen-printed flexible biosensor chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengqi; Peng, Jingmeng; Chu, Zhenyu; Jiang, Danfeng; Jin, Wanqin

    2017-06-15

    The large-scale fabrication of nanocomposite based biosensors is always a challenge in the technology commercialization from laboratory to industry. In order to address this issue, we have designed a facile chemical method of fabricated nanocomposite ink applied to the screen-printed biosensor chip. This ink can be derived in the water through the in-situ growth of Prussian blue nanocubes (PBNCs) on the silver nanowires (AgNWs) to construct a composite nanostructure by a facile chemical method. Then a miniature flexible biosensor chip was screen-printed by using the prepared nanocomposite ink. Due to the synergic effects of the large specific surface area, high conductivity and electrocatalytic activity from AgNWs and PBNCs, the as-prepared biosensor chip exhibited a fast response (biosensor chip exhibited excellent stability, good reproducibility and high anti-interference ability towards physiological substances under a very low working potential of -0.05. Hence, the proposed biosensor chip also showed a promising potential for the application in practical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  13. Prussian blue mediated amplification combined with signal enhancement of ordered mesoporous carbon for ultrasensitive and specific quantification of metolcarb by a three-dimensional molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yukun; Cao, Yaoyu; Wang, Xiaomin; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Shuo

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we presented a three-dimensional (3D) molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIECS) with novel strategy for ultrasensitive and specific quantification of metolcarb based on prussian blue (PB) mediated amplification combined with signal enhancement of ordered mesoporous carbon. The molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized by electrochemically induced redox polymerization of para aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) in the presence of template metolcarb. Ordered mesoporous carbon material (CMK-3) was introduced to enhance the electrochemical response by improving the structure of the modified electrodes and facilitating charge transfer processes of PB which was used as an inherent electrochemical active probe. The modification process for the working electrodes of the MIECS was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and several important parameters controlling the performance of the MIECS were investigated and optimized in detail. The MIECS with 3D structure had the advantages of ease of preparation, high porous surface structure, speedy response, ultrasensitivity, selectivity, reliable stability, good reproducibility and repeatability. Under the optimal conditions, the MIECS offered an excellent current response for metolcarb in the linear response range of 5.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 9.3 × 10 (-11)mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The proposed MIECS has been successfully applied for the determination of metolcarb in real samples with satisfactory recoveries. Furthermore, the construction route of this ultrasensitive 3D MIECS may provide a guideline for the determination of non-electroactive analytes in environmental control and food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surfactant-promoted Prussian Blue-modified carbon electrodes: enhancement of electro-deposition step, stabilization, electrochemical properties and application to lactate microbiosensors for the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, P; Martín, M; O'Neill, R D; Roche, R; González-Mora, J L

    2012-04-01

    We report here for the first time a comparison of the beneficial effects of different cationic surfactants - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) - for the electrochemical synthesis of Prussian Blue (PB) films, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Their electrochemical properties were investigated, paying special attention to parameters such as the amount of PB deposited, film thickness, charge transfer rate, permeability, reversibility, stability and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide detection. All surfactant-enhanced PB-modified SPCEs displayed a significant improvement in their electrochemical properties compared with PB-modified SPCEs formed in the absence of surfactants. Surfactant-modified electrodes displayed a consistently higher PB surface concentration value of 2.1±0.4×10(-8) mol cm(-2) (mean±SD, n=3) indicating that PB deposition efficiency was improved 2-3 fold. K(+) and Na(+) permeability properties of the films were also studied, as were kinetic parameters, such as the surface electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) and the transfer coefficient (α). The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of surfactant-modified PB films generated by 10 electro-deposition CV cycles gave values of 0.63 A M(-1) cm(-2), which is higher than those reported previously for SPCEs by other authors. Finally, the first lactate microbiosensor described in the literature based on BZT-modified PB-coated carbon fiber electrodes is presented. Its very small cross-section (~10 μm diameter) makes it particularly suitable for neuroscience studies in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian [College of Biological Science and Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations from 5 μM to 1 mM with a fast response time (less than 3 s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8 μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. - Highlights: • Covalent method was applied for immobilization of GO on glassy carbon electrode. • GO directed in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. • PB-ERGO composite shows high electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The modified biosensor is capable of detecting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living macrophages.

  16. Electrochemistry of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyaniline/ Prussian blue electrochromic devices containing an ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Melepurath; Awadhia, Arvind; Bhandari, Shweta

    2009-07-21

    Electrochromic devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the cathodic coloring electrode and polyaniline (PANI) or Prussian blue (PB) as the counter electrode containing a highly conductive, self-supporting, distensible and transparent polymer-gel electrolyte film encapsulating an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidiniumbis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, have been fabricated. Polarization, charge transfer and diffusion processes control the electrochemistry of the functional electrodes during coloration and bleaching and these phenomena differ when PEDOT and PANI/PB were employed alternately as working electrodes. While the electrochemical impedance response shows good similitude for PEDOT and PANI electrodes, the responses of PEDOT and PB were significantly different in the PEDOT-PB device, especially during reduction of PB, wherein the overall amplitude of the impedance response is enormous. Large values of the coloration efficiency maxima of 281 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 583 nm) and 274 cm2 C(-1) (lambda = 602 nm), achieved at -1.0 and -1.5 V for the PEDOT PANI and PEDOT-PB devices have been correlated to the particularly low magnitude of charge transfer resistance and high polarization capacitance operative at the PEDOT ionic liquid based electrolyte interface at these dc potentials, thus allowing facile ion-transport and consequently resulting in enhanced absorption modulation. Moderately fast switching kinetics and the ability of these devices to sustain about 2500 cycles of clear-to-dark and dark-to-clear without incurring major losses in the optical contrast, along with the ease of construction of these cells in terms of high scalability and reproducibility of the synthetic procedure for fabrication of the electrochromic films and the ionic liquid based gel electrolyte film, are indicators of the promise these devices hold for practical applications like electrochromic windows and displays.

  17. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l -1 with V max 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l -1 h -1 and K m 227 ± 41 mg l -1 . Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rate of Iron Transfer Through the Horse Spleen Ferritin Shell Determined by the Rate of Formation of Prussian Blue and Fe-desferrioxamine Within the Ferritin Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Watt, Richard K.; Galvez, Natividad; Dominquez-Vera, Jose M.; Watt, Gerald D.

    2005-01-01

    Iron (2+ and 3+) is believed to transfer through the three-fold channels in the ferritin shell during iron deposition and release in animal ferritins. However, the rate of iron transit in and out through these channels has not been reported. The recent synthesis of [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-), Prussian Blue (PB) and desferrioxamine (DES) all trapped within the horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) interior makes these measurements feasible. We report the rate of Fe(2+) penetrating into the ferritin interior by adding external Fe(2+) to [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-) encapsulated in the HoSF interior and measuring the rate of formation of the resulting encapsulated PB. The rate at which Fe(2+) reacts with [Fe(CN)(sub 6)](3-) in the HoSF interior is much slower than the formation of free PB in solution and is proceeded by a lag period. We assume this lag period and the difference in rate represent the transfer of Fe(2+) through the HoSF protein shell. The calculated diffusion coefficient, D approx. 5.8 x 10(exp -20) square meters per second corresponds to the measured lag time of 10-20 s before PB forms within the HoSF interior. The activation energy for Fe(2+) transfer from the outside solution through the protein shell was determined to be 52.9 kJ/mol by conducting the reactions at 10 to approximately 40 C. The reaction of Fe(3+) with encapsulated [Fe(CN)6](4-) also readily forms PB in the HoSF interior, but the rate is faster than the corresponding Fe(2+) reaction. The rate for Fe(3+) transfer through the ferritin shell was confirmed by measuring the rate of the formation of Fe-DES inside HoSF and an activation energy of 58.4 kJ/mol was determined. An attempt was made to determine the rate of iron (2+ and 3+) transit out from the ferritin interior by adding excess bipyridine or DES to PB trapped within the HoSF interior. However, the reactions are slow and occur at almost identical rates for free and HoSF-encapsulated PB, indicating that the transfer of iron from the interior through the

  20. Potential of roselle and blue pea in the dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, S.; Irwanto, M.; Gomesh, N.; Ismail, B.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discovers the use of natural dyes from Roselle flower and Blue Pea flower which act as a sensitizer in DSSC and in addition has a potential in absorbing visible light spectrum. The dyes were extracted using distilled water (DI) and ethanol (E) extract solvent in an ultrasonic cleaner for 30 minutes with a frequency of 37 Hz by using `degas' mode at the temperature of 30°C. Absorption spectra of roselle dye and blue pea dye with different extract solvent were tested using Evolution 201 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. It was found that Roselle dye absorbs at a range of 400 nm - 620 nm and Blue Pea absorbs at the range of wavelength 500 nm - 680 nm. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional active group in extract dye. The concept of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) similar to photosynthesis process has attracted much attention since it demonstrates a great potential due to the use of low-cost materials and environmentally friendly sources of technology.

  1. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Goenuel; Turabik, Meral

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  2. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... after adsorption. The removal data were fitted into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm .... solid phases at various equilibrium concentrations. The ... dye required to form monolayer over the surface of adsorbent ...

  3. Biotreatment of anthraquinone dye Drimarene Blue K2RL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    ... 2010 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper ... The dye is toxic, carcinogenic ... Microbial decolorization and degradation is an environment friendly ... Chemicals. The majority of chemical compounds and media components were.

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation on basic dye maxilon blue in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andayani, Winarti; Bagyo, Agustin S.M.; Winarno, Ermin K.; Winarno, Hendig

    1998-01-01

    The effects of radiation of basic dye maxilon blue have been studied. Irradiation was done at various pH (3, 5, 7, 9, and 12) with doses of 0 - 4 kGy/h. at pH 5 irradiation of dye solution with variation of concentration i.e. 10; 25; 50.8; 78.2 and 106 ppm were done. Bubbling of air were done during irradiation of dye solution. Parameters examined were the change of the spectrum by spectrophotometer, the decrease of pH by pH meter and degradation products such as organic acids by HPLC. The results showed that the percentage of degradation at acid pH is higher than that basic and neutral pH. G value (degradation) of the dye at pH 5 was 0.876 with a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. Percentage of decoloration of dye solution at initial concentration 10 and 25 ppm were higher than 90% at dose of 0.5 kGy, dye solution at initial concentration between 50 to 106 ppm were higher than 90% at 2 kGy. The equation of degradation rate of the dye was V=-d(dye)/dt = 1.4 x 10 -2 [dye] 1,1107 ppm/min. Degradation of the dye has first order pseudo with the rate constant of 1.4 x 10 -2 min -1 . Degradation products that could be detected was oxalic acid. (authors)

  5. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  6. Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Reyes, MB Noelck, C Valentino, L Grasso-LeBeau, JE Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1 skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2 Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery.Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed.Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor; unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease.Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

  7. Determination of the phthalocyanine textile dye, reactive turquoise blue, by electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi Marly E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turquoise blue 15 (AT15 is a reactive dye widely used in the textile industry to color natural fibers. The presence of these dyes in effluent and industrial wastewater is of considerable interest due ecotoxicological and environmental problems. The electrochemical reduction of this dye has been investigated in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and cathodic stripping voltammetry. Optimum conditions for dye discoloration by controlled potential electrolysis use an alkaline medium. Using cathodic stripping voltammetry a linear calibration graph was obtained from 5.00x10-8 mol L-1 to 1.00x10-6 mol L-1 of AT15 at pH 4.0, using accumulation times of 180 and 240 s and an accumulation potential of 0.0 V. The proposed method was applied in direct determination of the dye in tap water and in textile industry effluent.

  8. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31 by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvine Lalnunhlimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151 and Direct Red 31 (DR 31. The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L. The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment.

  9. Decolorization pathways of anthraquinone dye Disperse Blue 2BLN by Aspergillus sp. XJ-2 CGMCC12963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiran; Xu, Xiaolin; Wen, Zhu; Kang, Yanshun; Wang, Xinhao; Ren, Youshan; Huang, Danqi

    2017-09-03

    Anthraquinone dye represents an important group of recalcitrant pollutants in dye wastewater. Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 showed broad-spectrum decolorization ability, which could efficiently decolorize and degrade various anthraquinone dyes (50 mg L -1 ) under microaerophilic condition. And the decolorization rate of 93.3% was achieved at 120 h with Disperse Blue 2BLN (the target dye). Intermediates of degradation were detected by FTIR and GC-MS, which revealed the cleavage of anthraquinone chromophoric group and partial mineralization of target dye. In addition, extracellular manganese peroxidase showed the most closely related to the increasing of decolorization rate and biomass among intracellular and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Given these results, 2 possible degraded pathways of target dye by Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 were proposed first in this work. The degradation of Disperse Blue 2BLN and broad spectrum decolorization ability provided the potential for Aspergillus sp XJ-2 CGMCC12963 in the treatment of wastewater containing anthraquinone dyes.

  10. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photo-oxidative degradation of Chicago Sky Blue azo dye on transition metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slote, J.; Luo, J.; Hepel, M. [State Univ. of New York at Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Zhong, C.-J. [State Univ. of New York at Binghamton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Every day, an average of 128 tons of dye staffs are discharged into waste water, causing environmental harm. The authors discussed the photo-electrical method for separating the semiconductor catalyst particles from the solution and direct control of the interfacial potential as an efficient and convenient method for degrading organic dyes. Photocurrent-potential measurements were made using a standard photoelectrochemical setup. It involved a microcomputer-controlled potentiostat and a 500 watts (W) quartz halogen lamp as the illumination source. The measurement of the photocurrent represented the difference between the current under illumination and current in the dark. Three-electrode electrochemical cells were used for all experiments. The best results concerning the degradation of dyes were obtained with tungsten oxides (WO3) and molybdenum oxides (MoO3) electrodes. Confirmation that the dyes had been fully degraded was obtained by performing absorbance measurements and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the samples after degradation. The effect on the rate of decolorisation process of Chicago Sky Blue, a diazo dye, and other dyes, of pH, potential, concentration, and type of supporting electrolyte was examined. The supporting electrolyte was found to have a strong influence on the degradation of diazo dye. Illumination with visible light yielded lower degradation rates than that with ultraviolet-visible light. It appears that Chicago Sky Blue dye sensitizes the semiconductor to expand the absorption of light energy well into visible range, despite the photoelectrochemical degradation of the dye being mainly induced by the ultraviolet light. The authors proposed the mechanisms of the reactions occurring during the photodegradation process. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Removal of remazol brilliant blue R dye from aqueous solutions using yeast biomass as biosorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreda-Reyes, Karen L.; Ortega-López, Jocelyn; Ortega-Regules, Ana E.; Santiago-Santiago, Luis A.; Netzahuatl-Muñoz, Alma R.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to obtain kinetic and equilibrium parameters for the anthraquinone dye r emoval of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye from aqueous solutions using yeast biomass as biosorbent, and identify the functional groups responsible for biosorption by infrared spectrometry. Biosorption dye kinetics at temperatures of 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C were fitted correctly by the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models. The values of thermodynamic activation parameters indicated that the biosorption process is endothermic and no spontaneous. Sorption isotherm at 20 °C, pH 2,0 and a biomass concentration of 1,0 g L-1 was obtained, finding a value of 127,6 mg g-1 for the saturated monolayer according to the Langmuir model. Infrared studies showed that carboxyl and amide are the main functional groups responsible for dye biosorption. (author)

  13. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  14. Adsorption of reactive blue BF-5G dye by soybean hulls: kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio, Jacqueline Ferandin; Veit, Márcia Teresinha; Gonçalves, Gilberto da Cunha; de Campos, Élvio Antonio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia Regina

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry is known for the high use of chemicals, such as dyes, and large volumes of effluent that contaminate waters, a fact that has encouraged research and improved treatment techniques. In this study, we used unprocessed soybean hulls for the removal of reactive blue BF-5G dye. The point of zero charge of soybean hulls was 6.76. Regarding the speed of agitation in the adsorption process, the resistance to mass transfer that occurs in the boundary layer was eliminated at 100 rpm. Kinetics showed an experimental amount of dye adsorbed at equilibrium of 57.473 mg g(-1) obtained under the following conditions: dye initial concentration = 400 mg L(-1); diameter of particle = 0.725 mm; dosage = 6 g L(-1); pH 2; 100 rpm; temperature = 30 °C; and duration of 24 hours. The pseudo-second order best showed the dye removal kinetics. The adsorption isotherms performed at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) showed little variation in the concentration range assessed, being properly adjusted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of dye adsorption was 72.427 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. Since soybean hull is a low-cost industrial byproduct, it proved to be a potential adsorbent for the removal of the textile dye assessed.

  15. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants;Adsorcion de colorantes azul vegetal y azul acuarela por zeolitas naturales modificadas con surfactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardon S, C. C.; Olguin G, M. T. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz N, M. C., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.m [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho la Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  16. Eosin blue dye based poly(methacrylate) films for data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.; Manickasundaram, S.; Kannan, P.

    2006-06-01

    Eosin dye based poly(methacrylates) with variation in the number of methylene spacers have been prepared by free radical polymerization process. The utility of the polymers for high-density optical data storage using holography has been studied by grating formation with the 514.5 nm line of the Argon ion laser as source. The influence of various parameters on the diffraction efficiency of the polymers has been studied. The effect of increase in the number of methylene spacers, hooked to the eosin blue dye, on the diffraction efficiency of the grating formed has also been discussed. Optical microscopic observations showing grating formation in the polymers have also been presented.

  17. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Muhammad Saif; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Jong-In

    2012-10-15

    This study was aimed at using sugar extracted spent rice biomass (SRB) as a potential adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The SRB was used without any modification. A three factor full factorial experimental design (2(3)) was employed to investigate the effect of factors (adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature) and their interaction on the adsorption capacity and color removal. Two levels for each factor were used; adsorbent dose (0.25-0.5g/100mL), dye concentration (25-50mg/L), and temperature (25-45°C). Initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were found as significant factors for the adsorption of MB dye. Langmuir isotherm (R(2)>0.998) best explained the equilibrium of MB adsorption on SRB with monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.13mg/g. The pseudo-second order model (R(2)>0.999) was best fitted to explain the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic investigation revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and was feasible to treat dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Batch Removal of Acid Blue 292dye by Biosorption onto Lemna minor: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Joghataei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there has been a great concern about the consumption of dyes because of their toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and persistence in the aquatic environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Lemna minor for Acid Blue 292 (AB292 dye removal from aqueous solution and to determine the optimal conditions. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the batch systems to investigate the effects of parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and Lemna minor biomass dose. Isotherms and kinetic studies of dye adsorption were performed using equilibrium data. Results: According to the results, a maximum removal efficiency of 98.5% was obtained at pH of 3 and the contact time of 90 min; initial dye concentration 10 mg/L and adsorbent dose 3g/L. The adsorption data was best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Conclusion: The results showed that Lemna minor could be used as a cost-effective adsorbent for removing AB292 dye from textile wastewater efficiently.

  19. ADSORPTION OF THE DYE REACTIVE BLUE 5G IN RETORTED SHALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lambrecht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the influence of the volumetric flow rate and feed concentration was investigated for the adsorption of the reactive dye Blue 5G. Experiments were carried out in a bed packed with retorted shale, at 30 ºC. The ranges investigated were flow rate 2 -10 mL/min and the feed concentration 13-105 mg/L. Mathematical models were used to represent the dynamic sorption. The double resistance model considers the effects of the axial dispersion and the mass transfer resistance of the external film and inside the particles. As a result, the mass transfer coefficient of the external film and the internal mass transfer coefficient were estimated. The Thomas model was used to simulate the experimental data. In this model the fitted parameter was the adsorption kinetic constant. The first model provided an acceptable representation of the dynamic uptake of the reactive dye Blue 5G.

  20. Removal of the blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions using ferric zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo H, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to all life forms, including humans. In recent years water use has increased substantially, also has been altered in its capacity as a result of various human activities, such as domestic, industrial and agricultural, also by natural activity. Undoubtedly one of the main pollutants today are the waste generated by the food industry, due to the use of dyes for the production of their products. So it is necessary to restore water quality through treatment systems to remove contaminants, and thus prevent disease and imbalance of ecosystems. Due to the above, it is important to conduct research directed towards finding new ways to remove dyes such as blue 1 used in the food industry, using low cost materials and abundant in nature as zeolites. To accomplish the above, the present study has the purpose to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the blue dye 1 in aqueous solutions. To accomplish that objective, the zeolite material was reconditioned to improve its sorption properties of the material and provide the ability to adsorb pollutants such as this dye. The zeolite material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. To evaluate the ability of blue 1 dye sorption the kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined; the experimental results were adjusted to mathematical models such as pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and Elovich to describe the kinetic process, and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich to describe sorption isotherms. The results showed that ferric zeolite surface is a heterogeneous material and has a considerable adsorption capacity, which makes it a potential adsorbent for removing color from aqueous streams. Also the sorption of the dye was evaluated at different ph values; the most sorption was carried out at ph values 1, 3 and 11. We also evaluated the change in mass where the sorption capacities for the blue 1 increase by increasing

  1. Potential biosorbent, Haloxylon recurvum plant stems, for the removal of methylene blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technologies for the removal of dyes from the waste water are proving expensive due to non-regenerable materials used and their high costs. The use of dried biomass from Haloxylon recurvum plant stems (HRS was studied for the removal of methylene blue, a textile dye, from its aqueous solution. FTIR studies revealed a variety of functional groups on the plant surface including carboxyl and amino groups. The pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc was found to be 6.3. The dye uptake by the plant increased with increasing pH, time of contact and dye concentration. Lagergren Pseudo first order and the Ho’s pseudo second order models were used to study the kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium models were studied and the qmax was 22.93 mg/g. The changes in the values of free energy (ΔGo and enthalpy (ΔHo indicated the spontaneous, feasible and exothermic nature of the sorption process. H. recurvum plant is locally available in large quantities, so the powdered stems can act as a cost-effective and ecofriendly biosorbent for the removal of the dye from its aqueous solutions.

  2. Enhancement of power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by co-sensitization of Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue dyes on ZnO photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Suman; Bahadur, Lal, E-mail: lbahadur@bhu.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A single dye usually absorbs light only in a limited range of solar spectrum. In order to widen the absorption range, a combination of dyes, namely, Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It has been found that the DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. It has been ascribed to the enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) when both dyes were used together as was evident from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto ZnO electrode. The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub SC}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC}=0.606 V, FF=0.53 and maximum energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.35% on illuminating the cell with visible light of 150 mW cm{sup −2} intensity. - Highlights: • Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based DSSC. • DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. • Enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) have been observed when both dyes were used together. • The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub sc}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.606 V, FF=0.53. • Efficiency of 1.35% is achieved at visible light intensity of 150 mW cm{sup −2}.

  3. Affinity chromatography of serine proteases on the triazine dye ligand Cibacron Blue F3G-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C; Borg, L; Skjødt, K

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between complement component factor B and the triazine dye ligand Cibacron Blue F3G-A coupled to a cross-linked agarose matrix (Blue Sepharose) was found to involve the Bb part of the molecule, and to be inhibited by benzamidine. Human, chicken and rainbow trout factor B which had...

  4. Cuprolinic Blue: a specific dye for single-stranded RNA in the presence of magnesium chloride. I. Fundamental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, J.; MENDELSON, D.; NOORDEN, C. J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cationic dye Cuprolinic Blue were investigated with model films of polyacrylamide gel in which RNA, DNA and other biological polyanionic compounds had been incorporated. In the presence of 1 M MgCl2, Curpolinic Blue was found to bind specifically to

  5. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 Dye: An Application for Forensic Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Erica; Le, Anh Minh; Huynh, Crystal; Wingfield, Kelly; Halámková, Lenka; Agudelo, Juliana; Halámek, Jan

    2017-04-04

    The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol, and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator. It is recognized that the identification of biological sex has been readily accomplished using two other methods; however, both of those systems are reliant upon a large group of amino acids, 23 to be precise. The Bradford assay, described here, was developed specifically to aid in the transition from targeting large groups of amino acids, as demonstrated in the previous studies, to targeting only a single amino acid without compromising the intensity of the response and/or the ability to differentiate between two attributes. In this work, we aim to differentiate between female fingerprints and male fingerprints.

  6. [Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral da; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20minutes after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial - like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU two hours after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Allergic reaction to patent blue dye in breast surgery - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Marcius Vinícius M; da Nóbrega, Dyluzia Kelly Amaral; Anunciação, Carlos Eduardo Caiado; Maia, Barbara de Alcântara Brito; Mariano, Paulo Virgílio Dantas

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of allergic reaction to patent blue in a patient who underwent excision of sentinel lymph node associated with segmental breast resection. About 20min after the dye injection, the patient developed hypotension (BP=70×30mmHg) associated with increased heart frequency. The patient was treated successfully with decreased inspired fraction of inhaled anesthetic and fluid replacement. At the end of the procedure, she presented with bluish urticarial-like plaques on the head, neck, upper limbs, and trunk; hydrocortisone was then used. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the PACU 2h after the end of surgery without skin changes, and was discharged from hospital on the morning after surgery. The incidence of allergic reactions with the use of patent blue is far superior to the hypersensitivity reactions seen with anesthetic and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, the anesthesiologist must be aware of cardiovascular instability associated with skin changes during the use of patent blue, for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this hypersensitivity reaction to this dye. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible graphene composites for removal of methylene blue dye-contaminant from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J.; Martinez, A. I.; Oliva, A. I.; Garcia, C. R.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Garcia-Lobato, M.; Ochoa-Valiente, R.; Berlanga, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the use of flexible graphene composites (FGCs) fabricated by a casting method for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Those FGCs with elastic modulus of 15 MPa had enough mechanical resistance to support the Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ photocatalytic powders. After the incorporation of those powders in the FGCs, their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB dye under solar irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that the surface of FGCs with catalysts powders presents pores with sizes in the range of 15-40 μm, which favored the sunlight absorption by scattering effects. Moreover, X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the composites by displacements of their diffraction peaks. The MB dye was completely removed (by photocatalysis and by physical adsorption) from the water after 180 min and 270 min by using the FGCs with Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ catalysts respectively. Hence, the results of photocatalytic activity suggest that our FGCs could be used as an effective support of catalyst powders for the easy removal of dye contaminants in wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Adsorption mechanism of microcrystalline cellulose as green adsorbent for the removal of cationic methylene blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.B.; Salamatinia, B.

