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Sample records for pruritus mildly elevated

  1. Pruritus Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is a common symptom during pregnancy in 3-14% of all pregnancies. Pregnant women are as susceptible as non-pregnant women to ordinary pruritic skin disorders, but there are certain disorders, peculiar to pregnancy called as specific dermatoses of pregnancy. All these specific dermatoses of pregnancy are associated with primary skin lesions except pruritus gravidarum, which was only secondary skin lesions like excoriation marks. The incidence of pruritus gravidarum varies from 0.02 to2.4%. Several reports have shown a significantly increased incidence of prematurity, antepartum foetal distress and postpartum haemorrhage among these cases. Hence, a careful monitoring of pregnancy is advised in all such cases. Hence, a careful monitoring of pregnancy is advised in all such cases.

  2. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

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    Rafael Taeho Han

    suggested that 1.2 ppm of FA penetrated the injured skin barrier, and exacerbated Th1 responses and serum IgE level in the AD rats so that dermatitis and pruritus were aggravated, while the elevated expression of Th2 cytokines by 1.2 ppm of FA in naive rats was probably insufficient for clinical manifestation. In conclusion, in a rat model of atopic dermatitis, exposure to 1.2 ppm of FA aggravated pruritus and skin inflammation, which was associated with the elevated expression of Th1 cytokines.

  3. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rafael Taeho; Back, Seung Keun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Heung Sik

    2016-01-01

    .2 ppm of FA penetrated the injured skin barrier, and exacerbated Th1 responses and serum IgE level in the AD rats so that dermatitis and pruritus were aggravated, while the elevated expression of Th2 cytokines by 1.2 ppm of FA in naive rats was probably insufficient for clinical manifestation. In conclusion, in a rat model of atopic dermatitis, exposure to 1.2 ppm of FA aggravated pruritus and skin inflammation, which was associated with the elevated expression of Th1 cytokines.

  4. Adrenergic urticaria and adrenergic pruritus.

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    Haustein, U F

    1990-01-01

    We report here on 2 patients with adrenergic urticaria and adrenergic pruritus, respectively. The lesions and features developed during phases of stress and during the attacks were associated with an increase in the plasma concentrations of noradrenalin, adrenalin and prolactin. The dopamine plasma level was elevated only in the case of adrenergic urticaria. The symptoms could be reproduced by intradermal injection of adrenalin and noradrenalin and treated successfully with propanolol, a blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors. Adrenergic urticaria is a rare but distinct entity, which has to be separated from cholinergic urticaria. Adrenergic pruritus seems to be a minor variant of adrenergic urticaria.

  5. Pruritus and Jaundice

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    McPhedran, N. T.; Henderson, R. D.

    1965-01-01

    The records of 147 patients who had pruritus and jaundice (11% of a series of 1262 patients with jaundice) were reviewed in an effort to delineate more clearly the etiology of jaundice associated with pruritus. Fifty-two had obstructive jaundice caused by neoplasm, 51 had obstructive jaundice not caused by neoplasm, 42 had pruritus associated with hepatogenous jaundice, and two had jaundice and pruritus associated with a lymphoma. Pruritus occurred in 17% of all patients with non-neoplastic obstructive jaundice and in 45% of patients with neoplastic obstructive jaundice. Hepatogenous jaundice was the cause of pruritus in almost one-third of the patients in this series-occurring in 20% of patients with infectious hepatitis and in 7% of patients with cirrhosis. This large series confirms the clinical impression that pruritus occurs most often in association with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and as well re-emphasizes the common association of pruritus with hepatogenous jaundice. PMID:14296007

  6. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus

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    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidis...

  7. Refractory pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis

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    Pinheiro, Nuno Cercas; Marinho, Rui Tato; Ramalho, Fernando; Velosa, José

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus is a major symptom of primary biliary cirrhosis, cholestatic autoimmune disease which affects mostly middle-age women. Often, it can be severe and refractory to multiple treatments, and mostly affecting the patient’s health-related quality of life. Intense pruritus can be itself an indication to liver transplantation, in extreme cases leading to suicide. Its physiopathology has not yet been fully elucidated, but recent studies added the elevation of autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid to the group of classic mechanisms already linked to cholestatic pruritus. In this case report we illustrate how ultraviolet B phototherapy appears to successfully control severe pruritus and contribute to the healing of pruritic skin lesions caused by intense scratching. There is limited medical literature concerning this therapeutic approach on cholestatic pruritus, but we hope that further randomised controlled trials will successfully establish it as an effective treatment in the near future. PMID:24234429

  8. Pruritus in selected dermatoses.

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    Olek-Hrab, K; Hrab, M; Szyfter-Harris, J; Adamski, Z

    2016-09-01

    Pruritus is a natural defence mechanism of the body and creates the scratch reflex as a defensive reaction to potentially dangerous environmental factors. Together with pain, pruritus is a type of superficial sensory experience. Pruritus is a symptom often experienced both in healthy subjects and in those who have symptoms of a disease. In dermatology, pruritus is a frequent symptom associated with a number of dermatoses and is sometimes an auxiliary factor in the diagnostic process. Apart from histamine, the most popular pruritus mediators include tryptase, endothelins, substance P, bradykinin, prostaglandins and acetylcholine. The group of atopic diseases is characterized by the presence of very persistent pruritus. It is found in almost all patients with atopic dermatitis or urticaria. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is another group of pruritic diseases where the symptom of pruritus develops at an early stage and becomes intensified as the disease progresses. Other dermatoses include psoriasis, parasitic diseases and also systemic diseases in which pruritus is often the first and the only symptom suggesting an internal health problem. Cases of pruritus in healthy subjects, possibly associated with skin dryness or pregnancy in women, have also been reported. This paper presents mechanisms responsible for pruritus and the most important dermatoses in which this symptom is found. Treatment of pruritic dermatoses is difficult and always requires an interdisciplinary approach. Not all dermatoses can be successfully treated with antihistamine drugs, particularly if patients suffer from cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, liver or kidney diseases. For this reason, the problem of pruritus is the focus of attention of many scientists, and the subject of interdisciplinary studies.

  9. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

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    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  10. Psychosomatic factors in pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial factors, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pruritus in female patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Pruritus is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic vulvodermatoses, but also the specific pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy...

  12. Pruritus induced self injury behavior: an overlooked risk factor for amputation in diabetic neuropathy?

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    Dorfman, David; George, Mary Catherine; Tamler, Ronald; Lushing, Julia; Nmashie, Alexandra; Simpson, David M

    2014-03-01

    Pruritus is a risk factor for self-injury behavior (SIB) in sensory polyneuropathies. Although diabetes patients have elevated risk for pruritus, there are no reports of SIB in diabetic neuropathy. We present the case of a diabetes patient with neuropathy, whose pruritus induced SIB, resulted in partial amputation of a toe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine.

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    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.

  14. [Pruritus associated with cholestasis].

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    Terán, Alvaro; Fábrega, Emilio; Pons-Romero, Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Pruritus is commonly associated with cholestatic disorders and shows wide interindividual variability. The presence of skin lesions due to scratching and the application of a visual analogue scale are useful for clinical evaluation. Although the pathophysiology of this entity is not well understood, advances have recently been made in understanding of the pruritoceptive neural pathway, which shares certain similarities with the nociceptive pathway, although there are other distinguishing characteristics such as the action of a specific neurotransmitter, GPR, on the first synapsis at the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Amongst the modulator systems of the pruritoceptive pathway is the action of the endogenous opioids. An increase of these opioids in cholestatic situations is the most widely accepted hypothesis for pruritus in these patients. Some treatments have proven efficacy in randomized clinical trials in patients with cholestatic disorders, such as anion exchange resins, rifampicin, opioid antagonists and ursodeoxycholic acid; the latter is especially useful in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Pruritus in Female Patients

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    Julien Lambert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic vulvodermatoses, but also the specific pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy. The specific characteristics of the vulva and the hormonal changes during the different age periods make these dermatoses very particular. It seems that vulvar diseases are still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pruritic vulvar diseases have a huge impact on quality of life. The most common pruritic diseases will be discussed, such as atopic and contact dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosis, lichen planus, and infectious vulvaginitis. We focus on the diagnostic issue of these diseases and will consider the general principles of therapy.

  16. Mild troponin I elevation does not predict ischemia on myocardial perfusion imaging

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    Le Dung Ha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionData are limited on the degree of mild troponin I elevation and clinical risk factors in predicting myocardial ischemia.MethodsHospitalized adult patients who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI from 2015 to 2016 at Rochester General Hospital and had mild troponin I elevation (>0.1 and <1.5 ng/mL were included. Predictors of outcomes were determined using logistic regression model.ResultsOne hundred and sixty-six patients with mild troponin I elevation who underwent MPI were followed. Mean age was 69.6 ± 12.5 years and 53.0% of the patients were female. Fourteen patients (8.4% presented with typical chest pain (CP, 60 patients (36.1% had atypical CP and 92 patients (55.4% had no CP on presentation. MPI was positive for ischemia in 45 patients (27.1%. There was no difference in peak troponin I level with ischemia versus no ischemia on MPI (0.34 ng/dL [0.13-0.69] vs. 0.23 ng/dL [0.14-0.50], p value 0.254. Atypical CP did not predict the presence of ischemia on MPI (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-4.26. Coronary artery disease (CAD history (age and sex adjusted p value 0.013, diabetes (adjusted p value 0.036, creatinine ≥2 mg/dL (adjusted p value 0.019 and dialysis (adjusted p value 0.006 were statistically significant predictors of ischemia on MPI.ConclusionsIn patients presenting with mild troponin I elevation, peak troponin I level did not predict ischemia on MPI. The presence of CAD history, diabetes, elevated creatinine and dialysis were predictors of ischemia on MPI.

  17. Pruritus among End-Stage Renal Failure Patients on Hemodialysis

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    Jamal Arshad

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is commonly encountered in individuals with end-stage renal failure (ESRF on dialysis. This study was performed in order to find out the prevalence and pattern of pruritus in patients on regular maintenance hemodialysis (HD as well as to analyze its relationship to age, sex of the patient, site of itching and timing of hemodialysis. One hundred patients with ESRF (age ranging from 13 to 80 years free from systemic, skin or psychiatric disorders and other secondary causes attributable to pruritis, undergoing maintenance HD (duration on HD 7-141 months; mean 49.9 and median 43 months at Samtah General Hospital, Samtah, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were evaluated for pruritus on two occasions at one week interval by each author independently. The data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics viz mean, median and chi-square test. Pruritus was observed in 27 of 40 males (67.5% and 40 of 60 females (66.7% with an overall prevalence of 67%. It was mild in 34 (50.8%, moderate in 22 (32.8% and severe in 11 (16.4%. Sub-group analysis with reference to age and sex revealed that pruritus was significantly more in women aged 45 years and above, when compared with men of similar age-group (p < 0.05 or women below 45 years (p < 0.02. Pruritus was predominant in spinal dermatomes. Discomfort of pruritus was more during HD in three (two men and one woman and HD gave relief for the day in 10 other individuals (four men and six women. Our study suggests that pruritus is observed in all age-groups and of both sexes of ESRF patients on HD although the intensity and site of itching and relationship to HD sessions varied with individuals.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Pruritus and Pain in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

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    Łukasz Matusiak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has indicated that pruritus is an important feature of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS. This study evaluated pruritus and pain among 103 patients with HS. Pruritus and pain intensity were assessed with a visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and 4-item Itch Questionnaire. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI was implemented to assess quality of life (QoL issues. Various clinical features and factors influencing pruritus were also examined. Pruritus and pain during the last week were reported among 41.7% and 77.5% of patients, respectively. The presence of pruritus did not have an impact on DLQI, nor did it show interaction with the pain in this regard. The presence of pain was a crucial contributor, even more relevant than disease severity. None­theless, intensity of pruritus correlated positively with DLQI. The most troublesome symptom of HS was pain, followed by exudation, pruritus, appearance and smell, consecutively. Pruritus of mild-to-moderate intensity is a common HS-associated symptom that adversely affects patients’ QoL.

  19. Surgical treatment of patients with mildly elevated parathormone and calcium levels.

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    Parikh, Punam P; Allan, Bassan J; Lew, John I

    2014-06-01

    Patients with mildly elevated parathormone (PTH) and calcium levels consistent for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) may present with more underlying multiglandular disease (MGD) and higher operative failure and recurrence rates than those with conventional, or "classic" pHPT. This study compared the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients with biochemically mild versus conventional pHPT. A series of 707 consecutive patients underwent initial targeted parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathormone monitoring (IPM) at a single institution. Biochemically mild (BM) pHPT was defined as PTH > 65 and 10.4 and operative indication, preoperative laboratory values, imaging, IPM dynamics, and postoperative laboratory values were retrospectively reviewed. Additional assessments included presence of MGD, bilateral neck exploration (BNE), single-gland volume, and operative failure or success, and recurrence. Of 60 patients with BM-pHPT, 46 reported preoperative bone pain, kidney stones, fatigue, and/or mental disturbances. The remaining 14 BM-pHPT patients underwent parathyroidectomy based on published asymptomatic guidelines. Patients with BM-pHPT had significantly more kidney stones, MGD, and BNE. Average single-gland volume and postoperative PTH levels were significantly lower in BM-pHPT patients. There were no significant differences between groups regarding preoperative localization accuracy, IPM dynamics, or operative success/failure, recurrence rates. BM-pHPT patients had more MGD requiring BNE but achieved operative success rates similar to those of patients with conventional disease. IPM successfully identifies MGD in BM-pHPT patients, who should be counseled regarding more extensive operations than limited parathyroidectomy.

  20. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

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    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  2. The molecular mechanism of cholestatic pruritus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Kremer, Andreas E.; Martens, Job J. W. W.; Beuers, Ulrich H.

    2011-01-01

    Pruritus is a frequent symptom in patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Pruritus can be excruciating and, in rare cases, become a primary indication for liver transplantation. The molecular mechanism of itch signal transduction is largely unclear. It was our hypothesis that compounds which

  3. Prevalence and Relevance of Pruritus in Pregnancy

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    Justyna Szczęch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at greater risk to suffer from chronic pruritus, but data on this symptom in this group is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and the importance of pruritus in pregnant women. A total of 292 consecutive pregnant women at the 33.0±6.1 weeks of gestation (WoG were recruited into this prospective, cross-sectional study. All patients underwent thorough anamnesis and detailed physical examination with the special emphasis on pruritus. Pruritus was assessed according to Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Quality of life was measured with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI. The point prevalence of pruritus was 20.2% (n=59, while pruritus prevalence during the entire pregnancy was 38.0% (n=111. Pruritus started on average at the 27.2±7.6 WoG; it was significantly more common among women in third trimester. The mean VAS was 4.8 (±2.4 points. The DLQI scoring significantly correlated with VAS (r=0.52, p<0.001. Based on the results of our study about one-third of women suffer from pruritus during pregnancy. Many of them find it a very distressing and disturbing symptom.

  4. Opioid-induced pruritus: an update.

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    Reich, A; Szepietowski, J C

    2010-01-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation leading to scratching. It can be a feature of numerous skin or systemic diseases, and may also be a side-effect of various drugs. Opioids are one of the best-known medicines evoking pruritus. The pathogenesis of opioid-induced pruritus is still not fully known, but two different mechanisms have been proposed: peripheral and central. Several treatment options have been tested for opioid-induced pruritus, but none has been completely satisfactory. Opioid antagonists seem to be the most potent antipruritic drugs, but they also decrease analgesia, which limits their usage. Many other treatments have been tried, but to date, the data are conflicting or only limited studies have been performed to confirm their efficacy. Further studies are still needed to better elucidate the mechanism of opioid-induced pruritus and to develop more effective treatment options.

  5. Perianal pruritus in dogs with skin disease.

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    Maina, Elisa; Galzerano, Mario; Noli, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Perianal pruritus has been reported in dogs with anal sac disease but not in healthy dogs. Some authors describe it as typical of allergy, but there is little evidence in support of this. The aim was to investigate the association between perianal pruritus and canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), adverse food reaction (ARF) and other skin diseases in dogs. Two hundred and fifty privately owned dogs with skin disease and without anal sac disease. The presence or absence of perianal pruritus, macroscopic and cytological evaluation of the perianal skin surface and the macroscopic appearance of anal sac contents were assessed. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the frequency of perianal pruritus with the clinical diagnoses and with clinical and cytological parameters. Perianal pruritus was seen in 39 of 75 dogs with CAD, in 29 of 57 dogs with ARF and in only 24 of 118 dogs with other conditions. The frequency of perianal pruritus in dogs with CAD and/or ARF was significantly higher than that in dogs with other diagnoses (P disease was significantly associated with perianal pruritus. Perianal pruritus was significantly associated with signs of perianal alopecia, erythema, excoriations, lichenification and hyperpigmentation; it was not associated with the presence of bacteria or yeasts or with anal sac impaction. Perianal pruritus was seen more frequently in dogs with AFR/CAD than with other dermatological diseases. This is the first study to evaluate perianal pruritus in dogs with skin disease and without anal sac disease. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Management of Pruritus in Chronic Liver Disease

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    Angeline Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There continues to be uncertainty on the ideal treatment of pruritus in chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to gather the latest information on the evidence-based management of pruritus in chronic liver disease. Methodology. A literature search for pruritus in chronic liver disease was conducted using Pubmed and Embase database systems using the MeSH terms “pruritus,” “chronic liver disease,” “cholestatic liver disease,” and “treatment.” Results. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus is described in addition to detailing research into contemporary treatment options of the condition. These medical treatments range from bile salts, rifampicin, and opioid receptor antagonists to antihistamines. Conclusion. The burden of pruritus in liver disease patients persists and, although it is a common symptom, it can be difficult to manage. In recent years there has been greater study into the etiology and treatment of the condition. Nonetheless, pruritus remains poorly understood and many patients continue to suffer, reiterating the need for further research to improve our understanding of the etiology and treatment for the condition.

  7. Neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szarvas, Szilvia

    2012-02-03

    When intrathecal and epidural opioids are administered, pruritus occurs as an unwanted and troublesome side effect. The reported incidence varies between 30% and 100%. The exact mechanisms of neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus remain unclear. Postulated mechanisms include the presence of an "itch center" in the central nervous system, medullary dorsal horn activation, and antagonism of inhibitory transmitters. The treatment of intrathecal opioid-induced pruritus remains a challenge. Many pharmacological therapies, including antihistamines, 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists, opiate-antagonists, propofol, nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs, and droperidol, have been studied. In this review, we will summarize pathophysiological and pharmacological advances that will improve understanding and ultimately the management of this troublesome problem.

  8. Pruritus in cholestasis: facts and fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, Ulrich; Kremer, Andreas E.; Bolier, Ruth; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude

    2014-01-01

    Pruritus is a common symptom in patients with cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, or hereditary pediatric cholestatic disorders and may accompany, although less frequently, many other liver diseases.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of pruritus in cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pruritus represents an agonizing symptom accompanying a large variety of dermatological, systemic, neurologic and psychiatric disorders. It is commonly observed in patients with cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis or intrahepatic

  10. Prevalence and Covariates of Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Rural Memory Clinic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia

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    Julie G. Kosteniuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To estimate the prevalence, severity, and covariates of depressive symptoms in rural memory clinic patients diagnosed with either mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 216 rural individuals who attended an interdisciplinary memory clinic between March 2004 and July 2012, 51 patients were diagnosed with MCI and 165 with either dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD or non-AD dementia. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D was used to estimate the severity and prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptomatology. Results: The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 51.0% in the MCI patients and 30.9% in the dementia patients. Depressive symptoms were more severe in the MCI patients than in the dementia patients. Elevated depressive symptoms were statistically associated with younger age for the MCI group, with lower self-rated memory for the dementia group, and with increased alcohol use and lower quality of life ratings for all patients. In the logistic regression models, elevated depressive symptoms remained negatively associated with self-rated memory and quality of life for the patients with dementia, but significant bivariate associations did not persist in the MCI group. Conclusions: The high prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among rural memory clinic patients diagnosed with either MCI or dementia warrant continued investigation.

  11. Chloroquine induced pruritus - questionnaire based epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of ...

  12. Brain and Serum Androsterone is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM. ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34, PID 35 (S35, on both days (2S, or the experimental context (CON. Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG, allopregnanolone (ALLO, and androsterone (ANDRO were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30 and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  13. Semen Allergy Manifesting As Chronic Pruritus Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A young woman of 24 with personal and family history of atopy development pruritus vulva each time after sexual intercourse with her husband. History of urticaria of sites of contact with semen on her thighs gave suspicion of contact urticaria. Positive wheal and flare response to pin prick test with semen, excellent therapeutic response to topical steroid and oral Cetirizine and non- recurrence of the problem after using condom by her husband confirmed the diagnosis of semen allergy.

  14. Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus: An expert consensus review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlidhar Rajagopalan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to formulate the best clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus (CP. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the WHO's regional databases, for studies on “Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus” from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. We screened 87 of 95 studies that contained qualitative data. Avoid: Dry climate, heat, alcohol compress, ice packs, frequent bathing and washing, intake of very hot and spicy food, intake of alcohol, contact with irritant substances, excitement, strain and stress, and allergens. Using: Mild nonalkaline soaps, moisturizers, bathing oils, lukewarm water while bathing, soft cotton clothing and night creams/lotions, relaxation therapy, autogenic training, psychosocial education, educating patients to cope with itching and scratching, and educational programs. Especially use of moisturizers is considered important. In addition, symptomatic treatment options include systemic H1 antihistamines and topical corticosteroids. Symptomatic therapy directed toward the cause (hepatic, renal, atopic, polycythemia, etc.. If refractory or cause is unknown, consider capsaicin, calcineurin inhibitors for localized pruritus and naltrexone, pregabalin, ultraviolet therapy, Cyclosporine for generalized itching. CP is quite frequent finding associated with skin and systemic diseases in the overall population. It is known to significantly affect quality life score of an individual and also adds burden on the health-care cost. A specific recommendation for treatment of CP is difficult as a result of varied and diverse possibility of underlying diseases associated with CP.

  15. The effect of aromatherapy on haemodialysis patients' pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cürcani, Mehtap; Tan, Mehtap

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effect of aromatherapy on pruritus observed in haemodialysis patients. Although the prevalence of pruritus in kidney failure has decreased in the recent years, pruritus is a difficult and serious problem which concerns the majority of haemodialysis patents and is hard to cure. A prospective, pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design was used. The research is quasi-experimental clinical trial conducted as pretest and post-test with control groups between January 2011-April 2012, in haemodialysis units of hospitals in Erzurum. The collection of the data is achieved using a questionnaire to detect the patients' individual and pruritus score scale and to clarify certain laboratory parameters regarding the pruritus. Chi-square analysis and t-test are used for the analysis of data. The experimental group's mean post-test pruritus scores (7·20 ± 3·14) were found to be lower than that of control group patients (10·00 ± 2·47), and a highly significant difference was found between the groups (p aromatherapy was found to decrease the pruritus problem of haemodialyses patients and led to positive changes in some laboratory parameters related to pruritus. One of the roles of health professionals is to advise individuals, who are living on this problem, using the nonpharmacological methods in checking the itching. By preventing or reducing uraemic pruritus, aromatherapy may also improve quality of life in this patient group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Brakioradial pruritus behandlet effektivt med gabapentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Brachioradial pruritus is a characteristic clinical condition with a deep intense itching, tingling or burning sensation localized to the dorsolateral part of the upper extremities. The symptoms occur primarily in the late summer in fair skin type people who are extensively sun-exposed. The condi......-exposed. The condition is difficult to treat and does not respond to topical steroids and antihistamines. We describe a 57-year-old woman with longstanding brachioradial itching due to cervical radiculopathy and sun exposure, which was successfully treated with gabapentin....

  17. Profile of chloroquine - induced pruritus in Nigerian children resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine is still the first-line drug in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria and West- Africa sub-region. A major drawback to the use of chloroquine is pruritus. We studied a total of 175 children aged 1–15 years with a view to assessing some factors that may influence chloroquine induced pruritus and the possible impact on ...