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption mechanism of pure cellulose is yet to be explored. Thus, in this study, the adsorption mechanism of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC), a polysaccharide which is renewable, low cost and non-toxic, was studied on the adsorption of model dye Methylene blue (MB). It was found that the main adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC was due to the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MB dye and negatively charged MCC. Thus, physical adsorption was the dominant effect, since electrostatic attraction is categorized as physical adsorption. This was verified by Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, whereby mean free energy adsorption value was found to be less than 8 kJ/mol. The values of Gibbs free energy for thermodynamics studies were found to be within the range of -20 kJ/mol and 0 kJ/mol, which also indicated physical adsorption. It was due to the electrostatic attraction as adsorption mechanism of this adsorption process which resulted rapid adsorption of MB dye. It was found that equilibrium dye concentration was achieved between 1-3 minutes, depending on the adsorption temperature. The rapid adsorption, as compared to a lot of materials, showed the potential of MCC as the future of green adsorbent. The adsorption of Methylene Blue on MCC fitted well in Langmuir Isotherm, with R2 values of higher than 0.99, while fitted moderately in Freundlich Isotherm, with R2 values between 0.9224 and 0.9223. Comparatively, the adsorption of MB on MCC fitted best Langmuir Isotherm as compared to Freundlich Isotherm which monolayer adsorption occurred at the homogenous surface of MCC. This also indicated adsorbed MB molecules do not interact with each other at neighboring adsorption sites. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir Isotherm was found to be 4.95 mg/g. Despite the potential of MCC as green adsorbent, the challenge of low adsorption capacity has to be addressed in the future. (author)

  10. ADSORPTION OF THE DYE REACTIVE BLUE 5G IN RETORTED SHALE

    OpenAIRE

    Lambrecht, R.; Barros, M. A. S. D. de; Arroyo, P. A.; Borba, C. E.; Silva, E. A. da

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study the influence of the volumetric flow rate and feed concentration was investigated for the adsorption of the reactive dye Blue 5G. Experiments were carried out in a bed packed with retorted shale, at 30 ºC. The ranges investigated were flow rate 2 -10 mL/min and the feed concentration 13-105 mg/L. Mathematical models were used to represent the dynamic sorption. The double resistance model considers the effects of the axial dispersion and the mass transfer resistance...

  11. Application of Spent Li-Ion Batteries Cathode in Methylene Blue Dye Discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the mechanism study of methylene blue (MB discoloration using spent Li-ion battery cathode tape and hydrogen peroxide. The recycled cathode used in this work is composed of 72% of LiCoO2, 18% of carbon, and 10% of Al. The value found for surface area is 8.9 m2/g and the ZCP value occurs in pH = 2.95. Different from what is proposed in the literature, the most likely mechanism of methylene blue discoloration is the oxidation/delitiation of LiCoO2 and the reduction of H2O2 forming OH∙. Thus, in this paper, an important and promising alternative for discoloration of textile industry dyes using spent Li-ion battery cathode is presented.

  12. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the carcinoembryonic antigen using a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrodeposited Prussian Blue, a graphene and carbon nanotube assembly and an antibody immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Dexiang; Lu, Xiaocui; Dong, Xiao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Ling, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    We described a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. It is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a multi-layer films made from Prussian Blue (PB), graphene and carbon nanotubes by electrodeposition and assembling techniques. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically absorbed on the surface of the film and used for the immobilization of antibody, while PB acts as signaling molecule. The stepwise assembly process was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes partially inhibits the electron transfer of PB and decreased its peak current. Under the optimal conditions, the decrease of intensity of the peak current of PB is linearly related to the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in two ranges (0.2–1.0, and 1.0–40.0 ng·mL −1 ), with a detection limit of 60 pg·mL −1 (S/N = 3). The immunosensor was applied to analyze five clinical samples, and the results obtained were in agreement with clinical data. In addition, the immunosensor exhibited good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility. (author)

  13. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties.

  14. The Application of Low-Cost Adsorbent for Reactive Blue 19 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution: Lemna Minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to widespread use and adverse effect of dyes, the removal of dyes from effluents is necessary. This study was aimed to remove the reactive blue 19 dye removal from aqueous solution by dried Lemna minor. Materials and Methods:  The effect of various parameters including contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dosage and dye concentration was investigated in this experimental-lab study, Also, the isotherm and kinetic studies was performed for RB19 dye adsorption process. Results: The results indicated that RB19 dye removal efficiency increases by increasing of contact time and adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time was 75 min ad the maximum dye removal efficiency was obtained in pH=3. Also, the dye removal efficiency decreases by increasing of pH and initial concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data was best follow by Langmuier isotherm. Also, the pseudo-second-kinetic model was best applicable for RB 19 dye adsorption. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dried Lemna minor can be considered as an effective adsorbent to remove the RB19 dye.

  15. The effects of Patent Blue dye on peripheral and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T; Kotoda, M; Asano, N; Ikemoto, K; Mitsui, K; Sato, H; Matsukawa, T; Sessler, D I

    2015-04-01

    We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Efficient white organic light-emitting devices based on blue, orange, red phosphorescent dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Duan Yu; Xie Wenfa; Zhao Yi; Hou Jingying; Liu Shiyong; Zhang Liying; Li Bin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex bis(2-(2-fluorphenyl)-1,3-benzothiozolato-N, C 2' )iridium(acetylacetonate) in combination with blue phosphorescent dye bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C 2 )](picolinato) Ir(III) and red phosphorescent dye bis[1-(phenyl)isoquinoline] iridium (III) acetylanetonate. By introducing a thin layer of 4, 7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline between blue and red emission layers, the diffusion of excitons is confined and white light can be obtained. WOLEDs with the interlayer all have a higher colour rendering index (>82) than the device without it (76). One device has the maximum current efficiency of 17.6 cd A -1 and a maximum luminance of 39 050 cd m -2 . The power efficiency is 8.7 lm W -1 at 100 cd m -2 . Furthermore, the device has good colour stability and the CIE coordinates just change from (0.394, 0.425) to (0.390, 0.426) with the luminance increasing from 630 to 4200 cd m -2 .

  17. Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hwan Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required.

  18. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  19. Dosimetric studies based on the radiation-induced bleaching of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Farag, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of γ-radiation on the absorption spectra of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions. A continuous decrease in the absorbance values at the absorption bands was observed with an increase of absorbed dose. The radiation sensitivities of decoloration gave widely different radiation chemical reduction yields (G-values) for the bleaching of both dyes depending on whether xylene, ethyl acetate, or chloroform was used as the solvent. On the basis of experimental results, suggestions are made concerning the dye solutions as prospective dosimeters. The following absorbed dose ranges can be covered: 10 1 -10 2 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan blue in chloroform; 4 x 10 2 -4 x 10 3 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan Blue in ethyl acetate; 10 3 -3 x 10 4 Gy by 5 x 10 -6 M Sudan red in xylene. (author)

  20. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Becelic-Tomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrite ash (PA is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4 degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH=2.5; [PA]0=0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0=5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes.

  1. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.-T.; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater

  2. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Ting-Yi; Lin, Keng-Yu; Lin, Chien-Ming

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  3. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.-T. [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wttsai@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  4. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, ΔS and ΔG and ΔH) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of selected

  5. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  7. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  8. K1-xMn1+x/2[Fe(CN)6]·yH2O Prussian blue analogues as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng-Chen; Sun, Yan-Hui; Li, Jie-Qiong; Nan, Jun-Min

    2018-06-01

    Hexacyanoferrate, KMn[Fe(CN)6]·yH2O (KMnHCF), a Prussian blue analogue (PBA), is synthesized by a solution precipitation method under alkaline condition at room temperature. After treated with diluted hydrochloride acid, the KMnHCF is turned into Mn3[Fe(CN)6]2·yH2O (MnHCF). Then both synthesized KMnHCF and MnHCF are applied as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The KMnHCF anode exhibits a super electrochemical performance than MnHCF. It shows a very low discharge voltage plateau of 0.6 V, an initial capacity of 777 mAh g-1, and a reversible capacity of 434 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. Furthermore, it keeps 425 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 215 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles even at 500 mA g-1. It is remarkable that the coulombic efficiency can be maintained larger than 98.4% from the 5th cycle at 50 mA g-1, 99.2% at 100 mA g-1, and 96.8% even at 500 mA g-1. In addition, the original structure of the KMnHCF has no obvious change after lithiation/de-lithiation based on the ex-situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) characterization, indicating large channels and interstitial sites in the open-framework can allow rapid insertion and extraction of Li+ and constrain volume expansion during charge/discharge process.

  9. Biodegradation of Methylene Blue Dye by Sequential Treatment Using Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor and Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Izharul H.; Basheer, Farrukh; Tiwari, Pradeepika

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to access the feasibility of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for the biodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Anaerobic studies were performed using anaerobic hybrid reactor (consisting of UASB and Anaerobic filter) whereas submerged aerobic fixed film reactor was used as aerobic reactor. Degradation of MB dye was attempted using neutralized acetic acid (1000 mg/L) as co-substrate. MB dye concentration was stepwise increased from 10 to 70 mg/L after reaching steady state in each dye concentration. Such a gradual increase in the dye concentration helps in the proper acclimatization of the sludge to dyes thereby avoiding the possible inhibitory effects to biological activities at high dye concentrations. The overall treatment efficiency of MB through sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor operation was 90% at maximum attempted dye concentration of 70 mg/L. The effluent from anaerobic reactor was analysed for intermediate biodegradation products through HPLC. It was observed that catechol, quinone, amino pyrine, 1,4 diamino benzene were present. However they were absent in final effluent.

  10. Synthesis of surfactant-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for adsorptive removal of acid blue 45 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed Mushtaq, Muhammad; Kanwal, Farah; Imran, Muhammad; Ameen, Naila; Batool, Madeeha; Batool, Aisha; Bashir, Shahid; Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Rehman, Ata ur; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Ullah, Zaka

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by wet chemical coprecipitation method using metal chlorides as precursors and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a precipitant. The tergitol-1x (T-1x) and didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) are used as capping agents and their effect is investigated on particle size, size distribution and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFNPs). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the synthesis of CFNPs and formation of metal-oxygen (M-O) bond. The spinel phase structure, morphology, polydispersity and magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometry analyses, respectively. The addition of capping agents effects the secondary growth of CFNPs and reduces their particle size, as is investigated by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The results evidence that the DDAB is more promising surfactant to control the particle size (∼13 nm), polydispersity and aggregation of CFNPs. The synthesized CFNPs, CFNPs/T-1x and CFNPs/DDAB are used to study their adsorption potential for removal of acid blue 45 dye, and a maximum adsorptive removal of 92.25% is recorded by 0.1 g of CFNPs/DDAB at pH 2.5 and temperature 20 ± 1 °C. The results show that the dye is physically adsorbed by magnetic NPs and follows the Langmuir isotherm model.

  11. Fenton oxidative decolorization of the azo dye Direct Blue 15 in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Shi, Shao-Hui; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of Fenton oxidation process for the decolorization of an azo dye Direct Blue 15 (DB15) in aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of initial pH, dosage of H2O2, H2O2/Fe2+ and H2O2/dye ratios and the reaction temperature on the decolorization efficiency...... = 60: 1 and temperature = 30 degrees C. Under the optimal conditions, 4.7 x 10(-5) mol/L of the DB15 aqueous solution can be completely decolorized by Fenton oxidation within 50-min reaction time and the decolorization kinetic rate constant k was determined as 0.1694 min(-1). Additionally increasing...... the reaction temperature from 20 to 40 degrees C showed a positive effect on the decolorization efficiency of DB15. The present study can provide guidance to relational industry operators and planners to effectively treat the DB15 contaminated wastewater by Fenton oxidation process. (C) 2009 Elsevier B. V. All...

  12. Sonochemical degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye assisted by nanoTiO2 and H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Mahmood; Asl, Nima Razzaghi

    2008-01-01

    The sonolysis of Basic Blue 41 dye in aqueous solution was performed at 35 kHz using ultrasonic power of 160 W and aqueous temperature of 25 + 1 o C within 180 min. The TiO 2 nanoparticles were used as a catalyst to assist the sonication process. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and initial dye concentration on the reaction were investigated. It was recognized that in lower pH values the dye removal rate decreased. However, dye removal increased via increase in H 2 O 2 concentration and lowering the initial dye concentration. All intermediate compounds were detected by integrated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and also ion chromatograph (IC). During the decolorization, all nitrogen atoms and aromatic groups of Basic Blue 41 were converted to urea, nitrate, formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid, etc. Kinetic studies revealed that the degradation process followed pseudo-first order mechanism with the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9918 under experimental conditions. The results showed that power ultrasound can be regarded as an appropriate tool for degradation of azo dyes to non-toxic end products

  13. Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Senthil, Kalaiselvi [Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yang Soo, E-mail: ysoolee@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the White rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal (Cr) conjugated dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economic, easy, and rapid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non toxic nature of the degraded products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decolorization and degradation at higher concentrations. - Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by Irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. I. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250 mg/l over a wide range of pH values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35 Degree-Sign C. Complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96 h, and I. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses of the extracted metabolites confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation of the dye and not merely by adsorption. GC-MS analysis indicated the formation of 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3,4-dihydro- and 2-naphthalenol as the main metabolite. ICP analysis demonstrated the removal of 13.49% chromium, and phytotoxicity studies using germinated seeds of Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed during the degradation of Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 dye.

  14. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  15. Adsorption of a textile dye "Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4)" from aqueous solutions onto smectite-rich clayey rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaari, Islem; Feki, Mongi; Medhioub, Mounir; Bouzid, Jalel; Fakhfakh, Emna; Jamoussi, Fakher

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of a textile dye, namely, Indanthrene Blue RS (C.I. Vat Blue 4) onto smectite-rich clayey rock (AYD) and its sulphuric acid-activated products (AYDS) in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH, and temperature. The adsorbents employed were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge were also estimated. The effect of contact time on dye adsorption showed that the equilibrium was reached after a contact time of 40 min for the both adsorbents. The optimum pH for dye retention was found 6.0 for AYDS and 7.3 for AYD. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacities (Q(m)) for AYD and AYDS were found 13.92 mg/g and 17.85 mg/g, respectively. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was also investigated; adsorption of Indanthrene Blue RS is an endothermic process. This study demonstrates that all the considered adsorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment.

  16. Removal of Disperse Blue 56 and Disperse Red 135 dyes from aqueous dispersions by modified montmorillonite nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadishoar Javad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study modified montmorillonite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of two selected disperse dyes i.e., Disperse Blue 56 (DB and Disperse Red 135 (DR from dye dispersions. The adsorption equilibrium data of dyes adsorption were investigated by using Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed by using different models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intraparticle diffusion model. The Freundlich isotherm was found to be the most appropriate model for describing the sorption of the dyes on modified nanoclay. The best fit to the experimental results was obtained by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, which satisfactorily described the process of dye adsorption. Although different kinetic models may control the rate of the adsorption process, the results indicated that the main rate limiting step was the intraparticle diffusion. The results showed that the proposed modified montmorillonite could be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of disperse dyes even from highly concentrated dispersions.

  17. Decolorization of Reactive Blue 19 Dye from Textile Wastewater by the UV/H2O2 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Abbas; Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad; Jamalodin Hashemian, Sayed; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Khavanin, Ali; Ghanizadeh, Ghader

    Photo-oxidation of dyes is a new concern among researchers since it offers an attractive method for decoloration of dyes and breaks them into simple mineral forms. An advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, was investigated in a laboratory scale photoreactor for decolorization of the Reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The effects of operating parameters such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, pH, initial dye concentration and UV dosage, on decolorization have been evaluated. The RB19 solution was completely decolorized under optimal hydrogen peroxide dosage of 2.5 mmol L-1 and low-pressure mercury UV-C lamps (55 w) in less than 30 min. The decolorization rate followed pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The rate increased linearly with volumetric UV dosage and nonlinearly with increasing initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum of hydrogen peroxide dosage, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process was an effective technology for RB19 dye treatment in wastewater.

  18. Coconut Husk Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasfalina Che bt Man

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess the efficiency of coconut husks (CHs in removing methylene blue (MB dye from wastewaters in Malaysia was carried out. A fixed bed column adsorber was set up using flow rates of 40 and 80 mL/min, and the adsorbent (CH was prepared using the base treatment method with NaOH as activating agent. Three different column bed depths (10, 20, and 25 cm and unit weights of adsorbent (103, 213, and 260 g were used. Two models, the bed depth service time (BDST and Thomas models, were used to validate the adsorption capacity results and breakthrough curve. Changing the bed depth from 20 to 25 cm did not result in a significant change in adsorption capacity, therefore a 20-cm bed depth is recommended as the most efficient. Similarly, adsorption capacity increased as flow rates increased from 40 to 80 mL/min, indicating that a flow rate of 80 mL/min yielded optimum efficiency. The two models also provided predictions with good fits of the bed depth effect, the adsorption capacity, and the breakthrough curve of CH for MB removal.

  19. The photocatalytic investigation of methylene blue dye with Cr doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Rajeev [School of Material Science and Nanotechnology, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Haryana (India); Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: ashavani@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present work reports eco-friendly and cost effective sol-gel technique for synthesis of Chromium doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. In this process Zinc nitrate, Chromium nitrate were used as precursor. Structural as well as optical properties of Cr induced ZnO samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), SEM, PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) respectively. XRD analysis shows that the samples have hexagonal (wurtzite) structure with no additional peak which suggests that Cr ions fit into the regular Zn sites of ZnO crystal structure. By using Scherrer’s formula for pure and Cr doped ZnO samples the average grain size was found to be 32 nm. Further band gap of pure and doped ZnO samples have been calculated by using UV-Vis spectra. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl blue dye under UV irradiation was examined for synthesized samples. The results show that the concentration plays an important role in photo-catalytic activity.

  20. [Flotation spectrophotometric determination of copper on isochromatic dye ion pair with crystal violet and bromopnenol blue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Chen, C; Zuo, B

    1999-02-01

    Bromophenol blue (BPB) was produced and entered into the aqueous phase when NaOH solution of pH = 10 was added to Cu(biq)2BPB by trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol (20:1) extractive. And then CV x BPB was floated by crystal violet (CV) with benzene solution. The flotation was dissolved in ethanol and the absorbance of the solution measured at 590 nm. The sensitivity was raised because of the two dyes assistant effect. The molar absorptivity was 1.45 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). Copper in the sample was separated first by extracting the Cu(biq)2BPB complex with trichloromethane and isoamyl alcohol, thus achieving a high selectivity. Beer's law was obeyd in the range of 0-0. 4 mg/L with a relative standard deviation of 3.6%. For 4.8 x 10(-8) g/mL copper solution, the recoveries were 97.8%-101.7%.

  1. Decolorization of the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A with immobilized Coprinus cinereus in fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakkil, A; Blaghen, M

    2011-01-01

    Coprinus cinereus, which was able to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Cibacron Blue 3G-A (CB) enzymatically, was used as a biocatalyst for the decolorization of synthetic solutions containing this reactive dye. Coprinus cinereus was immobilized in both calcium alginate and polyacrylamide gels, and was used for the decolorization of CB from synthetic water by using a fluidized bed bioreactor. The highest specific decolorization rate was obtained when Coprinus cinereus was entrapped in calcium alginate beads, and was of about 3.84 mg g(-1) h(-1) with a 50% conversion time (t1/2) of about 2.60 h. Moreover, immobilized fungal biomass in calcium alginate continuously decolorized CB even after 7 repeated experiments without significant loss of activity, while polyacrylamide-immobilized fungal biomass retained only 67% of its original activity. The effects of some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH and dye concentration on decolorization performance of isolated fungal strain were also investigated.

  2. Anaerobic removal of the brl direct blue dye in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB with activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zavala-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research the brl direct blue dye was used for anaerobic removal with a bacterial consortium of industrial effluents from Industrial Park Río Seco (IPRS, Arequipa, Peru; in an anaerobic reactor of UASB Upflow with activated carbon. The reactor had a capacity of 14.4 L with sludge and activated carbon of 40% of volume, with an organic load of 6 Kg COD/m3•dia and a hydraulic retention time of 1 day with an upward flow. The objective was to measure the efficiency of the anaerobic removal of coloring in a time of 28 days. The results showed an increase of 41% of the solids suspended volatile (SSV 12894 mg•L-1 up to 21546 mg•L-1 under the conditions of the experiment, with a removal of 57% of the chemical demand of oxygen (COD from 484 mg•L-1 to 122 mg•L-1 and a removal of 87% of the dye Blue direct the 69.61 brl mg•L-1 to 9 mg•L-1. Results with activated charcoal granular only, they showed a removal of 61% of the dye Blue direct 70.67 brl mg•L-1 to 27.83 mg•L-1 at 28 days.

  3. Introduction of Red-Green-Blue Fluorescent Dyes into a Metal-Organic Framework for Tunable White Light Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhuo, Chao; Su, Shaodong; Li, Haoran; Hu, Shengmin; Zhu, Qi-Long; Wu, Xintao

    2017-10-01

    The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively. Furthermore, this study introduces the red-, green-, and blue-emitting dyes into a MOF together for the first time, producing white-light materials with nearly ideal Commission International ed'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, high color-rendering index values (up to 92%) and quantum yields (up to 26%), and moderate correlated color temperature values. The white light is tunable by changing the content or type of the three dye guests, or the excitation wavelength. Significantly, the introduction of blue-emitting guests in the methodology makes the available MOF host more extensive, and the final white-light output more tunable and high-quality. Such strategy can be widely adopted to design and prepare white-light-emitting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Adsorption of rhodamine B and methylene blue dyes using waste of seeds of Aleurites Moluccana, a low cost adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Luiza Postai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of the cationic dyes rhodamine B (RhB and methylene blue (MB by waste seeds Aleurites moluccana (WAM was studied in a batch system. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, point of zero charge measurement, and the Boehm titration method. The effects of contact time and pH were investigated for the removal of cationic dyes. An increase in pH from 3 to 9 was accompanied by an approximately three-fold increase in the amount of dye adsorbed. The adsorptions equilibrium values were obtained and analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, and Redlich–Peterson equations, the Sips isotherm being the one that showed the best correlation with the experimental values. The maximum adsorption capacities of the dyes were 178 mg/g for the MB and 117 mg/g for the RhB. The kinetic sorption was evaluated by the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models, where it was observed that sorption follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The study of thermodynamics showed that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results indicate that waste seeds of A. moluccana could be used as a low cost material for the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.

  5. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes with a boron-doped diamond anode to degrade acidic solutions of Reactive Blue 15 (Turqueoise Blue) dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Aline Maria Sales; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Degradation of Reactive Blue 15 solution at pH 3.0 by electrochemical oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton. • Hard destruction of the dye and its products by BDD(·OH) and much more rapidly by ·OH. • 94% mineralization by the most powerful photoelectro-Fenton at 66.7 mA cm"−"2, with acetic acid accumulation. • 25 aromatics and heteroaromatics, 30 hydroxylated derivatives and 4 carboxylic acids as products. • Release of Cl"−, SO_4"2"− and pre-eminently NO_3"− during dye mineralization. - Abstract: The degradation of the copper-phthalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 15 dye in sulfate medium has been comparatively studied by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H_2O_2 (EO-H_2O_2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments with 100 cm"3 solutions of 0.203 mmol dm"−"3 dye were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for continuous H_2O_2 production. Experimental conditions of pH 3.0 and 0.50 mmol dm"−"3 Fe"2"+ as catalyst were found optimal for the EF process by the predominant oxidation with hydroxyl radicals formed in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between added Fe"2"+ and generated H_2O_2. The kinetics of Reactive Blue 15 abatement was followed by reversed-phase HPLC and always obeyed a pseudo-first-order reaction. The decolorization rate in EO-H_2O_2 was much lower than dye decay due to the formation of large quantities of colored intermediates under the action of hydroxyl radicals generated at the BDD anode from water oxidation. In contrast, the color and dye removals were much more rapid in EF and PEF by the most efficient oxidation of hydroxyl radicals produced from Fenton’s reaction. PEF was the most powerful treatment owing to the photolytic action of UVA irradiation, yielding 94% mineralization after 360 min at 66.7 mA cm"−"2. The effect of current density over the performance of all methods was examined. LC

  6. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  7. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Kassio P. S.; Amaral, Ronaldo C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Abreu, Felipe D.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.

    2018-06-01

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2(mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH2 = 2,2‧‑bipyridyl‑4,4‧‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth = 4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4‧‑methyl‑2,2‧‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1LCAnth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO2 compact layers beneath the TiO2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO2/dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%.

  8. Removal of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile wastewater by pomegranate seed powder: Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Dehvari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the evaluation of adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of reactive blue 19 dyes from textile synthetic wastewater by pomegranate seed powder. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental research, which was performed in laboratory scale. In this study, the parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH and retention time, initial concentration of dye and agitation rate have been investigated. After washing and boiling of pomegranate seeds for 2 h, they dried, milled and finally pulverized by standard ASTM sieves (40-100 mesh. Maximum adsorption wave length (λmax by spectrophotometer ultra violet/visible (model SP-3000 Plus 592 nm was determined. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were analyzed. Results: According to results, the removal efficiency with adsorbent dose, retention time and agitation rate has a direct relation. Maximum adsorption occurred in the first 60 min. The removal efficiency with initial concentration of dye and pH of solution has indirect relation. The Freundlich isotherm fits the experimental data better than the other isotherms. It was recognized that the adsorption followed by pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.99. Conclusion: Based on the results, pomegranate seeds as a new natural sorbent can be used in removal of dye and other environmental pollutants with desirable absorption capacity.

  9. Adsorptive removal of acid blue 113 and tartrazine by fly ash from single and binary dye solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pura, S.; Atun, G. [Istanbul University, Avcilar (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyestuffs, acid blue 113 (AB) and tartrazine (TA), has been studied from their single and binary solutions by using fly ash (FA) as an adsorbent. The S shaped isotherms observed for dye adsorption from single solutions show that both acid dyes are not preferred at a low concentration region whereas adsorption of the dyes from binary solutions is enhanced via solute-solute interactions. Although the L-shaped isotherm is observed in binary solutions adsorbability of AB decreases in concentrated solutions with respect to single one, time dependency of adsorption is well described with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as the linear relation of Bt vs. t plots (not passing through origin) indicates that film diffusion is effective on dye adsorption. Modeled isotherm curves using isotherm parameters of the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations adequately fit to experimental equilibrium data. Equilibrium adsorption of AB in binary solutions has been quite well predicted by the extended Freundlich and the Sheindorf-Rebuhn-Sheintuch (SRS) models. In general, the isotherm curves constructed in the temperature range of 298-328K show that the optimum temperature is 318K for AB removal from both single and binary solutions.

  10. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  11. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Lee

    Full Text Available We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained from precipitation and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcha, Abebe; Yadav, Om Prakash; Dey, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods. The aim of this study was to understand how different synthetic methods can affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized by precipitation and sol-gel methods revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite sizes of 30 and 28 nm, respectively. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue, a common water pollutant, under UV radiation. The effects of operational parameters such as photocatalyst load and initial concentration of the dye on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue were investigated. While the degradation of dye decreased over the studied dye concentration range of 20 to 100 mg/L, an optimum photocatalyst load of 250 mg/L was needed to achieve dye degradation as high as 81 and 92.5 % for ZnO prepared by precipitation and sol-gel methods, respectively. Assuming pseudo first-order reaction kinetics, this corresponded to rate constants of 8.4 × 10 -3 and 12.4 × 10 -3  min -1 , respectively. Hence, sol-gel method is preferred over precipitation method in order to achieve higher photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic activity is further augmented by better choice of capping ligand for colloidal stabilization, starch being more effective than polyethylene glycol (PEG).

  13. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebayo, Matthew A.; Prola, Lizie D.T.; Lima, Eder C.; Puchana-Rosero, M.J.; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S.; Vaghetti, Julio C.P.; Silva, Leandro G. da; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Complexes of carboxy-methylated lignin with Al and Mn were used as adsorbents. • The optimum adsorption conditions were achieved at pH 2 and 298 K. • Maximum adsorption capacities are 73.52 mg g −1 (CML-Al) and 55.16 mg g −1 (CML-Mn). • CML-Al could remove ca. 95.83% of dye-contaminated industrial effluents. • CML-Al and CML-Mn are effective for treatment of simulated dye-house effluents. - Abstract: A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al 3+ (CML-Al) and Mn 2+ (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pH PZC . The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5 h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16 mg g −1 at 298 K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone + 50% of 0.05 mol L −1 NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents

  14. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebayo, Matthew A. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Chemical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, PMB 1066 Oyo, Oyo State (Nigeria); Prola, Lizie D.T. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Eder C., E-mail: eder.lima@ufrgs.br [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Puchana-Rosero, M.J.; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S.; Vaghetti, Julio C.P. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Postal Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Leandro G. da; Ruggiero, Reinaldo [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), AV. João Naves de Ávila 2121 block 1D—Campus Santa Mônica, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Complexes of carboxy-methylated lignin with Al and Mn were used as adsorbents. • The optimum adsorption conditions were achieved at pH 2 and 298 K. • Maximum adsorption capacities are 73.52 mg g{sup −1} (CML-Al) and 55.16 mg g{sup −1} (CML-Mn). • CML-Al could remove ca. 95.83% of dye-contaminated industrial effluents. • CML-Al and CML-Mn are effective for treatment of simulated dye-house effluents. - Abstract: A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al{sup 3+} (CML-Al) and Mn{sup 2+} (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pH{sub PZC}. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5 h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16 mg g{sup −1} at 298 K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone + 50% of 0.05 mol L{sup −1} NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents.

  15. Concordance between peri-areolar blue dye and peri-incisional radiotracer injections for sentinel node mapping in patients with a history of primary breast cancer excisonal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabibahar, M; Azizi, S; Jangjoo, A; Saremi, E; Kakhki, V R Dabbagh; Sadeghi, R; Chicken, D W; Keshtgar, M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the concordance between peri-areolar blue dye and peri-incisional radiotracer injections for axillary sentinel node mapping of patients with the history of previous breast lesion excisional biopsy. 80 patients with the history of previous excisional biopsy of the breast lesions were included. All patients received two injections of 99mTc-antimony sulfide colloid in both ends of incision line in an intradermal fashion. 2 mL patient blue V dye was injection to all patients in the peri-areolar area of the index quadrant after induction of anesthesia. All blue or hot nodes were harvested as sentinel lymph nodes. At least one sentinel node could be detected during surgery in 79 patients. In total 94 sentinel nodes were detected. All detected sentinel nodes were hot. In three patients sentinel nodes were detected by gamma probe but not blue dye. The tumor location in all of these patients was in the upper lateral quadrant and the incision line was extended into the axillary tail of the breast in all of them. 91 out of 94 sentinel nodes were stained blue, which amounts to 95.8% concordance between blue dye and radiotracer on a per node analysis. Single peri-areolar injection in the index quadrant would suffice for sentinel node mapping of patients with history of excisional biopsy. Care should be taken in patients with large excisional biopsy in the extreme proximity to axilla.

  16. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  17. Removal of reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R from aqueous solutions by using anaerobically digested sewage sludge based adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçimen Didem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorbents were produced from sewage sludge via chemical and thermal activation processes. Experiments were carried out in a tubular furnace at the heating rate of 20˚C min-1 and temperature of 550 ˚C with a nitrogen flow rate of 400 mL min-1 for 1 h. Dye adsorption experiments were performed with Remazol Brilliant Blue R for its several concentrations under batch equilibrium conditions by comparing sewage sludge based adsorbents with raw material and a commercial activated carbon. Maximum adsorption capacities of carbonized sewage sludge (CSWS and activated sewage sludge (ASWS were found as 7.413 mg g-1 and 9.376 mg g-1 for 100 mg L-1 dye solution, whereas commercial activated carbon had a capacity of 11.561 mg g-1. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to explain the adsorption mechanism together with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Langmuir isotherm, which had adsorption capacities of 34.60 mg g-1 (CSWS and 72.99 mg g-1 (ASWS, provided better fit to the equilibrium data than that of Freundlich isotherm. Pseudo second-order, model which had adsorption capacities of 7.451 mg g-1 (CSWS and 9.319 mg g-1 (ASWS, was very favorable to explain the adsorption kinetics of the dye with high regression coefficients.

  18. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of indanthrene blue dye using Ti/Ru-based electrodes prepared by a modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupo, Marilia M.S.; Costa, Lucas S. da; Figueiredo, Aile C.; Eguiluz, Katlin I. B.; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R., E-mail: gianrsb@gmail.com [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Ronaldo S. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica. Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos Avancados; Cunha, Frederico G.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-03-15

    Photoelectrodes were used to treat synthetic textile wastewater contaminated with indanthrene blue dye. Two media of treatment were used (NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), with variations on temperature, pH, current density, dye and chloride concentration. A modified Pechini method was applied to obtain Ti/Ru-based electrodes (Ti, Ru, Ti{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}, Ti{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25} and Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75}) containing anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and a color degradation analysis was done. Physical (atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry) and electrochemical characterizations (cyclic voltammetry) were considered. The condition that yielded highest color removal for the system presented 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl, 100 mA cm-2, 35 Degree-Sign C and pH 7, independent of the dye concentration for the Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75} electrode. (author)

  19. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  20. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  1. Fluorescein isothiocyanate and rhodamine B dye encapsulated mesoporous SiO2 for applications of blue LED excited white LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Manam, J.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes were encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNp). The MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor showed a dichromatic PL emission at green region and orange region when excited at 460 nm. A Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was observed from FITC to RhB. The materials were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, and temperature dependent photoluminescence. The CIE coordinates were tuned from greenish yellow to the orange region and quantum yield was reached 52.04% based on FRET. So by combining the MSNp-FITC-RhB nanohybrids phosphor with the blue LED chip, the white light emission with flexible Color Correlated Temperature and improved Color Rendering Index can be obtained.

  2. Dose determination with nitro blue tetrazolium containing radiochromic dye films by measuring absorbed and reflected light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    determination in a wide dose range both by absorbance and reflectance measurements. The concept of measuring reflected light from dose labels has been discussed earlier and emerged recently due to the requirement of introducing semiquantitative label dose indicators for quarantine control. The usefulness...... of the method was studied using the newly developed radiochromic dye films as well as already existing ones. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes/silver nanocomposite as effective SERS platform for detection of methylene blue dye in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Xuan Dinh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a functional nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Ag was successfully synthesized using a two-step chemical process. The MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite has been studied as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS sensing platform for detection of methylene blue (MB dye in an aqueous medium. The obtained results reveal that the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite exhibits higher SERS detection activity than that of pure Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The calculated enhancement factors are 1.51 × 106 for pure Ag-NPs and 4.68 × 106 for the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite. MB detection has been achieved as low as 1 ppm. The SERS enhancement of the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be attributed to the combination of both an electromagnetic (EM effect and a chemical effect (CE. With exhibited properties, the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be effectively used for detection of various organic dyes in water solution.

  4. Application of Casuarina equisetifolia needle for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khairud Dahri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of Casuarina equisetifolia needle (CEN on the removal of two important dyes, methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG, by batch adsorption experiments. Characterisation of CEN’s functional groups was done using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy while elemental analysis was carried out using CHNS analysis and X-ray fluorescence. The experiments were carried out by varying the adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time and initial dye concentration. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model best represented the experimental data for both CEN-MB and CEN-MG systems. The Weber–Morris intraparticle diffusion model showed that intraparticle diffusion is not the rate-limited step for both adsorbates, while the Boyd model suggested both systems could be controlled by film diffusion. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models were used for describing the adsorption process. Of these, the Langmuir model best represented both adsorbents systems (CEN-MB and CEN-MG giving maximum adsorption capacity (qm of 110.8 and 77.6 mg g−1, respectively, at 25 °C. Thermodynamics studies showed that both adsorption systems are spontaneous and endothermic.

  5. Continuous adsorption of methylene blue dye on the maize stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions onto maize stem ground tissue in column mode was investigated. The study encompassed the effects of important parameters such as flow rate, initial concentration of methylene blue, and bed depth on methylene blue removal from model solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of the maize stem was 45.9 mg/g at the initial methylene blue concentration of 20 mg/L, bed height of 6.5 cm and flow rate of 8 mL/min. It was found that the breakthrough time for reaching saturation increased with a decrease in the flow rate, and also occurred earlier for a higher influent concentration. The breakthrough times increased with the bed depth, thus allowing a larger volume to be treated. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, Clark and artificial neural network models were used to predict the breakthrough curves. These models gave excellent approximations of the experimental behavior.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172025

  6. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Nevine Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R 2 > 0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ), and the activation energy (E a ) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  7. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Nevine Kamal, E-mail: nkamalamin@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R{sup 2} > 0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), and the activation energy (E{sub a}) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  8. Low-Cost Biodegradation and Detoxification of Textile Azo Dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 by Providencia rettgeri Strain HSL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study focuses on exploitation of agricultural waste wheat bran (WB as growth medium for degradation of textile azo dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 (RB 172 using a single bacterium P. rettgeri strain HSL1 (GenBank accession number JX853768.1. The bacterium was found to completely decolorize 50 mg L−1 of dye RB 172 within 20 h at 30 ± 0.2°C under microaerophilic incubation conditions. Additionally, significant reduction in COD (85% and TOC (52% contents of dye decolorized medium was observed which suggested its mineralization. Induction in the activities of azoreductase (159% and NADH-DCIP reductase (88% provided an evidence for reductive cleavage of dye RB 172. The HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis of decolorized products confirmed the degradation of dye into various metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathway for biodegradation of RB 172 has been elucidated which showed the formation of 2 intermediate metabolites, namely, 4-(ethenylsulfonyl aniline and 1-amino-1-(4-aminophenyl propan-2-one. The acute and phytotoxicity evaluation of degraded metabolites suggests that bacterial strain favors the detoxification of dye RB 172. Thus, WB could be utilized as a low-cost growth medium for the enrichment of bacteria and their further use for biodegradation of azo dyes and its derivatives containing wastes into nontoxic form.

  9. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye-Acid Blue 113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Gupta, Bina; Rastogi, Arshi; Agarwal, Shilpi; Nayak, Arunima

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The system is cheap, efficient and fast for the removal of dyes from waters. → Higher adsorption capacity is due to higher mesoporous volume of the adsorbent. → The rate determining step of the adsorption process is particle diffusion. - Abstract: A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  10. ELECTRO-DEGRADATION OF REACTIVE BLUE DYES USING CYLINDER MODIFIED ELECTRODE: Ti/β-PbO2 AS DIMENSIONALLY STABLE ANODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Mukimin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cylinder modified electrode of the β-PbO2 was fabricated by anodic electro-deposition method on titanium substrate. The PbO2 layer prepared from high acid solution (pH: 0.3 that contains a mixed of 0.5 M Pb(NO32, 1 M HNO3, and 0,02 M NaF. The physicochemical properties of the PbO2 electrode were analyzed by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis and X-Ray Diffraction. The analyses have shown that oxide layer has an O/Pb ratio about 1.6 and the PbO impurities are formed in the surface layer besides the β-PbO2. The modified electrode was used as anode paired stainless cathode in the electro-degradation of reactive blue dye. The results of the electro-catalytic oxidation process of the dye solution were expressed in terms of the remaining intensity dye and chemical oxygen demand (COD values. The modified electrode has removal efficiency of the reactive blue dye at voltage of 7 V, pH of 7, concentration NaCl of 2 g/L, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L with simple and short time operations.

  11. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  12. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  13. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  14. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  15. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A.; Colpini, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO 2 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 gave a result similar to that of TiO 2 . On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  16. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Colpini, L.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Palotina, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis

    2011-07-15

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gave a result similar to that of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  17. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksu, Zuemriye [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: zaksu@hacettepe.edu.tr; Isoglu, I. Alper [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-01

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l{sup -1} initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g{sup -1} at 25 deg. C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l{sup -1}) and temperature (25-45 deg. C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature.

  18. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Zümriye; Isoglu, I Alper

    2006-09-01

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l(-1) initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l(-1)) and temperature (25-45 degrees C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted durian seed based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Hamid, Siti Ruqayyah Ab.; Yusop, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Due to easy access and relatively high fixed carbon content of 26.13% in its raw form, durian seed based activated carbon (DSAC) was produced via microwave heating. For activation stage, physiochemical approach consist of carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as chemical activator were employed. Three most influential preparation variables on adsorption performance and yield of activated carbon (AC), which is radiation power, radiation time and KOH impregnation ratio (IR) were optimized with the help of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization result revealed that 440W, 4.0 minutes and 0.55 of radiation power, radiation time and IR respectively, were needed to remove 80.23% of methylene blue (MB) dye and to obtain 25.77% of DSAC's yield. High Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume and average pore size of 852.30m2/g, 0.465cm3/g and 3.74nm respectively, were obtained on optimized DSAC.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of size-controllable Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4) nanoparticles and its application in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Harraz, F.A.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of YVO 4 nanopowders prepared at different hydrothermal times; where Y 1 = 4 h, Y 2 = 8 h, Y 3 = 12 h and Y 4 = 24 h. Highlights: ► Size control of Yttrium Orthovanadate. ► Hydrothermal synthesis. ► Removal of direct blue dye. - Abstract: Sized-controlled YVO 4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method by changing hydrothermal time from 4 to 24 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET)), and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) measurements. The results showed that the size of as-synthesized YVO 4 nanoparticles was in the range of 11–40 nm and was extremely dependent on the hydrothermal time. Photocatalytic measurement showed that the YVO 4 nanoparticles with particle size of about 11 nm (prepared by 4 h hydrothermal time) possess superior photocatalytic properties in the decolorization of direct blue dye. Due to simple preparation, high photocatalytic oxidation of direct blue dye and low cost, the YVO 4 photocatalyst is a potential candidate for pollutants removal and will find wide application in the coming future in photocatalytic oxidation processes. The overall kinetics of photodegradation of direct blue dye using YVO 4 nanopowders photocatalyst was found to be of first order. The photocatalyst could be easily removed from the reaction mixture and its recyclability with no loss of activity was possible for six times. The catalytic performance was found to decrease by 5% after run number six.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of size-controllable Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO{sub 4}) nanoparticles and its application in photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R.M., E-mail: redama123@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Harraz, F.A. [Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, CMRDI, P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Mkhalid, I.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of YVO{sub 4} nanopowders prepared at different hydrothermal times; where Y{sub 1} = 4 h, Y{sub 2} = 8 h, Y{sub 3} = 12 h and Y{sub 4} = 24 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size control of Yttrium Orthovanadate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of direct blue dye. - Abstract: Sized-controlled YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method by changing hydrothermal time from 4 to 24 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) measurements. The results showed that the size of as-synthesized YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles was in the range of 11-40 nm and was extremely dependent on the hydrothermal time. Photocatalytic measurement showed that the YVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with particle size of about 11 nm (prepared by 4 h hydrothermal time) possess superior photocatalytic properties in the decolorization of direct blue dye. Due to simple preparation, high photocatalytic oxidation of direct blue dye and low cost, the YVO{sub 4} photocatalyst is a potential candidate for pollutants removal and will find wide application in the coming future in photocatalytic oxidation processes. The overall kinetics of photodegradation of direct blue dye using YVO{sub 4} nanopowders photocatalyst was found to be of first order. The photocatalyst could be easily removed from the reaction mixture and its recyclability with no loss of activity was possible for six times. The catalytic performance was found to decrease by 5% after run number six.

  2. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  3. White organic light-emitting devices based on blue fluorescent dye combined with dual sub-monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huishan, E-mail: yanghuishan1697@163.com

    2013-10-15

    White organic light-emitting devices have been realized by using highly blue fluorescent dye 4,4′-Bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)-4,4′-di-(tert-butyl)phenyl(p-TDPVBi) and [2-methyl-6-[2-(2, 3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H, red fluorescent dye 5H-benzo[ij] quinolizin-9-yl) ethenyl]-4H-pyran-4-ylidene] propane-dinitrile(DCM2), together with well known green fluorescent dye quinacridone (QAD). The fabrication of multilayer WOLEDs did not involve the hard-to-control doping process. The structure of the device is ITO/m-MTDATA (45 nm)/NPB(8 nm)/p-TDPVBi(15 nm)/DCM2(x nm)/Alq{sub 3} (5 nm)/QAD(y nm)/Alq{sub 3}(55 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al, where 4,4′,4′′-tris{N,-(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamine}triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) acts as a hole injection layer, N,N′-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N′-diphenyl-1, 1′-biph-enyl-4, 4′-diamine (NPB) acts as a hole transport layer, p-TDPVBi acts as a blue emitting layer, DCM2 acts as a red emitting layer, QAD acts as a green emitting layer, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) acts as an electron transport layer, and WOLEDs of devices A, B, C and D are different in layer thickness of DCM2 and QAD, respectively. To change the thickness of dual sub-monolayer DCM2 and QAD, the WOLEDs were obtained. When x, y=0.05, 0.1, the Commission Internationale de 1’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device change from (0.4458, 0.4589) at 3 V to (0.3137, 0.3455) at 12 V that are well in the white region, and the color temperature and color rendering index were 5348 K and 85 at 8 V, respectively. Its maximum luminance was 35260 cd/m{sup 2} at 12 V, and maximum current efficiency and maximum power efficiency were 13.54 cd/A at 12 V and 6.68 lm/W at 5 V, respectively. Moreover, the current efficiency is largely insensitive to the applied voltage. The electroluminescence intensity of white EL devices varied only little at deferent dual sub-monolayer. Device D exhibited relatively high color rendering index (CRI) in the range of 88–90, which was essentially

  4. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristic investigation of a new generation photodiode based on bromothymol blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imer, A Gencer; Korkut, A; Tombak, A

    2016-01-01

    Bromothymol blue (BTB) with the molecular formula of C 27 H 28 Br 2 O 5 S was grown onto p-Si substrate to fabricate heterojunction by spin coating technique. The current voltage ( I-V ) measurements of diode were carried out in dark and under different illumination intensity at room temperature. The photoelectrical properties of heterojunction based on BTB were investigated using the illumination intensity dependent I-V data. The results showed that photo current of diode increases with the increase in light intensity. Also, the electrical parameters of device were determined via I-V, and capacitance- voltage ( C-V ), conductance-voltage ( G-V ) measurements at different frequencies. It is observed that the excess capacitance is created at low frequencies due to the contribution of interface states charge which can follow the alternative current signal to capacitance. It is stated that, both the electrical and photoelectrical parameters of diode can be changed, and also the performance of the device could be affected by the organic thin film interlayer. (paper)

  5. Removal of the blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions using ferric zeolite; Remocion del colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas utilizando zeolita ferrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo H, S. Y.

    2010-07-01

    Water is essential to all life forms, including humans. In recent years water use has increased substantially, also has been altered in its capacity as a result of various human activities, such as domestic, industrial and agricultural, also by natural activity. Undoubtedly one of the main pollutants today are the waste generated by the food industry, due to the use of dyes for the production of their products. So it is necessary to restore water quality through treatment systems to remove contaminants, and thus prevent disease and imbalance of ecosystems. Due to the above, it is important to conduct research directed towards finding new ways to remove dyes such as blue 1 used in the food industry, using low cost materials and abundant in nature as zeolites. To accomplish the above, the present study has the purpose to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the blue dye 1 in aqueous solutions. To accomplish that objective, the zeolite material was reconditioned to improve its sorption properties of the material and provide the ability to adsorb pollutants such as this dye. The zeolite material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. To evaluate the ability of blue 1 dye sorption the kinetics and sorption isotherms were determined; the experimental results were adjusted to mathematical models such as pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and Elovich to describe the kinetic process, and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich to describe sorption isotherms. The results showed that ferric zeolite surface is a heterogeneous material and has a considerable adsorption capacity, which makes it a potential adsorbent for removing color from aqueous streams. Also the sorption of the dye was evaluated at different ph values; the most sorption was carried out at ph values 1, 3 and 11. We also evaluated the change in mass where the sorption capacities for the blue 1 increase by increasing

  6. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  8. A Study on the Removal of Direct Blue 71 Dye From Textile Wastewater Produced From State Company of Cotton Industries by Electrocoagulation Using Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Khalifa Esgair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal of direct blue 71 dye from a prepared wastewater was studied employing batch electrocoagulation (EC cell. The electrodes of aluminum were used. The influence of process variables which include initial pH (2.0-12.0, wastewater conductivity (0.8 -12.57 mS/cm , initial dye concentration (30 -210 mg/L, electrolysis time (3-12 min, current density (10-50 mA/cm2 were studied in order to maximize the color removal from wastewater. Experimental results showed that the color removal yield increases with increasing pH until pH 6.0 after that it decreased with increasing pH. The color removal increased with increasing current density, wastewater conductivity, electrolysis time, and decreased with increasing the concentration of initial dye. The maximum color removal yield of 96.5% was obtained at pH 6.0, wastewater conductivity 9.28 mS/cm , electrolysis time 6 min ,the concentration of initial dye 6 0 mg/L and current density 30 mA/cm2 .

  9. Comparative Study of Ni-Zn LHS and Mg-Al LDH Adsorbents of Navy Blue and Yellow F3G Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Yulia Ikhsani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of disperse dyes from wastewater onto Ni-Zn LHS (layered hydroxide salts and Mg-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides has been compared in this study. Effects of initial pH solution, contact time and initial dye concentration were investigated. The ability of the adsorbent to be reused was also studied. The results showed that acidic condition was favorable for the adsorption of each dyes onto both adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Santosa’s kinetics models. The experimental data fits well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results showed that adsorption of navy blue onto both adsorbent followed Freundlich isotherm adsorption, while yellow F3G followed Langmuir isotherm adsorption. In the application for the adsorption the wastewater containing dyes, Ni-Zn LHS has a better adsorption capacity of 52.33 mg/g than that of Mg-Al LDH that 30.54 mg/g. Calcination of the adsorbent which has already been used increased the adsorption capacity of Mg-Al LDH to 84.75 mg/g, but decreased the adsorption capacity of the Ni-Zn LHS to 42.65 mg/g.

  10. Hybrid Monolith of Graphene/TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofiber as Mechanically Robust, Highly Functional, and Recyclable Adsorbent of Methylene Blue Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we demonstrate first report on fabrication, characterization, and adsorptive appraisal of graphene/cellulose nanofibers (GO/CNFs monolith for methylene blue (MB dye. Series of hybrid monolith (GO/CNFs were assembled via urea assisted self-assembly method. Hybrid materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric curve analysis, specific surface area, surface charge density measurement, and compressional mechanical analysis. It was proposed that strong chemical interaction (mainly hydrogen bonding was responsible for the formation of hybrid assembly. GO/CNFs monolith showed mechanically robust architecture with tunable pore structure and surface properties. GO/CNFs adsorbent could completely remove trace to moderate concentrations of MB dye and follow pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Adsorption isotherm behaviors were found in the following order: Langmuir isotherm > Freundlich isotherm > Temkin isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of 227.27 mg g−1 was achieved which is much higher than reported graphene based monoliths and magnetic adsorbent. Incorporation of nanocellulose follows exponential relationship with dye uptake capacities. High surface charge density and specific surface area were main dye adsorptive mechanism. Regeneration and recycling efficiency was achieved up to four consecutive cycles with cost-effective recollection and zero recontamination of treated water.