  18. Serum Autotaxin Activity Correlates With Pruritus in Pediatric Cholestatic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Andreas E.; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Schaap, Frank G.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Beuers, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus is a common symptom of cholestatic liver disorders. The present study aimed at evaluating autotaxin (ATX), a lysophospholipase recently identified as potential cause for cholestatic pruritus, in pediatric cholestatic diseases presenting with or without itching. A cohort of 45 children

  19. Understanding itch: An update on mediators and mechanisms of pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is the most common symptom secondary to skin diseases. Advances in the fields of neurobiology, immunology and physiology have made it possible for us to understand and unravel the deeper pathophysiological basis of pruritus. This review aims to update our current understanding of the mechanisms and mediators of pruritus. Special attention is paid to endogenous itch mediators particularly newly identified ones like endovanilloids, opioids, neurotrophins, cannabinoids, proteases and cytokines. Various theories explaining the peripheral encoding of itch are reviewed. Multiple neural pathways including the central itch pathways as well as supraspinal processing of itch and brain areas involved in pruritus are highlighted. Apart from peripheral itch mediators, spinal neural receptors are also involved in control of itch and should form part of the development of a novel antipruritic strategy. Further studies are required to fill the lacunae in our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus.

  20. Low-Dose Naltrexone for Pruritus in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Frech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is a common symptom in systemic sclerosis (SSc, an autoimmune disease which causes fibrosis and vasculopathy in skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Unfortunately, pruritus has limited treatment options in this disease. Pilot trials of low-dose naltrexone hydrochloride (LDN for pruritus, pain, and quality of life (QOL in other GIT diseases have been successful. In this case series we report three patients that had significant improvement in pruritus and total GIT symptoms as measured by the 10-point faces scale and the University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0 questionnaire. This small case series suggests LDN may be an effective, highly tolerable, and inexpensive treatment for pruritus and GIT symptoms in SSc.

  1. Thalidomide for the treatment of chronic refractory pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Kwatra, Shawn G

    2016-02-01

    Pruritus is a common and often times difficult to treat symptom in many dermatologic and systemic diseases. For pruritus with an inflammatory or autoimmune origin, therapies such as topical corticosteroids and antihistamines are often initiated. However, in the case that these and additional systemic therapies are ineffective, thalidomide, an immunomodulator and neuromodulator, may be a useful alternative treatment. Considerable relief of chronic pruritus has been demonstrated with thalidomide in case reports, case series, and controlled trials. Double-blind controlled studies demonstrated thalidomide's efficacy as an antipruritic agent in patients with uremic pruritus, primary biliary cirrhosis, and prurigo nodularis. In case reports, case series, and open-label trials, thalidomide significantly reduced pruritus associated with conditions such as actinic prurigo and paraneoplastic pruritus. Because of variations in study design and evaluation of antipruritic effect, it is difficult to fully understand thalidomide's role based on the evidence described to date in the medical literature. In this review, we provide an overview of the reported findings and evaluate thalidomide's utility in managing refractory pruritus in the context of its adverse risk profile. We propose that thalidomide can be an alternative or combination antipruritic treatment for patients who do not obtain enough relief from conservative therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide levels are elevated in persons with tetraplegia and comparable to that in mild asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Miroslav; Schilero, Gregory J; Wecht, Jill M; La Fountaine, Michael; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Bauman, William A

    2010-06-01

    The role of airway inflammation in mediating airflow obstruction in persons with chronic traumatic tetraplegia is unknown. Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) affords a validated noninvasive technique for gauging the airway inflammatory response in asthma, although it has never been assessed in persons with tetraplegia. This study was designed to determine the FeNO in individuals with chronic tetraplegia compared with that in patients with mild asthma and healthy able-bodied individuals. Nine subjects with chronic tetraplegia, seven subjects with mild asthma, and seven matched healthy able-bodied controls were included in this prospective, observational, pilot study. All subjects were nonsmokers and clinically stable at the time of study. Spirometry was performed on all participants at baseline. FENO was determined online by a commercially available closed circuit, chemiluminescence method, using a single-breath technique. Subjects with tetraplegia had significantly higher values of FeNO than controls (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 10.37 +/- 4.9 ppb; P tetraplegia and those with asthma (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 20.23 +/- 4.64 ppb, P tetraplegia have FeNO levels that are comparable to that seen in mild asthmatics and higher than that in healthy able-bodied controls. The clinical relevance of this observation has yet to be determined.

  3. Antihistamines in the treatment of pruritus in psoriasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Domagała; Jacek Szepietowski; Adam Reich

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of antihistamines in reducing pruritus in psoriasis, 61 patients were randomized to be treated for 1 week with clemastine (n = 20), levocetirizine (n = 21) or placebo (n = 20...

  4. Prophylactic Effect of Ondansetron for Intrathecal Fentanyl-Induced Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using opioids along with local analgesic increase anesthesia duration and provide appropriate postoperative analgesia. However, intrathecal injection of opioids is associated with upsetting side effects including pruritus. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor agonist has anti-pruritus effects. Therefore, we conducted a double blind randomized case-control study to evaluate prophylactic effects of ondansetron for preventing intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus. Materials and Methods: Two hundred seven patients with ASA status I, II or III, who were candidate for pelvic or lower extremity surgery with spinal anesthesia (SA using bupivacaine hyperbaric (10-15 mg and fentanyl (25 μg were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups of case (ondansetron 8 mg IV and control (4 ml normal saline IV. Patients’ hemodynamic indexes and side effects were evaluated at 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes and then hourly up to 6 hours after SA. Pruritus presence, degree, and site were evaluated after two and six hours. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student t-test, Mann–Whitney U, χP2P, Fisher exact test, and Spearman linear correlation coefficient. Results: The pruritus incidence was 60% in control and 34% in case group. Severe pruritus was observed in 18% of control group and 6% of case group. Ninety four percent of patients with pruritus in control group expressed it in above TR6R dermatomes and 74% of patients with pruritus in case group had pruritus in TR6R-LR1R dermatomes. The incidence of pruritus in LR1R-lower dermatomes was similar in two groups. Headache and nausea after anesthesia were more common in control group (p=0.035. Conclusion: Ondansetron decrease incidence and degree of intrathecal fentanyl-induced pruritus. This reduction was more significant around injection area TR6R-LR1R dermatomes. Ondansetron injection does not influence systolic blood pressure, duration of anesthesia and analgesia, and does not

  5. Uremic pruritus in hemodialysis patients: treatment with desloratidine versus gabapentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uremic pruritus is common among dialysis patients. Effective treatments are not readily available. Early evidence with antihistamines and gabapentin indicate variable effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and side effects of gabapentin and desloratadine in patients with dialysis pruritus. METHODS: Prospective, open-label, cross-over clinical trial in 22 patients on chronic hemodialysis with sustained pruritus over a period of at least 60 days. After a one-week run-in period, we assigned patients to three weeks of either gabapentin 300 mg thrice weekly or desloratadine 5 mg thrice weekly. After a one-week washout period, each patient crossed-over to the alternate regimen for three more weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was the change in the visual analogue pruritus score (VAS. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects completed the two treatment blocks and were available for analysis. VAS scores decreased with both treatments (5.95 to 4.6 with gabapentin, p = 0.07; 5.89 to 3.4 with desloratadine, p = 0.004, but only desloratadine reached statistical significance. There were no differences when comparing the final pruritus score with gabapentin and desloratadine (4.6 versus 3.4, p = 0.16 Excessive sedation was common with gabapentin. Desloratadine was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Desloratadine provides significant relief of uremic pruritus compared with no therapy. gabapentin has marginal efficacy. Desloratadine is better tolerated than gabapentin.

  6. Oral ketotifen and topical antibiotic therapy in the management of pruritus in prurigo nodularis: A randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashimav Deb Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the role of oral ketotifen and topical antibiotic therapy in the management of pruritus in prurigo nodularis (PN patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with PN and a history of atopy with raised IgE were included in this study in a dermatology clinic. All patients had positive growth of Staphylococcus aureus on the lesional skin swab. All patients received topical halobetasol and oral hydroxyzine for 4 weeks. In addition, all patients in the study group received oral ketotifen and topical antibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. Randomization was performed by using a table of random numbers, and the participants were randomly allocated to one of the two groups in the study. The study was a single-blind study, and the blinding was done by the investigator. Results: Of the 14 patients in the study group, 9 had complete relief from pruritus by the end of first week, which was maintained till the end of 4 weeks. In the control group, mild to moderate reduction in the intensity of pruritus in the PN lesions of all patients were noted by the end of the first week. No further improvement in the level of pruritus was noted in the participants during the trial period. The treatment was well tolerated by the patients, and the adverse reactions of drugs were minimal in both groups. Conclusions: This study showed that oral ketotifen and topical antibiotic therapy can be helpful in the management of pruritus in PN patients.

  7. Aprepitant for the Treatment of Chronic Refractory Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a difficult condition to treat and is associated with several comorbidities, including insomnia, depression, and decreased quality of life. Treatment for chronic itch includes corticosteroids, antihistamines, and systemic therapies such as naltrexone, gabapentin, UV light therapy, and immunomodulatory treatments, including azathioprine, methotrexate, and cellcept. However, some patients still remain refractory to conventional therapy. Aprepitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting (CINV, PONV. Recently, aprepitant has demonstrated effectiveness in several case series and open label trials in relieving pruritus for patients refractory to other treatments. Patients with pruritus associated with Sézary syndrome, mycosis fungoides, lung adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma, sarcomas, metastatic solid tumors, chronic kidney disease, hyperuricemia, iron deficiency, brachioradial pruritus, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma have experienced considerable symptom relief with short-term use of aprepitant (up to two weeks. Due to differences in reporting and evaluation of drug effects, the mechanism of aprepitant’s role is difficult to understand based on the current literature. Herein, we evaluate aprepitant’s antipruritic effects and discuss its mechanism of action and adverse effects. We propose that aprepitant is an alternative for patients suffering from pruritus who do not obtain enough symptom relief from conventional therapy.

  8. Sleep deprivation and stressors: evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Jared D; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C; Jones, Christopher W; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Simpson, Norah S; Dinges, David F

    2012-10-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two separate experiments (total N = 53). Sleep was manipulated in a controlled, laboratory setting and stressor intensity was manipulated by changing difficulty of cognitive tasks, time pressure, and feedback about performance. Sleep-deprived participants reported greater subjective stress, anxiety, and anger than rested controls following exposure to the low-stressor condition, but not in response to the high-stressor condition, which elevated negative mood and stress about equally for both sleep conditions. These results suggest that sleep deprivation lowers the psychological threshold for the perception of stress from cognitive demands but does not selectively increase the magnitude of negative affect in response to high-stress performance demands.

  9. Mild elevation of fasting plasma glucose is a strong risk factor for postoperative complications in gastric bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryniak, Leszek; Strzelczyk, Janusz; Pawlowski, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    Bariatric surgery may be associated with surgical complications. The aim of the study was to identify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). The study consisted of 75 consecutive patients undergoing RYGBP. Full medical examination was performed, and the following parameters were assessed in the fasting state: plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, serum lipids, liver function tests, and lipoprotein Lp(a). All subjects had oral 75 g glucose tolerance test before the surgery. All complications occurring within 6 months after the RYGBP were recorded. The patients were divided into Group 1 - patients in whom complications occurred, and Group 2 - patients with no complications in the 6-month period. Postoperative complications occurred in 16 patients (wound infection, hernia, splenic injury, gastro-jejunal obstruction, duodenal ulcer, lower limb deep vein thrombosis). 3 significant risk factors for postoperative complications within 6 months after gastric bypass were found: 1) fasting plasma glucose >/= 6.0 mmol/l (OR 11.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-77.3), 2) age >/=40 years (OR 5.89, 95% CI 1.35-29.4), and 3) BMI >/=45 kg/m(2) (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.04-17.2). RYGBP is associated with increased risk of developing early postoperative complications in subjects with even slightly elevated fasting plasma glucose, age >/=40 and BMI >/=45 kg/m(2).

  10. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Amelioration of pruritus by UDCA is associated with decreased progesterone disulphates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Anna; Reilly, Sarah-Jayne; Benthin, Lisbet; Lammert, Frank; Mattsson, Lars-Ake; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus, elevated bile acids, and, specifically, elevated disulphated progesterone metabolites. We aimed to study changes in these parameters during treatment with dexamethasone or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 40 out of 130 women included in the Swedish ICP intervention trial (26 randomized to placebo or UDCA, 14 randomized to dexamethasone). Serum bile acid profiles and urinary steroid hormone metabolites were analyzed using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray-mass spectrometry. We found that all patients displayed ICP-typical serum bile acid profiles with >50% cholic acid at baseline but almost 80% UDCA upon treatment with this bile acid. In UDCA-treated patients, relative amounts of disulphated progesterone metabolites in urine decreased by 34%, 48% (P acid levels. In contrast, in patients randomized to dexamethasone or placebo, no changes in steroid metabolites or pruritus scores were observed. UDCA treatment in ICP decreased urinary excretion of disulphated progesterone metabolites, suggesting that amelioration of pruritus is connected to stimulation of hepatobiliary excretion of progesterone disulphates.

  11. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S

    2012-07-28

    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs.

  12. Pathogenesis and Management of Pruritus in PBC and PSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Andreas E.; Namer, Barbara; Bolier, Ruth; Fischer, Michael J.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus is a preeminent symptom in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. More than two-thirds of these patients experience itching during the course of their disease. This symptom is also frequently observed in

  13. Association of pruritus with anxiety or aggression in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Mary P; Shofer, Frances S; Reisner, Ilana R

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the association between pruritus and anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors in dogs. Cross-sectional survey. 238 dogs between 1 and 8 years old. Information including a score for general degree of pruritus (visual analogue scale from 0 to 10) and frequency of anxiety-related and aggressive behaviors was collected via a survey distributed to clients at 3 privately owned practices. Median score for pruritus was 2.4. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of pruritus score (nonpruritic [0 to 2.4] and pruritic [2.5 to 10]). There was no significant difference between pruritic and nonpruritic dogs with regard to aggression or with regard to reactivity to being alone; to thunderstorms or noises; or to unfamiliar people, animals, or objects. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly more reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in dogs treated with glucocorticoids (18/37 [49%]) than in those not administered glucocorticoids (57/197 [29%]). An association was not detected between pruritus and aggressive, anxious, or fearful behavior in dogs. There was greater reactivity to thunderstorms or noises in glucocorticoid-treated dogs. These findings do not preclude the possibility of a relationship between certain dermatoses or pruritic conditions and behavior. However, a concurrent behavioral abnormality cannot be assumed to result from a dermatosis and be expected to resolve with treatment of only the skin disease. Dogs with behavioral disorders and pruritic disease require primary treatment of both conditions. Additional studies to examine the effect of disease and glucocorticoids on canine behavior are warranted.

  14. Dynamic Pruritus Score: Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of a New Instrument to Assess the Course of Pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ständer, Sonja; Blome, Christine; Anastasiadou, Zografia; Zeidler, Claudia; Jung, Katharina Anna; Tsianakas, Athanasios; Neufang, Gitta; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-02-08

    Currently valid itch intensity scales, such as the visual analogue scale (VAS), are indispensable, but they can be influenced by the patient's overall health status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Pruritus Score (DPS), a new instrument comparing reduction in current pruritus with a defined earlier time-point. Eighty-one randomly selected adults (50 females, mean age 53.9 years) recorded their pruritus at visit 1 and repeatedly at visit 2 on the DPS, VAS, numerical rating scale, and on health status questionnaires (EuroQol; EQ-5D), skin-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index; DLQI), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and patient benefit (Patient Benefit Index; PBI). Intraclass correlation showed high reliability for both DPS and VAS (r validity (rDPS to PBI = 0.570; p VAS for assessment of pruritus in adults. Further research is needed to confirm these results with a more representative sample size.

  15. The metabolic response in fish to mildly elevated water temperature relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazole compounds and free amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Fikremariam; Declercq, Annelies M; Remø, Sofie C; Waagbø, Rune; Lourenço, Marta; Janssens, Geert P J

    2017-04-01

    Fish species show distinct differences in their muscular concentrations of imidazoles and free amino acids (FAA). This study was conducted to investigate whether metabolic response to mildly elevated water temperature (MEWT) relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazoles and FAA. Thirteen carp and 17 Nile tilapia, housed one per aquarium, were randomly assigned to either acclimation (25°C) or MEWT (30°C) for 14 days. Main muscular concentrations were histidine (HIS; P0.05), (NAH+HIS)/TAU ratio was markedly higher in carp versus tilapia, and decreased with MEWT only in carp (Pacids in carp metabolism (Pacids (NEFA) in carp (P=0.001), the latter shows that carp, being a fatter fish, more readily mobilises fat than tilapia at MEWT, which coincides with more intensive muscular mobilization of imidazoles. This study demonstrates that fish species differ in their metabolic response to MEWT, which is associated with species-dependent changes in muscle imidazole to taurine ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Pruritus: An Expert Consensus Review

    OpenAIRE

    Murlidhar Rajagopalan; Abir Saraswat; Kiran Godse; D S Krupa Shankar; Sanjiv Kandhari; Shrutakirthi D Shenoi; Sushil Tahiliani; V Vijay Zawar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to formulate the best clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus (CP). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the WHO's regional databases, for studies on “Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus” from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. We screened 87 of 95 stud...

  17. Misdiagnosed Pruritus; Formication due to Chronic Amphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahabzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amphetamine abusers are shown to have significant cognitive impairments as well as delusional disorders. We present a 17-year-old man who was admitted to the toxicology emergency department with amphetamine overdose. Along with the classic signs and symptoms of overdose including mydriasis, tachycardia, hypertension, sweating and severe agitation, his urine toxicology screen test was found to be positive for 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. In physical examination, widespread round-to-oval cutaneous lesions were observed all over his limbs and chest, notably the most easily reached sites of skin to be scratched. After regaining consciousness, the patient complained of pruritus and sensing the movement of insects under his skin. Further medical history showed that he had abused amphetamines for more than two years along with persistent pruritus, for which he had visited different physicians who mainly had made the diagnosis of allergy or dermatitis for him. He had been treated with antihistamines (hydroxyzine for a long period. He also had been diagnosed with scabies and treated with topical permethrin and lindane lotion. Despite receiving these treatments, he continued to have pruritus particularly on his forearms and hands. He was finally diagnosed with “Ekbom’s syndrome” and referred to psychological rehabilitation and psychosomatic outpatient clinic.

  18. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkkinen Essi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP. Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%, magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%] (Smart Salt. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45 with systolic (SBP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na, potassium (dU-K and magnesium (dU-Mg. Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012 and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016. SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072 slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816

  19. Evaluation of generalized pruritus in patients without primary skin lesions in Razi Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Jomhori P; Daneshpajooh M; Akhiani M

    2001-01-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. It has long been recognized as a presenting or concomitant symptom of many systemic diseases. Indeed, generalized pruritus is reported to be associated with underlying diseases in 10-50 percent of cases. This study was conducted to investigate the underlying diseases in pruritic patients without primary skin lesion. Seventy-five patients with at least one-month history of pruritus with no primary skin lesions, presenting...

  20. Prurido braquiorradial tratado com talidomida Brachioradial pruritus treated with thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Prurido braquiorradial é um tipo de prurido ou sensação de ardor intenso que acomete a região anterior do terço distal dos braços e terço proximal dos antebraços, correspondendo à região do músculo braquiorradial. A doença tem sido associada à radiação solar e também, cogitou-se, a lesões ortopédicas na coluna cervical. Uma das características da doença é a refratariedade ao tratamento. O autor apresenta duas pacientes com prurido braquiorradial tratadas com talidomida, com resultados excelentes.Brachioradial pruritus is a type of itching or a very intense burning sensation in the anterior distal third of arms and proximal third of forearms, corresponding to the brachioradial muscle region. The condition has been associated with solar radiation, and some authors related to orthopedic lesions in the cervical spine. The author presents two patients suffering from brachioradial pruritus who were treated with thalidomide and presented excellent results. This paper aims to suggest a new therapeutic option for this refractory disease.

  1. Numerical study of laminar nonpremixed methane flames in coflow jets: Autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edges and MILD combustion at elevated temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    M. Al-Noman, Saeed

    2016-07-07

    Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively low initial temperature, a non-autoignited nozzle-attached flame is simulated at relatively low jet velocity. When the initial temperature is higher than that required for autoignition, two regimes are investigated: an autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge structure and an autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion. The autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge exhibited three branches: lean and rich premixed flame wings and a trailing diffusion flame. Characteristics of kinetic structure for autoignited lifted flames are discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of stoichiometric mixture. Results showed that a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. The autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion occurs when methane fuel is highly diluted with nitrogen. The kinetic structure analysis shows that the characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to nozzle-attached flame was investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction. As the maximum flame temperature increases with decreasing liftoff height, the kinetic structure showed a transition behavior from autoignition to flame propagation of a lean premixed flame. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  2. Prevalence, Pattern and Association of Pruritus with Quality of Life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Pruritus is a common cutaneous manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression which may contribute to reduction in quality of life (QoL). Paying more attention to pruritus in CKD patients may improve their QoL, reduce kidney disease burden ...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of aquagenic pruritus in a young African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oziegbe E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquagenic pruritus (AP occurs during or after contact of the skin with water such as occurs in bathing. Methods This study aims to describe the prevalence of aquagenic pruritus in a young adult population and describe the circumstances of bathing. A Population-based cross sectional study involving administration of Questionnaires to young adult Nigerians on the occurrence of pruritus associated with bathing. Results The prevalence of bathing pruritus among respondents in this study was 23.8%. The commonest type of water respondents itch to was rain water (23% followed by cold water (19%. 8.33% of respondents feels like avoiding bathing because of these. Conclusion Bathing pruritus is a common finding among young adult Nigerians in the general population.

  4. Recent advances in pathogenesis and management of pruritus in cholestatic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Man

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is one of the common clinical manifestations of cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Potential incentives of itching include bile salts, histamine, progesterone metabolites, endogenous opioid substances, and lysophosphatidic acid, according to previous studies. However, the exact pathogenesis of cholestatic pruritus remains unclear, and the current treatment can only alleviate the symptoms in some of the patients. Novel methods for treating pruritus have been proposed and/or are being studied. The recent experimental and clinical studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of pruritus in cholestatic hepatitis are reviewed, in order to improve the understanding and management of cholestatic pruritus.

  5. Serum autotaxin is increased in pruritus of cholestasis, but not of other origin, and responds to therapeutic interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Andreas E.; van Dijk, Remco; Leckie, Pamela; Schaap, Frank G.; Kuiper, Edith M. M.; Mettang, Thomas; Reiners, Katrin S.; Raap, Ulrike; van Buuren, Henk R.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Davies, Nathan A.; Rust, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Jalan, Rajiv; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Pruritus is a seriously disabling symptom accompanying many cholestatic liver disorders. Recent experimental evidence implicated the lysophospholipase, autotaxin (ATX), and its product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), as potential mediators of cholestatic pruritus. In this study, we highlight that

  6. Ninety-year-old man with hypereosinophilia, lymphadenopathies and pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, José Guilherme; Jorge, Ana; Rei, Daniel; Graça, Joana

    2018-01-10

    We report a case of a 90-year-old man with hypereosinophilia, lymphadenopathies and skin lesions, namely lichenification and pruritus. An aetiological investigation was performed, and a bone marrow (BM) biopsy and aspirate showed a hypercellular marrow with hypereosinophilia without dysmorphia or abnormal elements, and the BM and inguinal node's immunophenotyping denied any presence of abnormal lymphoid cell population. The inguinal node biopsy revealed a multinodular proliferation of large cells S100 and CD1a+, and a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made. The hypereosinophilia and skin lesions were managed with corticotherapy with substantial improvement of cutaneous lesions and lymphadenopathies and normalisation of eosinophil count. Finally, to define if it is a single or multisystem disease, a skin biopsy will be necessary. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....

  8. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.

    2008-01-01

    , sleep quality and pruritus-related quality of life. Psoriasis severity was assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Factor analysis of descriptors confirmed both an affective and a sensory pruritus severity dimension. Multivariate statistics, controlling for age, gender, disease duration...... and severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  9. Influence of formulated neem seed oil and jatropha curcas seed oil on wire drawing of mild steel and medium carbon steel at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuda Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available So many facets of hot wire drawing process, despite its extensive and long time employment in the industries, still remain unclear, due to want of systematic investigation of the process. This work investigated the influence of formulated neem seed and jatropha seed oil as lubricants, using antimony dialkyl dithiocarbamates (ADTC as an additive, on wire drawing process. The suitability of the bio-based oils in friction and wear control during wire drawing process were investigated, using a four ball tester. Experimental drawing process, using a Tungsten Carbide die and the formulated lubricants was carried out on mild steel and medium carbon steel rod (6 and 8mm diameter respectively at temperatures from 20OC to 750OC, on a drawing bench. The stresses and the temperature distribution profiles along the work-piece were reported. Up to 45% of reductions in area, without wire fracture, achieved on the drawing of the medium carbon steel have equally been reported.