  11. Comparison of peritumoral and subareolar injection of 99mTc sulphur colloid and blue-dye for detection of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzebski, T.; Kopacz, A.; Lass, P.

    2002-01-01

    The new trend in diagnosis of the lymph node is sentinel node biopsy. This method has become increasingly accepted as a minimally invasive alternative to routine axillary dissection. Although the results of numerous studies have shown that sentinel node biopsy can accurately determine the axillary nodal status, the identification rates and false-negative rates have been variable. The sentinel lymph node is defined as the first node in the lymphatic basin that receives the primary lymphatic flow. Between September 1998 and August 2002 123 patients with primary operative breast cancer without clinical palpable axillary lymph nodes were enrolled in the study. There were two groups of patients according to sentinel node identification technique: 51 patients (Group I) received parenchymal, peritumoral injection of 1.0 ml of 16 MBq Tc 99m -radiolabelled sulphur colloid and single intradermal injection of blue-dye over the tumour. The next 72 patients (Group II) received intradermal, periareolar one-site injection of 0.5 ml of 16 MBq Tc 99m -radiolabelled sulphur colloid and blue-dye. Sentinel lymph node was found in 41 (80.4%) cases in Group I and in 67 (93.0%) cases in Group II (p = 0.028). The localisation of the axillary lymph node as a 'hot spot' visualised by lymphoscintigraphy was successful in 39/51 (76.5%) cases in Group I and 67/72 (93.0%) in Group II, p = 0.004). In both groups the success of sentinel node identification in the axillary region by lymphoscintigraphy was connected with sentinel lymph node finding during surgery (Group I: p 99m -radiolabelled sulphur colloid and bluedye is superior to peritumoral 4-sites injections Tc 99m- radiolabelled sulphur colloid and single intradermal injection of blue-dye over the tumour in sentinel lymph node identification. (author)

  12. Advancing optical imaging for breast margin assessment: an analysis of excisional time, cautery, and patent blue dye on underlying sources of contrast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre M Bydlon

    Full Text Available Breast conserving surgery (BCS is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin™, used for sentinel lymph node mapping. Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb], fat ([β-carotene], and fibroglandular content via light scattering ( measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [β-carotene], and were affected by , and [β-carotene]/ was 40%. [β-carotene] and [β-carotene]/ were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: abdelhay71@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University (Egypt); El-Katori, Emad E.; Gharni, Zarha H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Khaled University (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods embedded various proportion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.%. Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano mixed oxide samples were successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. ► Manipulation of particle size and structure were achieved by micelle template approach. ► Both adsorption and photocatalytic reactivity are the main reasons for exceptional decolorization of methylene blue dye. ► A new mechanism for electronic transition between TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was proposed. -- Abstract: The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried under UV irradiation over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded various composition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.% synthesized by sol–gel process. Structural and textural features of the mixed oxide samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction [XRD], Fourier transformer infra-red [FTIR], Energy dispersive X-ray [EDX], Field emission electron microscope [FESEM] and transmission electron microscope [TEM]. However, the optical features were estimated using UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the incorporation of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 7% is associated by remarkable increase in surface area, reduction of particle size, stabilization of anatase phase, shifting the photoexcitation response of the sample to visible region and exceptional degradation of methylene blue dye. On the other hand, increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents up to 20 wt.% is associated by anatase–rutile transformation, increasing in particle size and remarkable decrease in surface area which are prime factors in reducing the degradation process. The experimental results indicate that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles having both the advantages of photodegradation–adsorption process which considered a promising new

  14. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  15. Interaction of Brilliant Blue dye solution with soil and its effect on mobility of compounds around the zones of preferenial flows at spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebej Juraj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed field experiment with 10 g l−1 concentration of Brilliant Blue solutes in 100 l of water sprinkling on 1 × 1 m surface of the Dystric Cambisol. Consequently, four vertical profiles were exposed at experimental plot after 2 hours (CUT 2, 24 hours (CUT 24, 27 hours (CUT 27 and after 504 hours (CUT 504 in order to analyse spatiotemporal interactions among the BB solution (Na-salts, soil exchangeable complex and fine earth soil (% samples extracted from both the high and low coloured zones located around the optically visualised macropore preferred flow (PF zones. The concentration changes were quantifying via soil profiles not affected by BB (termed as REF located in the close vicinity of experimental plot. Observed changes in pH (H2O, chemical composition of fineearth soil, as well as in concentration of Na+ in soil exchangeable complex to suggest, the BB dye solution didn’t represent an inert tracer, but compounds strongly involved in reaction with surrounding soils. Recorded chemical trends seems to be the result both the competitive processes between the Na+ of BB dye solution and composition of surrounding soil exchangeable complex, as well and the spatial-temporal controlled mechanism of dye solution transfer in soil.

  16. Synthesis and infrared spectra of Vanadium (III) prussian blue complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, H.E.; Lellis, F.T.P.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of polymeric pigments containing vanadium (III) and hexacryano or substituted pentacyanoferrate (II) complexes are studied. The role of the intervalence transfer interactions in the complexes is discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  17. Comparative study of eco- and cytotoxicity during biotransformation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B in optimized cultures of microscopic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Kamila; Święciło, Agata; Szychowski, Konrad A; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select optimal conditions (C and N sources, initial pH and temperature) for biodecolorization of 0.03% anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B (ABBB) by microscopic fungi: Haematonectria haematococca BwIII43, K37 and Trichoderma harzianum BsIII33. The phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity (Lepidium sativum L.), biotoxicity (Microtox), cytotoxicity and yeast viability assay were performed to determine the extent of ABBB detoxification. Biodecolorization and detoxification of 0.03% ABBB in H. haematococca BwIII43 and T. harzianum BsIII33 cultures was correlated with extracellular oxidoreductases activity. In turn, secondary products, toxic to human fibroblasts and respiring sod1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, were formed in H. haematococca K37 strain cultures, despite efficient decolorization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. White light generation from YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors mixed with a blue dye under 340 nm excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Torres, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL 66450, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Meza, O. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104 Centro Historico, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Ce{sup 3+}(0.1%)–Pr{sup 3+}(0.1%) –Cr{sup 3+} (trace impurities) nanophosphors synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method were studied. The crystalline phase was composed of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) and Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic (YAM) depending on the ammonia concentration and annealing temperature. Ammonia increased the stabilization of YAG from 55 wt% to 63 wt% in the samples annealed at 900 °C, and an increment of 83% of the overall emission under 460 nm excitation was observed. Quenching of the emitted signal after annealing at 1100 °C was observed in spite of single YAG crystalline phase stabilization, due to the formation of Ce{sup 4+}, Pr{sup 4+}, and color centers. In addition to the green–yellow emission from Ce{sup 3+}, all samples present a broad red emission band produced by the relaxations from the broad band {sup 4}T{sub 2} toward the {sup 4}A{sub 2} energy level of Cr{sup 3+} impurities, under 340 nm excitation. By taking advantage of this broad green–yellow–red emission and using a blue dye, white light with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.36) under 340 nm excitation was produced. - Highlights: • YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors were synthesized with a hydrothermal method. • Ammonia introduced during the synthesis increased the emission of nanophosphors. • White light was obtained by combining the emissions of a blue dye and nanophosphors. • The CIE coordinates for this white light are (0.30, 0.36)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of CeO_2 - TiO_2 system for use in heterogeneous photocatalysis in photodegradation of methylene blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragatto, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This study has as its goal the synthesis of a mixed oxide system type CeO_2 - TiO_2, through the polymeric precursor method, to be used in heterogeneous photocatalysis. The synthesized materials were characterized by Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of the thermal analysis showed in what temperature ranges certain events occur such as the formation of cerium oxide between 600 and 800 ° C, which refers to the crystallization of the material. Regarding the formation of titanium oxide, events between 600 and 800 ° C are perceived, which suggests the transformation of anatase to rutile phase. The XRD analysis showed no occurrence of the same phase for all materials, meaning that there is a variation in the formation of phases according to concentration of precursor for each sample. Noteworthy are the formation of CeO_2 for Ce75-Ti25 and Ce50-Ti50 concentrations, with cubic crystal structure of the fluorite type. In Ce75-Ti25 and Ce25-Ti75 it is present the TiO_2 in the anatase and rutile phase, with crystal structure of the tetragonal and tetrahedron type, respectively, as well as the formation of CeTi_2O_6 in Ce50-Ti50 and Ce25-Ti75, with structure monoclinic. From these analyses, it is possible to see which samples, and in which temperatures of calcination the material has increased crystallinity, making the choice for their application in heterogeneous photocatalysis, aiming the degradation of methylene blue dye. Among the tested materials for methylene blue, the sample that stood out was the Ce50-Ti50, with calcination temperature of 800 °C, with values close to 50% degradation, because it was the sample that showed higher dye adsorption capacity, which is the step that precedes photodegradation. (author)

  20. Development of an auto-phase separable and reusable graphene oxide-potato starch based cross-linked bio-composite adsorbent for removal of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Rana, Dipak; Roy, Indranil; Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; De, Sriparna; Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Sadhukhan, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2018-05-14

    In this work, we report the development of a cross-linked bio-composite consisting of graphene oxide, potato starch, cross-linker glutaraldehyde and its application to adsorption of the industrial dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution. The inexpensiveness, non-hazardous nature and easy bio-degradability are the major reasons for the selection of starch material as one of the components of the bio-composite. The bio-composite has been characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, particle size and zeta potential analysis. The FTIR analysis reveals the nature of the binding sites and surface morphology of the bio-composite can be understood through SEM. The auto-phase separability of the adsorbent i.e., the precipitation of the adsorbent without any mechanical means is another factor which makes this particular material very attractive as an adsorbent. Parameters like adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, rotation speed and salt concentration have been varied to find out the suitable dye adsorption conditions. Furthermore, the time dependence of adsorption process has been analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics. The adsorption isotherms have been constructed to suggest convincing mechanistic pathway for this adsorption process. Finally, desorption studies have been successfully performed in 3 cycles, establishing the reusability of the material, which should allow the adsorbent to be economically promising for practical application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 and Coxsackievirus A16 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-Jie; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Han, Feng; Xu, Wen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infection, respectively. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 65°C for 60 min with the addition of the hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye prior to amplification. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP assay were 0.33 and 1.58 of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) per reaction based on 10-fold dilutions of a titrated EV71 or CVA16 strain, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed with Coxsackievirus A (CVA) viruses (CVA2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 14, and 24), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) viruses (CVB1,2,3,4, and 5) or ECHO viruses (ECHO3, 6, 11, and 19). The assay was further evaluated with 47 clinical stool specimens diagnosed previously with EV71, CVA16 or other human enterovirus infections. Virus isolates from stool samples were confirmed by virus neutralization testing and sequencing. RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and cost-effective assay for rapid visual detection of human EV71-C4 and CVA16. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Competitive effects of humic acid and wastewater on adsorption of Methylene Blue dye by activated carbon and non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu

    2018-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM), present in natural waters and wastewater, decreases adsorption of micropollutants, increasing treatment costs. This research investigated mechanisms of competition for non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) and activated carbon with humic acid and wastewater. Three different types of activated carbons (Norit PAC 200, Darco KB-M, and Darco S-51) were used for comparison with the NIP. The lower surface area and micropore to mesopore ratio of the NIP led to decreased adsorption capacity in comparison to the activated carbons. In addition, experiments were conducted for single-solute adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) dye, simultaneous adsorption with humic acid and wastewater, and pre-loading with humic acid and wastewater followed by adsorption of MB dye using NIP and Norit PAC 200. Both the NIP and PAC 200 showed significant decreases of 27% for NIP (p=0.087) and 29% for PAC 200 (p=0.096) during simultaneous exposure to humic acid and MB dye. There was no corresponding decrease for NIP or PAC 200 pre-loaded with humic acid and then exposed to MB. In fact, for PAC 200, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased when it was pre-loaded with humic acid by 39% (p=0.0005). For wastewater, the NIP showed no significant increase or decrease in adsorption capacity during either simultaneous exposure or pre-loading. The adsorption capacity of PAC 200 increased by 40% (p=0.001) for simultaneous exposure to wastewater and MB. Pre-loading with wastewater had no effect on MB adsorption by PAC 200. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Treatability study of the effluent containing reactive blue 21 dye by ozonation and the mass transfer study of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpula, Priyadarshini; Ghuge, Santosh; Saroha, Anil K.

    2018-04-01

    Ozonation is a chemical treatment process in which ozone reacts with the pollutants present in the effluent by infusion of ozone into the effluent. This study includes the effect of various parameters such as inlet ozone dose, pH of solution and initial concentration of dye on decolorization of dye in terms CRE. The maximum CRE of 98.62% with the reaction rate constant of 0.26 min-1 is achieved in 18 minutes of reaction time at inlet ozone dose of 11.5 g/m3, solution pH of 11 and 30 mg/L of initial concentration of dye. The presence of radical scavenger (Tertiary Butyl Alcohol) suppressed the CRE from 98.62% to 95.4% at high pH values indicates that the indirect mechanism dominates due to the presence of hydroxyl radicals which are formed by the decomposition of ozone. The diffusive and convective mass transfer coefficients of ozone are calculated as 1.78 × 10-5 cm2/sec and 0.075 min-1. It is observed that the fraction of resistance offered by liquid is very much high compared to gas phase indicates that the ozonation is a liquid phase mass transfer controlled operation.

  4. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  6. Photodegradation of indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution by SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Solis, Christian [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias, E-mail: isajua13@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Moctezuma, Edgar [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi Av. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78290 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photodegradation of organic dyes is possible using sol-gel SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} makes a synergy effect that enhances its catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel allows good dispersion and attachment of TiO{sub 2} particles on SiC surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} exhibits better activity than TiO{sub 2} (P25) on organic dyes degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts are settled down and easily separated after photocatalysis. - Abstract: Indigo carmine and methylene blue dyes in aqueous solution were photodegraded using SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared by sol-gel method. After thermal treatment at 450 Degree-Sign C, SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts prepared in this work showed the presence of SiC and TiO{sub 2} anatase phase. Those compounds showed specific surface area values around 22-25 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and energy band gap values close to 3.05 eV. In comparison with TiO{sub 2} (P25), SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts showed the highest activity for indigo carmine and methylene blue degradation, but this activity cannot be attributed to the properties above mentioned. Therefore, photocatalytic performance is due to the synergy effect between SiC and TiO{sub 2} particles caused by the sol-gel method used to prepare the SiC-TiO{sub 2} catalysts. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well dispersed onto SiC surface allowing the transfer of electronic charges between SiC and TiO{sub 2} semiconductors, which avoid the fast recombination of the electron-hole pair during the photocatalytic process.

  7. Intra-operative lymphatic mapping with Dextran Tc-99m and blue dye for sentinel node detection in patients with primary vulvar malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.E.; Aguilar, C.R.; Cano, R.A.; Saavedra, P.; Santos, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node detection using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intra-operative lymphatic mapping in patients with primary vulvar malignancies. Nine patients (29-84 years old) with primary vulvar malignancy were scheduled for sentinel node detection. Two patients had malignant melanoma of the vulva and seven had squamous cell carcinomas. Eight patients did not have a previous surgery of the primary tumour nor of the lymph nodes, one had an aspiration biopsy. Three hours before surgery 1-5 mCi of Tc-99m Dextran was injected intradermally in four points in the skin junction adjacent to the vulvar lesions. Static lymphoscintigraphy was performed using a planar GE gamma camera with a multipurpose low energy collimator, in anterior and lateral views. Images were displayed on a personal computer, through a Portable Imaging Processing software (PIP). In two cases a Siemens ECAM SPECT camera was used, due to necessity of having high-resolution images. Patten blue dye was injected in the junction between the skin and vulvar tumor, in the surgery room, after anaesthesia induction. Agamma probe (Navigator Gamma Guidance System) was used to detect the sentinel node. The activity in the sentinel node was measured in each case, before and after resection. Activity in the remaining tissue was also measured. Nodes were adequately placed in plastic bags and sent to pathology for H-E staining. Non-sentinel nodes were also resected and sent for pathology, except in two cases. Sentinel nodes (SN) were visualised on lymphoscintigraphy 1 to 5 minutes after injection of Tc-99m Dextran. In malignant melanoma drainage to the sentinel node was faster than for other tumours. There were five cases who had bilateral SN in inguinal regions, in other three cases, two SN were located on the same side, two in the inguinal region. In all cases the SN was identified corroborating to the skin mark and with enough

  8. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access...... of the frame. Prussian blue is a hydrated iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) complex of variable composition depending on the manufacturing [1]. It has been reported that the method of preparation, as well as the use of white pigments or extenders to dilute the blue pigment, may be a factor contributing to its......, the current in situ campaign aimed at mapping and understanding the degradation of Prussian blue and lead white admixtures using non-invasive portable techniques. The presence of Prussian blue was detected, with the MOLAB analytical means, in all the exposed, faded areas, although the colour had turned pale...

  9. Removal of Dye (Blue 56 From Aqueous Solution via Adsorption onto Pistachio Shell: kinetic and isotherm study of removal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravanpaykar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, shells of pistachio are used as adsorbents and they have been successfully used for the removal of Blue 56, from water samples. The effect of various parameters such as: pH, amounts of adsorbents, size of adsorbent particles and contact time on removal processing were investigated. Inthisstudy Freundlichabsorptionisotherms and Langmuir were investigated. The experimental data were correlated reasonably well by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and isotherm parameters were calculated. In order to investigate the efficiency of Blue 56 adsorption on the pistachio shell, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. Themodel that hadgoodcorrelationtoattractFreundlichwas chosenasthemodel. Its kineticsfollowsthepseudosecond order reaction.

  10. Modeling of Reactive Blue 19 azo dye removal from colored textile wastewater using L-arginine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Optimization, reusability, kinetic and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvand, Arash; Nabizadeh, Ramin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Ganjali, Mohammad [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoobi, Mehdi [Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazmara, Shahrokh [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Mahvi, Amir, E-mail: ahmahvi@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the removal of Reactive Blue 19 from colored wastewater using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles modified with L-arginine (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine). In order to investigate the effect of independent variables on dye removal and determining the optimum condition, the Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Applying Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles for dye removal showed that; by increasing adsorbent dose and decreasing pH, dye concentration, and ionic strength dye removal has been increased. In the optimum condition, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles were able to remove dye as high as 96.34% at an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 0.74 g/L, and pH 3. The findings indicated that dye removal followed pseudo-second-order kinetic (R{sup 2}=0.999) and Freundlich isotherm (R{sup 2}=0.989). Based on the obtained results, as an efficient and reusable adsorbent, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine nanoparticles can be successfully applied for dye removal from colored wastewater. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@L-arginine removed RB 19 azo dye from wastewater efficiently. • BBD under RSM was used to analyze and optimize the adsorption process. • pH was the most influential parameter in dye removal.

  11. Solid-state deep blue and UV fluorescent dyes based on para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajčovič, Jozef; Kovalenko, Alexander, E-mail: kovalenko.alx@gmail.com; Heinrichová, Patricie; Vala, Martin; Weiter, Martin

    2015-11-15

    Despite the general rule of strong acceptor substituents having a tendency to quench fluorescence due to molecular stacking, it is shown how tetra-fluorination of the central phenylene unit of para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene can augment the quantum yields of solid state fluorescent dyes. Another significant part of the present research was the study of the influence of the position of the solubilization alkyl chains position on the fluorescent properties of the abovementioned non- and tetra-fluorinated materials. Tenfold augmentation of quantum yields, depending on the position of the alkyl chains is reported. - Highlights: • Solid state luminescence was observed in para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene molecules. • Quantum yields was augmented by polyfluorination of the central phenylene unit. • Tenfold augmentation of luminescence was observed by changing alkyls position. • Possibilities of steric hindrance and charge transfer were studied.

  12. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142, and Patent Blue V (E131 by erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Jérôme Leba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC50 ≤ 2 μM and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC50 ≤ 800 nM against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8 and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206. In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142 is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC50 ≃ 17 μM whereas Patent Blue V (E131 is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142 by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131 could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Keywords: Antimalarial dyes, Transmission blocking, Triarylmethanes, Drug uptake, Brilliant green, Food dyes

  13. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  14. Blue copper model complexes with distorted tetragonal geometry acting as effective electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shigeki; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2005-07-06

    The electron self-exchange rate constants of blue copper model complexes, [(-)-sparteine-N,N'](maleonitriledithiolato-S,S')copper ([Cu(SP)(mmt)])(0/)(-), bis(2,9-dimethy-1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+)), and bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+)) have been determined from the rate constants of electron transfer from a homologous series of ferrocene derivatives to the copper(II) complexes in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. The resulting electron self-exchange rate constant increases in the order: [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+) geometry. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were constructed using the copper complexes as redox couples to compare the photoelectrochemical responses with those using the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple. The light energy conversion efficiency (eta) values under illumination of simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW/cm(2)) of DSSCs using [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+), [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+), and [Cu(SP)(mmt)](0/)(-) were recorded as 0.1%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The maximum eta value (2.2%) was obtained for a DSSC using the [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+) redox couple under the light irradiation of 20 mW/cm(2) intensity, where a higher open-circuit voltage of the cell was attained as compared to that of the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple.

  15. Treatment of dye wastewater with permanganate oxidation and in situ formed manganese dioxides adsorption: cation blue as model pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Xu; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ran

    2010-04-15

    This study investigated the process of potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) oxidation and in situ formed hydrous manganese dioxides (deltaMnO(2)) (i.e., KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption) for the treatment of dye wastewater. The effectiveness of decolorization, removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increasing biodegradable oxygen demand (BOD) were compared among these processes of KMnO(4) oxidation, deltaMnO(2) adsorption, and KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption. DeltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximum DOC removal of 65.0%, but exhibited limited capabilities of decolorizing and increasing biodegradability. KMnO(4) oxidation alone at pH 0.5 showed satisfactory decrease of UV-vis absorption peaks, and the maximum BOD(5)/DOC value of 1.67 was achieved. Unfortunately, the DOC removal was as low as 27.4%. Additionally, the great amount of acid for pH adjustment and the much too low pH levels limited its application in practice. KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption at pH 2.0 was the best strategy prior to biological process, in balancing the objectives of decolorization, DOC removal, and BOD increase. The optimum ratio of KMnO(4) dosage to X-GRL concentration (R(KMnO(4)/X-GRL)) was determined to be 2.5, at which KMnO(4) oxidation and deltaMnO(2) adsorption contributed to the maximal DOC removal of 53.4%. Additionally, the optimum pH for X-GRL treatment was observed to be near 3.0. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the concentration of dye, mordant, type of water, soil and climate give variations in ... Grey scale and blue dyed silk were used for color fastness rating. ..... Down to Earth.

  17. Visual detection of the human metapneumovirus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a major cause of acute respiratory infections ranging from wheezing to bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children worldwide. The objective of this study is to develop a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of hMPV and applied to the clinical samples. Results In this study, visual RT-LAMP assay for hMPV was performed in one step with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB, and were used to detect respiratory samples. Six primers, including two outer primers (F3 and B3, two inner primers (FIP, BIP and two loop primers (LF and LB, were designed for hMPV N gene by the online software. Moreover, the RT-LAMP assay showed good specificity and no cross-reactivity was observed with human rhinovirus (HRV, human respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV, or influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately ten viral RNA copies, lower than that of traditional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR 100 RNA copies. In the 176 nasopharyngeal samples, 23 (13.1% were conformed as hMPV positive by RT-LAMP, but 18 (10.2% positive by RT-PCR. Conclusion Compared with conventional RT-PCR, the visual hMPV RT-LAMP assay performed well in the aspect of detect time, sensitivity, specificity and visibility. It is anticipated that the RT-LAMP will be used for clinical tests in hospital or field testing during outbreaks and in emergency.

  18. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Popovici, Jean; Estevez, Yannick; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Duplais, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triarylmethane dye (TRAM) Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC 50  ≤ 2 μM) and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC 50  ≤ 800 nM) against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8) and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206). In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142) is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC 50 ≃ 17 μM) whereas Patent Blue V (E131) is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142) by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131) could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF ZnO-AC COMPOSITE AND ITS USE IN REDUCING TEXTILE DYES CONCENTRATIONS OF METHYLENE BLUE AND CONGO RED BY PHOTODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Diantariani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai minimalisasi konsentrasi zat warna tekstil metilen biru (MB dan congo red (CR melalui fotodegradasi menggunakan komposit ZnO-Arang aktif (ZnO-AC. Penelitian meliputi sintesis seng oksida (ZnO dengan berbagai rasio pelarut (air:etanol, pembuatan komposit ZnO-AC, dan penerapan komposit untuk mengurangi konsentrasi MB dan CR dalam limbah buatan melalui proses fotodegradasi. Karakterisasi dari partikel ZnO hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Fotodegradasi zat warna tekstil MB dan CR dilakukan dengan memaparkan campuran zat warna dan komposit di bawah radiasi sinar ultraviolet. Intensitas warna sebelum dan sesudah fotodegradasi ditentukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer sinar tampak. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar rasio pelarut air:etanol yang digunakan dalam sintesis ZnO, semakin mudah, cepat dan semakin banyak jumlah ZnO yang terbentuk. Spektra FTIR dari ZnO hasil sintesis menunjukkan adanya gugus fungsi Zn-O, O-H, N-H, C-H, dan C-O. Semua puncak difraksi dari ZnO hasil sintesis yang pada 2 31,79-31,91, 34,45-34,57, dan 36,27-36,40 sesuai dengan ZnO Wurtzite fase heksagonal. Karakterisasi ZnO dengan SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel ZnO adalah bulat dan ukuran partikelnya berkisar 220,5 nm sampai 1222 nm. Bentuk partikel yang paling mendekati bulat dihasilkan oleh perlakuan sintesis dengan rasio pelarut etanol: air sebanyak 150 mL:150 mL. Persentase fotodegradasi dari MB dan CR dengan komposit ZnO-AC lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa komposit ZnO-AC, dengan persentase tertinggi diberikan oleh komposit yang terbuat dari ZnO yang disintesis dengan rasio pelarut air : etanol sebesar 150 mL:150 mL.   ABSTRACT: Research on minimization of textile dyes concentration of methylene blue (MB and congo red (CR through photodegradation using ZnO-Activated Carbon (ZnO-AC composite has been done

  20. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brianâ E.; Moon, Soo-Jin; Baranoff, Etienne; Nà ¼ esch, Frank; McGehee, Michaelâ D.; Grà ¤ tzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammadâ K.

    2009-01-01

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture

  1. Removal of blue 1 dye of aqueous solutions with a modified clay with iron chloride; Remocion de colorante azul 1 de soluciones acuosas con una arcilla modificada con cloruro de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    At the present time, several technologies have been proposed to remove dyes from water, adsorption is one of the most feasible methods and adsorbents with different properties, such as activated carbon, zeolites, clays and hydrogels among others. In this work, the sorption behavior of blue 1 dye by a natural clay from a site located in the Center-East of Mexico, and other modified with iron chloride were determined. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction to analyze its crystal structure, by scanning electron microscopy and elemental microanalysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to determine the composition and morphology, and the zero point charges were also determined to know the charge distribution on the surface of the clay. The ph effect, contact time, dye concentration and temperature were the parameters considered in this study. The results showed that clay does not suffer any important changes in its structure after the chemical treatments (modification with ferric chloride and contact with blue 1 solutions). The ph influences lightly the adsorption of the dye with natural clay, but the same effect is not observed in the ferric modified clay among the factor ph 6 and 8. The equilibrium time and the sorption capacity for natural clay were 48 hours and 6.16 mg/g, while for the ferric clay were 24 hours and 14.22 mg/g. Adsorption kinetics results were best adjusted to the pseudo first and pseudo second order models. Adsorption isotherms were best adjusted to the Langmuir model, indicating that both clays have a homogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters (E, {Delta}S and {Delta}G and {Delta}H) were calculated for the dye adsorption by the natural clay using data of the adsorption kinetics at temperatures between 20 and 50 C, indicating that the adsorption process is exothermic. For the case of ferric clay, it was not possible to calculate these thermodynamic parameters because the adsorption capacities were similar in the range of

  2. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid; Ana Maria Echavarria; Angelina Hormaza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9) using ower wastes (FW) as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D), dye concentration (C) and contact time (t), were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%), allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosag...

  3. Optimization of degration Basic blue 47 dye Without the use of oxidizing agents by ultrasound-electrochemical techniques and central composite design ( CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atefeh sadat rezaei tousi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intruoduction: One of the most important environmental pollutant is dye compounds. Accordingly, numerous methods have already been proposed for removing these pollutants from industrial waste especially the textile industry. One of the methods that has received a great deal of attention in recent years sono-electrochemical method. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in a batch laboratory scale. In this approach, using the Central Composite Design (CCD statistical method, the interactive effects of four important variables of pH, the dye solution concentration, decolorization time, and potential were analyzed and investigated. Results: Based on the conducted experiments and the results obtained in the absence of the hydrogen peroxide oxidant agent, the best conditions for decolorization in the optimal conditions of pH=9, dye concentration=303.3 μM, contact time of 93 min, and a potential of 0.81 V corresponding to the design by the software was 92.8% which was obtained experimentally as 92.34% . Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was mention according optimized conditions by the combination of ultrasound-electrochemical process 96%  in this study. Conclusion: CCD was used as an effective method to measuring the concurrent effect of some important variables on BB47 dye removal. Based on the gained model. Accordingly, the optimal conditions (pH=9, dye concentration of 303/3μM, contact time of 93 min, and a potential of 0/81 V were determined by the software. The predicted decolorization percentage by the model was 92/8%  in these conditions, where it was obtained as 92/34 % after the experimental test. The closeness of these responses are indicative of appropriacy of the model.

  4. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important ... Few chemically different dyes such as Reactive Black (75%), Reactive Yellow (70%),. Reactive Red (33%) and ..... Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin degrading ...

  5. Treatment of textile effluent containing indigo blue dye by a UASB reactor coupled with pottery clay adsorption - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.13091

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of a synthetic textile wastewater containing the blue indigo dye in a UASB (upflow anaerobic reactor, on a bench scale, followed by pottery clay adsorption. The system monitoring was verified by the following physical and chemical parameters: pH, alkalinity, volatile acids, COD and removal of color. The adsorption tests using pottery clay (construction debris as an alternative adsorbent material were performed on a jar test equipment. The results showed satisfactory effectiveness in removing color and organic matter (COD by the UASB, at the order of 69 and 81.2%, respectively. The color removal using ceramic clay as an alternative adsorbent material was 97% for the concentration of 200 g L-1 of adsorbent, evidencing that the use of pottery clay as adsorbent material had significant and promising results, and may be used as a post-treatment unit for removal of dyes present in textile effluents, and since construction debris currently represents a major environmental problem, its use in wastewater treatment may become an alternative to a proper destination of this waste.  

  6. Shape induced (spherical, sheets and rods) optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under ultra-violet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Kumar, Sachin; Kumar, Sumeet; Ojha, Animesh K., E-mail: animesh@mnnit.ac.in

    2016-09-15

    CdS nanostructures of different shapes such as, nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NS) and nanorods (NRs) have been synthesized by one step chemical solvothermal method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, UV–visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The effect of shape on optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures was studied. The optical band gap and emission spectra are found to be shape dependent. CdS NRs were found to have high saturation (Ms) magnetization than that of CdS NPs and NS. The role of shape on photocatalytic performance of CdS NPs, NS and NRs was investigated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under the UV irradiation of wavelength 365 nm. The lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs and larger surface area as reactive facets for adsorption of MB dye molecules in CdS NS are mainly lead to the better photocatalytic performance of CdS NS compared to NPs and NRs. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CdS nanostructures with different shapes (spherical, rod and sheet) by easy and low cost solvothermal method. • Shape induced optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanostructures have been investigated. • The shapes of nanostructures play an important role for photocatalytic performance of CdS nanostructures.

  7. Fast microwave-assisted green synthesis of xanthan gum grafted acrylic acid for enhanced methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhado, Edwin; Pandey, Sadanand; Nomngongo, Philiswa N; Ramontja, James

    2017-11-15

    In the present project, graft polymerization was employed to synthesis a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid (AA) and xanthan gum (XG) for cationic methylene dye (MB + ) removal from aqueous solution. The XG was rapidly grafted with acrylic acid (CH 2 =CHCOOH) under microwave heating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were used to verify the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. Optimum reaction conditions [AA (0.4M), APS (0.05M), XG (2gL -1 ), MW power (100%), MW time (80s)] offer maximum %G and %GE of 484 and 78.3, respectively. The removal ratio of adsorbent to MB + reached to 92.8% at 100mgL -1 . Equilibrium and kinetic adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic model respectively. The results demonstrate xanthan gum grafted polyacrylic acid (mw XG-g-PAA) absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  9. Acid Blue dyes in polypyrrole synthesis: the control of polymer morphology at nanoscale in the promotion of high conductivity and the reduction of cytotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Li, Yu; Acharya, Udit; Panthi, Yadu Ram; Pfleger, Jiří; Humpolíček, P.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 237, March (2018), s. 40-49 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Acid Blue * conducting polymer * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  10. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic degradation study of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation by Fe1-xBixVO4 solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ganesh; Reddy, V. R.; Mal, Priyanath; Das, Pradip; Turpu, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    The novel hetero-structures Fe1-xBixVO4 solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) with the two dissimilar end member of FeVO4 - BiVO4, were successfully synthesized by the standard solid state reaction method. The structural and chemical properties of as prepared photo-catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. It is confirmed from the results of XRD, Raman and FT-IR that FeVO4 and BiVO4 are in triclinic (space group P-1 (2)) and monoclinic (space group I2/b (15)) phases respectively. The Bi incorporation into Fe site of FeVO4 emerges as hetero-structures of both the end members of the solid solutions. In addition, the photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation was carried out through UV-visible spectroscopy measurement of photo-catalysts FeVO4, BiVO4 and mixed phases of both photo-catalyst. The results indicate that under visible light irradiation the photocatalytic activity of mixed phases were very effective and higher than the both single phases of the solid solutions. The composition x= 0.25 exhibits an excellent photocatalytic property for the degradation of MB solution under visible light irradiation rather than other.

  12. Decolorization of complex dyes and textile effluent by extracellular enzymes of Cyathus bulleri cultivated on agro-residues/domestic wastes and proposed pathway of degradation of Kiton blue A and reactive orange 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Arpita; Mishra, Saroj

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was cultivated on low-cost agro-residues, namely wheat bran (WB), wheat straw (WS), and domestic waste orange peel (OP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Of the three substrates, WB and OP served as good materials for the production of laccase with no requirement of additional carbon or nitrogen source. Specific laccase activity of 94.4 U mg -1 extracellular protein and 21.01 U mg -1 protein was obtained on WB and OP, respectively. Maximum decolorization rate of 13.6 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive black 5 and 22.68 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive orange 16 (RO) was obtained with the WB culture filtrate, and 11.7 μmol h -1  U -1 laccase for reactive violet 5 was observed with OP culture filtrate. Importantly, Kiton blue A (KB), reported not to be amenable to enzymatic degradation, was degraded by culture filtrate borne activities. Products of degradation of KB and RO were identified by mass spectrometry, and a pathway of degradation proposed. WB-grown culture filtrate decolorized and detoxified real and simulated textile effluents by about 40%. The study highlights the use of inexpensive materials for the production of enzymes effective on dyes and effluents.

  13. Biological effects of dyes on bacteria. VI. Mutation induction by acridine orange and methylene blue in the dark with special reference to Escherichia coli WP6 (polA1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, R.B.; Hass, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    Acridine orange (AO) and methylene blue (MB) in the dark were shown to be weak to moderate mutagens (induction of resistance to T5 phage) in repair-deficient strains of Escherichia coli B/r. However, strain WP2, (wild-type) was not mutated by AO in the dark, in confirmation of earlier data. The presence of 2 ..mu..M AO reduced by 41% the spontaneous mutation rate in strain WP2, from 4.1 to 2.4 mutants/10/sup 8/ cells/generation. In the polymerase I-deficient strain WP6 (polA1), 2 ..mu..M AO increased the mutation rate in the dark 14-fold. It is proposed that both spontaneous and AO-induced mutagenesis in the absence of light occur at the site of semiconservative DNA replication. If the intercalation mechanism for the effects in the absence of light is valid, the wild-type strain (WP2) may be resistant to frameshift mutagenesis induced by intercalated compounds, while the polymerase I-deficient strain (WP6) may be highly susceptible to the presence of an intercalated dye such as AO at the DNA-replication fork. MB and AO likely act through different mechanisms since MB is only a moderate mutagen in strain WP6 and the other repair-deficient strains tested.

  14. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  15. Radiolysis of anthraquinone dyes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskaya, N.A.; Bortun, L.N.; Ogurtsov, N.A.; Migdalovich, E.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volodko, V.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1986-01-01

    The commercial anthraquinone dyes (Dark Blue, Light Blue, Green) in aqueous solutions were shown to be decoloured and degrade under the action of ionizing radiation. The degree of decolouration and degradation of aromatic rings was found to increase in presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to play the key role in the degradation of the dyes under irradiation. The radiolysis intermediate products were studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. (author)

  16. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  17. Dye removal from textile wastewater using bioadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardazi, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Textile industries throughout the world produce huge quantities of dyes and pigments annually. Effluents from textile industries are dye wastewater, and disposal of these wastes to freshwater bodies causes damage to the environment. Among the treatment technologies, adsorption is an attractive and viable option, provided that the sorbent is inexpensive and readily available for use. In this study, a typical basic dye, methylene blue, in wastewater was treated using Melia azedarach sawdust. The effects of contact time, adsorbent amount and particle size were investigated on the removal efficiency of adsorbent for methylene blue. Complete removal of the dye were attained at higher adsorbent dose of 3 g/L with 50 mg/L initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption was at 240 minutes, whereas more than 90% removal with 105 meu m particle size of 1 g/L adsorbent for same initial dye concentration. The experimental data best fits with 2 Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R= 0.991). (author)

  18. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  19. Graphene Paper Doped with Chemically Compatible Prussian Blue Nanoparticles as Nanohybrid Electrocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Han, Shuang; Gan, Shiyu

    2013-01-01

    applications in detection of hydrogen peroxide or/and other organic peroxides. The as‐prepared PBNPs–RGO papers are further capable of biocompatible accommodation of enzymes for development of free‐standing enzyme based biosensors. In this regard, glucose oxidase is used as an example for electrocatalytic...... oxidation and detection of glucose. The present work demonstrates a facile and highly reproducible way to construct free‐standing and flexible graphene paper doped with electroactive catalyst. Thanks to high stability, low‐cost and efficient electrocatalytic characteristics, this kind of nanohybrid material...

  20. Prussian Blue Modified Graphene Enable Multifunctional Electrochemical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    Graphene based nanomaterials have been a hot topic since 2004. These materials have shownsome notable advantages, including large surface areas, high flexibility and reasonably good conductivityand mechanical strength, suitable for a wide range of electrochemical applications from sensors to ener...

  1. Prussian blue nanoparticles as a catalytic label in a sandwich nanozyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farka, Z.; Čunderlová, V.; Horáčková, V.; Pastucha, M.; Mikušová, Z.; Hlaváček, Antonín; Skládal, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2018), s. 2348-2354 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015043; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : catalytic nanoparticle * immunosorbent assays * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  2. Prussian blue nanoparticles as a catalytic label in a sandwich nanozyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farka, Z.; Čunderlová, V.; Horáčková, V.; Pastucha, M.; Mikušová, Z.; Hlaváček, Antonín; Skládal, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2018), s. 2348-2354 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015043; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : catalytic nanoparticle * immunosorbent assays * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  3. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  4. Simultaneous identification of historical pigments Prussian blue and indigo in paintings by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauk, V.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Papoušková, B.; Sulovský, P.; Lemr, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 8 (2013), s. 927-930 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/1150 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mass spectrometry * electrospray * historical painting Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.709, year: 2013

  5. Colour changes due to the fading of Prussian blue in Danish Golden Age paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Buti, David; Vila, Anna

    2016-01-01

    written sources already a few decades after its first appearance on the market. It is therefore doubtful whether this awareness or the scepticism voiced in the literature was to any extent shared by 19th-century users of the pigment, or whether Danish suppliers of the period were in general concerned...... with the exact nature of their product. The recent technical examination has caused an art historical reappraisal of some of the works from the era. In a broader sense, the research, combining scientific analysis, archival, and art historical studies has led to the realization that paintings of the Danish Golden...

  6. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Degradation of some Commercial Dyes in Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation Kinetic due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, (Reactive Blue Brilliant, Reactive Yellow and Basic Blue 9 Dye (Methylene Blue 2 B), was studied. Factors affecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and ph of the solutions were studied. The effects of different additives such as nitrogen oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the Reactive Yellow G. was very sensitive to gamma radiation. The effect of the ph of the dye solutions proved to very according type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional method showed that saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the degradation of the dyes. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5%) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide resulted in more radiation degradation, Also, adsorption of the dyes onto Ga and some ion exchangers showed that Ga has the highest adsorption capacity. Radiation degradation of the toxic dye pollutants and their removal from wastewater down to concentrations not exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (Mpc) according to international standards, proved to be better than conventional methods of purification alone

  8. Application of natural dyes in textile industry and the treatment of dye solutions using electrolytic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abouamer, Karima Massaud

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 25/02/2008. Anodic oxidation of a commercial dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions using an electrochemical cell is reported. Data are provided on the effects of eight different types of supporting electrolytes, concentration of electrolytes, initial dye concentration, current and electrolytic time on the percentage removal of methylene blue. Anodic oxidation was found to be effect...

  9. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY

  10. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  11. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  12. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  13. Morphological evolution of prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN){sub 6}] colloidal nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jianmin, E-mail: jmgu@ysu.edu.cn; Fu, Shaoyan; Jin, Cuihong; Liu, Xin; Gao, Yahui; Wu, Jingxiao; Bian, Zhenpan; Tian, Hua; Wang, Lin; Gao, Faming

    2016-07-15

    A simple hydrothermal system was developed for controllable morphologies of the Prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN){sub 6}] nanostructures in the presence of organic additives. Hollow and solid nanospheres of the Prussian yellow materials were successfully synthesized with suitable experimental conditions. It is found that the amounts of organic additives CTAB could result in the formation of the spherical nanocrystals and the hydrolysis of phosphate in the solution could play a role in the final morphology of the products. A possible formation mechanism of the Prussian yellow nanostructures is proposed. - Graphical abstract: A hydrothermal process was developed for controllable fabrication of the Prussian yellow hollow and solid nanospheres with the employment of different phosphate. The hydrolysis of phosphate in the solution could play a role in the morphology of the Prussian yellow nanomaterials. The acid phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) could result in the formation of the solid nanoparticles. The alkalescent phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) could result in the formation of the hollow nanoparticles. Display Omitted.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  15. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhisha Jassal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN6]3 (FeHCF, K2Cu3[Fe(CN6]2 (KCuHCF, K2Ni[Fe(CN6]·3H2O (KNiHCF, and K2Co[Fe(CN6] (KCoHCF have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG, Eriochrome Black T (EBT, Methyl Orange (MO, and Methylene Blue (MB. Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71% followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%, KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%.

  16. Estudo experimental de linfonodo sentinela na mama da cadela com azul patente e Tecnécio Tc99m Experimental study of the sentinel lymph node in the dog breast using blue dye and technetium Tc99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa do Linfonodo Sentinela (LS tem se mostrado efetiva na avaliação axilar nas portadoras de neoplasia mamária. O LS negativo torna desnecessário o esvaziamento axilar. OBJETIVO: Identificar o LS da região subareolar da mama em cadelas utilizando corante azul patente (AP, Tecnécio Tc99m ou a associação de ambas as técnicas e compará-las quanto à sensibilidade na detecção do linfonodo sentinela. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas dezessete cães fêmeas. Um total de 55 mamas foram analisadas. Utilizou-se AP (2,5%/0,5 ml e/ou Tc99m (1,0 mC/0,8ml para identificação do LS. A aplicação do Tc99m era realizada duas horas antes da realização do experimento. O AP era injetado na região subareolar da mama. Localizado o LS, realizava-se sua exérese. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 linfonodos em que se utilizou AP, pôde-se verificar que 40 estavam corados (90,90%. Dos 48 linfonodos em que se utilizou Tc99m, 47 linfonodos estavam radioativos (97,91% (p=0.18; k= - 0.067. Nas 37 mamas em que se associou AP ao Tc99m, apesar de 02 linfonodos não estarem corados, todos estavam radioativos (AP vs AP+Tc: p=0.12; k=0.083; Tc vs AP+Tc: p=1.0; k=0.018. CONCLUSÃO: O Tc99m e o corante azul patente, isolados ou associados, prestam-se à identificação do LS da mama do animal.The sentinel lymph node research (SLN has been effective in the evaluation of nodal status in patients with breast cancer. A negative SLN makes an axillary lymphadenectomy unnecessary. PURPOSE: To identify the SLN of the subareolar region in female dog breasts using blue dye (BD, Technetium (Tc99m or the association of both techniques and to compare their sensibility in the detection of the SLN. METHODS: Seventeen female dogs were studied. 55 breasts were analyzed. DB and/or Tc99m were used for the identification of SLN. Tc99m was introduced two hours before the experiment. BD was introduced some minutes before the procedure. Once the SLN was localized its dissection was performed. RESULTS

  17. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  18. Amazonian açai and food dyes for staining arbuscular- micorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourdes Martins Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae microscopy requires differential staining of typical structures. Dyes employed, such as trypan blue, pose risks to health and environment. Alternative dyes such as pen ink and aniline have variable coloring efficiency. In this work, Brachiaria decumbens roots, discolored with caustic soda (NaOH, were stained with açai, annatto, saffron, trypan blue and pen inks. There were significant differences among dyes regarding stained mycorrhizal structures and pictures quality. Acai was considered the best alternative dye, with similar results to trypan blue.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing assessment of novel acid azo dyes and mordent acid azo dyes based on 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIRUBHAI J. DESAI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid mono azo and mordent acid mono azo dyes were synthesised by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre-treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pre-treated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  1. Use of heavy Trypan blue in macular hole surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnik Oberstein, S. Y.; de Smet, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Intraocular dyes facilitate the identification of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) during surgery. Appropriate dyes should be safe, provide adequate staining, and be easy to use. Heavy Trypan blue eliminates the need for an air-fluid exchange (AFX) and appears to have little retinal

  2. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  3. Pulse radiolysis of anthraquinone dye aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Gebicki, J.L.; Lubis, R.; Mayer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of argon flushed aqueous solutions of 10 -5 -10 -4 mol dm -3 anthraquinone dye (C.I. Acid Blue 62) gives rise to the transients originated from the reactions of e - aq , OH and H. The rate constants of these reactions are determined. (author)

  4. Box-Behnken design for optimizing the acid blue dye adsorption on flower wastes Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Jaramillo Madrid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identified the best conditions for the removal of Acid Blue 9 dye (AB9 using ower wastes (FW as an adsorbent were determined using a full factorial 23 and a Box-Behnken design for further optimization. Adsorbent dose (D, dye concentration (C and contact time (t, were the assessed variables. The dye content was quantied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The statistical model presented an adequate adjustment coecient (R2 = 99,18%, allowing to achieve a removal of 98,5% with a dosage of 7,8 gL-1, dye concentration of 7,11 mgL-1 and contact time of 104 min. These results suggest that owers wastes are an alternative and potential adsorbent material for the treatment of dissolved acid dyes. En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9 a través de un diseño factorial completo 23 y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box-Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D, concentración de colorante (C y tiempo de contacto (t. El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó un adecuado coeficiente de ajuste (R2 = 99,18 %, permitiendo alcanzar una remoción del 98,5% con una dosificación de 7,8 gL-1, concentración de colorante de 11,7 mgL-1 y tiempo de contacto de 104 min. Estos resultados sugieren que los residuos de flores constituyen un material adsorbente alternativo y potencial para el tratamiento de colorantes ácidos disueltos.

  5. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2} system for use in heterogeneous photocatalysis in photodegradation of methylene blue dye; Sintese e caracterizacao do sistema CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2} para aplicacao em fotocatalise heterogenea na fotodegradacao do corante azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragatto, Julia

    2016-07-01

    This study has as its goal the synthesis of a mixed oxide system type CeO{sub 2} - TiO{sub 2}, through the polymeric precursor method, to be used in heterogeneous photocatalysis. The synthesized materials were characterized by Thermogravimetry (TG), Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of the thermal analysis showed in what temperature ranges certain events occur such as the formation of cerium oxide between 600 and 800 ° C, which refers to the crystallization of the material. Regarding the formation of titanium oxide, events between 600 and 800 ° C are perceived, which suggests the transformation of anatase to rutile phase. The XRD analysis showed no occurrence of the same phase for all materials, meaning that there is a variation in the formation of phases according to concentration of precursor for each sample. Noteworthy are the formation of CeO{sub 2} for Ce75-Ti25 and Ce50-Ti50 concentrations, with cubic crystal structure of the fluorite type. In Ce75-Ti25 and Ce25-Ti75 it is present the TiO{sub 2} in the anatase and rutile phase, with crystal structure of the tetragonal and tetrahedron type, respectively, as well as the formation of CeTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} in Ce50-Ti50 and Ce25-Ti75, with structure monoclinic. From these analyses, it is possible to see which samples, and in which temperatures of calcination the material has increased crystallinity, making the choice for their application in heterogeneous photocatalysis, aiming the degradation of methylene blue dye. Among the tested materials for methylene blue, the sample that stood out was the Ce50-Ti50, with calcination temperature of 800 °C, with values close to 50% degradation, because it was the sample that showed higher dye adsorption capacity, which is the step that precedes photodegradation. (author)

  8. Chitosan/Fe spheres on the blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light; Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradacao do corante azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kely V. de; Zamora, Patricio G.P.; Zawadzki, Sonia F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], E-mail: zawadzki@quimica.ufpr.br

    2010-07-15

    The contamination of water resources is one of the greatest environmental problems today. Among the polluting sources are the textile industries due to the production of large volumes of effluent, often treated inefficiently. The main reason for the environmental impact of the rejected materials is the presence of dyes such as azo reactive compounds that can generate by-products with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. They may also include anthraquinone type compounds, which are highly resistant to degradation and persist in the effluent for a long time. The purpose of this study is the use of photo-Fenton processes assisted by artificial or solar light, using immobilized iron on chitosan beads, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, for the anthraquinone type compound Blue QR-19 standard dye degradation in aqueous solutions. The obtained spheres showed a regular size and 4.0 mm diameter. The results showed 90% discoloration of the system within 180 minutes and a 60% total organic carbon (TOC)reduction for the photo-Fenton system using artificial light. For the system using sunlight, the total discoloration was achieved in 120 minutes and the TOC value decreased 70%. Also observed was that iron remained in the polymeric matrix after the treatment, thus allowing reuse. (author)

  9. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were...

  10. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  11. The Prussian and American General Staffs: An Analysis of Cross-Cultural Imitation, Innovation, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-30

    Weimar period, but the Prussian general staff would never again control the military destinies of the German people. Before its defeat and dissolution...Publishers (New York: International Publishers, 1925), p. 4. 90. Norman Stone, The Eastern Front 1914-1917 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975), p. 61...Lieutenant (later Brigadier General) Arthur L. Wagner was assigned to the school as an instructor in the Department of Military Art. Wagner , a 1875

  12. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t 1/2 =86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t 1 /2 ≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t 1 /2 =86days) than Spirulina (t 1 /2 =70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t 1 /2 =15days) than Spirulina gels (t 1 /2 =4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  14. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  15. Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethylphenylamino-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2, blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyloxyphenylaminoanthraquinone (6 and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethylaminoanthraquinone (12, as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-ylaminoanthraquinone (15 were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants.