  10. Brachioradial pruritus in a patient with cervical disc herniation and Parsonage-Turner syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Alves, Rosário; Selores, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Brachioradial pruritus is a chronic sensory neuropathy of unknown etiology which affects the skin of the shoulders, arms and forearms on the insertion of the brachioradialis muscle. We describe the case of a 60-yearold woman recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma who refers paresis, severe pruritus and itching lesions on the right arm with 6 months of evolution. Investigation led to a diagnosis of Brachioradial pruritus consequent to the presence of cervical disc herniation and Parsonage-Turner syndrome. The patient started gabapentin 900mg/day with good control of itching. Corticosteroids and antihistamines are often ineffective in the treatment of BP. Gabapentin has been used with encouraging results. All patients with Brachioradial pruritus should be evaluated for cervical spine injuries. PMID:26131874

  11. Body concept of patients with chronic pruritus in relation to scratch lesions and psychic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A; Ständer, S; Phan, N Q; Tanneberger, A; Heuft, G; Schneider, G

    2013-01-01

    There are only a few studies about the body concept of patients with chronic pruritus. We examined the body concept of this group of patients taking into account subgroup-specific differences, limitations of quality of life and the comparison to patients with eating disorders and a healthy control group. 284 participants with chronic pruritus filled in the Frankfurt Body Concept Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests, variance analysis and Pearson's correlations. Patients with chronic pruritus had a more negative body concept than healthy individuals but a less negative concept than patients with eating disorders. Higher levels of depression and anxiety were related to a more negative body image. The body concept of patients with chronic pruritus should be taken into consideration when planning therapy. Whether the body concept changes after successful treatment has to be examined in further studies. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Clinical and psychological characteristics of patients with psoriasis reporting various frequencies of pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, Konrad; Steuden, Stanisława; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Pruritus is a common subjective symptom of psoriasis whose levels may be affected by a range of variables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of pruritus and its associations with clinical and psychological characteristics of psoriasis patients. One-hundred and seventy-four patients with psoriasis took part in the study, and they were assessed on clinical (psoriasis area and severity index [PASI], localization of lesions, pruritus severity, duration of the disease) and psychological (coping, personality, cognitive appraisal of the disease, quality of life) variables. ANOVA, Pearson's χ(2)-tests, and correlational analyses were employed to analyze the data. The frequency of reported pruritus was found to be related to PASI (P resignation (P resignation still significantly correlated with pruritus frequency. The findings emphasize the importance of pruritus in the majority of psoriasis patients and its significant association with compromised quality of life, older age, greater psoriasis severity, and a specific pattern of psychological responses to stress. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Circulating levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate are elevated in severe, but not mild psoriasis and are unresponsive to anti-TNF-α treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio; Xu, Ning; Sar, Daniel G.; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-07-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules with a putative role in inflammation. Alterations in sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, have been consistently observed in psoriatic skin. Herein, we quantified the circulating sphingolipid profile in individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. In addition, the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment were determined. Levels of sphingoid bases, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased in severe (P TNF-α treatment despite significant improvement in psoriasis lesions. Circulating levels of sphingomyelins and ceramides shifted in a fatty acid chain length-dependent manner. These alterations were also observed in psoriasis skin lesions and were associated with changes in mRNA levels of ceramide synthases. The lack of S1P response to treatment may have pathobiological implications due to its close relation to the vascular and immune systems. In particular, increased levels of sphingolipids and especially S1P in severe psoriasis patients requiring biological treatment may potentially be associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. The fact that shifts in S1P levels were not ameliorated by anti-TNF-α treatment, despite improvements in the skin lesions, further supports targeting S1P receptors as therapy for severe psoriasis.

  14. Lingmao Formula Combined with Entecavir for HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Methods. 301 patients were randomly assigned to receive Lingmao Formula combined with entecavir (treatment group or placebo combined with entecavir (control group for 52 weeks. The outcomes of interest included the reduction of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg loss, HBeAg seroconversion, ALT normalization, and histological improvement. Results. The mean decrease of serum HBV DNA level from baseline and the percentage of patients who had reduction in serum HBV DNA level ≥2 lg copies/mL in treatment group were significantly greater than that in control group (5.5 versus 5.4 lg copies/mL, P=0.010; 98.5% versus 92.6%, P=0.019. The percentage of HBeAg loss in treatment group was 22.8%, which was much higher than a percentage of 12.6% in control group (P=0.038. There was no significant difference between the two groups in histological improvement. Safety was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. The combination of Lingmao Formula with entecavir could result in significant decrease of serum HBV DNA and increase of HBeAg loss for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with mildly elevated ALT without any serious adverse events. Clinical trial registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-09000594.

  15. Elevated CSF levels of TACE activity and soluble TNF receptors in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blennow Kaj

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently reported that expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, are significantly changed in the brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Moreover, we also found that, in an Alzheimer's mouse model, genetic deletion of TNF receptor (TNFR1 reduces amyloid plaques and amyloid beta peptides (Aβ production through β-secretase (BACE1 regulation. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17 does not only cleave pro- TNF-α but also TNF receptors, however, whether the TACE activity was changed in the CSF was not clear. In this study, we examined TACE in the CSF in 32 AD patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. Interestingly, we found that TACE activity was significantly elevated in the CSF from AD patients compared with HCs. Furthermore, we also assayed the CSF levels of TACE cleaved soluble forms of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in the same patients. We found that AD patients had higher levels of both TACE cleaved soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1 and TNFR2 (sTNFR2 in the CSF compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Levels of sTNFR1 correlated strongly with the levels of sTNFR2 (rs = 0.567-0.663, p

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Montelukast for Treatment of Uremic Pruritus in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudpour, Mehdi; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Pakfetrat, Maryam; Ezzat Zadegan, Shahrokh; Sagheb, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Uremic pruritus is one of the most common disabling symptoms in patients with end-stage renal disease. We aimed to study the effect of montelukast sodium for the treatment of uremic pruritus lasting more than 3 months in patients undergoing hemodialysis and compare it with placebo. Eighty patients undergoing hemodialysis at 3 centers in Shiraz, Iran, were recruited to a randomized double-blinded controlled trial to receive 10 mg of montelukast or placebo, daily for 30 days. To assess the severity of pruritus, a visual analogue scale and the Detailed Pruritus Score, based on a combined score of severity and distribution of pruritus and sleep disturbance, were used. Sleep disturbance, severity, and distribution scores were added up to calculate the patients' final score at the start and the end of the study. The mean reduction of visual analogue scale score was significantly greater in the montelukast group (2.73 ± 2.03) compared to that in the placebo group (5.47 ± 2.37, P montelukast group (3.24 ± 2.2 versus 6.44 ± 3.25, respectively, P montelukast group decreased from 5.48 ± 3.86 µg/mL to 3.86 ± 3.58 µg/mL, while it increased in the placebo group from 6.69 ± 4.49 µg/mL to 8.14 ± 5.20 µg/mL. Montelukast can be an add-on therapy in uremic pruritus, especially when pruritus is refractive to other treatments.

  17. Effectiveness of posthemodialysis administration of pregabalin (75 mg in treatment resistance uremia pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uremic pruritus (UP is one of the complications faced by majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. Due to complex pathophysiology of UP, most of the anti-inflammatory and tropical lubricants often not provide a long lasting control over pruritus. Recently the uses of certain anti-epileptics are found to demonstrate promising relief to UP. To test the effect of 75 mg pregabalin in patients with treatment resistance pruritus. Data was prospectively collected from a patient with ESRD and suffering from treatment resistance pruritus. Intensity of pruritus was recorded using 5D-itching scale (5D-IS and visual analogue scale (VAS. Pre and post assessment was done for this patient, on initial assess the parathyroid hormone level of the patient was 70.5 pg/ml with a serum phosphate level of 2.61 mmol/L. Upon initial assess the VAS score was 8 and 5D-IS score was twenty. After the duration of four weeks of pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis, 5D-IS score reduced to 8 and VAS score move down to 3. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis was found to reduce the intensity of UP. Pregabalin 75 mg post hemodialysis can be another option to treat UP.

  18. Effectiveness of topical peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie LT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lotfy T Elsaie,1,† Abdelraouf M El Mohsen,1 Ibrahim M Ibrahim,1 Mahmoud H Mohey-Eddin,1 Mohamed L Elsaie2 1Department of Dermatology, Al Azhar University, 2Department of Dermatology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt †Dr Lotfy T Elsaie passed away on December 17, 2014 Background: Pruritus is one of the commonest skin complaints. Peppermint oil can be effective in reducing the severity of such a condition.Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topically applied peppermint oil in the treatment of chronic pruritus.Subjects and methods: Fifty selected subjects diagnosed with chronic pruritus due to hepatic, renal, or diabetic cause were studied and divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Group I patients were instructed to hydrate the skin and then apply topical peppermint oil, while Group II patients applied petrolatum topically by hand; this application was done on the areas of pruritus, twice daily for 2 weeks. The severity of the itch was assessed and compared before and after the study by the 5-D itch scale (5D-IS. The results were analyzed by SPSS software. ­Statistical methods such as descriptive analysis, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and chi-square test were employed.Results: There was a significant improvement regarding all studied individual parameters (5-D IS for the peppermint oil users with no significance among petrolatum users. A comparison of total score of 5-D IS between patients of Group I and patients of Group II favored the improvement following the use of peppermint oil than using placebo (P-value <0.05.Conclusion: The topical treatment of chronic pruritus with peppermint oil is effective, easy to use, safe, cheap, and more acceptable for those whose topical and systemic treatments tend to be irritating, contraindicated, or less well tolerated. Keywords: pruritus, peppermint oil, itch

  19. Effects of pain Scrambler therapy for management of burn scar pruritus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, So Young; Cho, Yoon Soo; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kym, Dohern; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2017-05-01

    Pain Scrambler therapy is a patient-specific electrocutaneous nerve stimulation device. Burn pruritus is a common form of chronic and disabling neuropathic pain that is often difficult to treat effectively. Pruritus is mediated by histamines, which are effector molecules stored in mast cells and released locally during injury or inflammation. Burn pruritus may be accompanied by peripheral neuropathic pain, which may result from injury to sensory nerves that hampers conductance of neuronal messages along the large A and small C afferent fibers to the spinal cord. In this study, we investigated the effect of pain Scrambler therapy on burn scar pruritus. Sixteen subjects were recruited to participate in this study. The subjects complained of severe pruritus that was rated at least 5 on the visual analogue scale (VAS), despite treatments with antihistamines, gabapentin medication, and other physical modalities. Each Scrambler Therapy with the MC-5A Pain Scrambler Therapy(®) technology device was performed for 40min daily (Monday through Friday) for 10 consecutive days. The stimulus was increased to the maximum intensity bearable by the individual patient without causing any additional pain or discomfort. The numerical rating scale (NRS), 5-D Itch Scale, and Leuven Itch Scale were administered and evaluated immediately before Scrambler therapy, and then immediately after 5 and 10 therapy sessions. For all 16 patients, NRS showed mean values of 6.75±1.13 before therapy, 5.06±1.53 after 5 sessions, and 4.13±1.45 after 10 sessions. The NRS values before therapy and after 10 sessions were significantly different (ptreatment option for burn survivors with severe pruritus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of pruritus intensity: prospective study on validity and reliability of the visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale and verbal rating scale in 471 patients with chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Ngoc Quan; Blome, Christine; Fritz, Fleur; Gerss, Joachim; Reich, Adam; Ebata, Toshiya; Augustin, Matthias; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ständer, Sonja

    2012-09-01

    The most commonly used tool for self-report of pruritus intensity is the visual analogue scale (VAS). Similar tools are the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). In the present study, initiated by the International Forum for the Study of Itch assessing reliability of these tools, 471 randomly selected patients with chronic itch (200 males, 271 females, mean age 58.44 years) recorded their pruritus intensity on VAS (100-mm line), NRS (0-10) and VRS (four-point) scales. Re-test reliability was analysed in a subgroup of 250 patients after one hour. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability and concurrent validity (r>0.8; pscales showed a high correlation. In conclusion, high reliability and concurrent validity was found for VAS, NRS and VRS. On re-test, higher correlation and less missing values were observed. A training session before starting a clinical trial is recommended.

  1. Responses to intradermal injections of substance P in psoriasis patients with pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, B; Nordlind, K; Wahlgren, C-F

    2010-01-01

    Various mediators have been suggested for the pathogenesis of pruritus in psoriasis. To investigate cutaneous responses of substance P in pruritic lesional and nonlesional areas of psoriasis patients and in healthy controls, substance P, saline and histamine were injected intradermally. After each injection, pruritus, flare and wheal were recorded. There was no statistical difference in the latency period, duration, area under the curve and maximum intensity of pruritus evoked by substance P (10(-5) and 10(-6) mol/l) between psoriasis and healthy control skin. Substance P (10(-5) mol/l) induced a tendency to a greater intensity of pruritus in lesional compared to nonlesional psoriatic skin (p = 0.08). Histamine produced a shorter itch latency period (p skin than in healthy control skin. No significant difference in flare area was observed between the psoriasis patients and healthy controls. The histamine-induced wheal was smaller in psoriasis patients than in healthy individuals (p wheal in psoriasis patients. However, these responses did not differ significantly from those of the healthy controls. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. European EADV network on assessment of severity and burden of Pruritus (PruNet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ständer, S.; Zeidler, C.; Riepe, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic pruritus is a frequently occurring symptom of various dermatoses that causes a high burden and impaired quality of life. An effective anti pruritic therapy is important for the patient, but its effectiveness is difficult to evaluate. Diverse methods and interpretations of prur...

  3. Environmental NO2 and CO Exposure: Ignored Factors Associated with Uremic Pruritus in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-08-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP), also known as chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus, is a common and disabling symptom in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The pathogenesis of UP is multifactorial and poorly understood. Outdoor air pollution has well-known effects on the health of patients with allergic diseases through an inflammatory process. Air pollution-induced inflammation could occur in the skin and aggravate skin symptoms such as pruritus or impair epidermal barrier function. To assess the role of air pollutants, and other clinical variables on uremic pruritus (UP) in HD patients, we recruited 866 patients on maintenance HD. We analyzed the following variables for association with UP: average previous 12-month and 24-month background concentrations for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), and suspended particulate matter of hemodialysis duration, serum ferritin levels, low-density lipoprotein levels, and environmental NO2/CO levels were positively associated with UP, and serum albumin levels were negatively associated with UP. This cross-sectional study showed that air pollutants such as NO2 and CO might be associated with UP in patients with MHD.

  4. Epidemiology and determinants of pruritus in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Berna; Acikgoz, Seyyid Bilal; Sipahi, Savas; Erdem, Teoman

    2016-04-01

    There are only a few small studies investigating chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus (CKD-P) in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). None of these has taken into account the associations of CKD-P with clinical features and laboratory data. We aimed to study prevalence of and clinical and laboratory associates of CKD-P in pre-dialysis CKD patients. A total of 402 consecutive stage 2-5 pre-dialysis CKD patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Pruritus was scored based on visual analog scale (VAS). Demographic and clinical features, comorbidities, smoking status and current medication use were recorded. 25 (OH) Vitamin D, urea, creatinine, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), magnesium, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), complete blood count and differential and other laboratory tests were studied for each participant. This is the largest study conducted in pre-dialysis population with respect to pruritus and associated factors. The prevalence of CKD-P was 18.9%. Hemoglobin level was significantly lower, and eosinophil count and frequency of xerosis cutis were significantly higher in patients with CKD-P than those of patients without pruritus. However, there was no statistical difference between the pruritus and nonpruritus groups regarding vitamin D, PTH, calcium, phosphorus, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CRP. CKD-P was almost present in one in every five pre-dialysis CKD patients. Interestingly, the prevalence was not affected by the stage of the CKD. For the first time, our results showed a significant association between CKD-P and peripheral eosinophilia and anemia. Besides this, xerosis cutis seems a determinant factor for CKD-P and its severity.

  5. The relationship of functional pruritus with anger and associated psychiatric disorders

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    İlknur Kıvanç Altunay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Functional itch disorder is assessed among somatization disorders. Suppressed anger may play a role in the development of somatization and, thus, functional itch disorder. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of severity of itching with anger, expression of anger and psychiatric disorders in patients with functional itch disorder. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who were diagnosed with functional itch disorder were enrolled into the study. Functional itch disorder was diagnosed according to the suggested diagnostic criteria from the French psychodermatology group. Pruritus severity was evaluated using the five-point Likert scale. The State-Trait Anger Expression Index was used to assess state anger, trait anger and anger expression and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus 5.0.0 was used for determining psychiatric status. Results: A total of 40 patients (30 (75% females, 10 (25% males with a mean age 46.55±13.20 years were enrolled in the study. According to the results of the M.I.N.I., psychiatric comorbidities at the time of itching were existent in 29 (72.5% patients, whereas 13 (27.5% patients did not have any other psychiatric symptom. Pruritus duration was correlated with anger trait and anger-in subscale scores in all patients. (r=0.349, p=0.027, r=0.417, p=0.007, respectively. Trait anger and anger-out subscale scores were statistically higher in patients with psychiatric disorders (p<0.05. Anger control scores were also lower in this group. Pruritus duration was correlated with trait-anger and anger-in subscale scores in patients with psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Functional pruritus (FP as a somatoform psychodermatologic disorder seems to be related with anger levels and anger management styles; and psychiatric disorders are frequently accompanied by functional pruritus

  6. Evaluation of generalized pruritus in patients without primary skin lesions in Razi Hospital

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    Jomhori P

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. It has long been recognized as a presenting or concomitant symptom of many systemic diseases. Indeed, generalized pruritus is reported to be associated with underlying diseases in 10-50 percent of cases. This study was conducted to investigate the underlying diseases in pruritic patients without primary skin lesion. Seventy-five patients with at least one-month history of pruritus with no primary skin lesions, presenting to dermatological clinics of Razi Hospital, from April 97 until December 99 were evaluated. The work up procedure consisted of medical history, physical examination, laboratory findings (CBC, ESR, blood chemistry, thyroid function tests, urinalysis, stool exam, chest X-ray and in selected cases, additional specific tests. Fifty-four patients were female, and 21 male the mean age was 45.7y±16.41, and the mean duration of pruritus, 21.8m±21. In 43 patients (75.4 percent, no abnormal finding was detected. Five patients (6.66 percent had atopy. In the remaining 27 patients (36 percent, the following abnormalities were found: Iron deficiency in 6 patients (8 percent, diabetes mellitus in 6 patients (8 percent, hyperthyroidism in 4 patients (5.33 percent, hypothyroidism in 2 patients (2.66 percent, lymphoma in 3 patients (4 percent, chronic hepatitis, hypocalcaemia, cholelithiasis, psychosis and chronic renal failure each in one patient (1.3 percent. Evaluation of patients with pruritus may be a valuable tool for early detection of underlying systemic diseases.

  7. Treatment of Signs and Symptoms (Pruritus) of Interdigital Tinea Pedis With Econazole Nitrate Foam, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren K; Raymond, Isabelle; Kircik, Leon

    2018-02-01

    Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophyte infection. Treatment is critical to alleviate pruritic symptoms, to reduce the risk for secondary bacterial infection, and to limit the spread of infection to other body sites or other individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of econazole nitrate topical foam, 1% and ketoconazole cream (2%) to reduce pruritus, thus improving quality of life, and to determine patient preference for the foam product versus the cream product in patients with interdigital tinea pedis. A single-center, investigator-blinded, observational pilot study was conducted to compare econazole nitrate topical foam (1%) to ketoconazole cream (2%). In this split-body study, 20 subjects received both econazole nitrate topical foam and ketoconazole cream and applied the medications daily to either the right or left foot for 14 days. Improvements in patient quality of life (pruritus) and patient preference were measured using the pruritus visual analog scale (VAS), Skindex-16, and patient preference questionnaires. Nineteen subjects completed the study and one subject was lost to follow-up. Reductions in VAS scores of econazole nitrate topical foam were significantly greater than those of ketoconazole cream, indicating the superiority of the econazole nitrate foam in reducing pruritus. Skindex-16 data showed significant reductions in total scores and individual domains, including patient symptom, emotional, and functional domains, by the final visit. Since each subject received both medications the questionnaire was not medication-specific. Responses to patient preference questionnaires showed that econazole nitrate topical foam,1% was rated as "good" or "excellent" in all measures assessed. One adverse event was noted. In patients with interdigital tinea pedis, application of econazole nitrate topical foam 1% twice daily for two weeks was clinically effective and significantly superior to ketoconazole cream 2% in reducing

  8. Pilot evaluation of the efficacy of shampoo treatment with ultrapure soft water for canine pruritus.

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    Ohmori, Keitaro; Tanaka, Akane; Makita, Yuka; Takai, Masaki; Yoshinari, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Ultrapure soft water (UPSW) is water in which calcium and magnesium ions have been replaced with sodium ions using a cation-exchange resin. We recently demonstrated that washing with soap and UPSW reduced the clinical severity of dermatitis and improved the skin barrier function in NC/NgaTnd mice, a murine model for human atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of shampoo treatment with UPSW for dogs with pruritus. Eleven dogs with pruritus were randomly assigned to two groups depending on whether they received weekly shampoo treatment with UPSW or tap water for 4 weeks. After a washout period, the treatment protocol was switched such that each dog received both treatments. The pre-treatment and post-treatment values of the following were compared: pruritus scores assessed by the owners; dermatitis scores recorded by an investigator; and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Shampoo treatment with UPSW significantly decreased pruritus and dermatitis scores in the dogs, whereas shampoo treatment with tap water did not. In addition, shampoo treatment with UPSW, but not with tap water, significantly reduced TEWL in the dogs. Adverse events due to the treatment were not observed in the dogs. Furthermore, we found that topical application of UPSW for barrier-disrupted skin caused by tape stripping in healthy dogs decreased TEWL more rapidly than topical application of tap water. Our findings suggest that shampoo treatment with UPSW promotes skin barrier recovery and thus could be considered as a possible therapeutic option in the management of pruritus and dermatitis in dogs. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Comparison of Avena sativa, vinegar, and hydroxyzine for uremic pruritus of hemodialysis patients: a crossover randomized clinical trial.

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    Nakhaee, Samaneh; Nasiri, Ahmad; Waghei, Yadollah; Morshedi, Jamileh

    2015-07-01

    Uremic pruritus is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease. While its cause is not known for certain, different treatments are currently applied. This study aimed to compare the effects of Avena sativa, diluted vinegar, and hydroxyzine on the reduction of uremic pruritus. In this crossover randomized clinical trial, 23 hemodialysis patients with uremic pruritus were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group was treated with Avena sativa lotion, twice a day, for as long as 2 weeks; the second group received diluted vinegar; and the third group took hydroxyzine tablets for the same time span. After 3-day-long washout periods, the therapeutic methods were crossed over. The data were collected by a pruritus scale and a visual analogue scale, which were completed before and after the interventions. Avena sativa lotion significantly decreased the mean scores of pruritus intensity, consequences, and the verbal descriptor, although it did not have a significant effect on the frequency of pruritus and the pruritic surface. Vinegar and hydroxyzine significantly decreased all of the scores.  Conclusions. Avena sativa, vinegar, and hydroxyzine were effective in decreasing pruritus. Diluted vinegar and Avena sativa can be used as a complement to hydroxyzine, which is itself a common pharmaceutical therapy.

  10. [What would you do with a 29-weeks pregnant woman with generalised pruritus?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, B; López Faraldo, A

    2014-10-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a reversible disease of variable frequency. The pathophysiology involves an increase of the bile acids in the fetal blood of the mother and the fetus. The high concentrations of the bile acids cause maternal pruritus and high perinatal morbimortality. Primary Care physicians in close contact with the patient must have a high index of suspicion when faced with typical symptoms of cholestasis, such as generalized pruritus in women in the second or third trimester of gestation to be able to act on the consequences. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphine-induced pruritus after epidural administration followed by treatment with naloxone in a cat

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    Marina C Evangelista

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A young male domestic shorthair cat weighing 1.6 kg was admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for elective orchiectomy. A lumbosacral epidural injection of preservative-free morphine (0.1 mg/kg and lidocaine (0.25 ml/kg was performed under general anesthesia. One hour after extubation, the cat became agitated. Severe licking and biting of the hindlimbs, tail and lumbar area were observed. Pruritus was suspected and likely to be caused by epidural morphine. Acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg IM was administered but clinical signs did not cease. Naloxone (2 µg/kg IV was administered and clinical signs resolved within 20 mins. Relevance and novel information Different therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of morphine-induced pruritus. This case describes an additional treatment option using opioid antagonism with naloxone.

  12. A case of Scabies with Lesions Resembling Perforating Folliculitis and Uremic Pruritus

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    Hülya Akgün

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei and characterised by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, pustules, crusts and excoriations. Several pruritic diseases may be confused with scabies. Herein, we present a case of scabies with lesions resembling perforating folliculitis diagnosed on the basis of both clinical and histopathological view. A 72-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and receiving hemodialysis for ten years due to end-stage renal disease was admitted to our dermatology department with a 6-month history of severe pruritus. Based on the results of skin biopsy revealing Sarcoptes scabiei in the epidermis, the patient was diagnosed as scabies and was successfully treated with 5% permethrin. This case is presented to emphasize that scabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of chronic pruritus.

  13. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  14. [Topical therapy of inflammatory dermatoses, pruritus and pain, as well as hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, K; Messerschmidt, A; Ochsendorf, F

    2014-03-01

    In this review, substances suitable for the topical treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, pruritus, pain and hyperhidrosis are presented. Both non-specific and specific topical treatments are discussed with respect to their mode of action, indications and side effects; included are corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, dithranol, coal tar, liquor carbonis detergens, vitamin D analogues, metronidazole, azelaic acid, retinoids, and benzoyl peroxide. Additionally, practical directions for the treatment of these common skin diseases are provided.

  15. The effect of topical scar treatment on postoperative scar pain and pruritus after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Kim, Dong-Wook; In, Yong

    2014-04-01

    The surgical wound of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) needs continuous flexion and extension movement. Silicone gel treatment is widely used to treat hypertrophic scars and keloids since it is easily applied and prevents scar pain and itching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of silicone gel applied to surgical scars of TKA on postoperative scar pain and pruritus. One hundred TKAs were randomized into a silicone gel group (silicone gel was applied to the wound after stitch-out for 1 month) or a placebo group. The postoperative scar pain and pruritus were evaluated with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS) at postoperative 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Scar assessment was done using the Vancouver scar scale by evaluating scar pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and height. Although silicone gel group showed better pigmentation and height scales than placebo group (P scar pain and pruritus VAS scores between the groups (P > 0.05). Application of silicone gel had no beneficial effects on scar pain and itching relief during the early postoperative period of TKA. I-Randomized Controlled Trial.

  16. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  17. Strategy of treatment of pruritus during pregnancy. The Drugs and Pregnancy Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    To present a procedure for establishing treatment guidelines during pregnancy and, as an application of the method, the recommendations for treatment of pruritus. A preliminary survey was carried out among participants of the study group to determine drug choices for treatment of pruritus during pregnancy. Literature data on the selected drugs were analyzed. Recommendations for treatment were proposed, taking into account for most efficient agents and the least toxic for the fetus. This draft was submitted to all participants of the study group; criticism and suggestions were gathered. A new draft was evolved and repeatedly submitted to participants until consensus was reached. Study group set up in southwestern France, with the help of national experts. Forty-three general practitioners, six gynecologists and/or obstetricians, five pharmacologists, two dermatologists, and an embryologist. The main recommendations for treatment of pruritus during pregnancy are to begin with topical treatment; emollient bath additives, moisturizing cream, talc. If insufficient, a systemic treatment should be added. Antihistamines are prescribed first: hydroxyzine or dexchlorpheniramine is used during the first 2 months. From the third month, the same agents can be used, as can mequitazine. The duration of treatment can be up to 10 days. The group's second choice was benzodiazepine (oxazepam) as second-line treatment. Strategies for treatment of diseases during pregnancy are not always well defined. For many common diseases, very few data are available concerning drug use in pregnant women. The study group, based on consensus among participants, proposed treatment guidelines.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus: a Literature Review

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    Yunes Panahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. The literature review was conducted in December 2015 and carried out by searching Scopus, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. The search terms were "kidney injury", "kidney failure", "chronic kidney disease", "end-stage renal disease", "dialysis", "hemodialysis", "peritoneal dialysis", "pruritus", "itch", "skin problems", "fish oil", "omega 3", "n-3 fatty acids", "polyunsaturated fatty acids", "docosahexaenoic acid", and "eicosapentaenoic acid". Four small studies investigating potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on symptoms of uremic pruritus were found. Among them, three small randomized controlled trials have shown a significant improvement in pruritus symptoms (evaluated by a standard questionnaire in CKD patients who took omega-3 supplement compared to omega-6, omega-9, and placebo supplementation. Despite numerous limitations of the studies, it is worth noting that even minor reduction in itching symptoms may be clinically significant for CKD patients. Therefore, and considering multiple health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in advanced CKD and negligible risk profile, omega-3 intake can wisely be applied to CKD patients with uremic pruritus.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride extended release tablets in hemodialysis patients with exploratory effect on pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Amale; Alcorn, Harry; Berg, Jolene; Hines, Carey; Hait, Howard; Sciascia, Thomas

    2015-04-08

    Uremic pruritus is a common and deleterious condition among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Central gating of μ/κ opiate circuitry plays an important role in mediating and countering pruritogenic sensation. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the mixed μ-antagonist/κ-agonist nalbuphine, administered orally as nalbuphine HCl extended release (ER) tablets in HD patients, and explore its effect on pruritus. In this open-label multiple escalating dose study, 15 HD patients with pruritus and 9 matched healthy subjects were enrolled. Nalbuphine HCl ER dose was escalated from 30 mg QD to 240 mg BID over 15 days. A full PK profile was obtained under dialysis and non-dialysis conditions as a function of dose. Clearance during dialysis was determined by sampling dialysate and arterial/venous blood during dialysis. Pruritus severity was assessed twice daily using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Safety monitoring included extensive monitoring of EKG, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry. In HD patients, nalbuphine concentration peaked within 4-9 hours and attained steady state within 2-3 days, with no significant accumulation. Mean half-life was 14.2 hours, mean Cmax and AUCtau ranged between 13 and 83 ng/mL and 118 and 761 ng∙h/mL, respectively, with exposure increasing in a nearly dose-proportional fashion. Exposure in HD patients was about 2-fold higher than in healthy subjects. There was no meaningful difference between exposure on dialysis and non-dialysis days with 1% or less of the dose removed by dialysis. Nalbuphine suppressed itch in a dose-dependent manner, reducing mean VAS score from 4.0 to 1.2 at 180 mg and 0.4 at 240 mg. Nalbuphine HCl ER tablets can be safely administered to HD patients without dose adjustment up to 240 mg BID and may hold promise in treating uremic pruritus.

  20. One-year safety and efficacy study of bilastine treatment in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria or pruritus associated with skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Akiko; Furue, Masutaka; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Hide, Michihiro

    2017-04-01

    A number of second-generation non-sedating antihistamines are used in clinical practices over the world. However, long-term safety and efficacy have not been proved high level evidence based medicine. We have performed an open-label, multicenter, phase III study to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of bilastine, a novel non-sedating H 1 -antihistamine for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) or pruritus associated with skin diseases (trial registration no. JapicCTI-142528). Patients aged 18-74 years were treated with bilastine 20 mg once daily for up to 52 weeks. Safety and tolerability were assessed on the basis of adverse events (AE), bilastine-related AE, laboratory tests and vital signs. Efficacy was assessed based on rash score, itch score, overall improvement and quality of life. One hundred and ninety-eight patients enrolled, 122 of whom (61.6%) completed the 52-week treatment period. AE were reported in 64.5% and bilastine-related AE in 2.5% of patients throughout the 52-week treatment period. All AE were mild to moderate in severity. AE associated with the nervous system occurred in 10 patients (5.1%) including seven patients (3.6%) with headache. Somnolence reported in two of these patients (1.0%) was related to bilastine. All efficacy variables improved during treatment with bilastine. In conclusion, long-term treatment with bilastine 20 mg once daily for 52 weeks is safe and well tolerated in Japanese patients with CSU or pruritus associated with skin diseases. Bilastine improved disease symptoms of both conditions early in treatment, and the efficacy was maintained throughout the treatment. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Owner assessment of pruritus and gastrointestinal signs in apparently healthy dogs with no history of cutaneous or noncutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Kacie M; Marks, Stanley L; Griffin, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    Determining the cause of pruritus relies on establishing the pattern of abnormal pruritus. The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) disease has also been helpful in determining the cause of pruritus. No study has systematically evaluated typical GI signs and pruritic behaviours in apparently healthy dogs. To evaluate owners' perceptions of pruritus and GI signs in apparently healthy dogs, and determine if age, breed, activity, diet or supplements affected these signs. Three hundred and fourteen apparently healthy dogs ≥ 12 months old with an unremarkable physical examination and no history of pruritus, otitis, skin/hair disease, metabolic or GI disease were enrolled. Thirty one veterinarians enrolled dogs after establishing their pruritus visual analog scale (PVAS) score and faecal consistency score (FCS); owners completed a comprehensive online survey regarding GI signs, possible pruritic behaviours, ear cleaning and sneezing. A PVAS score of ≤ 1.9 was recorded in 87.6% of dogs and the FCS was 2-3 in 94.9% of dogs. PVAS was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, facial/muzzle rubbing, head shaking and sneezing. Scooting was positively correlated with sneezing. Over 96% of dogs had 1-3 bowel movements (BM) per day. Age was positively correlated with facial/muzzle rubbing, sneezing, coprophagia and borborygmi. The number of walks/day was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, head shaking, sneezing, number of BM/day, coprophagia, belching, flatulence and borborygmi. A standard method of asking relevant questions was developed and the frequency of GI signs and many behaviours that may indicate pruritus in apparently healthy dogs was established. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Impact of UVA on pruritus during UVA/B phototherapy of inflammatory skin diseases: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, J-T; Kretschmer, L; Anzengruber, F; Pink, A; Murer, C; French, L E; Hofbauer, G F; Navarini, A A

    2017-07-01

    Narrowband (TL-01) UVB phototherapy (UVB nb) is effective in treating inflammatory skin disease. The addition of UVA is traditionally advocated to reduce pruritus, but lacks evidence for this recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of UVB nb and UVA phototherapy in combination compared against UVB nb monotherapy on pruritus, disease activity and quality of life. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 53 patients suffering from inflammatory skin diseases with pronounced itching (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pruritus ≥5) were randomized into two treatment groups. One group received UVB nb (311 nm) phototherapy alone and another group received a combination of UVB nb and UVA (320-400 nm) phototherapy. UV therapy was performed three times per week over 16 weeks. Pruritus (VAS and 5-D itch score), disease activity and quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQI) were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16. In both treatment groups, there was a reduction in pruritus scores, disease activity and DLQI. No difference in pruritus score, disease activity and quality of life could be detected between the group receiving UVB nb alone and those receiving UVB nb combined with UVA. Phototherapy with UVB nb alone, and UVB nb combined with UVA are equally effective in treating inflammatory skin disease and indifferent in reducing disease-associated pruritus. Given this non-inferiority for UVB nb monotherapy, the recommendation of adding UVA to UVB nb phototherapy for pruritic inflammatory skin disease should be abandoned. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Effectiveness of acupressure on pruritus and lichenification associated with atopic dermatitis: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kachiu Cecilia; Keyes, Ashley; Hensley, Jennifer R; Gordon, Jennifer R; Kwasny, Mary J; West, Dennis P; Lio, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    Pruritus is a debilitating aspect of atopic dermatitis (AD). Acupuncture has been reported to diminish pruritus, but self-administered acupressure has not been previously evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on the severity of eczema in a pilot trial. Adult patients with AD were randomised to an intervention group (acupressure with standard of care) or a control group (standard of care alone). Subjects in the intervention group performed acupressure using a 1.2 mm acupellet at the LI11 point, applying pressure for 3 min three times per week for 4 weeks. The severity of itching and AD at baseline and at 4 weeks were measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS), the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) and the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI). Fifteen subjects were enrolled, 12 of whom completed the study between November 2009 and May 2011. There was no significant change between baseline and follow-up survey scores within the control group. In the investigation group there was a decrease in the VAS score (p=0.05) and EASI lichenification (p=0.03), although without significant change in the overall EASI score. Comparison of the scores between groups showed a greater decrease in VAS in the experimental group than in the control group (p=0.04), and a decrease in the IGA (p=0.03) and EASI lichenification score (p=0.03). The overall EASI scores were unchanged. Subjects using acupressure at LI11 for 4 weeks had improvement in pruritus and lichenification. Acupressure may prove to be an easily administered alternative treatment, but larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  4. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients with self-reported pruritus symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik Ramakrishnan,1 T Christopher Bond,1 Ami Claxton,1 Vipan C Sood,2 Maria Kootsikas,2 Wendy Agnese,2 Scott Sibbel11DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Jersey City, NJ, USAAbstract: One of the most common conditions affecting end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD is pruritus. Studies report that itchy and dry skin, symptoms of pruritus, affect 40%–90% of ESRD patients. Yet, in clinical practice the condition is often underdiagnosed resulting in inadequate management and an underappreciated impact on patient outcomes. Two retrospective analyses were conducted: a preliminary analysis of ESRD patients with pruritus symptoms (n=73,124 undergoing HD or peritoneal dialysis at a large dialysis provider and a subsequent detailed analysis of a homogenous subset of patients undergoing in-center HD (n=38,315. The goal was to better understand the clinical burden of pruritus as it relates to patient characteristics, quality of life, medication use, and HD compliance. This population is commonly burdened by multiple comorbidities and related polypharmaceutical management; identifying the relationship of pruritus to these ailments can help guide future research and resource allocation. The detailed analysis confirmed trends observed in the preliminary analysis: 30% reported being "moderately" to "extremely bothered" by itchiness. The HD patient population with the highest severity of self-reported pruritus also had a consistent trend in overall increased resource utilization – higher monthly doses of erythropoietin-stimulating agents (53,397.1 to 63,405.4 units and intravenous (IV iron (237.2 to 247.6 units and higher use of IV antibiotics (14.1% to 20.7%, as well as poorer quality-of-life measures (25-point reductions in Burden of Disease Score and Effects on Daily Life subscales of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 survey. These results highlight the need to better

  5. Topical effects of N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline on ceramide synthesis and alleviation of pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashizume E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erika Hashizume,1 Tetsuo Nakano,2 Ayako Kamimura,1 Koji Morishita31Healthcare Products Development Center, Kyowa Hakko Bio, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2Technical Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Bio, Hofu, Yamaguchi, 3Technology Development and Research Department, Kyowa Hakko Bio, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: N-acetyl-l-hydroxyproline (AHYP is an acetylated form of l-hydroxyproline that is used to treat skin ulcers and porphyria cutanea tarda. Its other biological and physiological effects on the skin have not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of AHYP on the skin-barrier function, focusing on ceramide synthesis and the effects of topical AHYP on atopic dermatitis.Materials and methods: AHYP was applied to a three-dimensional cultured skin model. Ceramides were quantified by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo ceramide synthesis, and the mRNA of its long-chain base subunit 1 (SPTLC1 was evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. A clinical trial in the form of an intraindividual, comparative, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled test involving 15 female subjects suffering from slight atopic dermatitis was performed. Subjects applied 1% (w/w AHYP cream to one forearm and a control cream to the other forearm twice daily for 4 weeks. Skin condition was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Dermatological observations were made by a dermatologist, and subjects evaluated their own pruritus intensity before beginning treatment and 4 weeks after the start of treatment.Results: SPTLC1 expression and ceramide synthesis were significantly increased in an AHYP-treated skin model (P < 0.05. In the clinical trial, no adverse effects were observed in any subjects. TEWL was increased in the control-treated region of the forearm (P < 0.05 after 4 weeks' application, whereas there was no change in the AHYP-treated region of the

  6. Relationships among plasma granzyme B level, pruritus and dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis.

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    Kamata, Yayoi; Kimura, Utako; Matsuda, Hironori; Tengara, Suhandy; Kamo, Atsuko; Umehara, Yoshie; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H 1 -antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients. Plasma was collected from 46 patients with AD, 24 patients with psoriasis, and 30 healthy controls. AD severity was assessed with the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, psoriasis severity with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and degree of pruritus by visual analogue scale (VAS) score. GzmA, GzmB and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma GzmB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AD and psoriasis than in healthy controls. Correlation analyses showed that plasma GzmB concentrations positively correlated with SCORAD and serum levels of severity markers such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and lactate dehydrogenase in AD patients. Moreover, plasma levels of GRP, an itch-related peptide, were higher in patients with AD, positively correlating with VAS score and plasma GzmB level. In addition, plasma GzmB concentration was significantly lower in the treatment group than the untreated group with AD. Meanwhile, there were no correlations among GzmB levels, VAS score and PASI score in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to the results of plasma GzmB, plasma GzmA levels were unchanged among AD, psoriasis and healthy groups, and showed no correlations with VAS score and SCORAD index in patients with AD. Plasma GzmB levels may reflect the degree of pruritus and dermatitis in

  7. Pruritus (PDQ)

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    ... which the red blood cells settle to the bottom of the test tube. The sedimentation rate is ... fever , diarrhea , nausea and vomiting , or low fluid intake. Hot baths or bathing more than once a ...

  8. Chronic pruritus in Turkish dermatology outpatients: prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya Solak, Sezgi; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Mertoglu Caliskan, Eda

    2016-04-01

    Although chronic pruritus (CP) is one of the most frequent symptoms seen in dermatology outpatients, the characteristics of CP have not been thoroughly examined. Our aim was to determine the point prevalence of CP in patients attending a dermatology outpatient clinic and to examine its sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients attending our dermatology outpatient clinic were prospectively enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic data and dermatological diagnoses were recorded. A questionnaire providing information about pruritus was answered by patients with CP. Data were evaluated statistically. The data of 1428 patients (46% male, 54% female, age range 18-94, mean age 40.52±17.4) were evaluated, and the point prevalence of CP was found to be 30.9%. When patients with and without CP were compared, statistically significant results were obtained regarding age, education level, and occupational status (Pdermatology outpatient clinic had CP. It seems a significant rate when all dermatology outpatient population is considered. Age, education level, and occupational status were found to be factors affecting the prevalence. Since CP may cause serious discomfort and decrease quality of life, it should be considered as a significant pathology. Therefore, CP and related disorders should be evaluated thoroughly and treated appropriately by clinicians.

  9. New concept of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: interplay among the barrier, allergy, and pruritus as a trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin condition, characterized by a complex, heterogeneous pathogenesis, including skin barrier dysfunctions, allergy/immunology, and pruritus. When the skin barrier is disrupted by, for example, the filaggrin gene mutation and/or environmental factors, the skin is predisposed to being penetrated by external stimuli. Foreign antigens can be subdivided into two subsets by size: haptens (including metals) and protein antigens. It is known that a single hapten challenge provokes Th1 initially, but that repeated elicitation with haptens results in a shift toward Th2-dominated responses. On the other hand, exposure to protein antigens directly induces Th2-dominant conditions via the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) receptor on Langerhans cells. Recently, it has been revealed that Th2 cells produce IL-31, which provokes pruritus, and that Th2 cytokines decrease filaggrin expressions by keratinocytes. These findings suggest that Th2 conditions lead to pruritus and barrier dysfunctions. In this review, we will examine the highly complex interplay among skin barrier abnormality, allergy/immunology, and pruritus as a trinity in the development of AD. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of Topical Chia Seed Oil on Pruritus of End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

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    Jeong, Se Kyoo; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary n-3 fatty acid for patients with renal dysfunction. While about 40% to 80% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) complain about pruritus and xerosis, there are few reports on the effects of topical n-3 fatty acid on these symptoms. In order to investigate the possible beneficial effects of topical n-3 fatty acid, oils extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica) seed were formulated into topical products, the effects of which were measured. Five healthy volunteers having xerotic pruritus symptoms and 5 patients with pruritus caused by either ESRD or diabetes were involved in this study. A topical formulation containing 4% chia seed oils were applied for an 8-week duration. Subjective itching symptoms were assessed on a 6-point scale, as were other skin functions, namely transepidermal water loss and skin capacitance. After the 8 weeks of application, significant improvements in skin hydration, lichen simplex chronicus, and prurigo nodularis were observed in all patients. A similar improvement was also observed among healthy volunteers with xerotic pruritus. Improvement of epidermal permeability barrier function and skin hydration, represented by trans-epidermal water loss and skin capacitance, respectively, were also observed. No adverse effects were observed in all the tested patients and volunteers. Chia seed oil can be used as an adjuvant moisturizing agent for pruritic skin, including that of ESRD patients.

  11. Blood lead level is a positive predictor of uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Although uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and annoying symptom for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. However, systemic inflammation is one of the possible pathogenesis of UP, and blood lead level (BLL) has been noted to be associated with inflammation and nutritional status in long-term HD patients. There might be an interaction or association, therefore, between BLL and UP through systemic inflammation. We analyzed cross-sectional data among 866 participants. All of the 866 patients in this study were stratified into groups with low-normal (20 μg/dL). The associations between UP and BLL and the clinical data were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that HD duration, non-anuria, log ferritin, serum low-density lipoprotein, log BLL, high-normal BLL, and high BLL were associated with UP. In conclusion, BLL was positively associated with UP. PMID:28652758

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

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    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...

  13. Blood lead level is a positive predictor of uremic pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis

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    Weng CH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hao Weng,1,2 Ching-Wei Hsu,1,2 Ching-Chih Hu,2,3 Tzung-Hai Yen,1,2 Ming-Jen Chan,1,2 Wen-Hung Huang1,2 1Department of Nephrology and Division of Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, 3Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan Abstract: Although uremic pruritus (UP is a common and annoying symptom for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. However, systemic inflammation is one of the possible pathogenesis of UP, and blood lead level (BLL has been noted to be associated with inflammation and nutritional status in long-term HD patients. There might be an interaction or association, therefore, between BLL and UP through systemic inflammation. We analyzed cross-sectional data among 866 participants. All of the 866 patients in this study were stratified into groups with low-normal (<10 µg/dL, high-normal (10–20 µg/dL, and abnormal BLLs (>20 µg/dL. The associations between UP and BLL and the clinical data were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that HD duration, non-anuria, log ferritin, serum low-density lipoprotein, log BLL, high-normal BLL, and high BLL were associated with UP. In conclusion, BLL was positively associated with UP. Keywords: blood lead levels, uremic pruritus, hemodialysis 

  14. Mediators of Chronic Pruritus in Atopic Dermatitis: Getting the Itch Out?

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    Mollanazar, Nicholas K; Smith, Peter K; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, itch was categorized as a submodality of pain. Recent research over the last decade has led to the realization that itch is in fact a separate and distinct, albeit closely related, sensation. Chronic itch is a common complaint and has numerous etiologies. Various receptors (TRPA1, TRPV1, PAR2, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), Mas-related G proteins), secreted molecules (histamine, nerve growth factor (NGF), substance P (SP), proteases), and cytokines/chemokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-31) are implicated as mediators of chronic pruritus. While much remains unknown regarding the mechanisms of chronic itch, this much is certain: there is no singular cause of itch. Rather, itch is caused by a complex interface between skin, keratinocytes, cutaneous nerve fibers, pruritogenic molecules, and the peripheral and central nervous systems. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most itchy skin dermatoses and affects millions worldwide. The sensation of atopic itch is mediated by the interplay between epidermal barrier dysfunction, upregulated immune cascades, and the activation of structures in the central nervous system. Clinicians are in possession of an arsenal of different treatment options ranging from moisturizers, topical immunomodulators, topical anesthetic ion channel inhibitors, systemic immunomodulators, as well as oral drugs capable of reducing neural hypersensitization. Emerging targeted therapies on the horizon, such as dupilumab, promise to usher in a new era of highly specific and efficacious treatments. Alternative medicine, stress reduction techniques, and patient education are also important treatment modalities. This review will focus on the mediators of chronic pruritus mainly associated with atopic dermatitis (atopic itch), as well as numerous different therapeutic options.

  15. Dose-dependent attenuation of intravenous nalbuphine on epidural morphine-induced pruritus and analgesia after cesarean delivery

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    Mao-Kai Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidural morphine in patient-controlled analgesia regimens controls postoperative pain well but easily induces pruritus and other epidural morphine-related side effects. With 90 pregnant American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II females scheduled for elective cesarean delivery, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of patient-controlled antipruritus (PCP use of intravenous nalbuphine-based regimens for attenuation of postoperative pruritus and related side effects in combination with epidural morphine patient-controlled analgesia with regard to the quality of postoperative pain management. Patients were randomly assigned to two nalbuphine groups (5 μg/kg/hour, Group N5 or 10 μg/kg/hour, Group N10 and bolus dose of 1.6 μg/kg for PCP or the control (normal saline group. Comparable visual analog scale scores for rest pain at each measured time interval among the three groups demonstrated that adequate pain relief was offered; however, the cumulative dose of nalbuphine administered to the patients in Group N10 attenuated the analgesic effect of epidural morphine in moving pain at POh24 only. Fewer episodes and milder severity of pruritus were observed in patients in Groups N5 and N10 at all postoperative time intervals. Epidural morphine provided good postoperative pain relief but with incommodious side effects. In addition, intravenous nalbuphine not only attenuated the incidence of pruritus but also decreased total morphine consumption. In conclusion, intravenous administration of low-dose nalbuphine (5 μg/kg/hour for PCP maintained analgesia produced by epidural morphine and offered low pruritus incidence.