  16. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  17. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  18. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  19. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  20. Synthesis of functional polypyrrole/prussian blue and polypyrrole/Ag composite microtubes by using a reactive template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiaomiao; Sun Zhengzong; Hou Wenhua; Zhu Junjie [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-05-16

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/PB and PPy/Ag composite microtubes were synthesized in one pot by using methyl orange (MO) as a reactive self-degraded template. In contrast to reported conventional template approaches, the MO template did not need to be removed after polymerization. The formation mechanism, structural characteristics, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the obtained PPy/PB and PPy/Ag microtubes are reported.

  1. Synthesis of functional polypyrrole/prussian blue and polypyrrole/Ag composite microtubes by using a reactive template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiaomiao; Sun Zhengzong; Hou Wenhua; Zhu Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/PB and PPy/Ag composite microtubes were synthesized in one pot by using methyl orange (MO) as a reactive self-degraded template. In contrast to reported conventional template approaches, the MO template did not need to be removed after polymerization. The formation mechanism, structural characteristics, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the obtained PPy/PB and PPy/Ag microtubes are reported

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available good electrochemical stability in the analytical solution, showing limit of detection in the micromolar range and catalytic rate constant of 3.71×106 and 7.56×106 cm3 mol-1 s-1 for DEAET and hydrazine respectively. The adsorption properties...

  3. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  4. Sequential growth in solution of NiFe Prussian blue coordination network nano-layers on Si(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricard, Simon; Costa-Coquelard, Claire; Volatron, Florence; Fleury, Benoit; Huc, Vincent; Mallah, Talal; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; David, Christophe; Miserque, Frederic; Jegou, Pascale; Palacin, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the elaboration of Coordination Networks (CoNet) on surfaces at the nano-scale remains a challenge. One suitable technique is the Sequential Growth in Solution (SGS), which has the advantage to be simple, cheap and fast. We addressed two issues in this article: i) the controlled synthesis of ultra thin films of CoNet (thickness lower than 10 nm), and ii) the investigation of the influence of the precursors' concentration on the growth process. Si(100) was used because it is possible to prepare atomically flat Si-H surfaces, which is necessary for the growth of ultrathin films. We used, as a model system, the sequential reactions of K 4 [Fe(II)(CN) 6 ] and [Ni(II)(H 2 O) 6 ]Cl 2 that occur by the substitution of the water molecules in the coordination sphere of Ni(II) by the nitrogen atoms of ferrocyanide. We demonstrated that the nature of the deposited film depends mainly on the relative concentration of the anchoring sites versus the precursors' solution. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transformed Infra Red (ATR-FTIR), X-ray reflectivity, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the steps of the growth process. (authors)

  5. Electrochemical studies of Pu on prussian blue (PB)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj K.; Ambolikar, Arvind S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2011-01-01

    In electrochemical processes, electron transfer across the solid-liquid interface is the elementary step and electron transfer kinetics is significantly influenced by the interfacial properties. Therefore, preparation of well-defined electrochemical interface with highly controllable properties - larger effective surface area, increased mass transport, and better electronic interaction between the analyte and electrode - is significant for both fundamental and applied studies in electrochemistry. In the present work electrochemistry of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) is studied on multilayered AuNPs-PB-AuNPs functionalized electrode

  6. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A.H.; Gourich, B.; Dassaa, A.; Chenik, H.; Azzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm -2 and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E dye ) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg dye was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg dye for disperse and 50 kWh/kg dye for the mixture.

  7. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, Wafaa [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Essadki, A.H., E-mail: essadki@est-uh2c.ac.ma [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Gourich, B. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Dassaa, A. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Chenik, H. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Laboratoire Genie des Procedes et Environnement, B.P. 8012, Oasis, Casablanca (Morocco); Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Azzi, M. [Faculte des sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et chimie de l' environnement, B.P. 5366, Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm{sup -2} and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E{sub dye}) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg{sub dye} was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg{sub dye} for disperse and 50 kWh/kg{sub dye} for the mixture.

  8. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  9. Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process...

  10. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud; Joseph Y. Farah; Taha E. Farrag

    2013-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liqui...

  11. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  12. An organic white light-emitting dye: very small molecular architecture displays panchromatic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Heagy, Michael D

    2010-11-14

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a new white-light fluorophore is described. The optimization of excitation wavelengths allows the naphthalimide (NI) dyes to display blue, green or white light emission depending on the excitation wavelength.

  13. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca 2+ entry and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ]i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca 2+ entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated [Ca 2+ ]i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of 45 Ca 2+ into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes

  14. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  16. Contact dermatitis in tie and dye industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, N K; Mathur, A; Banerjee, K

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the Tie and Dye industry of Jodhpur City in India was made to investigate occupational dermatoses. 49 (16.6%) of 250 workers had incapacitating dermatitis. Skin lesions were seen mostly over the dorsa of the hands and fingers. 26 patients were patch tested with various dyes and chemicals; 14 were positive. Fast Red RC salt was the most potent sensitizer. Other dyes showing positive reactions were Orange GC salt, Bordeaux GP salt, Blue B salt, Red B base and naphthol.

  17. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  18. Effect of adsorbed/intercalated anionic dyes into the mechanical properties of PVA: layered zinc hydroxide nitrate nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Rafael; Mikowski, Alexandre; Wypych, Fernando

    2010-11-15

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) was adsorbed with anions of blue dyes (Chicago sky blue, CSB; Evans blue, EB; and Niagara blue, NB) and intercalated with anions of orange dyes (Orange G, OG; Orange II, OII; methyl orange, MO). Transparent, homogeneous and colored nanocomposite films were obtained by casting after dispersing the pigments (dye-intercalated/adsorbed into LHSs) into commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The films were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. The mechanical properties of the PVA compounded with the dye-intercalated/adsorbed ZHN were evaluated, and reasonable increases in Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength were observed, depending on the amount and choice of layered filler. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a new class of layered hydroxide salts intercalated and adsorbed with anionic dyes to prepare multifunctional polymer nanocomposite materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scientific principles, and the interaction between the dye and the dyed material is ... Dyes are classified based on their structure, source, method of application .... the right source that gives not only beautiful tones, but colourfast shades as well.

  20. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  1. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  2. Homogenous and heterogenous advanced oxidation of two commercial reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, I A; Arslan, I; Sacan, M T

    2001-07-01

    Two commercial reactive dyes, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 and the copper phythalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 21, have been treated at a concentration of 75 mg l(-1) by titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic (TiO2/UV), dark and UV-light assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2) processes in acidic medium. For the treatment of Reactive Black 5, all investigated advanced oxidation processes were quite effective in terms of colour, COD as well as TOC removal. Moreover, the relative growth inhibition of the azo dye towards the marine algae Dunaliella tertiolecta that was initially 70%, did not exhibit an increase during the studied advanced oxidation reactions and complete detoxification at the end of the treatment period could be achieved for all investigated treatment processes. However, for Reactive Blue 21, abatement in COD and UV-VIS absorbance values was mainly due to the adsorption of the dye on the photocatalyst surface and/or the coagulative effect of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions. Although only a limited fraction of the copper phythalocyanine dye underwent oxidative degradation, 47% of the total copper in the dye was already released after 1 h photocatalytic treatment.

  3. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivtsaev, A A; Razov, V I

    2015-01-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established. (paper)

  4. The study of synthetic food dyes by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivtsaev, A. A.; Razov, V. I.

    2015-06-01

    By method of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), substances are food dyes were studied: E-102 (Tartrazine), E-124 (Ponso 4R), E 132 (Indigo carmine), E-133 (Brilliant Blue), E-151 (Black Shiny). They are examined for the presence of carcinogenic properties. The difference between dyes having explicit carcinogenic properties and mutagenic properties (non-explicit carcinogens) is established.

  5. Removal of dyes using immobilized titanium dioxide illuminated by fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hui, Lee Kong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ramli, Irmawati

    2005-01-01

    The photodegradation of various dyes in aqueous solution was studied. Experiments were carried out using glass coated titanium dioxide thin film as photocatalyst. Photodegradation processes of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), indigo carmine (IC), chicago sky blue 6B (CSB), and mixed dye (MD, mixture of the four mentioned single dye) were reported. As each photodegradation system is pH dependent, the photodegradation experiment was carried out in each dye photodegradation reactive pH range at ∼28 deg C. The dyes removal efficiency was studied and compared using UV-vis spectrophotometer analysis. The total removal of each dye was: methylene blue (90.3%), methyl orange (98.5%), indigo carmine (92.4%), chicago sky blue 6B (60.3%), and mixed dyes (70.1%), respectively. The characteristic of the photocatalyst was investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The amount of each dye intermediate produced in the photodegradation process was also determined with the help of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis

  6. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  7. Heavy trypan blue staining of epiretinal membranes: an alternative to infracyanine green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco; Tan, Stevie H.; de Smet, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: By using dyes, it is easier to identify the extent of an epiretinal membrane (ERM) or the inner limiting membrane (ILM) during surgery. Trypan blue (TB) stains ERM and ILM weakly, but with less apparent toxicity than other intraocular dyes. Its main drawback in vitreoretinal surgery is

  8. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  9. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  10. Experimental Study of Dye Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Technologies of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fadhil Abid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration?=?65 mg/L, feed temperature?=?39?C and pressure?=?8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  11. DECOLORISATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SYNTHETIC DYES BY Lentinus polychrous Lév. CULTIVATED ON CASSAVA RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirachaya Boonyarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava rhizomes are left in fields after harvesting. This agricultural waste is rich in lignocellulosic material which is a substrate for white rot fungi. Disposal of synthetic dyes poses a problem to the environment and it needs to be addressed. The ability of Lentinus polychrous Lév., a white rot fungus, grown on the cassava rhizome chips, to decolorise three kinds of synthetic dye was studied. The effects of the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome used for fungal cultivation, the temperature during the decolorisation, and the pH of synthetic dye solution on the extent of decolorisation were investigated. The decolorisations of Reactive blue 49, Navy blue and Acid blue 62 were affected by the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome. The highest extents of decolorisation of these dyestuffs were observed when the fungus was cultivated at 70% initial moisture content. Temperatures of 30, 37 and 45oC did not alter the extent of decolorisation of the dyestuffs. The most extensive decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62 (anthraquinone dyes were at pH 3.0 while that of Navy blue (azo dye was at pH 7.0. Adsorption was the main mechanism of decolorisation of Navy blue. However, both enzymic degradation and adsorption were involved in the decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62.

  12. Analytical procedures for the determination of disperse azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betowski, L.D.; Jones, T.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (USA)); Munslow, W.; Nunn, N.J. (Lockheed Engineering and Management Services Co., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Disperse Blue 79 is the most widely-used azo dye in the US. Its economic importance for the dye industry and textile industry is very great. Because of its use and potential for degradation to aromatic amines, this compound has been chosen for testing by the Interagency Testing Committee. The authors laboratory has been developing methods for the analytical determination of Disperse Blue 79 and any possible degradation products in wastewater. This work has been taking place in conjunction with the study of the fate of azo dyes in the wastewater treatment processes by the Water Engineering Research Laboratory of the US EPA in Cincinnati. There were various phases for this analytical development. The first step involved purifying the commercial material or presscake to obtain a standard for quantitative determination. A combination of HPLC, TLC and mass spectrometric methods was used to determine purity after extraction and column cleanup. Phase two involved the extraction of the dye from the matrices involved. The third phase was the actual testing of Disperse Blue 79 in the waste activated sludge system and anaerobic digester. Recovery of the dye and any degradation products at each sampling point (e.g., secondary effluent, waste activated sludge) was the goal of this phase.

  13. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  15. Uptake of Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Biosorption Using Granulized Annona squmosa Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. A sample of granulized Annona squmosa seeds had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB, methylene red (MR and malachite green (MG. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., contact time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Above the value of initial pH 5, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir model in the case of MB sorption and the Freundlich model for all three dyes sorption. The biosorption processes followed the pseudo first order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that granulized Annona squmosa seed was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.

  16. Decolourization of Direct Blue 2 by peroxidases obtained from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, an increase in toxicity, determined by Vibrio fisheri, was observed after the enzymatic oxidation of the dye. Results suggest that the oxidation of DB2 with peroxidases can be recommended as a pretreatment step before a conventional treatment process. Keywords: decolourization, Direct Blue 2, industrial waste, ...

  17. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  18. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue-R dye by Hypochlorite and Role of Acid there in. Srinivasu Nadupalli, Venkata D.B.C. Dasireddy, Neil A. Koorbanally and Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda*. School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private.

  20. Use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for screening blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... 4Ukiriguru Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 1433 Mwanza, Tanzania. Received 25 May ... blue disease in Tanzania may potentially be due to the .... using Hoechst dye and the quality of the DNA samples was checked ...

  1. Effect Of Metal Ions On Triphenylmethane Dye Decolorization By Laccase From Trametes Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmelová Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Laccase activity was inhibited by monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Ag+ but the presence of divalent ions increased laccase activity at the concentration of 10 mmol/l. The effect of metal ions on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes with different structures namely Bromochlorophenol Blue, Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Blue and Phenol Red was tested. The presence of metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ slightly decreased triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from T. versicolor except Na+ and Mg2+, which caused the increase of decolorization for all tested dyes. Decolorization of selected dyes showed that the presence of low-molecular-weight compounds is necessary for effective decolorization. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT is the most frequently used. Although HBT belongs to most frequently used redox mediator and generally increase decolorization efficiency, so its presence decreased decolorization percentage of Bromophenol Blue and Bromochlorophenol Blue, the influence of metal ions to dye decolorization by laccase has the similar course with or without presence of redox mediator HBT.

  2. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  3. Color removal from acid and reactive dye solutions by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/adsorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebia, S; Kacha, S; Bouberka, Z; Bouyakoub, A Z; Derriche, Z

    2009-04-01

    In this study, electrocoagulation of Marine Blue Erionyl MR (acid dye) and electrocoagulation followed by adsorption of Brilliant Blue Levafix E-BRA (reactive dye) from aqueous solutions were investigated, using aluminum electrodes and granular activated carbon (GAC). In the electrocoagulation and adsorption of dyestuff solutions, the effects of current density, loading charge, pH, conductivity, stirring velocity, contact time, and GAC concentration were examined. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as loading charges 7.46 and 1.49 F/m3, for a maximum abatement of 200 mg/L reactive and acid dye, respectively. The residual reactive dye concentration was completely removed with 700 mg/L GAC. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of a combined process to remove significant concentrations of recalcitrant dyes from water, using moderate activated carbon energy and aluminum consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment.

  4. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  5. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Steinbacher, Frank [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient red, green and blue phosphorescent emitter materials high efficient white OLEDs can be achieved. However, due to low stability of blue phosphorescent materials the lifetime of phosphorescent white OLEDs remains an issue. As a result, degradation of blue phosphorescent materials needs to be further investigated and improved. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated. For investigation of degradation process the devices were stressed with electrical current and UV-light to study the impact of charge carriers as well as excitons and exciton-polaron quenching on the stability of the blue dye.

  6. [Anaphylactic shock due to patent blue: four case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, N; Interne, S Benay; Laine, P; Nicolie, B; Fondrinier, E

    2010-04-01

    Description of four cases of anaphylactic shock with blue dye injection (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) during sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer. Women with breast carcinoma and combined approach with radioactive tracer and blue patent injection. Four cases were observed, which means an incidence of 0.57%. We report one case of grade II anaphylactic reaction and three cases of grade III requiring active reanimation and adrenaline perfusion. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism during the postoperative period, but no death was observed. We find an incidence of 1.06% of allergy but only 0.25% of anaphylactic shock (grade III). These rare but serious cases must weigh up the benefits and risks of using blue dye. We suggest using blue dye injection only in case of radioisotope detection failure. Of course, this approach must be evaluated. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  8. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  9. for aqueous dye lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  10. Removal of some basic dyes by poly (Vinyl Alcohol/ acrylic acid)Hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, S.A.; Abdel-AAl, S.E.; Abdel-Rehim, H.A.; Khalifa, N.A.; El-Hosseiny, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    A study has made on the preparation and properties of poly (vinyl alcohol/ acrylic acid) hydrogel for the purpose of removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of dose and monomer concentration on the uptake property of the hydrogel toward dye was studied. The uptake of basic methylene blue-9 dye with PVA/AAc was studied by the batch adsorption technique. The effect of pH on the dye uptake was demonstrated to find out that the suitable pH for maximum uptake occurred at pH 5. It was observed that as the concentration of dye is increased the dye uptake decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of dye by hydrogels increased as the temperature was elevated. The recovery of dye adsorbed is possible by treating the hydrogel with 5% HCl. The results obtained suggested this hydrogel possessed good removal properties towards basic methylene blue-9 dye, and this suggests that such hydrogels could be acceptable for practical uses

  11. Reutilização de efluente de tingimentos de fibras acrílicas pós-tratamento fotoeletroquímico Reuse of a effluent from the dyeing of acrylic fabrics after photoelectrochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE between 1.86 and 0.3.

  12. Esferas de quitosana/Fe na degradação do corante Azul QR-19 por processos foto-Fenton utilizando luz artificial ou solar Chitosan/Fe spheres on the Blue QR-19 dye degradation by photo Fenton processes using artificial or solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely V. de Souza

    2010-09-01

    long time. The purpose of this study is the use of photo-Fenton processes assisted by artificial or solar light, using immobilized iron on chitosan beads, crosslinked with glutaraldheyde, for the antraquinone type compound Blue QR-19 standard dye degradation in aqueous solutions. The obtained spheres showed a regular size and 4.0 mm diameter. The results showed 90% discolouration of the system within 180 minutes and a 60% total organic carbon (TOC reduction for the photo-Fenton system using artificial light. For the system using sunlight, the total discolouration was achieved in 120 minutes and the TOC value decreased 70%. Also observed was that iron remained in the polymeric matrix after the treatment, thus allowing reuse.

  13. In liquid laser treated graphene oxide for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paola, E-mail: rsspla1@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); D’Urso, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Hu, Anming [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 57996-2210 (United States); Zhou, Norman [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Compagnini, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide were tested as adsorbents for dye removal from water. • Reduced graphene oxide was obtained after laser irradiation of a colloidal suspension of graphene oxide. • Methylene blue was chosen as the dye to test graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: The presence of dyes, pharmaceuticals and many other pollutants in wastewaters is critical due to severe effects on the human beings and on the environment. Here, solutions of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were tested as adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB), a cationic dye, from aqueous media. The reduced forms of graphene oxide were obtained after laser irradiation of colloidal suspensions of graphene oxide, obtained by the Hummers and Offeman's method. We observed that both graphene oxide and its reduced forms are excellent adsorbents towards methylene blue. In particular, rGO showed a higher adsorption capacity than GO, suggesting that a strict control of laser irradiation time permits to obtain rGO with different degrees of reduction and therefore the residual oxygenated functional groups may influence the adsorption behaviour more or less. Characterization of the samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that produced rGO sheets via laser irradiation exhibited a discontinuous surface where some holes could be detected contributing to an enhancement of the rGO surface area that is a higher adsorption capacity.

  14. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sludge (AS, capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  15. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-10-28

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N , N -dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N , N -dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes.

  16. Kinetics of Low Temperature Polyester Dyeing with High Molecular Weight Disperse Dyes by Solvent Microemulsion and AgroSourced Auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Radei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100 °C. Moreover, the dyeing rate constants, correlation coefficient and activation energies were proposed for this system. It was found that o-vanillin yielded higher dye absorption levels than coumarin, leading to exhaustions of 88% and 87% for Disperse Red 167 and Disperse Blue 79, respectively. K/S values of dyed polyester were also found to be higher for dye baths containing o-vanillin with respect to the ones with coumarin. In terms of hot pressing fastness and wash fastness, generally no adverse influence on fastness properties was reported, while o-vanillin showed slightly better results compared to coumarin.

  17. MUTAGENICITY EVALUATION OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCT CI DISPERSE BLUE 291 USING DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF THE SALMONELLA ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textile dyes can enter the water ecosystem through wastewater discharges potentially exposing humans through the consumption of water and food. The commercial disperse dye product C.I. Disperse Blue 291 containing the aminoazobenzene 2-[(2-bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5(diethylam...

  18. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  19. Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process, the plasma-treated fabrics absorb 24.7% more dye, and the K/S value of the acrylic fabric increases by 8.8%. With selected dyestuff molecules, new techniques can be designed to amplify the knowledge about plasma-treated surface modifications of macromolecules.

  20. Chitosan-edible oil based materials as upgraded adsorbents for textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Clayane Carvalho; Mouta, Rodolpho; Junior, Manoel Carvalho Castro; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu; Silva, Hildo Antonio Dos Santos; Bezerra, Cícero Wellington Brito

    2018-01-15

    Biopolymer chitosan is a low cost, abundant, environmentally friendly, very selective and efficient anionic dyes adsorbent, being a promising material for large-scale removal of dyes from wastewater. However, raw chitosan (CS) is an ineffective cationic dyes adsorbent and its performance is pH sensitive, thus, CS modifications that address these issues need to be developed. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two new CS modifications using edible oils (soybean oil or babassu oil), and their adsorption performance for two dyes, one anionic (remazol red, RR) and one cationic (methylene blue, MB). Both modifications extended the pH range of RR adsorption. The babassu oil modification increased adsorption capacity of the cationic dye MB, whereas the soybean oil modification increased that of RR. Such improvements demonstrate the potential of these two new CS modifications as adsorbent candidates for controlling dyes pollution in effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P. [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-03-15

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r{sub 0}) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R{sub 0}) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  2. Interaction of anthraquinone dyes with lysozyme: Evidences from spectroscopic and docking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramaguru, G.; Kathiravan, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Venuvanalingam, P.; Renganathan, R.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between lysozyme and anthraquinone dyes such as Alizarin Red S, Acid blue 129 and Uniblue was studied using steady state, time resolved fluorescence measurements and docking studies. Addition of anthraquinone dyes effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme. Fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by dyes has revealed the formation of complex. The number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K) for all the three dyes was calculated by relevant fluorescence quenching data. Based on Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, distance (r 0 ) between the donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (dyes) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R 0 ) has also been calculated. The interaction between dyes and lysozyme occurs through static quenching mechanism as confirmed by time resolved spectroscopy. The conformational change of lysozyme has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence measurement. Finally, docking studies revealed that specific interactions were observed with the residue of Trp 62.

  3. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  4. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE IN NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caram, J.A.; Suárez, J.F. Martínez; Gennaro, A.M.; Mirífico, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The dye is electro-reduced in two separated monoelectronic charge transfers. • Solvent/supporting electrolyte/acid/base modifies the electrochemical parameters. • A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in non-aqueous solvent is proposed. • The electro-generated and stable dye-radical is also chemically produced in EDA or KOH/DMF. • A new species is reversibly formed in KOH/EtOH or ACN. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of methylene blue in solution of non-aqueous solvents with different supporting electrolytes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Dye electro-reduction presents two well-defined processes of monoelectronic charge transfer yielding a free radical in the first process and an anion in the second electron transfer. Free radical and anion are long living species in some of the studied media. Effects of supporting electrolyte and solvent on the peak potentials, the peak current functions and the reversibility of the charge transfer processes are reported. A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in solution of non-aqueous solvents and the acid or base added determine markedly the electrochemical responses. In the particular cases of KOH/DMF or EDA basic media the chemical formation of the stable methylene blue radical was detected and it was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. A general reaction scheme is proposed

  6. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  7. Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Ahmed El; Abdelwahab, Ola; El-Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2009-01-15

    The use of low-cost, easy obtained, high efficiency and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from orange peel for the removal of direct blue-86 (DB-86) (Direct Fast Turquoise Blue GL) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was determined as approximately 2.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 30min after the beginning for every experiment. The adsorption of direct blue-86 followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and fit well Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equations better than Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson equations. The maximum removal of direct blue-86 was obtained at pH 2 as 92% for adsorbent dose of 6gL(-1) and 100mgL(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was 33.78mgg(-1). Furthermore, adsorption kinetics of DB-86 was studied and the rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2>0.99) with intraparticle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Activated carbon developed from orange peel can be attractive options for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater show better removal percentage of DB-86.

  8. Efficient fluorescent red, green, and blue organic light-emitting devices with a blue host of spirobifluorene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.-H. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lerongho@yuntech.edu.tw; Huang, Y.-W.; Wang, Y.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.-Y. [EChem Hightech CO., LTD, Hsin-Chu Industrial Park, Hu-Kou, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-02

    Efficient fluorescent blue, green, and red (RGB) organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated using a blue host material of pyrimidine-containing spirobifluorene derivative 2,7-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrimidine-5-yl]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (TBPSF) doped with blue dye perylene, green dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H, 11H-benzo[l] pyrano[6,7,8-ij] quinolizin-11-one (C545T), and red dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB), respectively. The brightness and current efficiency of the perylene doped blue device reached 10117 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.97 cd/A. Green emission of the C545T doped device reached 8500 cd/m{sup 2} and 13.0 cd/A. Red emission of the DCJTB doped device can be as high as 9000 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.0 cd/A, respectively. High color purity of the blue (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates (CIE, x = 0.27, y = 0.24)), green (CIE, x = 0.19, y = 0.63) and red (CIE, x = 0.62, y = 0.37) emissions were achieved for RGB dyes doped TBPSF OLEDs. High brightness, large current efficiency, and good color purity of TBPSF-based RGB OLEDs were obtained by the configuration optimization device, such as inserting the hole and electron-injection materials, and suitable dopant content and light emitting layer thickness.

  9. Photophysical properties, photodegradation characteristics, and lasing action for coumarin dye C540A in polymeric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Guilford, II; Huang, Zhennian; Pacheco, Dennis P., Jr.; Russell, Jeffrey A.

    2004-07-01

    Tunable solid-state dye lasers operating in the blue-green spectral region are attractive for a variety of applications. An important consideration in assessing the viability of this technology is the service life of the gain medium, which is presently limited by dye photodegradation. In this study, solid polymeric samples consisting of the coumarin dye C540A in modified PMMA were subjected to controlled photodegradation tests. The excitation laser was a flashlamp-pumped dye laser operating at 440 nm with a pulse duration of 1 μs. A complementary set of data was obtained for dye in solution phase for comparison purposes. Photophysical properties of C540A in water solution of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) have been investigated with a view to assess the suitability of the sequestering polymer (PMAA) as an effective additive to facilitate use of a water medium for highly efficient blue-green dye lasers. Lasing action of C540A in aqueous PMAA has been realized using flashlamp-pumped laser system, yielding excellent laser efficiencies superior to that achieved in ethanolic solutions with the same dye. Laser characterization of dye in media included measurement of laser threshold, slope efficiency, pulse duration and output wavelength.

  10. Bioaccumulation versus adsorption of reactive dye by immobilized growing Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.-E.; Hu Yongyou

    2008-01-01

    The removal of reactive brilliant blue KN-R using growing Aspergillus fumigatus (abbr. A. fumigatus) immobilized on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) beads with respect to initial dye concentration was investigated. Bioaccumulation was the dominant mechanism of the dye removal. According to the UV-vis spectra and the results of three sets of experiments, it could be concluded that the bioaccumulation using immobilized growing A. fumigatus beads was achieved by metabolism-dependent accumulation and metabolism-independent adsorption (15-23% proportion of overall dye removal), which included biosorption by mycelia entrapped in them and adsorption on immobilization matrix. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed the intracellular structures of mycelia and the toxicity of dye. It was found that the fungus had a considerable tolerance to reactive brilliant blue KN-R at initial dye concentrations of <114.7 mg/l. Though at high initial dye concentrations the growth of mycelia was inhibited significantly by the dye molecules in the growth medium, the bioaccumulation capacity was not markedly affected and the maximum bioaccumulation capacity was 190.5 ± 2.0 mg/g at an initial dye concentration of 374.4 mg/l. The bioaccumulation rates were not constant over the contact time

  11. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  12. [A Prussian in Venice: the botanist Melchior Wieland (1520-1589), pioneer in botanical field research in the Levant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The Italian physician and botanist Prospero Alpini (1553-1617) is considered as one of the most famous 16th Century Italian botanists having explored the plant species of Egypt and the Near East. Alpinis best-known works as for example De medicina Egyptiorum (Venetijs 1591) or De plantis Aegypti liber (Venetijs 1592), however, wouldn't certainly have been made possible without the influence of his academic teacher, the Prussian physician and botanist Melchior Wieland (ca. 1520-1589), having been applied director of the botanical garden of Padua in 1561. This study is therefore dedicated to the life, academic career, works and reception of this nearly forgotten botanist.

  13. Bio-degradation of synthetic textile dyes by thermophilic lignolytic fungal isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sahni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are extensively used in different industries like textile dyeing, paper, printing, color, photography, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. These are generally toxic and carcinogenic in nature. If not treated, they will remain in nature for a long period of time as they are recalcitrant. Among these, azo dyes represent the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes. Approximately 10-15% of the dyes are released into the environment during manufacture and usage. Various methods are used for dye removal viz. physical, chemical, electrochemical and biological. Advantage of chemical, electrochemical and biological methods over physical involves the complete destruction of the dye, but chemical and electrochemical methods are found to be expensive and have operational problems. So the biological method is preferred over other methods for degradation/decolorization of dyes. In the present study, thermophilic lignolytic fungal culture was isolated from compost/soil/digested slurry/plant debris, were subjected for acclimatization to Remazol Brilliant Blue (RBB at 0.05% concentration, in the malt extract broth (MEB. The most promising fungal isolates were used for further dye degradation studies. The results suggest that the isolates T10, T14 and T17 as a useful tool for degradation of reactive dyes.

  14. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photosensitized Oxidation of 9,10-Dimethylanthracene on Dye-Doped Silica Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elim Albiter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB, safranin O (SF, toluidine blue (TB, and neutral red (NR, were successfully incorporated into a silica matrix by using ultrasound irradiation during the Stöber process. Several analyses were performed, including scanning dynamic light scattering (DLS, electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen physisorption, FTIR spectroscopy, UV-vis, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The entrapped dyes on silica were evaluated in singlet oxygen (1O2 generation under visible light irradiation, by means of the photosensitized oxidation of 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA. According to the results, the photocatalytic performance of the silica composites was improved, and the leakage of the dye from the particles was suppressed. Among these four different types of dye-doped silica composites, the SiO2-SF composite showed the most efficient delivery of 1O2.

  16. Adsorption of a textile dye from aqueous solutions by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando M.; Bergmann, Carlos P., E-mail: fernando.machado@hotmail.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais; Lima, Eder C.; Adebayo, Matthew A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fagan, Solange B. [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2014-08-15

    Multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes were used as adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Blue 4 textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of pH, agitation time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region, the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium isotherms at 298-323 K was fixed at 4 hours for both adsorbents. For Reactive Blue 4 dye, Liu isotherm model gave the best fit for the equilibrium data. The maximum sorption capacity for adsorption of the dye occurred at 323 K, attaining values of 502.5 and 567.7 mg g{sup -1} for MWCNT and SWCNT, respectively. (author)

  17. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Dib

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Novas gerações de corantes incluem: azul tripan, azul patente, acetato de triancinolona, infracianina verde, fluoresceína sódica, azul de bromofenol, acetato de fluorometolona e azul brilhante. Novos instrumentos podem permitir um corar seletivo de estruturas durante a vitrectomia. Este artigo mostra que o campo da cromovitrectomia está em plena expansão de pesquisas. Os corantes de primeira linha são a indocianina verde, infracianina verde e o azul brilhante. Azul patente, azul de bromofenol e azul tripan surgem como novos adjuvantes para melhor observação da membrana epirretiniana. Demais corantes que surgiram merecem maior investigação.The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, "chromovitrectomy", as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal

  18. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  19. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L⁻¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L⁻¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L⁻¹ AC₀). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC₀), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H₂), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na₂S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena.

  20. Biosorption of C.I. Direct Blue 199 from aqueous solution by nonviable Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xiaojing, E-mail: xiongxj@xmu.edu.cn [Environmental Science Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Meng Xuejiao [Environmental Science Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng Tianling [Environmental Science Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Coast and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The capacity and mechanism with which nonviable Aspergillus niger removed the textile dye, C.I. Direct Blue 199, from aqueous solution was investigated using different parameters, such as initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. In batch experiments, the biosorption capacity increased with decrease in pH, and the maximum dye uptake capacity of the biosorbent was 29.96 mg g{sup -1} at 400 mg L{sup -1} dye concentration and 45 deg. C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of C.I. Direct Blue 199 onto the fungal biomass. Biosorption followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (r{sup 2} > 0.99). Thermodynamic studies revealed that the biosorption process was successful, spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  1. Biosorption of C.I. Direct Blue 199 from aqueous solution by nonviable Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Xiaojing; Meng Xuejiao; Zheng Tianling

    2010-01-01

    The capacity and mechanism with which nonviable Aspergillus niger removed the textile dye, C.I. Direct Blue 199, from aqueous solution was investigated using different parameters, such as initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. In batch experiments, the biosorption capacity increased with decrease in pH, and the maximum dye uptake capacity of the biosorbent was 29.96 mg g -1 at 400 mg L -1 dye concentration and 45 deg. C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of C.I. Direct Blue 199 onto the fungal biomass. Biosorption followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (r 2 > 0.99). Thermodynamic studies revealed that the biosorption process was successful, spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  2. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  3. Dermatoscopy of blue vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, L

    2009-07-01

    Blue vitiligo is a distinct variant of vitiligo characterized by a blue-grey appearance of the skin, which corresponds histologically with absence of epidermal melanocytes and presence of numerous dermal melanophages. A 23-year-old woman of Indian origin with Fitzpatrick skin type V presented with a 1-month history of normoaesthetic depigmented macules over the right forearm, dorsa of the hands and right areola. The macule over the right forearm had a bluish tinge. A clinical diagnosis of vitiligo vulgaris with blue vitiligo was made. Dermatoscopy of the interface between the blue macule and the hypopigmented macule revealed a linear depigmented macule in the centre with multiple blue dots and absence of epidermal melanin on the side of the blue macule, and reticular pigmentation with a few depigmented macules and scattered blue dots over the side of the hypopigmented macule. Blue vitiligo was described previously in a patient seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus, and believed to represent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in areas bordering the vitiliginous patches as a result of psoralen ultraviolet A treatment. This case is unusual because of its rarity and the description of the associated dermatoscopical findings.

  4. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  5. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  6. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Goncalves, Maraisa; Oliveira, Diana Q.L.; Guerreiro, Mario C.; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Dallago, Rogerio M.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g -1 ) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g -1 ), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials

  7. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: luizoliveira@ufla.br; Goncalves, Maraisa [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Diana Q.L. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guerreiro, Mario C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Quimica, Caixa Postal 37, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Guilherme, Luiz R.G. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Depto. de Ciencia do solo, CEP 37200.000, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Dallago, Rogerio M. [URI-Campus Erechim, Av. 7 Setembro 1621, Centro, CEP 99700-000, Depto de Quimica, Erechim-RS (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80 mg g{sup -1}) and textile dye reactive red (163 mg g{sup -1}), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  8. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  9. The role of natural indigo dye in alleviation of genotoxicity of sodium dithionite as a reducing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, İdris; Karaman, Şengül; Dıraz, Emel; Çelik, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Indigo blue is a natural dye used for thousands of years by civilizations to dye fabric blue and it is naturally obtained from Isatis tinctoria. I. tinctoria is not only used for extraction of indigo blue color but also used medicinally in Traditional Chinese Medicine because of its active compounds. Sodium dithionite (Na 2 S 2 O 4 ) is used in dye bath for indigo blue extraction, but this reducing agent and its derivatives are major pollutants of textile industry and subsequently have hazardous influences on public health. Herein, the present study was designed to obtain the high yield of natural indigo dye but with low possible toxic effect. In this context, genotoxic effects of particular combinations of natural dye solutions obtained from Isatis tinctoria subsp. tomentolla with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as reducing agent were investigated. Dye solutions were obtained using two different pH levels (pH 9 and 11) and three different concentrations of Na 2 S 2 O 4 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml). In addition to the dye solutions and reducing agent, aqueous extracts of I. tinctoria were assessed for their genotoxicity on human lymphocytes. For in vitro testing of genotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and mitotic indexes (MI) assays were used. Accordingly, Na 2 S 2 O 4 caused significant increases in CA and SCE as well decrease in MI but the genotoxic effects of sodium dithionite were reduced with natural indigo dye. As a result, aqueous extracts of Isatis leaves removed the toxic effects of sodium dithionite and showed anti-genotoxic effect. For the optimal and desired quality but with less toxic effects of natural dye, 2.5 mg/ml (for wool yarn) and 5 mg/ml (for cotton yarn) of Na 2 S 2 O 4 doses were found to be the best doses for reduction in the dye bath at Ph 9.

  10. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  11. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Ratiometric Alcohol Sensor based on a Polymeric Nile Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sterilizable ratiometric fluorescent ethanol sensor with sensitivity over a wide range (0-100% of ethanol concentration v/v. The sensor is composed of a near infra red fluorescent solvatochromic dye, nile blue methacrylamide polymerized into a polyethylene (glycol dimethacrylate matrix. The dye can typically exhibit two or more wavelength dependent shifts in the fluorescence intensities based on its different micropolar environments. Two different concentrations of the nile blue methacrylamide dye were prepared and polymerized into homogenous films. The fluorescence properties of the two different films were investigated with a view to determining their ethanol sensing capabilities. The sensor was immersed in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. Excitation of the dye was performed at 470 nm. The range of emission wavelengths was 480-800 nm. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at 620 nm and 554 nm was obtained for ethanol concentrations varying from 0-100% and the calibration curve of the ratiometric fluorescence intensities over the entire concentration range of ethanol was plotted. A ratiometric intensity change of over 33% has been obtained for pure ethanol compared to that obtained for pure water. The sensor response was rapid (≤10 minutes. The sterilizable ethanol sensor exhibits good potential for on-line monitoring of the ethanol generated in an LB fermentation chamber.

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Synthesis and antitumor evaluation of thiophene based azo dyes incorporating pyrazolone moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A. Gouda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of thiophene incorporating pyrazolone moieties 5a–f and 6a–c were synthesized via diazo coupling of diazonium salt of 3-substituted-2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophenes 1a–c with 3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one or 3-amino-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one, respectively. Newly synthesized dyes were applied to polyester fabric as disperse dyes in which their color measurements and fastness properties were evaluated. These dyes showed generally red to blue shifted color with high extinction coefficient in comparison with aniline-based azo dyes. The antitumor activity of the synthesized dyes was evaluated. The results showed clearly that most of them exhibited good activity and compounds 5c and 5d exhibited moderate activity.

  15. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  16. Degradation and toxicity depletion of RB19 anthraquinone dye in water by ozone-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, María E; Fiasconaro, María L; Martín, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) anthraquinone dye by single ozonation, single UV radiation and ozonation jointed with UV radiation (O 3 /UV). The problem was approached from two points of view: with the objective of color removal or the mineralization of solution. In each case, the optimum operating conditions were different. Ozonation was the most effective treatment for color removal, while the combined O 3 /UV treatment was for mineralization. Major intermediates of the dye degradation were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a degradation pathway was proposed. In addition, a clear decrease of the toxicity of the dye was achieved at the end of the experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, ozone dose, and UV radiation on the degradation of the dye and decrease of total organic carbon was investigated, in order to establish the optimal operating conditions to achieve discoloration, mineralization or a combination of both.

  17. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  18. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  19. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  20. Simultaneous identification of synthetic and natural dyes in different food samples by UPLC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Mathiyalagan, Siva; Dalavai, Ramesh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2017-11-01

    Fast foods and variety food items are populating among the food lovers. To improve the appearance of the food product in surviving gigantic competitive environment synthetic or natural food dyes are added to food items and beverages. Although regulatory bodies permit addition of natural colorants due to its safe and nontoxic nature in food, synthetic dyes are stringently controlled in all food products due to their toxicity by regulatory bodies. Artificial colors are need certification from the regulatory bodies for human consumption. To analyze food dyes in different food samples many analytical techniques are available like high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), spectroscopic and gas chromatographic methods. However all these reported methods analyzed only synthetic dyes or natural dyes. Not a single method has analyzed both synthetic and natural dyes in a single run. In this study a robust ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous identification of 6 synthetic dyes (Tartrazine, Indigo carmine, Briliant blue, Fast green, malachite green, sunset yellow) and one natural dye (Na-Cu-Chlorophyllin) was developed using acquitic UPLC system equipped with Mass detector and acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm, 100Å). All the dyes were separated and their masses were determined through fragments’ masses analyses.

  1. Electrochemical treatment of trypan blue synthetic wastewater and its degradation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trypan blue (TB dye synthetic wastewater was treated in presence of chloride ions by electrochemical method. The effect of current density, pH, initial concentration of dye and supporting electrolyte on color and COD removal were investigated. The UV-Vis ab­sorption intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis were conducted to investigate the kinetics and degradation pathway of TB dye.

  2. Decolorization of different textile dyes by Penicillium simplicissimum and toxicity evaluation after fungal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of decolorization and detoxification of the textile dyes Reactive Red 198 (RR198, Reactive Blue 214 (RB214, Reactive Blue 21 (RB21 and the mixture of the three dyes (MXD by Penicillium simplicissimum INCQS 40211. The dye RB21, a phthalocyanine, was totally decolorized in 2 days, and the others, the monoazo RR198, the diazo RB214 and MXD were decolorized after 7 days by P. simplicissimum. Initially the dye decolorization involved dye adsorption by the biomass followed by degradation. The acute toxicity after fungal treatment was monitored with the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex and measured through Effective Concentration 50% (EC50. P. simplicissimum reduced efficiently the toxicity of RB21 from moderately acutely toxic to minor acutely toxic and it also reduced the toxicity of RB214 and MXD, which remained minor acutely toxic. Nevertheless, the fungus increased the toxicity of RR198 despite of the reduction of MXD toxicity, which included this dye. Thus, P. simplicissimum INCQS 40211 was efficient to decolorize different textile dyes and the mixture of them with a significant reduction of their toxicity. In addition this investigation also demonstrated the need of toxicological assays associated to decolorization experiments.

  3. Radiation degradation-adsorption treatment of some toxic dyes present in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kelesh, N.A.; Dessouki, A.M.; Amer, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    The radiolysis or three toxic dyes, viz. Reactive Yellow 3, Reactive Black 39, and Basic Blue 26, was investigated as a function of the dye concentration, pH, irradiation dose and dose rate. The radiolytic degradation was more pronounced with Reactive yellow 3 and Reactive Black 39 than with Basic Blue 26. The degree of degradation could be increased by combining the irradiation procedure with the conventional treatment, such as addition of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; addition of nitrogen, on the other hand, resulted in no change. A pH drop was observed and tentatively attributed to the degradation of the dye molecules to lower molecular weight compounds such as organic acids. The primary radiolysis products as well as the secondary products are responsible for the degradation of the dye chromophore. Experiments with the adsorption or exchange of the dyes on GAC, some ion exchange resins and polymeric membranes were carried out to find that the polymeric membranes have the highest adsorption capacity for the pollutants except the basic dye. The combined treatment by irradiation and adsorption resulted in a complete removal of the toxic dyes in question

  4. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  5. Column operation studies for the removal of dyes and phenols using a low cost adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V. K.; Suhas; Tyagi, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fertilizer plant waste carbon slurry has been investigated after some processing used as efficient adsorbent for the fast removal and rapid adsorption of dyes and phenols using columns. The results reveals that the adsorbent developed from carbon slurry is carbonaceous in nature and having appreciable surface area (380 m2/g) can remove dyes both cationic (meldola blue, methylene blue, chrysoidine G, crystal violet) as well as anionic (ethyl orange, metanil yellow, acid blue 113), and phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) fruitfully from water. The column type continuous flow operations were used to obtain the breakthrough curves. The breakthrough capacity, exhaustion capacity and degree of column utilization were optimized and evaluated from the plots. The results obtained revealed that the degree of column utilization for dyes falls in range from 60 to 76% while for phenols was in the range 53-58%. The exhaustion capacities were quite high as compared to the breakthrough capacities and were found to be 217, 211, 104, 126, 233, 248, 267 mg/g for meldola blue, crystal violet, chrysoidine G, methylene blue, ethyl orange, metanil yellow, acid blue 113, respectively and 25.6, 72.2, 82.2 and 197.3 mg/g for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4- chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively.

  6. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  8. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  9. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  11. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  12. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  13. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  14. A Review on Adsorption of Cationic Dyes using Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corda Nikita Chrishel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article efficiency of activated carbon as a potent adsorbent of cationic dyes has been reviewed. Non-biodegradable nature of pollutants and their removal in the present generation is a great challenge. Therefore, extensive study on adsorption of these classes of pollutants from water bodies is being carried out. Methylene blue (majorly a dye seen in the effluent streams of textile, printing, paper industries along with some of the commonly used cationic dyes in process industries and their sorption on activated carbon are reviewed here. High cost of commercially activated carbon which is a limitation to its extensive use have paved way for study of adsorption by naturally obtained and extracted activated carbon from agricultural wastes and various other sources. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the available information on the removal of cationic dyes using naturally extracted and commercially obtained activated carbon. Various parameters such as temperature, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, particle size, stirring, agitation etc. were studied and the optimum parameters were determined based on the experimental outcomes. Equilibrium data was examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich and few other isotherm models. Kinetic studies also have been carried out to find the most suitable way of expressing the adsorption process.

  15. An overview of nanomaterials applied for removing dyes from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengqing; Sun, Youmin; Liu, Wen; Pan, Fei; Sun, Peizhe; Fu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Organic dyes are one of the most commonly discharged pollutants in wastewaters; however, many conventional treatment methods cannot treat them effectively. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed rapid development of nanotechnologies, which offered new opportunities for developing innovative methods to treat dye-contaminated wastewater with low price and high efficiency. The large surface area, modified surface properties, unique electron conduction properties, etc. offer nanomaterials with excellent performances in dye-contaminated wastewater treatment. For examples, the agar-modified monometallic/bimetallic nanoparticles have the maximum methylene blue adsorption capacity of 875.0 mg/g, which are several times higher than conventional adsorbents. Among various nanomaterials, the carbonaceous nanomaterials, nano-sized TiO 2 , and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) are considered as the most promising nanomaterials for removing dyes from water phase. However, some challenges, such as high cost and poor separation performance, still limit their engineering application. This article reviewed the recent advances in the nanomaterials used for dye removal via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, and biological treatment. The modification methods for improving the effectiveness of nanomaterials are highlighted. Finally, the current knowledge gaps of developing nanomaterials on the environmental application were discussed, and the possible further research direction is proposed.

  16. Electronic spectral study of interaction of electron donor – acceptor dyes in the ground and excited state with a metal ion. Effect of molecular structure of the dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardar, Sanjib Kr; Mandal, Prasun K.; Bagchi, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of manganese (II) ion with electron donor (D)–acceptor (A) dyes having symmetric D–A–D configuration of chromophores (ketocyanine dye) and the corresponding parent merocyanines (D–A configuration) in acetonitrile has been compared by monitoring the electronic absorption, and steady state and time resolved fluorescence characteristics of the dyes. Absorption spectral studies point to the formation of a 1:1 metal ion–dye (S 0 -state) complex. Equilibrium constant (K 0 ) and other thermodynamic parameters for complex formation have been determined for all the systems. Symmetric ketocyanine dyes (D–A–D) form stronger complex than the corresponding dye with D–A configuration. Quenching of fluorescence is caused due to complex formation with the cation. However, for very low concentration of salts, where complex formation is insignificant, an enhancement of fluorescence intensity takes place due to addition of salt. The absorption band of the dye undergoes a slight blue shift in the same concentration range of the metal ion. Fluorescence life time of the excited state also increases with an increase in salt concentration in that concentration range. Results have been explained in terms of formation of a weak association complex where one or more cations replace equivalent solvent molecules in the cybotatic region around the dye. The binding constant of the association complex involving cation and the dye (S 1 -state) has been determined. While the value of the binding constant is higher for a symmetric D–A–D dye relative to that for the corresponding dye with D–A configuration, the extent of fluorescence enhancement for the latter is larger. Values of decay constant for the different photophysical processes have been calculated. Formation of association complex in the S 1 -state is characterised by a slower nonradiative decay of S 1 -state of the dyes. -- Highlights: • A ketocyanine dye forms 1:1 complex with metal ions. • Slight

  17. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  18. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  19. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  20. Balance of power in Waltz's neorealist theory, after the Franco-Prussian War and the unification of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Voicu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neorealist theory developed by Kenneth Waltz is one of the most important theories of international relations. The most significant predictions of his theory is that the balancing behavior is a systemic product, which will occur regularly in international relations whether the states want it or not. This papers aims to bring a critical perspective on the concept of balancing as it is developed by Waltz. Therefore, the prediction made by Waltz will be tested against the international system developed at the end of the nineteenth century, particularly after the Franco-Prussian War. Finally, it will be concluded that the parsimony that is characterizing Waltz’s theory is inaccurate because it makes it on one hand irrefutable and on the other hand, it makes it inconsistent.

  1. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  2. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  3. Electron Microscopic Changes of Rabbit Retina after Chromovitrectomy Using Combined Dyes (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Aznabaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate on experimental model electron-microscopic changes of rabbit retina after staining of the posterior eye segmentwith combined dyes based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue G for the assessment of their safety. Methods. The study was performed onChinchilla breed rabbits. Combined dyes based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue were used: MembraneBlue-Dual (DORC, Netherlandsand “Staining solution for ophthalmic surgery” (JCS “Optimedservis”, Russia. Standard three-port vitrectomy technique was used. After vitreous removal dyes were injected in vitreous cavity and exposed for 10 seconds and then removed. The vitreous cavity was filled by a balanced salt solution. An electron-microscopic evaluation was performed on 5, 14 and 30 days after surgery. Eyes were enucleated in 20 minutes after animal was killed by air embolization. Intact eyes were used as a control, all samples were prepared in same сonditions. The damage of the retina architectonics and the presence of intracellular inclusions were evaluated. Results. The staged character of pathomorphological changes was revealed. On the 5th day moderate edema and hydropic dystrophy of neurons were registered. On the 14th day, there was no negative dynamics. On day 30, the signs of edema and dystrophy of neurons practically disappeared, which may indicate a fundamental reversibility of the registered changes. Conclusion. Investigated dyes for staining intraocular structures based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue did not cause significant histomorphological changes and toxic effects on retinal cell structures. Detected electron microscopic changes were insignificant, had reversible character and could be mostly caused by a surgical injury.

  4. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  5. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  6. [Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes.

  7. Biodegradation of Textile Dyes by Fungi Isolated from North Indian Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshi Shahid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study one azo dye "Congo red", two triphenymethane dyes "Crystal violet" and "Methylene blue" have been selected for biodegradation using three soil fungal isolates A. niger, F. oxysporum and T. lignorum. These fungal strains were isolated from field soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25°C. The experiment was conducted for 10 days and the results were periodically observed. Aspergillus niger decolorized maximum Congo red (74.07% followed by Crystal violet (33.82% and Methylene blue (22.44% under liquid medium (stationary condition. Whereas, under same conditions, T. lignorum decolorized maximum crystal violet (92.7%, Methylene blue (48.3% and Congo red (35.25%. Use of T. lignorum as dye bio degrader or decolorizer has been done first time in this study. Fusarium oxysporum performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary and overlay method. It can be concluded that among soil fungus T. lignorum could be used as efficient dye decolorizer especially for crystal violet and A. niger for Congo red. The excellent performance of T. lignorum and F. oxysporum in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination similar to white rot fungi.

  8. Remediation of azo dyes by using household used black tea as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study used black tea and its impregnates were used as an adsorbents for the removal of textile dyes such as methylene blue and malachite green. The impregnation technique was adopted for the preparation of metal impregnates. The present study shows that used black tea and its impregnate exhibit ...