  16. Successful use of the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and treatment refractory pruritus.

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    Mullhaupt, Beat; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; Ambühl, Patrice M.; Stocker, Reto; Renner, Eberhard L.

    2003-04-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease often associated with severe pruritus. Despite maximal medical management pruritus often persists and has a detrimental effect on quality of life. For patients that are refractory to all medical treatments, more invasive approaches have been tried. Recently, a new extracorporeal hemodiafiltration method, Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), has been described. Based on the hypothesis that hydrophobic, protein-bound metabolites play a major role in the development of liver failure, this device uses an albumin enriched dialysate to facilitate the removal of albumin bound toxins. AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of a single MARS treatment on the pruritus score in a patient with PBC and treatment refractory pruritus. DESIGN/PATIENTS: A 61-year-old female patient with biopsy proven PBC, who had been accepted on our liver transplantation waiting list because of treatment refractory pruritus, was subjected to a single MARS treatment. RESULTS: At the end of a single 8 h MARS treatment session pruritus completely disappeared. Not unexpectedly, however, this effect was only short lived. Except for a slight hypercalcemia no adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: A single MARS treatment very effectively improved pruritus. Long-term repetitive treatment, however, might be necessary to sustain its effectiveness.

  17. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

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    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability in the clinical or pathological presentation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs in sheep, such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, has been attributed to prion protein genotype, strain, breed, clinical duration, dose, route and type of inoculum and the age at infection. The study aimed to describe the clinical signs in sheep infected with the BSE agent throughout its clinical course to determine whether the clinical signs were as variable as described for classical scrapie in sheep. The clinical signs were compared to BSE-negative sheep to assess if disease-specific clinical markers exist. Results Forty-seven (34% of 139 sheep, which comprised 123 challenged sheep and 16 undosed controls, were positive for BSE. Affected sheep belonged to five different breeds and three different genotypes (ARQ/ARQ, VRQ/VRQ and AHQ/AHQ. None of the controls or BSE exposed sheep with ARR alleles were positive. Pruritus was present in 41 (87% BSE positive sheep; the remaining six were judged to be pre-clinically infected. Testing of the response to scratching along the dorsum of a sheep proved to be a good indicator of clinical disease with a test sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98% and usually coincided with weight loss. Clinical signs that were displayed significantly earlier in BSE positive cases compared to negative cases were behavioural changes, pruritic behaviour, a positive scratch test, alopecia, skin lesions, teeth grinding, tremor, ataxia, loss of weight and loss of body condition. The frequency and severity of each specific clinical sign usually increased with the progression of disease over a period of 16–20 weeks. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSE in sheep presents with relatively uniform clinical signs, with pruritus of increased severity and abnormalities in behaviour or movement as the disease progressed. Based on the studied sheep, these clinical features appear to

  18. Female-specific pruritus from childhood to postmenopause: clinical features, hormonal factors, and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoin, Lauren P; Kwatra, Shawn G; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus in recent years. The purpose of this review was to highlight itch entities in women, and in particular pruritic vulvar dermatoses that women experience among different age groups. Unique temporal shifts may contribute to the etiology of many of these conditions. These changes lead to cyclical changes in the skin's basic composition. Specifically, estrogen receptors have been detected on keratinocytes that respond to rising and falling levels of estrogen. These receptors lead to changes in skin hydration, collagen content, and in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans that form the skin barrier. In addition, hormonal pH changes associated with the menstrual cycle may be an important factor in the aggravation of itch as increasing pH is known to activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2, a well-known itch mediator. Common pruritic conditions in women that will be discussed include atopic and irritant dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, infectious vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, atrophic vulvovaginitis, squamous cell carcinoma, lichen simplex chronicus, and neuropathic itch. We also examine pruritic conditions associated with pregnancy including pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Finally, acceptable and contraindicated antipruritic agents in pregnancy are examined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Pruritus: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Dominic; Sommer, Rachel; Augustin, Matthias; Ständer, Sonja; Blome, Christine

    2017-10-01

    This review aims to systematically evaluate studies on the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures in pruritus, especially for use in clinical trials. Validation studies on instruments were identified based on a PubMed literature search. The consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments checklist was used to evaluate the studies' methodological quality, and the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments criteria were used to synthesize the instruments' measurement properties. Twenty-three studies were included, which contain 37 examinations of reliability and/or validity for 23 different outcome measures. The methodological quality of reliability and validity evidence was moderate for six outcome measures; for these measures, psychometric property rating was adequate too, making them suitable for use in clinical trials. Itch severity scale, itchy quality of life, numerical rating scale-6, numerical rating scale-11, visual analog scale (horizontal), and verbal numerical rating scale-4 are currently the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measures with regard to overall reliability and validity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. "Scratching" beneath the surface: an integrative psychosocial approach to pediatric pruritus and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Traci R; Sonty, Nomita; Saroyan, John M

    2012-01-01

    Pruritus is prevalent in children with atopic dermatitis and associated with effects on mood, quality of life, sleep, scholastic performance, social and family functioning. In this study a 7-year-old African American female with severe atopic dermatitis, itching and pain refractory to multiple systemic and topical medications was referred for treatment. At baseline, the patient scratched to the point of bleeding, despite maximal doses of anti-histamines, antidepressant and topical therapies. The patient became progressively shy, anxious, and her scholastic performance suffered. A literature review prompted the implementation of a multi-modal program of family cognitive behavioral therapy, imagery, aromatherapy, drawing, and biofeedback. The results were that decreased itch, scratching, pain, and anxiety were seen within the first month. Fewer lesions and episodes of bleeding were observed with almost complete skin clearance by the fourth month. The article concludes that a short-term, integrative program including psychological, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and medical therapies may represent a novel, efficacious approach for children suffering from severe atopic dermatitis.

  1. Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and its Relationship to Uraemic Pruritus

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    Chia-Chen Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and explored associated risk factors. A population-based cohort of 1,515,858 Taiwanese CKD patients was included. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR for incident NMSC was determined. Compared with the general population, a 1.14-fold risk of NMSC was found in the CKD cohort. NMSC risk was significant in patients with pre-dialysis stage 5 CKD and anaemia (1.48-fold, and in those with uraemic pruritus after long-term antihistamine treatment (1.38-fold. A higher SIR for NMSC was found in younger patients with CKD (age < 70 years, 1.34-fold; age 20–39 years, 1.63-fold, stage 5 CKD with anaemia (age < 70 years, 2.09-fold, and uraemic pruritus (age <70 years, 2.22-fold. Pre-dialysis patients with CKD are at higher risk of NMSC, especially those with advanced-stage CKD, and those with uraemic pruritus.

  2. Anthocyanins from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) alleviate pruritus in a mouse model of chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Shimada, Maki; Ueno, Koichi

    2011-07-01

    Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the richest sources of anthocyanins which are known to have anticancer, wound healing and anti-allergic effects. Here, we examined whether bilberry extract (Bilberon-25) alleviates pruritus in a mouse model of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. BALB/c mice with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 3 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) were administered Bilberon-25 orally for 3 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of Bilberon-25 on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behaviour and ear swelling, respectively. Treatment with Bilberon-25 significantly attenuated the TNCB-induced increase in scratching behaviour, but dexamethasone did not. In contrast, ear swelling was ameliorated by dexamethasone treatment, and significantly decreased by Bilberon-25. Repeated application of TNCB induced a shift in the cutaneous cytokine milieu from a T helper cell type (Th)1 to a Th2 profile; Bilberon-25 and dexamethasone alleviated this Th2 predominance of the lesional skin. Anthocyanins from bilberry might be beneficial for the treatment of chronic pruritus which can occur in patients with inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

  3. Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

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    Goutos Ioannis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23 are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ′gold standard′ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence, patient values, risks and resource considerations in different medical environments.

  4. Mild Primary Hyperparathyroidism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical profile of classic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) consists of both elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. The standard of care is parathyroidectomy unless prohibited by medical comorbidities. Because more patients are undergoing routine bone density evaluation and neck imaging studies for other purposes, there is a subset of people identified with a biochemically mild form of the pHPT that expresses itself as either elevated calcium or parathyroid hormone levels. These patients often do not fall into the criteria for operation based on the National Institutes of Health consensus guidelines, and they can present a challenge of diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on mild pHPT in an effort to better characterize this patient population and to determine whether patients benefit from parathyroidectomy. Evidence suggests that there are patients with mild pHPT who have overt symptoms that are found to improve after parathyroidectomy. There is also a group of patients with biochemically mild pHPT who are found to progress to classic pHPT over time; however, it is not predictable which group of patients this will be. Early intervention for this group with mild pHPT may prevent progression of bone, psychiatric, and renal complications, and parathyroidectomy has proven safe in appropriately selected patients at high volume centers. PMID:25063228

  5. Effects of Apremilast on Pruritus and Skin Discomfort/Pain Correlate With Improvements in Quality of Life in Patients With Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Jeffrey M; Foley, Peter; Toth, Darryl; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Goncalves, Joana; Day, Robert M; Chen, Rongdean; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-05-01

    Pruritus and skin discomfort/pain negatively impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The effects of apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on pruritus, skin discomfort/pain, and patient global assessment of psoriasis disease activity (PgAPDA) were assessed in moderate/severe chronic plaque psoriasis patients in the phase 3 ESTEEM trials. Significant improvements in pruritus and skin discomfort/pain observed at Week 2 with apremilast versus placebo (both studies, p < 0.0001) were sustained through Week 32. Among apremilast-treated patients, improvements in pruritus visual analog scale (VAS) scores correlated with Dermatology Life Quality Index scores (rs = 0.55 [Week 16], rs≥0.51 [Week 32]; both studies, p < 0.001). PgAPDA correlated with improvements in pruritus (rs≥0.56 [Week 16]; rs≥0.53 [Week 32]; both studies, p < 0.001) and skin discomfort/pain (rs ≥0.54 [Week 16]; rs≥0.53 [Week 32]; both studies, p < 0.001) VAS scores. Apremilast provided rapid and sustained improvement in pruritus and skin discomfort/pain, symptoms not typically captured in psoriasis assessments (e.g., PASI) that contribute significantly to patients' disease severity and HRQoL perceptions.

  6. Relations between the characteristics and psychological comorbidities of chronic pruritus differ between men and women: women are more anxious than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A; Ständer, S; Warlich, B; Fritz, F; Bruland, P; Pfleiderer, B; Heuft, G; Schneider, G

    2015-01-01

    Although sex and gender are becoming more important in diagnostics and therapy, there is still little knowledge about sex-specific differences in chronic pruritus (CP). To compare, taking into consideration the characteristics of pruritus, sex-specific differences in psychological symptoms in patients with CP. Sociodemographic data, data on the clinical characteristics of the skin and CP were documented over a 1-year period in all patients attending the Competence Center Chronic Pruritus of the University Hospital Münster for the first time. All patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Student's t-tests for independent study groups and linear regression analyses were applied. A total of 619 patients (278 men, 341 women) were included in the analysis. Women were more anxious than men, but were not more depressed. A linear regression analysis indicated that depression and anxiety scores in women were related to the average intensity of pruritus during the previous 4 weeks and to a more generalized pruritus at the beginning of CP; older age in women also correlated with the scores on the depression subscale. Interestingly, the associations were different in men: scores on the depression scale were associated with the diagnosis of CP pruritus with multiple scratch lesions. There are sex-specific differences in the relationship between the psychological symptoms and clinical characteristics of CP; higher anxiety scores were achieved by women. Whether psychological symptoms can be reversed when CP and scratch lesions improve is an issue that needs further exploration. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Prevention of pruritus with ethyl-chloride in skin prick test: a double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Oz, Amir; Kivity, Shmuel; Shacham, Yacov; Fiszer, Elisheva; Rogowsky, Ori; Chernin, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl-chloride (EC) spray was recently shown to be an effective antipruritic agent, when given 15 min after histamine skin-prick test (SPT), without changing the wheal and flare reaction. We aimed to investigate the antipruritic effect of EC on SPT, when given prior to SPT. A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Overall, 44 volunteers underwent histamine SPT on both arms to trigger local pruritus. Prior to test, they were randomly treated with EC spray on one arm and saline spray (placebo) on the other. Subjects as well as researchers were blinded to the type of applied sprays. The wheal and flare reaction was measured after the SPT and subjects reported the intensity of pruritus following EC/placebo using a validated pruritus questionnaire (indexes 1-3) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Significant improvement in pruritus was reported following treatment with EC compared with placebo for all four studied parameters. Index 1 in EC 3.7 ± 2.3 versus 5 ± 3.5 (p = 0.007) in placebo, index 2 in EC 2.6 ± 2.1 versus 3.8 ± 2.8 (p = 0.002) in placebo, index 3 of EC 6.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.8 ± 5.8 (p = 0.03) and VAS in EC 3.7 ± 1.9 versus 4.4 ± 2.3 (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between EC and placebo in terms of the wheal and flare indurations area. Ethyl-chloride has an effective antipruritic agent, when given before histamine SPT. Its use did not change the wheal and flare reaction, making it ideal for prevention of pruritus, secondary to allergy skin test, without masking the results.

  8. Parental perception of efficacy of antihistamines for pruritus in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Vonita; Hogan, Mary Beth; Moonie, Sheniz; Fenwick, Ginger L; Hooft, Anneka; Wilson, Nevin W

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians have previously prescribed antihistamines for relief of atopic dermatitis (AD) associated pruritus. The use of antihistamines in AD has recently received less emphasis from newly published practice parameters that currently only recommend short-term, intermittent use of first-generation antihistamines to induce sleep in patients with AD. Our study aimed to determine parents' perception of the usefulness of antihistamines in reducing their child's itch due to AD. A 12-question survey was mailed to parents of patients who were attending a pediatric allergy clinic. Patients with physician-diagnosed AD who had a clinic visit in the past 3 years were included. Questions included the following: time since AD diagnosis, itching frequency, impact on sleep, frequency and relief provided from using antihistamines, and comparison of antihistamines to other antipruritus treatments. Sixty-three percent of parents surveyed responded that antihistamines were helpful in the management of their child's AD, and only 5% did not find any itch relief. The majority of the responders were parents of younger patients (ages, 2-10 years) with immunoglobulin E sensitization and AD for more than a year. Eighty-five parents (68.5%) reported no interruption of sleep due to itching, and, among them, an almost equal number were currently solely using either a first- or second-generation antihistamine. The more antihistamines were perceived as relieving itching, the more they were used (ρ = 0.209, p = 0.025) and provided more relief than other products (ρ = -0.336, p antihistamines to be as helpful as topical corticosteroids. Parents of pediatric patients with AD found that antihistamines were an important part of AD management.

  9. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  10. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Post-Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & ... Traumatic Stress Physical Injury Anxiety Health & Wellness Military Sexual Trauma Tobacco Community About Depression Life Stress Alcohol & Drugs ...

  11. Reduction of severity of pruritus after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with subarachnoid morphine: a randomised comparison of prophylactic granisetron and ondansetron.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, T

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of pruritus after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia with subarachnoid morphine may be 60-100%, and is a common cause of maternal dissatisfaction. Ondansetron has been shown to reduce pruritus but the effect is short-lived. The objective of this randomized double-blind trial was to evaluate the anti-pruritic efficacy of granisetron compared with ondansetron. METHODS: Eighty ASA I or II women undergoing elective caesarean section received spinal anaesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg, fentanyl 25 microg and preservative-free morphine 150 microg. After delivery of the baby and clamping of the umbilical cord, they were randomised to receive granisetron 3mg i.v. (group G) or ondansetron 8 mg i.v. (group O). RESULTS: The two groups were similar for age, gestational age, height and weight. According to visual analogue pruritus scores, patients in group G experienced less pruritus at 8h (P=0.003) and 24h (P=0.01). Fewer patients in group G (n=8) than group O (n=18) required rescue anti-pruritic medication (P=0.03). Satisfaction scores were also higher in group G than in group O (P=0.03). There was no difference in overall incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting, and visual analogue pain scores between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of granisetron 3mg i.v. reduces the severity of pruritus and the use of rescue anti-pruritic medication, and improves satisfaction but does not reduce the overall incidence of pruritus in women who have received subarachnoid morphine 150 microg compared to ondansetron 8 mg i.v.

  12. [Effects of aroma massage on pruritus, skin pH, skin hydration and sleep in elders in long-term care hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, So Young; Kim, Kye Ha

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aroma massage on pruritus, skin pH, skin hydration and sleep in elders in long-term care hospitals. The participants were elders over 65 years old admitted to long-term care. They were assigned to the experimental group (26) or control group (28). Data were collected from May to August, 2012. Visual Analogue Scale and Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep scale were used to identify levels of pruritus and sleep. A skin-pH meter and moisture checker were used to measure skin pH and skin hydration. Aroma massage was performed three times a week for 4 weeks for elders in the experimental group. The data were analyzed using the SPSS Win 17.0 program. There were significant differences in pruritus, skin pH and skin hydration between the two groups. However there was no significant difference in sleep. The results indicate that aroma massage is effective in reducing pruritus, skin pH and increasing skin hydration in elders. Therefore, this intervention can be utilized in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention to reduce pruritus in elders in long-term care hospitals.

  13. Elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained increased productivity of trees growing in elevated CO2 depends in part on their stoichiometric flexibility, i.e., increasing their nutrient use efficiency, or on increased nutrient uptake from the soil. Phosphorus (P) may be a nutrient as limiting as nitrogen (N) in

  14. Glycomacropeptide Attenuates Inflammation, Pruritus, and Th2 Response Associated with Atopic Dermatitis Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabiola Carolina; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Jiménez, Mariela; Ventura-Juárez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin diseases, whose incidence is increasing in industrialized countries. The epicutaneous application of a hapten, such as 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), evokes an experimental murine AD-like reaction. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a dairy bioactive peptide derived from hydrolysis of κ-casein by chymosin action. It has anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of GMP administration on DNCB-induced AD in rats. The severity of inflammatory process, pruritus, production of cytokines, and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) content were measured, and the histopathological features were analyzed. GMP reduced the intensity of inflammatory process and edema of DNCB-induced dermatitis, with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment and mast cells hyperplasia. In addition GMP suppressed the serum levels of total IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression in AD-lesions. Besides, the levels of IL-10 were significantly increased. Remarkably, GMP administration before AD-induction abolished pruritus in dermatitis-like reactions in the rats. Taken together, these results indicate that GMP has an inhibitory effect on AD by downregulating Th2 dominant immune response, suggesting GMP as a potential effective alternative therapy for the prevention and management of AD. PMID:28265582

  15. European EADV network on assessment of severity and burden of Pruritus (PruNet): first meeting on outcome tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ständer, S; Zeidler, C; Riepe, C; Steinke, S; Fritz, F; Bruland, P; Soto-Rey, I; Storck, M; Agner, T; Augustin, M; Blome, C; Dalgard, F; Evers, A W M; Garcovich, S; Gonçalo, M; Lambert, J; Legat, F J; Leslie, T; Misery, L; Raap, U; Reich, A; Şavk, E; Streit, M; Serra-Baldrich, E; Szepietowski, J; Wallengren, J; Weisshaar, E; Dugas, M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pruritus is a frequently occurring symptom of various dermatoses that causes a high burden and impaired quality of life. An effective anti pruritic therapy is important for the patient, but its effectiveness is difficult to evaluate. Diverse methods and interpretations of pruritic metrics are utilized in clinical trials and the daily clinical practice in different countries, resulting in difficulties comparing collected data. We founded a European Network on Assessment of Severity and Burden of Pruritus (PruNet) that is supported by the EADV. PruNet consists of 28 experts from 15 EU countries (21 dermatologists, 5 medical informaticists, 2 psychologists) and aims to unify the assessment of itch in routine dermatological care. Following a preliminary survey, a consensus conference was held in order to agree upon the prioritization of patient-reported outcome tools. Through utilizing the Delphi method, it was agreed that tools for measuring itch intensity (ex. the visual analogue scale) and quality of life (ex. ItchyQoL) are of primary importance and should urgently be foremost validated. The validation and harmonization of standards are needed for the improvement of quality care for patients suffering from pruritic dermatoses. This summer, the first validation studies in several EADV member countries already began. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Health-related quality of life assessed by the effect of bepotastine besilate in patients with pruritus: importance of emotions score in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kimura, Satoko; Haga, Tsuneo; Doi, Risako; Kyoya, Mikiko; Nakagawa, Keiko; Soma, Yoshinao

    2012-06-01

    The Skindex-16 questionnaire was recently developed as a measure of dermatological health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including symptoms, emotions and functional aspects. Bepotastine besilate is a selective histamine H(1) -receptor antagonist and a second-generation non-sedating antihistamine to treat various dermatological disorders. We assessed changes of the HRQoL instrument (Skindex-16) on patients with pruritus, including those with atopic dermatitis (AD) over bepotastine treatment period. The patients' personal assessment of the intensity of pruritus was determined using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pruritus. Patients answered the Skindex-16 at baseline and at week 4. Forty-eight of 51 enrolled dermatological patients completed the Skindex-16. Of the 48 patients, 11 had AD and 37 had other conditions. Improvement in the clinical evaluation and VAS score was significant in all patients, the AD group and the other disorders group between baseline and week 4. Skindex-16 showed significantly lower scores for each of the three scales (symptoms, emotions and functioning) and the global score at baseline compared to that at week 4 in all patients and the other disorders. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the emotions and global score among the AD patients. We found a significant correlation between falls in emotions score of Skindex-16 and falls in VAS scores for pruritus in the AD group. Bepotastine could be effective in the management of patients' HRQoL and useful in patients suffering with pruritus. We suggested that pruritus of AD patients could exert a stronger emotional effect due to the skin condition compared to the symptomatic or functional effects. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Mild induced hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Egede; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    trial; The Cooling And Surviving Septic shock (CASS) study. Patients suffering severe sepsis/septic shock are allocated to either mild induced hypothermia (cooling to 32-34°C for 24hours) or control (uncontrolled temperature). TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01455116. Thrombelastography (TEG) is performed three...

  18. Airway inflammation in mild cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckrich, Jonas; Zissler, Ulrich M; Serve, Friederike; Leutz, Patricia; Smaczny, Christina; Schmitt-Grohé, Sabina; Fussbroich, Daniela; Schubert, Ralf; Zielen, Stefan; Eickmeier, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Airway infection and inflammation play major roles in the progression of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In patients with mild disease, airway inflammation is a clinically relevant and often underdiagnosed feature. Lung function, sputum cell counts, and cytokine profiles in CF with mild disease might be different in patients with and without involvement of small airway disease (SAD). Patients with mild CF (n=32) and 22 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with CF were assigned to two groups: (1) patients without SAD (n=19, median age 12.3years, MEF 25 >50% predicted), and (2) patients with SAD (n=13 median age, 13.2years, MEF 25 inflammation compared to controls as indicated by elevated levels of sputum biomarkers like total cells, neutrophils, and IL6. Our study demonstrated that patients with CF with mild disease defined by lung function might be further endotyped according to their involvement of SAD. In patients with CF and SAD, airway neutrophilic inflammation is more pronounced and is in part distinct from that seen in patients without SAD. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Curating a Mild Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    as an effect of the so-called Anthropocene era, but one which is in a sense insignificant and undramatic – a mild apocalypse. This poses a challenge to both our anthropological research and our curatorial practices: how do we bring the Anthropocene home and draw attention to the inconspicuous disasters......-based curating must follow suit by creating novel objects, thereby making exhibitions into provisional analyses and blurring conventional lines between art galleries and museums of cultural history....

  20. The efficacy of a commercial shampoo and whirlpooling in the treatment of canine pruritus - a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löflath, A; von Voigts-Rhetz, A; Jaeger, K; Schmid, M; Kuechenhoff, H; Mueller, R S

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-two dogs with a history of at least 4 weeks pruritus were studied to determine the effect of whirlpool use on the efficacy of topical therapy with an antipruritic shampoo (Allermyl, Virbac; Bad Oldesloe, Germany). Dogs in group 1 received initially topical therapy with conventional shampooing (2 mL shampoo per kilogram bodyweight) once weekly for 4 weeks. Dogs in group 2 received the same therapy using a whirlpool (Sanwhirl, Peter Aschauer GmbH; Gräfelfing, Germany). The treatments were crossed between the groups resulting in each dog in groups 1 and 2 receiving both therapies. Group 3 was the control group and was treated once weekly in the whirlpool without any shampoo during the 8 weeks of study. Prior to each therapy, dogs were evaluated by a clinician not aware of the type of treatment using a clinical scoring system (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). Owners evaluated the pruritus daily on a visual analogue scale. There was a significant difference in pruritus scores but not CADESI scores after therapy between the control treatment and the conventional shampoo therapy or shampoo treatment in the whirlpool. These results provide evidence for the short-term benefit of shampoo therapy for canine pruritus.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Urdu version of the 5D itching scale to assess pruritus among patients with chronic kidney disease in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayat Ur; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-10-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health issue worldwide in the past few years. Pruritus is a common, well-recognized complication often seen in patients with chronic renal failure. For assessment of pruritus, different tools are used but these tools are unable to identify the changes and variations in the severity of pruritus. The aim of our study was to validate the Urdu-version of the Urdu-version of the 5D itch scale among patients suffering from chronic kidney disease in Pakistan. The 5D itch scale was translated from English into Urdu following translation guidelines for translation. Face and content validity was determined by a panel of experts and piloted. For retest, the Urdu version of the 5D itch scale was administered at baseline and two weeks. A total of 50 participants with end stage renal disease were recruited, and of these, 64% were males. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the 5D-IS had 2-factor loadings: "Pattern and activity" and "Distribution" with Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin (KMO) = 0.802, Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (df = 28, p Urdu version of the 5D itch scale was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pruritus and its severity in patients with chronic kidney disease in Pakistan.

  2. Itch severity and quality of life in patients with pruritus: Preliminary validity of a Danish adaptation of the Itch Severity Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Lei, U.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of a Danish adaptation of the Itch Severity Scale (ISS) by exploring the associations between pruritus severity, psychological symptoms, and quality of life in a consecutively recruited sample of 20 patients with atopic dermatitis, 20 with psoriasis...

  3. Anthocyanins, but not anthocyanidins, from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) alleviate pruritus via inhibition of mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Ishiwatari, Makiko; Yamamoto, Masao; Shimada, Maki; Bi, Yuanyuan; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    We have previously reported that bilberry anthocyanins exhibit an anti-pruritic effect in a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis. It has been reported that anthocyanins are particularly sensitive to thermal treatment and are easily hydrolyzed to anthocyanidins when exposed to high temperatures. The objective of this study was to compare the anti-pruritic effect of anthocyanin-rich quality-controlled bilberry extract and anthocyanidin-rich degraded extract using a mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis. BALB/c mice with allergic contact dermatitis induced by 4 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) were administered Bilberon-25 orally for 4 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effect of Bilberon-25 on pruritus was evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior. RBL-2H3 mast cells were used to investigate the effect of Bilberon-25 on degranulation in 48/80-stimulated mast cells. Compared with nonheated Bilberon-25, the proportion of anthocyanins in heated Bilberon-25 decreased, and the proportion of anthocyanidins was increased in heated-time dependent manner. Treatment with non-heated Bilberon-25 significantly attenuated the TNCB-induced increase in scratching behavior, whereas treatment with 2 h-heated Bilberon-25 did not. Moreover, 300 μg/mL nonheated Bilberon-25 showed significant inhibition of degranulation in RBL-2H3 mast cells, whereas 2 h-heated Bilberon-25 had no effect at any concentration studied. It is assumed that the inhibitory effect of bilberry anthocyanins on pruritus might be mediated, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. In conclusion, the anthocyanin-rich but not anthocyanidin-rich bilberry extract may be a useful dietary supplement for skin diseases involving pruritic symptoms, such as chronic allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. [A research of Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus based on experts' questionnaires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ju-Hua; Wang, Jie; Huang, Shi-Jing; Xue, Liu-Hua; Wu, Wei; Li, Xing-Wang; Wang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    To establish Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus. A Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for patients with HIV associated pruritus was established by literature retrieval and peer review. Two questionnaires were carried out to investigate the confirmation and advice of in-group specialists to key points of the draft including diagnosis, treatment and nursing. Then the procedures were revised accordingly. The recovery rate of complete questionnaires in the 1st survey was 96%. Specialists confirmed more on case history and physical examinations, syndrome differentiation of three syndrome types, treatment of blood deficiency wind dryness syndrome (BDWDS) and nursing. They held different opinions on the outlines, auxiliary examinations, treatment of blood heat induced wind evil syndrome (BHWES) and wind cold and dampness accumulation syndrome (WCDAS), of which the coefficient of variations (CVs) was within 0.1603 -0.2473. The procedures were revised and the 2nd survey was launched. The recovery rate of complete questionnaires in the 2nd survey was 100%. Specialists confirmed more on case history and physical examinations, diagnostic criteria, syndrome differentiation of BDWDS and WCDAS, and treatment of BDWDS, of which CVs was 0. All indicated high agreement and good compliance. The CVs of other items were within 0.0638-0.1439, less than those of the 1st survey. The consistency of experts' opinions were somewhat improved. The contribution by one single item showed less difference in assessing the overall results in the two surveys. A new revision of the procedure was preliminarily established according to results of two surveys. Experts' activeness, concentration, and coordination were good in the two surveys. They had reached consensus in key points of the draft including diagnosis, treatment, and nursing.

  5. Intravenous nalbuphine 50 µg·kg(-1) is ineffective for opioid-induced pruritus in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Nao; Minogue, Sean C; Lim Masc, Joanne; Montgomery, Carolyne J; Court, Colleen A; Csanyi-Fritz, Yvonne; Ansermino, J Mark; Malherbe, Stephan; Kearney, Ramona A; Phillips, Leeann; Reid, Kathy; Kingsley, Justin

    2006-11-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of nalbuphine in treating postoperative opioid-induced pruritus (Pr) in pediatric patients. After Ethics Board approval, the dual site, tertiary care teaching centre study recruited 212 subjects, age ≥ seven years, who received opioid analgesia postoperatively. A modified, self-report colour analogue scale (CAS) scored pruritus intensity (PrI). Subjects who reported PrI score ≥ 5/10 were randomized to treatment with nalbuphine 50 µg·kg(-1) iv (max 5 mg) or saline placebo. A pruritus intensity difference (PrID) ≥ 50% was considered a positive outcome. Of 260 subjects approached, 212 consented and 184 received opioids. Median age was 13 yr (range 7-19) and median weight was 51 kg (range 19.6-134.8 kg). Pruritus intensity ≥ 5/10 occurred in 37 (20.1%) subjects. Intravenous morphine [patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)/continuous infusion] was associated with Pr in 68% of subjects over a wide dose range (9.4-63.2 µg·kg(-1)·hr(-1)). Pruritis occurred in 36% of patients in the PCA group compared to continuous opioid infusion (27%) and epidural administration (27%). Pruritus intensity difference ≥ 50% was achieved in 55.6% of nalbuphine and 57.9% of saline-treated subjects. This preliminary report suggests that nalbuphine 50 µg·kg(-1) iv is not effective in treating postoperative opioidinduced pruritus in pediatric patients. The modified CAS score and PrID warrant further investigation. Évaluer l'efficacité de la nalbuphine contre le prurit (Pr) postopératoire induit par les opioïdes chez des patients pédiatriques. MéTHODE: Nous avons recruté 212 sujets de ≥ sept ans qui ont reçu une analgésie opioïde postopératoire. Une échelle analogique de couleur (EAC) modifiée pour l'auto-évaluation a mesuré les scores d'intensité du prurit (IPr). Répartis au hasard, les sujets dont les scores d'IPr étaient ≥ 5/10 ont reçu de la nalbuphine à 50 µg·kg(-1) iv (5 mg maximal) ou un placebo salin. Une diff

  6. Curating a Mild Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    as an effect of the so-called Anthropocene era, but one which is in a sense insignificant and undramatic – a mild apocalypse. This poses a challenge to both our anthropological research and our curatorial practices: how do we bring the Anthropocene home and draw attention to the inconspicuous disasters...... created and displayed neither as representational ethnographic objects nor as free-floating art work, but as unsettled think pieces that are at once familiar and strange. We suggest that a feature of the Anthropocene is that ecologies have been messed up so as to become unrecognizable – and that research...

  7. Mild bleeding disorders

    OpenAIRE

    PERROUD, V.

    2011-01-01

    Contrairement aux troubles hémorragiques sévères, les maladies hémorragiques modérées (Mild Bleeding Disorders = MBD) sont difficiles à diagnostiquer chez les enfants, car la limite entre le physiologique et le pathologique est mal définie et l'approche diagnostique est peu systématisée. Qu'entend-on par MBD ? On peut les définir comme des diathèses hémorragiques sans répercussion sévère sur la vie quotidienne et, en principe, sans risque vital : épistaxis, gingivorragies, rect...

  8. Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Angela M

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs along a continuum from normal cognition to dementia. A roadblock to earlier diagnosis and potential treatment is the lack of consistency with screening for MCI. Universal screening would be ideal, but is limited. Once a diagnosis of MCI is made, it is important for the clinician to evaluate for reversible causes. At present time, there are no pharmacologic treatments proven to slow or cure progression of MCI to dementia; nonetheless, there is evidence that lifestyle modifications including diet, exercise, and cognitive stimulation may be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Costus afer leave extract as nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition performance of the ethanol extracts of Costus afer leaves (EECAL) on the corrosion of mild steel in 5 M H2SO4 solutions at 303K and elevated temperatures of 313, 323 and 333 K was investigated using weight loss method (gravimetric) and hydrogen evolution (gasometric) techniques respectively.

  10. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  11. Repair of mild hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkiszewski, M

    1989-02-01

    A one-stage repair of mild hypospadias is presented. A meatal-based vascularised flap is used to create the neourethra. The two halves of the glans are brought to the midline, thus covering the glanular urethra, and producing a normal appearing glans. Next, the prepuce is reconstructed by dividing its two lamina and approximating them in the midline. Urine is drained by means of an indwelling infant feeding tube, which is removed on the third postoperative day. In 70 operated patients - aged 12 months to 16 years - there were no fistulas or stenosis. In one patient the meatus required tailoring for deviated urinary stream. There were no major complications due to short-term urinary drainage. The method described may also be used in more proximal than glanular or subcoronal forms of hypospadias.

  12. Concurrent short-term use of prednisolone with cyclosporine A accelerates pruritus reduction and improvement in clinical scoring in dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A randomized, unmasked, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the rate of pruritus reduction and improvement in clinical scoring by cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg orally, once daily for 28 days) either alone (n = 25 dogs) or with concurrent prednisolone (1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days, followed by alternate dosing for 14 days; n = 23 dogs) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Dogs were included in the study after exclusion of other causes of pruritic dermatitis, and were assessed by dermatologists on days 0, 14 ± 1 and 28 ± 2. Assessments included: general physical examination, CADESI-03 lesion scoring, overall clinical response, evaluation of adverse events (AEs), body weight and clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis). Owner assessments, including pruritus (visual analogue scale, VAS) and overall assessment of response were conducted every 3–4 days, either during visits to the clinic or at home. Owners reported AEs to the investigator throughout the study. Results By day 28 ± 2 both treatment groups resulted in a significant improvement of the atopic dermatitis. Both investigators and owners agreed that concurrent therapy resulted in a quicker improvement of the dogs ‘overall’ skin condition and of pruritus (significant reduction of pruritus by day 3–4, 72.8% improvement by day 14 ± 1), when compared to cyclosporine A alone (significant reduction of pruritus by day 7–8, 24.7% improvement by day 14 ± 1). CADESI-03 scores significantly improved in both groups by day 14 ± 1 onwards, and there were no significant differences in the scores between treatment groups at any time points. A total of 56 AEs (cyclosporine A alone = 34; concurrent therapy = 22) were reported in 33 dogs. No dogs died or stopped treatment due to an AE. The most commonly reported AEs in the cyclosporine A group were associated with the digestive tract, whilst systemic disorders were

  13. A clinical syndrome of mild androgen insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, C J; Brown, T R; Lanes, R; Palacios, A; Amrhein, J A; Schoen, E J

    1984-10-01

    We studied four patients from three kindreds who had normal male body habitus and external genitalia except for short penile length and gynecomastia. Prostate size was small in all patients and spermatogenesis was decreased markedly in one and absent in three. Testicular biopsies in two patients revealed normal histology but evidence of spermatogenic arrest at the spermatocyte stage. Circulating levels of testosterone and LH were increased and the testosterone-dihydrotestosterone ratios were normal. Plasma estradiol was elevated in three of the four patients. Serum FSH levels were significantly elevated in only one patient. The response of LH and FSH to LHRH stimulation was normal in the two patients who were tested. Despite the normal male phenotype, the laboratory studies suggested the diagnosis of androgen insensitivity. This was confirmed in two patients by finding decreased dihydrotestosterone-binding capacity in genital skin fibroblasts. Two of the patients had normal levels of androgen receptor binding, suggesting that their defect represented a mild form of androgen insensitivity with normal receptor activity. These results demonstrated that mild forms of androgen insensitivity exist in which the only obvious clinical manifestations may be the presence of reduced penile length, gynecomastia, and/or infertility. The incidence of androgen insensitivity among men with these subtle phenotypic abnormalities, including infertility, remains to be determined.

  14. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, mild steel–mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker's microhardness measurement and tensile strength. The XRD spectrum of the ...

  15. Proteomic analysis of polypeptides captured from blood during extracorporeal albumin dialysis in patients with cholestasis and resistant pruritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gay

    Full Text Available Albumin dialysis using the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS is a new therapeutic approach for liver diseases. To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in albumin dialysis, we analyzed the peptides and proteins absorbed into the MARS strong anion exchange (SAX cartridges as a result of the treatment of patients with cholestasis and resistant pruritus. Proteins extracted from the SAX MARS cartridges after patient treatment were digested with two enzymes. The resulting peptides were analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We identified over 1,500 peptide sequences corresponding to 144 proteins. In addition to the proteins that are present in control albumin-derived samples, this collection includes 60 proteins that were specific to samples obtained after patient treatment. Five of these proteins (neutrophil defensin 1 [HNP-1], secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 [SLURP1], serum amyloid A, fibrinogen alpha chain and pancreatic prohormone were confirmed to be removed by the dialysis procedure using targeted selected-reaction monitoring MS/MS. Furthermore, capture of HNP-1 and SLURP1 was also validated by Western blot. Interestingly, further analyses of SLURP1 in serum indicated that this protein was 3-fold higher in cholestatic patients than in controls. Proteins captured by MARS share certain structural and biological characteristics, and some of them have important biological functions. Therefore, their removal could be related either to therapeutic or possible adverse effects associated with albumin dialysis.

  16. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  17. Evaluation of fluralaner and afoxolaner treatments to control flea populations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions in naturally infested dogs in private residences in west central Florida USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C; Foley, Kaitlin M; Green, Kathryn; Tebaldi, Chantelle; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Heaney, Kathleen; Math, Lisa; Royal, Christine; Sun, Fangshi

    2016-06-28

    A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea and tick products to control flea infestations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions over a 12 week period on naturally infested dogs in west central FL USA. Thirty-four dogs with natural flea infestations living in 17 homes were treated once with a fluralaner chew on study day 0. Another 27 dogs living in 17 different homes were treated orally with an afoxolaner chewable on day 0, once between days 28-30 and once again between days 54-60. All products were administered according to label directions by study investigators. Flea populations on pets were assessed using visual area counts and premise flea infestations were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and once between days 28-30, 40-45, 54-60 and 82-86. Dermatologic assessments were conducted on day 0 and once monthly. Pruritus assessments were conducted by owners throughout the study. No concurrent treatments for existing skin disease (antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, anti-fungals) were allowed. Following the first administration of fluralaner or afoxolaner, flea populations on pets were reduced by 99.0 % and 99.3 %, respectively within 7 days. Flea populations on the fluralaner treated dogs were 0 (100 % efficacy) on days 54-60 and 82-86 after the administration of a single dose on day 0. Administration of 3 monthly doses of afoxolaner reduced flea populations by 100 % on days 82-86. Flea numbers in indoor-premises were markedly reduced in both treatment groups by days 82-86, with 100 % and 98.9 % reductions in flea trap counts in the fluralaner and afoxolaner treatment groups, respectively. Marked improvement was observed in FAD lesion scoring, Atopic Dermatitis lesions scoring (CADESI-4) and pruritus scores with both formulations. In a clinical field investigation conducted during the summer of 2015 in subtropical Florida, a single administration of an oral

  18. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  19. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  20. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammisto, T; Tigerstedt, I

    1980-10-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days.

  1. Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielska, Natalia; Sokołowski, Remigiusz; Stemplowski, Wojciech; Łakomski, Mateusz; Zukow, Walery; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (Mild Cognitive Impairment, MCI) is usually defined as a cognitive disorder, with normal global cognition without dementia. MCI occur in 15-30% of 60 – year with age and the incidence increases chance. Recently the wider system of classification of amnestic MCI or non-amnestic ie the weakening of single or multi-domain. Amnestic subtype of MCI in clinical greatest predisposes to Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer's disease, AD), is 10-15% per annum. Early detection of MC...

  2. Noncorticosteroid Combination Shampoo versus 1% Ketoconazole Shampoo for the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp: Results from a Randomized, Investigator-Single-Blind Trial Using Clinical and Trichoscopic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD). Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study. At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling from baseline for both groups, while pruritus showed a significant reduction only for group A. After 8 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling and pruritus for both groups. PGA showed a complete response in 90% of the cases in both groups. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo represents an alternative approach to standard topical treatment for scalp SD. A noncorticosteroid shampoo may be equally safe and effective as ketoconazole shampoo for scalp SD, and trichoscopy provides accurate and reliable quantifiable data to assist in therapeutic monitoring.

  3. Significantly Elevated Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Patel, Brijesh; Williams, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Congestive hepatopathy can have a mildly elevated liver profile, which should normalize with appropriate therapy. Liver specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in decompensated heart failure (HF) can be mildly elevated. The levels exceeding beyond the expected rise should be a concern and lead to further investigation. The literature reports insubstantial number of cases regarding significantly elevated levels of ALP and congestive hepatopathy. We report a case of a 45-year-old female with known history of severe cardiomyopathy that had persistently elevated levels of ALP. The extensive workup was negative for any specific pathology. The liver biopsy was consistent with congestive hepatopathy. The patient's ALP levels decreased with aggressive diuretic therapy but still remained elevated.

  4. Physical Exercise And Cognitive Engagement Outcomes for Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Mild Cognitive Impairment; Memory Disorders; Mild Dementia; Impaired Cognition; Mild Cognitive Disorder; Amnestic Disorder; Dementia and Amnestic Conditions; Poor Short-term Memory; Memory Impairment; Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

  5. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Setting: Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Participants: Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Measurement: Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Results: Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis. PMID

  6. Long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of post-burn pruritus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebid, Anwar Abdelgayed; Ibrahim, Abeer Ramadan; Omar, Mohammed Taher; El Baky, Amal Mohamed Abd

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the long-term effects of pulsed high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in post-burn pruritus treatment. A total of 49 adult burn patients with mean age of 31.53 ± 10.14 years participated, with 24 patients randomly assigned to the active laser group (ALG) and 25 in the placebo laser group (PLG). The ALG received HILT three times per week for 6 weeks, while the PLG received placebo HILT. Both groups received 10-mg cetirizine tablets twice daily and 10 mg at bedtime. All patients were advised to massage their burn scars with coconut oil for 5 min four times daily. The outcomes measured were the itch severity scale (ISS), impairment of pruritus-related quality of life (QoL), pain level by the visual analog scale (VAS), hand grip strength by handheld dynamometer, and daily cetirizine intake. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the baseline and post-treatment measurements and after 12 weeks of follow-up. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. ISS decreased significantly in the ALG after 6 weeks of treatment and after 12 weeks of follow-up compared with the PLG. The QoL results showed a significant improvement in the ALG compared with the PLG, which continued after 12 weeks. VAS results significantly decrease, hand grip strength significantly improved, and cetirizine intake significantly decreased post-treatment in the ALG relative to the PLG. HILT combined with cetirizine seems more effective in patients with post-burn pruritus than a placebo laser procedure with cetirizine.

  7. One?year safety and efficacy study of bilastine treatment in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria or pruritus associated with skin diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yagami, Akiko; Furue, Masutaka; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A number of second?generation non?sedating antihistamines are used in clinical practices over the world. However, long?term safety and efficacy have not been proved high level evidence based medicine. We have performed an open?label, multicenter, phase III study to evaluate the long?term safety and efficacy of bilastine, a novel non?sedating H1?antihistamine for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) or pruritus associated with skin diseases (trial registration no. JapicCT...

  8. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  9. Pruritus-Ani

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pruritis ani include tea, cola, energy drinks, chocolate, citrus fruits, tomatoes, spicy foods, beer, dairy products and ... from all attempted treatment options. These individuals may benefit from ... practitioners, health care workers and patients who desire information about ...

  10. Desquamative gingivitis mimicking mild gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravanthi Raghav Yajamanya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to diagnose the cause for episodic, shifting type of mild inflammation in the isolated areas of gingiva noted by the patient for 1 year. A 33-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of mild pain and occasional burning sensation confined to the gingiva to the Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology. Clinical presentation of the gingiva was seen to mimic mild form of gingivitis for 1 year, with no noted systemic involvement gingival biopsy was performed. The presence of Tzanck cell was noted along with intraepithelial split pointing toward pemphigus. Thus, the study concludes that thorough and meticulous gingival examination can reveal the picture of underlying systemic alterations and is the key for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  11. Desquamative gingivitis mimicking mild gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajamanya, Shravanthi Raghav; Jayaram, Praveen; Chatterjee, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report is to diagnose the cause for episodic, shifting type of mild inflammation in the isolated areas of gingiva noted by the patient for 1 year. A 33-year-old female patient presented with a chief complaint of mild pain and occasional burning sensation confined to the gingiva to the Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology. Clinical presentation of the gingiva was seen to mimic mild form of gingivitis for 1 year, with no noted systemic involvement gingival biopsy was performed. The presence of Tzanck cell was noted along with intraepithelial split pointing toward pemphigus. Thus, the study concludes that thorough and meticulous gingival examination can reveal the picture of underlying systemic alterations and is the key for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:29242695

  12. Guide to MildSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Rolfdal; Thomassen, Kristina; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    effects. MILDSIM is based on solving the coupled mild-slope partial differential equations (PDE). These PDEs are derived from the governing PDE for water wave mechanics and the boundary conditions for linear waves propagating in areas where the variation of the water depth is small. By integrating the PDE...... in the vertical direction, the dependence of the water depth is removed and the problem is reduced to a 2D problem, and thereby the two dimensional PDE only is valid when the bottom slope is small. The derivation of the PDE's are described in Brorsen [2007]. Because MILDSIM is based on the mild-slope equations...

  13. The Vanishing Mildly Retarded Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Julia H.; Obringer, S. J.

    This paper examines statistics that appear to show a 20 percent decline in the number of students identified as mildly mentally retarded. Evidence is provided which suggests that the primary reason for these declining figures is that these children are being classified as learning disabled. Relatively loose criteria for the learning disabilities…

  14. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  15. Macrophages in Mildly Acid Microenvironment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid caused by anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxia, seem to be the main cause. In consequence, pH. 6.6 and 6.8 were used as experimental group to present the mildly acid microenvironment of tumor tissues, and pH 7.2 was taken as control group in our study. Table 1: Effect of TP concentration and time on the proliferation of ...

  16. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; Díaz, I.; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz, Iván; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  18. Expansion of the Phenotypic Spectrum of Propionic Acidemia with Isolated Elevated Propionylcarnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Ugarte, Kiki; Merchant, Nadia; Craigen, William J; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    We report three patients with elevations of propionylcarnitine (C3), one without elevations of 2-methylcitrate and 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis, and the other two showing only mild elevations, all of whom were subsequently confirmed to have propionic acidemia by molecular analysis of PCCA and PCCB genes. To date, they have had a mild clinical course. These cases illustrate the importance of considering high C3 as the only biochemical abnormality in a diagnosis of propionic acidemia. Since mild C3 elevations may be overlooked and considered non-diagnostic in isolation, we advise considering a diagnosis of propionic acidemia even in the absence of significant elevations 2-methylcitrate or 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis.