  9. Effect of chitosan on resist printing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... levels may cause the dyes to form a partial covalent bond with chitosan, thereby diminishing the resist-printing effect. In such a case, the resist printing would not be linear as a function of chitosan concentration. Red 184 exhibited the highest resist-printing effect, followed by. Blue 204 and Yellow 143.

  10. A Novel Nanohybrid Nanofibrous Adsorbent for Water Purification from Dye Pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Zillohu, Ahnaf; Abdelaziz, Ramzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated surface area for adsorption...

  11. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Suxiang [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Cai, Lejuan, E-mail: 494169965@qq.com [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry (China); Li, Dapeng, E-mail: lidapengabc@126.com; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi [Xuchang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  12. Identification of sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar carcinoma patients with the aid of a patent blue V injection: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, A. C.; Sie-Go, D. M.; van der Velden, J.; Sijmons, E. A.; de Barros Lopes, A.; Monaghan, J. M.; Kenter, G. G.; Murdoch, J. B.; ten Kate, F. J.; Heintz, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the feasibility and negative predictive value of sentinel lymph node detection with blue dye in vulvar carcinoma patients. METHODS: In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva without suspicious groin lymph nodes, patent blue

  13. Anterior capsular staining with trypan blue for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Kulin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of 0.1% Trypan Blue dye to stain the anterior capsule for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. Methods: This preliminary study included 25 eyes of 25 patients with a unilateral mature or hypermature cataract, including one case of traumatic mature cataract. In all these cases 0.2ml of 0.1% trypan blue dye was used to stain the anterior capsule. The efficacy and safety of the dye was evaluated on the basis of intraoperative and postoperative observations. Results: In all 25 eyes the capsulorhexis was completed. There was peripheral extension of the capsulorhexis in the eye with traumatic cataract and the stained edge of the anterior capsule helped identification and redirection of the capsulorhexis. Successful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. Adverse reactions related to the dye such as raised intraocular pressure, anterior chamber inflammation and endothelial damage were not observed in the immediate postoperative period or at the end of mean follow-up of 3 months. Conclusion: Trypan blue dye staining of the anterior capsule appears to be a very useful and safe technique that simplifies capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts.

  14. Magnetic field assisted Fenton reactions for the enhanced degradation of methyl blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Long Hao; Lu Yi Zou; Guang Sheng Zhang; Yi Bo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field was tentatively introduced into Fenton reactions system for the degradation and discoloration of methyl blue as the represent of organic chemical dye, which was a bio-refractory organic pollutant in industry wastewater. It was found that under optimal Fenton reaction conditions, with the assistant of magnetic field in Fenton reactions, the degradation rate of methyl blue, the decomposition rate of H2O2 and the conversion rate of Fe2+ were accelerated, the extent of them would be improved by the increase of magnetic field intensity. Meanwhile, the mineralization of methyl blue (CODcr) was improved by over 10% with magnetic fiold.

  15. Pengaruh konsentrasi pigmen indigo pada pewarnaan (dyeing dan pengulangan warna (topping pada kulit bludru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Paste indigo pigment having blue colour was produced from fermentation of indigofera tinctoria leaves and twigs. Having was very popular dye and was used especially in textile industries and leather industries of fur. The aim of the study was to the optimum concentration of indigo pigmen on dyeing of suede leather. The materials used in study were crust suede leather, indigo pigmen, wetting agent, soda ash, ammonia, formic acid sulfonated oil, and redactors such as palm sugar. The dying of leather using indigo pigmen was principally similar with common dyeing and pH of indigo is 11.5, however pH on several steps must adjusted. Variation of the concentration of in dyeing was 0.5, 1, and 1.5% respectively. Performance test were of conducted for dye penetration, colour rub fastness (dry, wet, sweat resistant, and sun light resistant for 6, 13, and 20 hours respectively. The results showed that the optimum concentration of pigmen indigo was 9% dyeing and 1 % for topping with level dye, indicated appropriate penetration dye into the cross-section leather, no fading was performed by dry colour fastness test (score 4/5 and wet colour fastness test (score 4, good sweat resistant (score 5, no colour fading on the exposure to sun light for 20 hours (score 4.

  16. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xia Siqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: siqingxia@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier [Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery.

  17. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Xia Siqing; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery

  18. Trypan blue to assess Baerveldt tube patency after repair of its obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, John; Jang, John D W; Fung, Adrian T; Hunyor, Alex P; Wilson, Trevor

    2011-12-01

    Tubal obstruction is a recognized complication of glaucoma drainage implants. In correcting a blocked tube, the surgeon may be uncertain about shunt competence even after removing the suspected cause of obstruction. We report the use of trypan blue dye to show tubal patency directly after the repair of a blocked Baerveldt tube.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  20. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  1. Removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions using nano scale zero valent iron (NZVI) as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. S.; Ahmad, A.; Bangash, F. K.; Shah, S. S.; Khan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nano scale zero valent iron (NZVI) was synthesized and tested for the purification of waste water contaminated by the organic pollutants. In the present study removal of basic blue 3 dye was investigated by NZVI adsorbent. NZVI adsorbent was prepared in the presence of N/sub 2/ gas atmosphere by sodium boro- hydrate (NaHB/sub 4/) reduction method. The particle size of the prepared adsorbent was approximately in the range of 1 x 10/sup -2/nm to 2 x 10/sup -2/nm. The adsorption of basic blue 3 dyes was confirmed with various parameters such as ionic strength, contact time and initial dye concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a batch mode technique. The surface morphology was studied by SEM analysis technique. (author)

  2. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  3. Natural adsorbents of dyes from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meryem; El Hajjaji, souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of natural waters is a current environmental problem and lot of work has been done to find methods for its, prevention and remediation such as ionic exchange, adsorption on active carbon, filtration, electrolysis, biodegradation …etc. Adsorption is one of the most applied methods according to its effectiveness and easy management. Some adsorbents with good properties such as active alumina, zeolites, crop residues … etc, are suitable to substitute usual active carbon. This study aimed at the removal of dyes using oil shale as natural support, and its optimization by factorial experiment. Three factors were considered namly:pollutant concentration, pH and weight of the adsorbent. Tests have been performed with cationic and anionic dyes. Experimental results show that pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data for the adsorption by the oil shale. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were tested to fit experimental data, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by Freundlich isotherm for methylorange and Temkin for methyl blue. Analysis were completed by oil shale characterization educing XRD, IR, XRF techniques, and cationic exchange capacity.

  4. Decolorization and biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by bilirubin oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youxun; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2009-12-01

    The dye-decolorizing potential of bilirubin oxidase (BOX) was demonstrated for an anthraquinone dye, remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR). The dye was decolorized 40% within 4 h by the BOX alone, whereas it was more efficient in the presence of 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), showing 91.5% decolorization within 25 min. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization were examined. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency decreased with increasing RBBR concentration, and a marked inhibition effect was exhibited when the dye concentrations were above 100 mg l(-1). The optimum temperature for enzymatic decolorization was 40 degrees C. BOX showed efficient decolorization of the dye with a wide pH range of 5-8.5. The maximum decolorization activity occurred at pH 8 with ABTS and at pH 5 without ABTS. Analysis of RBBR ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) spectra after BOX treatment indicated that the decolorization of RBBR was due to biodegradation. Our results suggested that ABTS can serve as an electron mediator to facilitate the oxidation of RBBR, and the BOX-ABTS mediator-involved dye decolorization mechanism was similar to that of laccase. Operation over a wide range of pH and efficient decolorization suggested that the BOX can be used to decolorize synthetic dyes from effluents, especially for anthraquinonic dyes.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer of graphene/Prussian blue toward simultaneous electrochemical and SPR detection of H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A new type of chemically converted graphene sheets, cationic polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid decorated graphene sheets (PFIL–GS) composite, was synthesized and characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption, Fourier transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found th...

  6. Electrocatalytic properties of prussian blue nanoparticles supported on poly(m-aminobenzenesulphonic acid)-functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes towards the detection of dopamine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available with increasing PB layers. The catalytic rate constant of 1.69 × 105 mol-1 cm3 s-1, Tafel value of 112 mV dec-1, and limit of detection of DA (2.8 nM) were obtained. Dopamine could be simultaneously detected with ascorbic acid. The electrode was found...

  7. From ultraviolet to Prussian blue: a spectral response for the cyanotype process and a safe educational activity to explain UV exposure for all ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J; Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Lynch, M

    2014-12-01

    Engaging students and the public in understanding UV radiation and its effects is achievable using the real time experiment that incorporates blueprint paper, an "educational toy" that is a safe and easy demonstration of the cyanotype chemical process. The cyanotype process works through the presence of UV radiation. The blueprint paper was investigated to be used as not only engagement in discussion for public outreach about UV radiation, but also as a practical way to introduce the exploration of measurement of UV radiation exposure and as a consequence, digital image analysis. Tests of print methods and experiments, dose response, spectral response and dark response were investigated. Two methods of image analysis for dose response calculation are provided using easy to access software and two methods of pixel count analysis were used to determine spectral response characteristics. Variation in manufacture of the blueprint paper product indicates some variance between measurements. Most importantly, as a result of this investigation, a preliminary spectral response range for the radiation required to produce the cyanotype reaction is presented here, which has until now been unknown.

  8. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J E

    1978-03-01

    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  9. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  10. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colored textile effluents represent severe environmental problems as they contain mixture of chemicals, auxiliariesand dyestuffs of different classes and chemical constitutions. Elimination of dyes in the textile wastewater by conventionalwastewater treatment methods is very difficult. At present, there is a growing interest in using inexpensive and potentialmaterials for the adsorption of reactive dyes. Shale has been reported to be a potential media to remove color from wastewaterbecause of its chemical characteristics. In this study, shale was used as an adsorbent. The chosen shale had particlesizes of : A (1.00 < A < 2.00 mm, B (0.50 < B < 1.00 mm, C (0.25 < C < 0.50 mm, D (0.18 < D < 0.25 mm and E (0.15 < E < 0.18mm. Remazol Deep Red RGB (Red, Remazol Brilliant Blue RN gran (Blue and Remazol Yellow 3RS 133% gran (Yellow wereused as adsorbates. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effect of contact time, pH, temperatureand initial dye concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model,with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 0.0110-0.0322 mg/g for Red, 0.4479-1.1409 mg/g for Blue and 0.0133-0.0255 mg/g for Yellow, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of reactive dye by shale occurred at an initial pH of 2,initial concentration of 700 Pt-Co and temperature 45°C. Reactive dye adsorption capacities increased with an increase of theinitial dye concentration and temperature whereas with a decrease of pH. The fixed bed column experiments were appliedwith actual textile wastewater for estimation of life span. The results showed that COD and color removal efficiencies of shalefix bed column were 97% and 90%, respectively. Also the shale fixed bed columns were suitable for using with textile effluentfrom activated sludge system because of their COD and color removal efficiencies and life expectancy comparison using withdyebath wastewater and raw

  11. A prospective randomized trial comparing patent blue and methylene blue for the detection of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Resende Paulinelli

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Methylene blue is more widely available and less expensive than patent blue, with an apparently lower risk of anaphylaxis. Objective: The two dyes were compared regarding detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN. Method: A prospective, randomized trial involved 142 patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Sixty-nine (49.3% assigned to patent blue (group A and 71 (50.70% to methylene blue (group B. Thirty-five patients (25.0% were clinical stage III or IV; 55 (38.7% had axillary lymph nodes affected; and 69 (49.3% underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients were excluded because the dye type was not recorded. Results: Patients and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. SLNs were identified in 47 women (68.1% in group A and 43 (60.6% in group B (p=0.35. SLNs were affected in 22 cases (51.2% in group A and 21 (48.8% in group B (p=0.62. The SLN was the only node affected in 12 cases (54.5% in group A and six (33.3% in group B (p=0.18. The time and degree of difficulty involved in identifying the SLN were similar in both groups. There were no complications or allergies. Conclusion: Methylene blue performed as well as patent blue in identifying the SLN in breast cancer patients.

  12. The analysis and comparison of blue wool fibre populations found at random on clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, K; Drummond, P

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-eight garments were taped and searched for mid to dark blue wool fibres. These were then removed from the tapings, mounted on slides and examined using a high-power microscope (400x). A total of 2,740 blue wool fibres were identified and visible range microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on them. Three hundred independent blue wool populations were identified on 56 of the 58 garments searched. The lack of control fibres meant the spectral range of each population was unknown. The number of populations may have been underestimated by grouping together the fibres that had broad single peaks and a lack of distinguishing features in the spectra. Although blue wool is considered to be a common fibre type, 300 unique spectral shapes were identified by the use of microspectrophotometry alone. This demonstrates that the dyes used in the dyeing of blue wool are variable. Showing that many different populations of blue wool occur on a range of garments should ensure that the forensic scientist does not underestimate or understate the strength of evidence in cases where blue wool is found. Hopefully this work will enlighten scientists and enable them to also assess the true value of their findings when other commonly occurring fibres are encountered.

  13. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-04-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  14. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  15. Spectrophotometric investigation of the hetero-association of Caffeine and thiazine dye in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, P. A.; Baranovsky, S. F.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-06-01

    The self-association of thiazine dye, Methylene Blue (MB), and its hetero-association with Caffeine (CAF), were studied in aqueous solution by means of spectrophotometry in the visible range of spectrum. Concentration and temperature dependences of molar absorption of the interacting molecules were used to analyse dynamic equilibrium in solution in terms of two-component model of molecular hetero-association. The magnitudes of equilibrium dimerization and hetero-association constants as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy, were determined. The calculation of the fraction of different types of associates in the mixed solution, containing Methylene Blue and Caffeine, was done. It was concluded that the hetero-association of Methylene Blue and Caffeine molecules results in lower effective concentration of the dye in solution, which may account for the alteration of its biological activity.

  16. Poly(methylmethacrylate) grafted chitosan: An efficient adsorbent for anionic azo dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Sharma, A.K.; Tripathi, D.N.; Sanghi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Present study reports on peroxydisulfate/ascorbic acid initiated synthesis of Chitosan-graft-poly(methylmethacrylate) (Ch-g-PMMA) and its characterization by FTIR, XRD and 13 C NMR. The copolymer remained water insoluble even under highly acidic conditions and was evaluated to be an efficient adsorbent for the three anionic azo dyes (Procion Yellow MX, Remazol Brilliant Violet and Reactive Blue H5G) over a wide pH range of 4-10 being most at pH 7. The adsorbent was also found efficient in decolorizing the textile industry wastewater and was much more efficient than the parent chitosan. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out at different pH and initial dye concentration values. The experimental equilibrium data for each adsorbent-dye system were successfully fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherms. Based on Langmuir model Q max for yellow, violet and blue dyes was 250, 357 and 178, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption processes such as ΔG o , ΔH o , and ΔS o were calculated. The negative values of free energy reflected the spontaneous nature of adsorption. The adsorption kinetic data of all the three dyes could be well represented by pseudo-second-order model with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) being 0.9922, 0.9997 and 0.9862, for direct yellow, reactive violet and blue dye, respectively with rate constants 0.91 x 10 -4 , 1.82 x 10 -4 and 1.05 x 10 -4 g mg -1 min -1 , respectively. At pH 7, parent chitosan also showed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The temperature dependence of dye uptake and the pseudo-second-order kinetics of the adsorption indicated that chemisorption is the rate-limiting step that controls the process

  17. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  18. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put

  19. Investigation of the chemical origin and evidential value of differences in the SERS spectra of blue gel inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yen Cheng; Lee, Wendy W Y; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-08-15

    Highly swellable polymer films doped with Ag nanoparticle aggregates (poly-SERS films) have been used to record very high signal : noise ratio, reproducible surface-enhanced (resonance) Raman (SER(R)S) spectra of in situ dried ink lines and their constituent dyes using both 633 and 785 nm excitation. These allowed the chemical origins of differences in the SERRS spectra of different inks to be determined. Initial investigation of pure samples of the 10 most common blue dyes showed that the dyes which had very similar chemical structures such as Patent Blue V and Patent Blue VF (which differ only by a single OH group) gave SERRS spectra in which the only indications that the dye structure had been changed were small differences in peak positions or relative intensities of the bands. SERRS studies of 13 gel pen inks were consistent with this observation. In some cases inks from different types of pens could be distinguished even though they were dominated by a single dye such as Victoria Blue B (Zebra Surari) or Victoria Blue BO (Pilot Acroball) because their predominant dye did not appear in other inks. Conversely, identical spectra were also recorded from different types of pens (Pilot G7, Zebra Z-grip) because they all had the same dominant Brilliant Blue G dye. Finally, some of the inks contained mixtures of dyes which could be separated by TLC and removed from the plate before being analysed with the same poly-SERS films. For example, the Pentel EnerGel ink pen was found to give TLC spots corresponding to Erioglaucine and Brilliant Blue G. Overall, this study has shown that the spectral differences between different inks which are based on chemically similar, but nonetheless distinct dyes, are extremely small, so very close matches between SERRS spectra are required for confident identification. Poly-SERS substrates can routinely provide the very stringent reproducibility and sensitivity levels required. This, coupled with the awareness of the reasons

  20. Magnetic graphene oxide for adsorption of organic dyes from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drashya, Lal, Shyam; Hooda, Sunita

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), a 2-D carbon nanomaterial, large surface area, oxygen-containing groups (like: hydroxyl, epoxy and carboxyl) and excellent water dispersibility due to it is good adsorbent dye removal from pollutant water1. But it's difficult to separate GO from water after adsorption. Therefore, Iron oxide was introduced in Graphene oxide by decorating method to make separation more efficient2. We present herein a one step process to prepare Magnetic Graphene oxide (MGO). The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy characterized the chemical structure of the MGO composite. The adsorption of dyes onto MGO was studied in relation to initial concentration of Dyes, contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature and pH value of solution. We have studied adsorption capacity of different dyes (Methylene blue and crystal violet) by MGO.

  1. Photoassisted Electrochemical Treatment of Azo and Phtalocyanine Reactive Dyes in the Presence of Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical treatment (EC) was applied at different intensities to degrade the chromophoric groups of dyes C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and C.I. Reactive Blue 7 (Rb7) until uncolored species were obtained. Decolorization rate constants of the azo dye RB5 were higher than the phtalocyanine Rb7 ones. In addition, the EC treatment was more efficient at higher intensities, but these conditions significantly increased the generation of undesirable by-products such as chloroform. The combination of EC with UV irradiation (UVEC) drastically minimized the generation of chloroform. The photo-assisted electrochemical treatment was also able to achieve decolorization values of 99%. Finally, mixtures of dyes and surfactants were treated by EC and UVEC. In the presence of surfactants, the decolorization kinetic of dyes was slowed due to the competitive reactions of surfactants degradation. Both methods achieved total decolorization and in both cases, the generation of haloforms was negligible. PMID:28773335

  2. Fast adsorption kinetics of highly dispersed ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles for organic dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek-Seung; Song, Hee Jo; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Lee, Hack-Jun; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic metal/carbon nano-materials are attractive for pollutant adsorption and removal. In this study, ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles are successfully prepared via electrical wire explosion processing in ethanol media for the elimination of pollutant organic dyes such as Rhodamine B and methylene blue in aqueous solutions. High specific surface areas originating from both the nano-sized particles and the existence of carbon on the surface of Ni nanoparticles enhance dye adsorption capacity. In addition to this, the excellent dispersity of Ni/C nanoparticles in aqueous dye solutions leads to superior adsorption rates. The adsorption kinetics for the removal of organic dyes by Ni/C nanoparticles agree with a pseudo-second-order model and follow Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior.

  3. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna W. Sobańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1 : 3 : 1 (v/v/v as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using quadratic calibration plots (R2>0.997; LOQ = 0.04–0.09 μgspot−1. The overall recoveries for all studied dyes were at the average level of over 90% and the repeatability of the proposed procedure (CV ≤ 4.1% was sufficient to recommend it for the routine quantification of the aforementioned dyes in liquid matrices.

  4. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Solid Waste: Albizia amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 (Reactive Dye from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from Albizia amara pod shell waste as an adsorbent have been carried out. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Kinetic parameters as a function of Initial dye concentration have been calculated and the kinetic data were substituted in Pseudo First Order, Elovich and Pseudo Second order equations. A probable explanation is offered to account for the results of kinetic study. The thermodynamic parameter enthalpy change (∆H suggests the exothermic nature of absorption of Reactive Blue 171 onto activated Albizia amara pod shell waste carbon.

  5. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 enabled the magnetic separation of Fe 3 O 4 -GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe 3 O 4 -GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS. The facile regeneration of Fe 3 O 4 -GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed

  6. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, S.; Nosheen, S.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  7. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bor-Yann, E-mail: bychen@niu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China); Yen, Chia-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National I-Lan University, I-Lan 260, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes - Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141) and non-naphthol type azo dyes - Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}{sup -} in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para > ortho > meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  9. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  10. CW organic dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  11. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C. The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

  12. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  13. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizge, N.; Aydiner, C.; Demirbas, E.; Kobya, M.; Kara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 μm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100 mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6 g/100 ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 μm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature

  14. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA DULMAN

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  15. Radiation-induced decomposition and decoloration of reactive dyes in the presence of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Yang Ruiyuan; Wang Wenfeng; Shen Zhongqun; Bian Shaowei; Zhu Zhiyuan

    2006-01-01

    The dyeing wastewaters represent a large input of hazardous compounds to the environment and these compounds are usually non-biodegradable. In this study, electron beam irradiation-induced decoloration and decomposition of reactive dyes in aqueous solution were investigated. Two different reactive dyes (reactive red KE-3B and reactive blue XBR) solutions were irradiated with electron beam at different doses in the absence and presence of H 2 O 2 . The changes of absorption spectra and pH value were described and analyzed as well as the degree of decoloration and COD removal. The influences of absorbed doses, H 2 O 2 additions and initial dye concentrations are discussed. The experimental results show that reactive dyes in aqueous solutions can be effectively degraded by electron beam irradiation, especially in the presence of hydrogen peroxide

  16. Use of dyes in cariology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  17. Decolorisation of Basic Textile Dye from Aqueous Solutions using a Biosorbent derived from Thespesia populnea used Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunturu, Bhargavi; Rao Palukuri, Nageswara; Sahadevan, Renganathan

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the efficiency of a biosorbent derived from seeds of Thespesia populnea was investigated towards the removal of basic textile dye Methylene Blue from an aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were carried out in batch system. Influence of experimental parameters such as adsorbent dosage (0.1g/L-0.3g/L), PH (2-10) and initial dye concentration (50-130mg/L) on adsorption of dye onto biosorbent was investigated. Maximum uptake of dye was observed with 0.1g/L adsorbent dosage at PH 8.0. Equilibrium uptake of methylene blue dye by the adsorbent was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The data fitted best with Freundlich model, suggesting that adsorption of the dye was by multilayer model on the surface of the adsorbent. Experimental results obtained support that the biosorbent used in the present study can be a suitable low cost alternate for the removal of basic textile dyes.

  18. The oxidative response and viable reaction mechanism of the textile dyes by fenton reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masooda, Q.; Hijira, T.; Sitara, M.; Sehar, M.; Sundus, A.; Mohsin, A.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of the degradation of the Reactive Red 239 and Reactive Blue 19 by Fenton reagent was studied by advanced oxidation process in aqueous medium. The spectroscopic technique was adopted for the measurements of dye concentration. Moreover they were determined at 540 nm and 590 nm, respectively. Kinetics of the reaction was studied under the effect of concentration of reactive dyes, concentration of oxidant were followed under pseudo first order condition and found to influence the catalytic mechanism. The pH of the medium, vibrant response of several cations and anions and influence of ionic strength on the reaction kinetics were also monitored. Physical evidences for the degradation and mineralization of the dyes were evaluated by Lime water test, Ring Test and TLC test also confirmed the degradation of dye. Inhibitory effects of dyes were observed by CO3-, HCO3-, HPO42-, Cl-, I- Al3+ and Na+. Thermodynamic activation parameters in the oxidation reaction were studied and mode of mechanism was suggested on the basic of these parameters. This study explored the safe and eco friendly degradation of the textile dyes under Pseudo first order rate constant. It was observed that Fenton assisted degradation of the dyes under controlled conditions was found to be favorable for the treatment of textile wastewater. Moreover compared to other chemical methods it is effective and harmless to the environment. (author)

  19. Modified coal fly ash as low cost adsorbent for removal reactive dyes from batik industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of reactive dyes on modified coal fly ash has been investigated during a series of batch adsorption experiments. Physical characteristics of modified coal fly ash was characterized by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration (50–200 mg/L, solution pH (4–10 and adsorbent dosage (50–200 mg/L were studied. The adsorption experiments indicated that modified coal fly ash was effective in removing of Remazol Blue. The percentage removal of dyes increased while the modified fly ash dosage increased. The percentage removal of dyes increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with amount of adsorbent used. The optimum of removal of dyes was found to be 94% at initial dye concentration 50 g/mL, modified fly ash dosage 250 g/mL, and pH of 2.0.

  20. Removal of azo and anthraquinone reactive dyes from industrial wastewaters using MgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza, E-mail: Moussavi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Maryam [Department of Environmental Health, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    In the present investigation, a porous MgO powder was synthesized and tested for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. The size of the MgO particles was in the range of 38-44 nm, with an average specific surface area of 153.7 m{sup 2}/g. Adsorption of reactive blue 19 and reactive red 198 was conducted to model azo and anthraquinone dyes at various MgO dosages, dye concentrations, solution pHs and contact times in a batch reactor. Experimental results indicate that the prepared MgO powder can remove more than 98% of both dyes under optimum operational conditions of a dosage of 0.2 g, pH 8 and a contact time of 5 min for initial dye concentrations of 50-300 mg/L. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the experimental equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities were 166.7 and 123.5 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent for RB 19 and RR 198, respectively. In addition, adsorption kinetic data followed a pseudo-second-order rate for both tested dyes.