  19. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  20. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  1. A randomised trial evaluating the effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on pruritus induced by histamine, and cowhage challenge in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Gibson

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, and peripheral sensory nerve fibres. Activation of TRPV1 releases neuropeptides; the resulting neurogenic inflammation is believed to contribute to the development of pruritus. A TRPV1 antagonist has the potential to perform as an anti-pruritic agent. SB705498 is a TRPV1 antagonist that has demonstrated in vitro activity against cloned TRPV1 human receptors and when orally administered has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in animal models and clinical studies.To select a topical dose of SB705498 using the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin; to confirm engagement of the TRPV1 antagonistic action of SB705498 and assess whether the dose selected has an effect on itch induced by two challenge agents.A clinical study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of 3 doses of SB705498 on skin flare induced by capsaicin. Subjects with a robust capsaicin response were chosen to determine if the selected topical formulation of SB705498 had an effect on challenge agent induced itch.Following capsaicin challenge the greatest average reduction in area of flare was seen for the 3% formulation. This dose was selected for further investigation. Itch intensity induced by two challenge agents (cowhage and histamine was assessed on the Computerised Visual Analogue Scale. The difference in average itch intensity (Weighted Mean Over 15 Mins between the 3% dose of SB705498 and placebo for the cowhage challenge was -0.64, whilst the histamine challenge showed on average a -4.65 point change.The 3% topical formulation of SB705498 cream was clinically well tolerated and had target specific pharmacodynamic activity. However there were no clinically significant differences on pruritus induced by either challenge agent in comparison to placebo. SB705498 is unlikely to be of symptomatic benefit for histaminergic or non-histaminergic induced

  2. Effect of three sources of long-chain fatty acids on the plasma fatty acid profile, plasma prostaglandin E2 concentrations, and pruritus symptoms in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L W; Monsen, E R; Ahmad, S

    1996-08-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure exhibit plasma fatty acid patterns indicative of essential fatty acid deficiency. The plasma fatty acid profile of 25 hemodialysis patients with a history of pruritus symptoms indicated lower 20:3n-9 (eicosatrienoic acid), 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid), and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) concentrations; a higher 18:1n-9 (oleic acid) concentration; and above-normal ranges of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) compared with 22 subjects chosen from a normal population. No significant difference in 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) was shown between the hemodialysis patients and the normal subjects. The dietary intake of 20:5n-3 was higher and that of 18:1n-9 lower in the patients compared with the normal population group. In this 8-wk double-blind study the hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive daily supplements of 6 g ethyl ester of either fish oil, olive oil, or safflower oil. At the end of 8 wk of treatment the fish oil group (FO group) had a greater decrease in 18:1n-9 (P P > 0.05) compared with the other two groups. The increases in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the FO group indicate compliance with fish oil supplementation. Results indicate that hemodialysis patients have abnormal fatty acid profiles and increased PGE2 values. Fish oil intervention changes the fatty acid profile and may improve the symptoms of pruritus.

  3. The use of concentrated heat after insect bites/stings as an alternative to reduce swelling, pain, and pruritus: an open cohort-study at German beaches and bathing-lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before

  4. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... into the true prevalence of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents, and optimal treatment....

  5. Post-marketing surveillance study of the safety and efficacy of nalfurafine hydrochloride (Remitch®capsules 2.5 μg) in 3,762 hemodialysis patients with intractable pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozono, Hideki; Yoshitani, Hiroshi; Nakano, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    Intractable pruritus in hemodialysis patients can significantly decrease their quality of life and is also associated with poor vital prognosis. Although combined multiple causes of intractable pruritus in these patients have been identified, no existing treatments are proven to be sufficiently effective. We conducted a post-marketing surveillance to follow-up and assess the safety and efficacy of nalfurafine, a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, for the treatment of intractable pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Hemodialysis patients with intractable pruritus from institutions in Japan who received oral nalfurafine hydrochloride between January 2010 and December 2013 were enrolled in the surveillance. Surveillance was completed in July 2015. Safety data during 1 year after nalfurafine treatment onset, and efficacy data of nalfurafine evaluating the first 12-week treatment period and the following period until 1 year after the initial dose of nalfurafine (using global assessment of the itch improvement by the physician, Visual Analog Scale, and the Shiratori's severity scores) were collected and analyzed. In total, 3,762 patients were analyzed for safety. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 402/3,762 (10.69%) patients. The most frequent adverse drug reactions were insomnia (127/3,762 [3.38%] patients), constipation (34 [0.90%]), somnolence (32 [0.85%]), dizziness (23 [0.61%]), nausea (13 [0.35%]), and malaise (9 [0.24%]). No patients developed dependence on nalfurafine. Nalfurafine was effective in 82.50% (2,880/3,491) of patients during the first 12 weeks and in 84.95% (2,167/2,551) on treatment during the subsequent period until 1 year after nalfurafine treatment initiation. Statistically significant decreases were reported in the Visual Analog Scale and the Shiratori's severity scores ( p 5.0 μg/day) continues to be safe and effective for the treatment of intractable pruritus in hemodialysis patients in real-world clinical settings.

  6. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  7. Mild hypothyroidism improves glucose tolerance in experimental type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, S; Bobby, Zachariah; Joseph, Manoj

    2015-06-25

    Co-existence of type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism is an emerging trend observed in clinical practice. Although the effects of isolated type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism are well known, there are limited studies addressing the metabolic complications when these two conditions co-exist. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism with respect to glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and redox balance in a state were these two diseases coexist. Sixty male Wistar Albino rats were randomised into six groups. Group 1: control, Group 2: overt hypothyroidism, Group 3: mild hypothyroidism, Group 4: type 2 diabetes, Group 5: mild hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes, Group 6: overt hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes. Experimental hypothyroidism was created by the administration of propyl-2-thiouracil and type 2 diabetes by feeding rats with 60% fructose (w/w). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. All the parameters were estimated at the start (basal) and the end of the study. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was carried out and area under curve (AUC) calculated to assess the glucose tolerance. Thyroid profile, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were also measured. Plasma TSH level was elevated 3-fold in the mild hypothyroid group and 15.2-fold in the overt hypothyroid group in comparison to the control group. Thyroid profile was found to be normal in type 2 diabetic group. There was no significant difference between hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism+diabetes groups with respect to thyroid profile. Among the six groups the degree of glucose intolerance was found to be maximum for overt hypothyroidism+diabetes group, followed by diabetes group and overt hypothyroidism group. An interesting finding was that glucose intolerance was significantly reduced in mild hypothyroidism+diabetes group (increase in AUC: 48.04%) in comparison with isolated diabetes group (increase in AUC: 71.63%). Similar results were

  8. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  9. Mild mental stress in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Mehlsen, J; Sestoft, L

    1985-01-01

    A TV-game of tennis of 20 min duration was used to study the influence of mild mental stress on subcutaneous blood-flow (SBF), blood-pressure and heart rate in nine insulin-dependent diabetics and nine healthy subjects. SBF was measured on the thigh by local clearance of xenon-133. Measurements...... were made before, during and after the period of stress. During stress, SBF increased significantly by 26% in the healthy subjects, while SBF remained unchanged in the diabetics. The difference between the two groups was significant (P less than 0.05). Following stress, SBF returned to pre-stress level...... in the healthy subjects, while a significant decrease of 33% was observed in the diabetics. The pre-stress heart rate level was higher and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was less in the diabetics compared with the healthy subjects (P less than 0.05). During the stress a slight--but insignificant...

  10. [Neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2006-11-01

    I summarized the present status of Neuroimaging studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nation wide multi-center study with regard to single photon emission study had been started 3 year before and it is now going on in a good cooperation of many institute, covering 319 cases. This study was name as J-COSMIC (Japan Cooperative SPECT Study on Assessment of Mild Impairment of Cognitive Function). After one-year follow-up, 30 out of 120 cases were converted to Alzheimer's disease from MCI. Since last year, ADNI (Alzheimer' disease Neuroimaging Initiative) had started in US, very similar to J-COSMIC, but they adopted PET and MRI as the examination tool. The findings based on J-COSMIC is still unclear, but, we can say that the general cognitive evaluation methods such as MMSE is better than WMS-R, which measures the memory function itself with wide variation in each case. Similar to small size previous works, converter from MCI to Alzheimer's disease tended to show hypoperfusion in the parietal and frontal regions. Recent advance in the molecular imaging enabled us to visualize the deposition of amyloid protein in the brain parenchyma. It is still controversial as to application of the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or MCI. S. Minoshima reported the hypometabolism in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease in the posterior cingulate gyrus or precuneus, but it has been still unknown why these areas showed hypoperfusion or hypometabolism in early phase of Alzheimer's disease. We examined the fiber connection of posterior cingulate region with other brain structures using diffusion weighted images. It was very surprising that such kind of small structures had a lot of connections, not only contralateral side, but also, parietal and temporal lobes, as well as anterior cigulate cortex. The function has been still been unclear, but we will be able to disclose their functions in the human brain in the future, which will be helpful for understanding the

  11. Persistently elevated alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitin; Gorard, David A

    2012-08-24

    A 32-year-old overweight asymptomatic man was found to have a persistently raised serum alkaline phosphatase at 250-300 U/l (normal range liver function tests were unremarkable apart from an initial marginally elevated alanine transaminase, which normalised with weight reduction. Abdominal imaging revealed a fatty liver but an extensive serological search for significant hepatobiliary disease was negative. Subsequent isoenzyme electrophoresis revealed normal liver and bone fractions of alkaline phosphatase but a grossly elevated intestinal fraction. Elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase should be considered in the investigation of unexplained alkaline phosphatase, particularly when the usual associated hepatobiliary and bony pathologies are not present. Although an elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase can be linked to significant gastrointestinal pathology, this case report highlights that it can be a benign biochemical finding.

  12. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  13. Post-marketing surveillance study of the safety and efficacy of nalfurafine hydrochloride (Remitch® capsules 2.5 μg in 3,762 hemodialysis patients with intractable pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozono H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kozono,* Hiroshi Yoshitani,* Ryoko Nakano* Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Vigilance Department, Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo, Japan *The authors contributed equally to this work Background: Intractable pruritus in hemodialysis patients can significantly decrease their quality of life and is also associated with poor vital prognosis. Although combined multiple causes of intractable pruritus in these patients have been identified, no existing treatments are proven to be sufficiently effective. We conducted a post-marketing surveillance to follow-up and assess the safety and efficacy of nalfurafine, a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, for the treatment of intractable pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Patients and methods: Hemodialysis patients with intractable pruritus from institutions in Japan who received oral nalfurafine hydrochloride between January 2010 and December 2013 were enrolled in the surveillance. Surveillance was completed in July 2015. Safety data during 1 year after nalfurafine treatment onset, and efficacy data of nalfurafine evaluating the first 12-week treatment period and the following period until 1 year after the initial dose of nalfurafine (using global assessment of the itch improvement by the physician, Visual Analog Scale, and the Shiratori’s severity scores were collected and analyzed. Results: In total, 3,762 patients were analyzed for safety. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 402/3,762 (10.69% patients. The most frequent adverse drug reactions were insomnia (127/3,762 [3.38%] patients, constipation (34 [0.90%], somnolence (32 [0.85%], dizziness (23 [0.61%], nausea (13 [0.35%], and malaise (9 [0.24%]. No patients developed dependence on nalfurafine. Nalfurafine was effective in 82.50% (2,880/3,491 of patients during the first 12 weeks and in 84.95% (2,167/2,551 on treatment during the subsequent period until 1 year after nalfurafine treatment initiation. Statistically significant

  14. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  15. Effect of baby oil on pruritus, sleep quality, and quality of life in hemodialysis patients: pretest-post-test model with control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ezgi; Kilic, Serap Parlar; Karatay, Gülnaz; Metin, Ozgur

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effect of baby oil on pruritus, sleep quality, and quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This pretest-post-test model with control groups study was conducted in HD units in two different provinces in eastern Turkey. The study group consisted of a total of 70 patients receiving HD treatment who met the inclusion criteria, 35 being in the intervention group and 35 in the control group. After the patients in both groups were informed about the study, they were administered a questionnaire, the Severity Scale, Visual Analog Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 Quality of Life Scale. Following the administration of baby oil to the patients in the intervention group three times a week for a period of 1 month, the same scales were repeated to explore their pruritic status, sleep quality, and quality of life. The same scales were repeated also for the patients in the control group 1 month later but without administering any baby oil. When the Itch Severity Scale, Visual Analog Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and SF-36 Quality of Life Physical and Mental Component scores of the patients in the control and intervention groups before and after the intervention were compared, the differences in the change were found to be statistically significant in favor of the intervention group (P quality of life, and sleep quality in HD patients who had itching complaints. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. Cimidíase (dermatose por percevejo: uma causa de prurigo a ser lembrada Bedbugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: an etiology of pruritus to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.

  17. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  18. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  19. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  20. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  1. Conservative treatment for mild femoroacetabular impingement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emara, Khaled; Samir, Wail; Motasem, El Hausain; Ghafar, Khaled Abd El

    2011-01-01

    ...) for mild femoroacetabular impingement. 27 male and 10 female athletic patients aged 23 to 47 years presented with unilateral hip pain secondary to femoroacetabular impingement and an alpha angle of <60 degrees...

  2. Specific patterns of spinal metabolites underlying α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus compared with histamine and capsaicin assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taotao; He, Zhigang; Tian, Xuebi; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Li, Zhixiao; Liu, Zeyuan; Liu, Huili; Xu, Fuqiang; Wang, Jie; Xiang, Hongbing

    2017-06-01

    The mechanism behind itching is not well understood. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopic analysis of spinal cord extracts provides a quick modality for evaluating the specific metabolic activity of α-Me-5-HT-evoked pruritus mice. In the current study, four groups of young adult male C57Bl/6 mice were investigated; one group treated with saline, while the other groups intradermally injected with α-Me-5-HT (histamine independent pruritogen), histamine (histamine dependent pruritogen) and capsaicin (algogenic substance), respectively. The intradermal microinjection of α-Me-5-HT and histamine resulted in a dramatic increase in the itch behavior. Furthermore, the results of NMR studies of the spinal cord extracts revealed that the metabolites show very different patterns for these different drugs, especially when comparing α-Me-5-HT and capsaicin. All the animals in the groups of α-Me-5-HT and capsaicin were completely separated using the metabolite parameters and principal component analysis. For α-Me-5-HT, the concentrations of glutamate, GABA, glycine and aspartate increased significantly, especially for GABA (increased 17.2%, p=0.008). Furthermore, the concentration of NAA increased, but there was no significant difference (increased 11.3%, p=0.191) compared to capsaicin (decreased 29.1%, p=0.002). Thus the application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique, coupled with statistical analysis, could further explain the mechanism behind itching evoked by α-Me-5-HT or other drugs. It can thus improve our understanding of itch pathophysiology and pharmacological therapies which may contribute to itch relief. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevation of cartilage AGEs does not accelerate initiation of canine experimental osteoarthritis upon mild surgical damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.M.; Degroot, J.; Barten-Van Rijbroek, A.D.; Zuurmond, A.-M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Mastbergen, S.C.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease, age being the main risk factor. The age-related accumulation of advanced-glycation-endproducts (AGEs) adversely affects the mechanical and biochemical properties of cartilage. The hypothesis that accumulation of cartilage AGEs in combination with

  4. Mild obstructive sleep apnea: beyond the AHI

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Iannotti J; Parish JM

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A common conundrum faced by sleep medicine practitioners is how to manage the large group of patients with mild sleep apnea. Many patients are referred for sleep evaluation, with symptoms thought to be due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Often polysomnography demonstrates only mild sleep apnea, and the clinician and patient are faced with the dilemma of whether to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy or an oral applian...

  5. Sexuality of adolescents with mild intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Resman, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation is about sexuality of adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Theoretical part focuses on sexuality of adolescents and who are adolescents with mild intellectual disability, and also the topics that involve their sexuality, such as sexual behavior, sexual information, social status, sexual disorders and integration in education. Empirical part describes the research and the results of it. Research instrument is a questionnaire, which was answered by pupils of eighth an...

  6. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Verd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45. Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF.

  7. Mild environmental stress elicits mutations affecting fitness in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goho, S; Bell, G

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of Chlamydomonas were exposed to a range of relatively mild stresses for a period of 24 h. These stresses comprised high and low temperatures, osmotic stress, low pH, starvation and toxic stress. They were then allowed to recuperate for around ten vegetative generations under near-optimal conditions in unmodified minimal medium. Fitness was then assayed as the rate of division of isolated cells on agar. We found that there was a strong tendency for stressed cultures to have lower mean fitness and greater standardized variance in fitness than the negative controls which had been cultured throughout in unmodified minimal medium. The same tendency was shown, as expected, by positive controls which received mutagenic doses of ultraviolet irradiation. We concluded that the most reasonable interpretation of these observations is that mild stress increases the genomic rate of mutation. This appears to be the first time that this phenomenon has been noticed in eukaryotes. The response might be adaptive because lineages in which higher mutation rates are elicited by stress can be favourably selected through the production of a few mutants which are fortuitously well adapted to the stressful environment. Other interpretations are not excluded, however. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the elevation of mutation rates under stress will affect the rate of evolutionary response to environmental change and also the maintenance of sexuality. PMID:10687816

  8. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M E; Lao, M C; Patel, S S; Lee, M L; Ghods, D E; Chandler, D W; Friedman, T C

    2008-11-01

    Women with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60%. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39 nmol/L warrants a workup for CS.

  9. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss and Mild Vasculopathy in Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr)-Deficient Mice: A Model of Mild Hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markand, Shanu; Saul, Alan; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Martin, Pamela; Rozen, Rima; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2015-04-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) is a key enzyme in homocysteine-methionine metabolism. We investigated Mthfr expression in retina and asked whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia, due to Mthfr deficiency, alters retinal neurovascular structure and function. Expression of Mthfr was investigated at the gene and protein level using quantitative (q) RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/- mice were subjected to comprehensive evaluation using ERG, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), HPLC, and morphometric and IHC analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) at 8 to 24 weeks. Gene and protein analyses disclosed widespread retinal expression of Mthfr. Electroretinography (ERG) revealed a significant decrease in positive scotopic threshold response in retinas of Mthfr+/- mice at 24 weeks. Fundus examination in mice from both groups was normal; FA revealed areas of focal vascular leakage in 20% of Mthfr+/- mice at 12 to 16 weeks and 60% by 24 weeks. The SD-OCT revealed a significant decrease in nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/- compared to Mthfr+/+ mice. There was a 2-fold elevation in retinal hcy at 24 weeks in Mthfr+/- mice by HPLC and IHC. Morphometric analysis revealed an approximately 20% reduction in cells in the ganglion cell layer of Mthfr+/- mice at 24 weeks. The IHC indicated significantly increased GFAP labeling suggestive of Müller cell activation. Mildly hyperhomocysteinemic Mthfr+/- mice demonstrate reduced ganglion cell function, thinner NFL, and mild vasculopathy by 24 weeks. The retinal phenotype is similar to that of hyperhomocysteinemic mice with deficiency of cystathionine-β-synthase (Cbs) reported earlier. The data support the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia may be causative in certain retinal neurovasculopathies.

  10. Mild hyperglycemia triggered islet function recovery in streptozotocin-induced insulin-deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Shen, Jing; Ren, Weizheng; Hao, Haojie; Xie, Zongyan; Liu, Jiejie; Mu, Yiming; Han, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    Moderate elevation of glucose level has been shown to effectively promote β-cell replication in various models in vitro and in normal rodents. Here, we aimed to test the effect of moderately elevated glucose on β-cell mass expansion and islet function recovery in diabetic animal models. A single high dose of streptozotocin was given to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Then, 48 h after streptozotocin injection, newly diabetic rats were randomly divided into three groups: (i) no treatment to maintain hyperglycemia; (ii) daily exogenous long-acting human insulin analog injection that maintained mild hyperglycemia (15 mmol/L insulin analog injection to restore normoglycemia (blood glucose hyperglycemia. Mild hyperglycemia markedly promoted β-cell proliferation, leading to robust β-cell regeneration. Importantly, rats that maintained mild hyperglycemia showed nearly normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, glucose disposal and random blood glucose levels, suggesting almost full restoration of the islet function. Normalization of blood glucose levels profoundly blunted β-cell replication, regeneration and islet function recovery observed in mild hyperglycemia. Our research provides a feasible approach to stimulate in situ β-cell regeneration in diabetic rats, offering new perspectives for diabetes therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. [Elevated liver enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Elevated liver enzymes are a frequent finding in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients necessitating further evaluation to clarify the underlying disease. Three different patterns of increased liver enzymes can be defined to allow for a more precise and rational further diagnostic approach. A predominant increase in transaminase activities reflects a disturbance of hepatocellular integrity which can be found in patients with viral hepatitis, genetic liver diseases like Wilson`s disease or hemochromatosis, and drug-induced liver diseases. A second pattern is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities indicating cholestatic liver diseases. The next important diagnostic measure in this group is an ultrasound study discerning intra- from extrahepatic cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestatic diseases include primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, genetic disturbances of canalicular membrane transporters or drug-induced liver dieseases. Extrahepatic cholestasis involves obstruction of the large bile ducts by gall stones or tumors. The third enzym pattern is defined by a predominant rise in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase which is observed in alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and infiltrating liver diseases. A rise in liver enzymes is not necessarily indicative of a primary hepatic origin. Extrahepatic diseases often cause similarly increased serum activities. In addition even higher values can be observed under normal conditions during pregnancy or in adolescens. Lower values in asymptomatic patients should only be controlled since more than 30% of elevated transaminases spontaneously normalize during follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  13. Multi-focal HIFU reduces cavitation in mild-hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vandiver; Caskey, Charles F

    2017-01-01

     W, and created heating that was more spatially diffuse than single focus, resulting in more voxels in the mild heating (3-8 °C) range. Multi-focal HIFU can be used to achieve mild temperature elevation and reduce cavitation activity.

  14. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Johnson; Bethany Cluskey; Nina Hooshvar; Daphne Tice; Courtney Devin; Elaine Kao; Suhalia Nawabi; Steven Jones; Lihua Zhang; Chi Dola

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting bu...

  15. [Mild head injuries in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Heinrich W; Jung-Schmidsfeld, Jochen; Pienaar, Simon

    2017-07-01

    In the elderly, particularly those over 80 years old, head injuries often occur as a result of falls. The majority suffer from mild head injury. After clarification of the initial symptoms in these patients, the main aim is to recognize or exclude intracranial injuries (bleeding). Demonstration of intracranial bleeding is possible with cranial computed tomography (CCT), which in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be quickly carried out in most cases; however, most patients with mild head injury show no intracranial bleeding. The performance of CCT and the often necessary hospital admission place a severe physical and psychological burden on the elderly. The plasma parameter S100B, combined with the clinical findings, is a valuable instrument for decision making in the management of elderly patients with mild head injury.

  16. Elevation leads to altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Roper, Jean; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2010-03-01

    Feelings of elevation, elicited by witnessing another person perform a good deed, have been hypothesized to motivate a desire to help others. However, despite growing interest in the determinants of prosocial behavior, there is only limited evidence that elevation leads to increases in altruistic behavior. In two experiments, we tested the relationship between elevation and helping behavior. Prior to measuring helping behavior, we measured elevation among participants in an elevation-inducing condition and control conditions in order to determine whether witnessing altruistic behavior elicited elevation. In Experiment 1, participants experiencing elevation were more likely to volunteer for a subsequent unpaid study than were participants in a neutral state. In Experiment 2, participants experiencing elevation spent approximately twice as long helping the experimenter with a tedious task as participants experiencing mirth or a neutral emotional state. Further, feelings of elevation, but not feelings of amusement or happiness, predicted the amount of helping. Together, these results provide evidence that witnessing another person's altruistic behavior elicits elevation, a discrete emotion that, in turn, leads to tangible increases in altruism.

  17. Craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, S.; Dhamo, B.; Kuijpers, M.A.R.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Wolvius, E.B.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to evaluate the craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia using conventional and principal component (PC) analysis. METHODS: We used radiographic images of 124 children (8-12 years old) with up to 4 missing teeth (55 boys, 69 girls) and of

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317, Iran. (Received May 23 ...

  19. Learning Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…

  20. Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeff, H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and familial, had a strikingly higher prevalence of disturbances than a control group of retarded individuals with consanguineous parents…

  1. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin (R) properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escoffre, JM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413647544; Deckers, RHR|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341697834; Sasaki, Noboru; Bos, Clemens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/232000832; Moonen, Chrit|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216691974

    Background. Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic

  2. Mild disintegration of green microalgae and macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Richard

    2016-01-01

    An increased worldwide protein demand for food and feed and the necessity to release the water soluble proteins in the first stage of the cascade biorefinery require the development of mild protein extraction technologies. Cell disintegration is the first hurdle and is considered as one of the most

  3. Effect of mild diarrhea on tacrolimus exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; van der Heijden, J.J.; Hoogtanders, K.E.; Hilbrands, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event in patients treated with the combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In case of severe diarrhea, the total exposure to tacrolimus can substantially increase, which is reflected in a rise of the predose trough level (C0). In mild

  4. Avaliação da associação entre as alterações no metabolismo mineral e o prurido nos pacientes em hemodiálise Evaluating the association between alterations in mineral metabolism and pruritus in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Quevedo Welter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: prurido é o sintoma mais freqüente nos pacientes nefropatas em hemodiálise. Parâmetros laboratoriais anormais têm sido encontrados, com dados conflitantes. OBJETIVO: relacionar a prevalência de prurido com alterações no metabolismo mineral de pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle. Avaliados 105 pacientes, sendo os pacientes com prurido os casos, preencheram o questionário do protocolo de pesquisa e a escala análoga visual, os dados laboratoriais foram coletados dos prontuários eletrônicos. RESULTADOS: a média de idade foi de 51,9 anos, 59% dos pacientes eram homens e 43% dos pacientes tinham prurido. Xerodermia ocorreu em 45% dos pacientes. Níveis elevados de Ca foram demonstrados em 55% dos pacientes e 47% tinham prurido. Quanto ao fósforo 60% tinham valores elevados e 43% tinham prurido. A relação Ca/P foi normal em todos. O paratormônio mostrou-se elevado em 95% dos pacientes, todos referindo prurido. CONCLUSÃO: houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo de pacientes com prurido e xerodermia. Os níveis séricos de Cálcio, Fósforo, relação Ca/P, PTHi e o tamanho do dialisador não apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com o prurido. Logo, encontramos relação importante entre xerodermia e prurido, sem relação com os parâmetros laboratoriais avaliados.BACKGROUND: Uremic pruritus is the most frequent symptom in long-term hemodialysis patients. Abnormal laboratory parameters have been found with conflicting data. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prevalence of pruritus with alterations in mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This was a case-control study. A hundred and five patients on maintenance hemodialysis were evaluated: a group of patients with pruritus and a control group. They answered a research protocol questionnaire; laboratory data were collected from medical records and the patients with pruritus filled out a visual

  5. Mild cognitive impairment in clinical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.S.; Karlawish, J.H.; Uhlmann, W.R.; Petersen, R.C.; Green, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess how neurologists view mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a clinical diagnosis and how they treat patients with mild cognitive symptoms. Methods: Members of the American Academy of Neurology with an aging, dementia, or behavioral neurology practice focus were surveyed by self-administered questionnaire. Results: Survey respondents were 420 providers (response rate 48%), and 88% reported at least monthly encounters with patients experiencing mild cognitive symptoms. Most respondents recognize MCI as a clinical diagnosis (90%) and use its diagnostic code for billing purposes (70%). When seeing these patients, most respondents routinely provide counseling on physical (78%) and mental exercise (75%) and communicate about dementia risk (63%); fewer provide information on support services (27%) or a written summary of findings (15%). Most (70%) prescribe cholinesterase inhibitors at least sometimes for this population, with memantine (39%) and other agents (e.g., vitamin E) prescribed less frequently. Respondents endorsed several benefits of a diagnosis of MCI: 1) involving the patient in planning for the future (87%); 2) motivating risk reduction activities (85%); 3) helping with financial planning (72%); and 4) prescribing medications (65%). Some respondents noted drawbacks, including 1) too difficult to diagnose (23%); 2) better described as early Alzheimer disease (21%); and 3) diagnosis can cause unnecessary worry (20%). Conclusions: Patients with mild cognitive symptoms are commonly seen by neurologists, who view MCI as a useful diagnostic category. Information and treatments provided to patients with MCI vary significantly, suggesting a need for practice guidelines and further research on clinical decision-making with this population. GLOSSARY AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; AAN = American Academy of Neurology; AD = Alzheimer disease; CIND = cognitive impairment, no dementia; DSM-V = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  6. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  7. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy with Severe Elevation of Bile Acids in the Setting of Acute Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Lawlor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a complication of pregnancy resulting in elevation of serum bile acid levels. ICP is often associated with underlying liver disease, including hepatitis C. Bile acids in relationship to the acute infection of hepatitis C virus have not yet been delineated in the literature. A 26-year-old gravida 4 para 2103 with dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation and history of intravenous drug abuse developed ICP in the setting of acute hepatitis C infection. In addition to clinical symptoms of pruritus and right upper quadrant pain, she developed severe elevation in bile acids, 239 micromol/L, and transaminitis aspartate aminotransferase 1033 U/L, and alanine aminotransferase 448 U/L. She received ursodeoxycholic acid and antenatal testing was performed. Patient delivered vaginally at 33-week gestation following preterm rupture of membranes. Neonates were admitted to NICU and had uncomplicated neonatal courses. In the setting of ICP with significant transaminitis and severe elevation of bile acids, consideration of acute viral hepatitis is important, especially considering the worsening opioid epidemic and concurrent increase in intravenous drug use in the United States. Further study is needed regarding the acute form of HCV infection and its effect on ICP and associated bile acids.

  8. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy with Severe Elevation of Bile Acids in the Setting of Acute Hepatitis C Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Megan L; Critchfield, Agatha S

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a complication of pregnancy resulting in elevation of serum bile acid levels. ICP is often associated with underlying liver disease, including hepatitis C. Bile acids in relationship to the acute infection of hepatitis C virus have not yet been delineated in the literature. A 26-year-old gravida 4 para 2103 with dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation and history of intravenous drug abuse developed ICP in the setting of acute hepatitis C infection. In addition to clinical symptoms of pruritus and right upper quadrant pain, she developed severe elevation in bile acids, 239 micromol/L, and transaminitis aspartate aminotransferase 1033 U/L, and alanine aminotransferase 448 U/L. She received ursodeoxycholic acid and antenatal testing was performed. Patient delivered vaginally at 33-week gestation following preterm rupture of membranes. Neonates were admitted to NICU and had uncomplicated neonatal courses. In the setting of ICP with significant transaminitis and severe elevation of bile acids, consideration of acute viral hepatitis is important, especially considering the worsening opioid epidemic and concurrent increase in intravenous drug use in the United States. Further study is needed regarding the acute form of HCV infection and its effect on ICP and associated bile acids.

  9. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  10. Suspected cold agglutination during mild hypothermic pediatric open heart surgery: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Takaya; Kagisaki, Koji; Moon, Jiyong; Takahashi, Yuzo; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Ichikawa, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    Cold agglutination was suspected in 2 pediatric open heart surgery cases during mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. The first patient was a 2-year-old boy with secundum atrial septal defect. Fifteen minutes after the initiation of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, the inlet pressure of oxygenator suddenly elevated from 250 to over 500 mmHg, whereas outlet pressure was maintained. The blood flow rate decreased from 140 to 85 ml/kg/min. At that time, the arterial blood temperature was less than 32°C. Cold agglutinin was highly suspected, so patient was immediately warmed, and the inlet pressure of oxygenator decreased to 250 mmHg when the arterial blood temperature reached to 36°C. Second patient was a 3-year-old boy with secondary developed subvalvular pulmonary stenosis after the repair of double chambered right ventricle at 10 months of his age. Eighteen minutes after the initiation of mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, the inflow pressure suddenly elevated to 500 mmHg and transmission flow decreased to 55 ml/kg/min. Twenty-three minutes after warming, the pressure fell to a normal level and transmission flow was recovered. The operation continued with normo-thermic cardiopulmonary bypass and crystalloid cardioplegia. Both cases had no postoperative complications related to cold agglutinin such as myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, or renal insufficiency.

  11. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determi...

  12. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år.......Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år....

  13. Mild maternal stress disrupts associative learning and increases aggression in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A

    2015-05-01

    Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  15. Mild orotic aciduria in UMPS heterozygotes: a metabolic finding without clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Saskia B; Chen, Margaret A; Colombo, Roberto; Pontoglio, Alessandro; Alhaddad, Bader; Botto, Lorenzo D; Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Coughlin, Curtis R; Descartes, Maria; Grűnewald, Stephanie; Maranda, Bruno; Mills, Philippa B; Pitt, James; Potente, Catherine; Rodenburg, Richard; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Sampath, Srirangan; Pai, Emil F; Wevers, Ron A; Tiller, George E

    2017-05-01

    Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid is associated with treatable disorders of the urea cycle and pyrimidine metabolism. Establishing the correct and timely diagnosis in a patient with orotic aciduria is key to effective treatment. Uridine monophosphate synthase is involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency (or hereditary orotic aciduria), due to biallelic mutations in UMPS, is a rare condition presenting with megaloblastic anemia in the first months of life. If not treated with the pyrimidine precursor uridine, neutropenia, failure to thrive, growth retardation, developmental delay, and intellectual disability may ensue. We identified mild and isolated orotic aciduria in 11 unrelated individuals with diverse clinical signs and symptoms, the most common denominator being intellectual disability/developmental delay. Of note, none had blood count abnormalities, relevant hyperammonemia or altered plasma amino acid profile. All individuals were found to have heterozygous alterations in UMPS. Four of these variants were predicted to be null alleles with complete loss of function. The remaining variants were missense changes and predicted to be damaging to the normal encoded protein. Interestingly, family screening revealed heterozygous UMPS variants in combination with mild orotic aciduria in 19 clinically asymptomatic family members. We therefore conclude that heterozygous UMPS-mutations can lead to mild and isolated orotic aciduria without clinical consequence. Partial UMPS-deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of mild orotic aciduria. The discovery of heterozygotes manifesting clinical symptoms such as hypotonia and developmental delay are likely due to ascertainment bias.

  16. Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Algarabel González, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón Herrero, José Francisco; Meléndez Moral, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (Mel). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of Mel, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed Iight on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCl. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant...

  17. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    TBI, in particular the distinction between mild TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The problem of distinguishing between the 2 disorders ...shock. The disorder became so common during WWI that 10% of British battle casualties were diagnosed with shell shock, accounting for one-seventh of...shock represented a physical injury or was the result of psychic trauma. The debate ended without any clear resolution, but with most clinicians prob

  18. Mild hyperthermia influence on Herceptin properties:

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Clemens; Deckers, Roel; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Moonen, Chrit; Sasaki, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Background Mild hyperthermia (mHT) increases the tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, and reduces the interstitial fluid pressure, resulting in better intra-tumoral bioavailability of low molecular weight drugs. This approach is potentially also attractive for delivery of therapeutic macromolecules, such as antibodies. Here, we investigated the effects of mHT on the stability, immunological and pharmacological properties of Herceptin?, a clinically approved antibody, targeting the human...

  19. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  20. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    Mizrahi , MD – PI D. Frost, MD D. Friedman, MD R. Hrachovy, M.D J. Slater, MD Project Summary Introduction: This report outlines the participation...of Eli M. Mizrahi , M.D. and his colleagues in the Mission Connect Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Translational Research Consortium during the...time period of August 1, 2009 through July 31, 2010. Dr. Mizrahi is the principal investigator (P.I.) for the Neurophysiology Core which supports the

  1. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  2. Mild obstructive sleep apnea: beyond the AHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Iannotti J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A common conundrum faced by sleep medicine practitioners is how to manage the large group of patients with mild sleep apnea. Many patients are referred for sleep evaluation, with symptoms thought to be due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Often polysomnography demonstrates only mild sleep apnea, and the clinician and patient are faced with the dilemma of whether to use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy or an oral appliance. In making this important decision the clinician incorporates the commonly used definition of mild sleep apnea as an apnea-hypopnea index of between 5 and 14 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep. Moderate sleep apnea is defined as 15-29 events per hour, and severe is 30 and above events per hour. These arbitrary thresholds originated in the early 1980s when knowledge of this condition was in its infancy and little was known about the long term health effects. The definition ...

  3. Update in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Aragón, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José

    2017-08-10

    There has been concern for many years regarding the identification of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) at high risk of developing an intracranial lesion (IL) that would require neurosurgical intervention. The small percentage of patients with these characteristics and the exceptional mortality associated with mild TBI with IL have led to the high use of resources such as computerised tomography (CT) being reconsidered. The various protocols developed for the management of mild TBI are based on the identification of risk factors for IL, which ultimately allows more selective indication or discarding both the CT application and the hospital stay for neurological monitoring. Finally, progress in the study of brain injury biomarkers with prognostic utility in different clinical categories of TBI has recently been incorporated by several clinical practice guidelines, which has allowed, together with clinical assessment, a more accurate prognostic approach for these patients to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Rehabilitation interventions after mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2005-12-01

    This review examines current management and rehabilitation strategies for mild traumatic brain injury, with emphasis on the need to address multiple potential causative factors in order to enhance outcomes and to conduct more controlled efficacy studies. Whilst most individuals who sustain mild traumatic brain injury make a good recovery, a proportion experience significant ongoing disability. In some cases this is due to diffuse axonal injury and cognitive impairment, but in others symptoms are exacerbated by factors such as pain, stress, personality issues or litigation, or in children, previous head injury, behavioural or learning difficulties. Provision of information early after injury results in reduced symptom reporting in adults and children. There is also a need, however, to address these other factors in treatment. Psychological therapy using a cognitive behavioural approach may be helpful, but controlled evaluations of such interventions have been lacking. Recent uncontrolled studies have examined the impact of computer-mediated interventions to remediate visual and verbal processing and oculomotor problems and the impact of quantitative electroencephalography. More rigorous efficacy studies of these approaches are needed. Guidelines for management of sports-related concussion and timing of return to play also require a more solid scientific basis. The evidence base for management of mild traumatic brain injury is still very limited. There is a need to conduct more carefully controlled prospective studies and examine the influence of factors not directly related to the brain injury as a basis for formulating more uniform management guidelines.

  5. Autonomic Dysfunction after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterov, Dmitry; Greenwald, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a complex pathophysiologic process that has a systemic effect on the body aside from solely an impairment in cognitive function. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been found to induce abnormalities in organ systems throughout the body, and may contribute to cardiovascular dysregulation and increased mortality. Autonomic dysfunction, also known as dysautonomia, has been studied in moderate and severe TBI, and has emerged as a major contributing factor in the symptomatology in mTBI as well. Analysis of the ANS has been studied through changes in heart rate variability (HRV), pupillary dynamics, eye pressure, and arterial pulse wave in those with mild TBI. Graded exercise testing has been studied as both a method of diagnosis and as a means of recovery in those with mild TBI, especially in those with persistent symptoms. Given the studies showing persistence of autonomic dysfunction after symptomatic resolution of concussions, further research is needed to establish return to play protocols PMID:28800081

  6. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  8. The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

  9. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  10. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients. PMID:26483830

  11. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  12. Factors associated with chloroquine induced pruritus during malaria treatment in Mozambican University students Factores asociados a la aparición de prurito por cloroquina durante el tratamiento de la malaria en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that reductions in chloroquine use may be followed by a resurgence of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria, and chloroquine might once again be an effective treatment choice, which renews the importance of aspects related to its use and misuse. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in Mozambican University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a private University in Maputo. Students were approached in the classrooms to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, number of previous malaria episodes, utilization of antimalarial drugs, and life prevalence of chloroquine induced pruritus. Results: Among 795 respondents, 77.4% (601/777 reported at least one malaria episode and 73.2% (542/740 had used chloroquine before. The life-prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus was 30.1% (158/525. Pruritus tended to be more frequent when chloroquine was used for treatment compared with prophylaxis only (31.2% vs. 10.3%, pIntroducción: Se ha sugerido que la reducción en el uso de la cloroquina puede derivar en el resurgimiento de la malaria falciparum sensible a la cloroquina, por lo que ésta puede volver a ser un tratamiento efectivo de elección, renovando la importancia de aspectos relacionados con su uso y su mal uso. Se pretende estimar la prevalencia de prurito inducido por cloroquina e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a su ocurrencia en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta transversal en una Universidad privada de Mozambique. Los estudiantes fueron abordados en las aulas para completar un cuestionario autoadministrado, que contenía datos sociodemográficos e información sobre el número de episodios previos de malaria, la utilización de fármacos antipalúdicos y la prevalencia de prurito inducido por

  13. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  14. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  15. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  17. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  18. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  19. Tretinoin microsphere gel pump 0.04% versus tazarotene cream 0.05% in the treatment of mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2009-07-01

    This 12-week, single-center, investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-design study assessed the safety and efficacy of tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% delivered by pump (TMG PUMP) to tazarotene cream 0.05% (TAZ) in mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. Efficacy measurements included investigator global assessment (IGA), lesion counts, and subject self-assessment of acne signs and symptoms. Efficacy was generally comparable between treatment groups, although TMG PUMP provided more rapid results in several parameters. IGA showed a more rapid mean change from baseline at week 4 in the TMG PUMP group (-0.18 versus -0.05 in the TAZ subjects). TMG PUMP yielded more rapid improvement in papules. At week 4, the mean percentage change from baseline in open comedones was statistically significant at -64% in the TMG PUMP group (P=0.0039, within group) versus -19% in the TAZ group (not statistically significant within the group; P=0.1875). Skin dryness, peeling and pruritus were significantly less in the TMG PUMP group as early as week 4. Adverse events related to study treatment were rare in both groups and all resolved upon discontinuation of study medication.

  20. Review on intrauterine programming: Consequences in rodent models of mild diabetes and mild fat overfeeding are not mild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawerbaum, A; White, V

    2017-04-01

    An adverse intrauterine programming occurs in diabetes and obesity as the consequence of an adverse maternal environment that affects the appropriate fetoplacental development and growth. Experimental models of diabetes and fat overfeeding have provided relevant tools to address putative mechanisms of the adverse intrauterine programming. The current knowledge far extends from the original thoughts of the resulting intrauterine programming of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases to a full range of alterations that affect multiple tissues, organs, and systems that will compromise the long-life health of the offspring. This review examines the postnatal effects of rodent models of mild diabetes and fat overfeeding, identifying the multiple organ derangements in the offspring resulting from mild maternal adverse conditions. In addition, the comparison of experimental models of severe diabetes and fat overfeeding and the crucial role of the placenta are discussed, providing an update of the actual scenario of the putative mechanisms and adverse consequences of maternal metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of mild to moderate sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R; Montgomery, Lynda G; Williams, John W

    2012-03-26

    The National Physicians Alliance (NPA)-initiated a project titled "Promoting Good Stewardship in Clinical Practice" to develop a list of the "Top 5" activities in primary care, where changes in practice could lead simultaneously to higher quality care and better use of finite clinical resources. The treatment of acute mild to moderate sinusitis was selected for the "Top 5" list because it is a common clinical problem. Evidence supports avoiding antibiotics early in the course of the illness, and doing so could markedly reduce costs. We reviewed the results of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published in the past 10 years comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo and summarized the evidence regarding the benefits, harms, and costs of antibiotic treatment of acute mild to moderate sinusitis. Sinusitis is one of the most common diagnoses in primary care, accounting for 20 million visits annually in the United States and 15% to 21% of annual antibiotic prescriptions. In randomized controlled trials, cure or improvement 7 to 15 days after beginning treatment was statistically significantly more common among patients assigned to antibiotics compared with placebo, but the differences were small, ranging from a 7% to 14% higher rate of improvement with antibiotics. The rate of complications and recurrence did not differ between those treated with antibiotics and placebo. Adverse effects, primarily diarrhea, were 80% more common in the antibiotic compared with the placebo groups. In addition to adverse effects, overuse of antibiotics can also harm population health by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance Antibiotics should not be prescribed for mild to moderate sinusitis within the first week of the illness. Avoiding antibiotics for acute sinusitis could reduce antibiotic adverse effects, antibiotic resistance, and the cost of health care.

  2. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately...... endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine...

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......: An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a...

  4. Nonsurgical interventions after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Holm, Lena W; Cancelliere, Carol

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the impact of nonsurgical interventions on persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "rehabilitation." Inclusion criteria were...... original, peer-reviewed research published in English and other languages. References were also identified from the bibliographies of eligible articles. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled trials and cohort and case-control studies were selected according to predefined criteria. Studies had to have a minimum of 30...

  5. Molecular Signatures and Diagnostic Biomarkers of Cumulative, Blast-Graded Mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    was increased in the hypothalamus. TH protein was elevated in the NTS. r t i c l e i n f o rticle history : eceived 6 February 2013 eceived in revised...experimental and human blast injury are associated with neuroanatomy and physiology 9  involving: size of different brain structures, neural mass (brain size...Chandler, D.W. (Year). "Epidemiology of mTBI 33  (Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) Due to Blast: History , DOD/VA Data Bases: Challenges 34  and Opportunities

  6. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  7. Enhanced tumorigenicity by mitochondrial DNA mild mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bermúdez, Alberto; Vallejo, Carmen G; Vicente-Blanco, Ramiro J; Gallardo, María Esther; Fernández-Moreno, Miguel Ángel; Quintanilla, Miguel; Garesse, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    To understand how mitochondria are involved in malignant transformation we have generated a collection of transmitochondrial cybrid cell lines on the same nuclear background (143B) but with mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants with different degrees of pathogenicity. These include the severe mutation in the tRNALys gene, m.8363G>A, and the three milder yet prevalent Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutations in the MT-ND1 (m.3460G>A), MT-ND4 (m.11778G>A) and MT-ND6 (m.14484T>C) mitochondrial genes. We found that 143B ρ0 cells devoid of mtDNA and cybrids harboring wild type mtDNA or that causing severe mitochondrial dysfunction do not produce tumors when injected in nude mice. By contrast cybrids containing mild mutant mtDNAs exhibit different tumorigenic capacities, depending on OXPHOS dysfunction.The differences in tumorigenicity correlate with an enhanced resistance to apoptosis and high levels of NOX expression. However, the final capacity of the different cybrid cell lines to generate tumors is most likely a consequence of a complex array of pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic factors associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.Our results demonstrate the essential role of mtDNA in tumorigenesis and explain the numerous and varied mtDNA mutations found in human tumors, most of which give rise to mild mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILD COMBUSTION BURNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and development of the Moderate and Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion burner using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD commercial package was used to simulate preliminary designs for the burner before the final design was sent to the workshop for fabrication. The burner is required to be a non-premixed and open burner. To capture and use the exhaust gas, the burner was enclosed within a large circular shaped wall with an opening at the top. An external EGR pipe was used to transport the exhaust gas which was mixed with the fresh oxidant. To control the EGR and exhaust flow, butterfly valves were installed at the top opening as a damper to close the exhaust gas flow at a certain ratio for EGR and exhaust out to the atmosphere. High temperature fused silica glass windows were installed to view and capture images of the flame and analyze the flame propagation. The burner simulation shows that MILD combustion was achieved for the oxygen mole fraction of 3-13%. The final design of the burner was fabricated and ready for the experimental validation.

  9. A Novel Multifactorial Approach to Developing Mild Laundry Detergents and Assessing Their Relative Mildness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Joseph F; J Zirwas, Matthew J Zirwa; Napolitano, Lisa; Russell, Meghan; Coope-Epstein, Janet

    2017-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dermatologists are becoming more aware of the irritant and allergic potential of laundry detergents that incorporate harsh surfactants and potentially sensitizing ingredients. It is difficult however for the physician to distinguish one laundry detergent from another because the only distinguishing feature advertised tends to be the lack of dyes and fragrances. DESIGN: A new objective method was developed for measuring the harshness of laundry detergents using a three-pronged laboratory testing approach consisting of zein, corneosurfametry, and cytokine testing. Combing these methods, a Detergent Mildness Index was created which conveniently provides a single value by which products can be compared. RESULTS: A new mild laundry detergent was formulated with ingredients carefully selected by dermatologists who are experts in con-tact dermatitis. The irritancy potential of the formula was measured using the Detergent mildness index score. Compared to 11 other commercial laundry detergents marketed for sensitive skin, the new formula is measurably the mildest formula. DISCUSSION: The Detergent Mildness Index provides dermatologists with an objective method to compare commercial laundry deter-gents. Currently the only method available is patch testing, this new test is able to more finely differentiate between products and thus enables more informed recommendations on laundry detergent choices for their patients with sensitive skin.

  10. Effects of mild calorie restriction on anxiety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dinan, Tara; Cai, Guohui; Spencer, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic calorie restriction (CR) is one of the few interventions to improve longevity and quality of life in a variety of species. It also reduces behavioral indices of anxiety and influences some stress hormones under basal conditions. However, it is not known how CR influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function or if those on a CR diet have heightened HPA axis responses to stress. We hypothesized elevated basal glucocorticoid levels induced by CR would lead to exacerbated HPA axis responses to the psychological stress, restraint, in the male rat. We first confirmed rats fed 75% of their normal calorie intake for 3 weeks were less anxious than ad libitum-fed (AD) rats in the elevated plus maze test for anxiety. The anxiolytic effect was mild, with only grooming significantly attenuated in the open field and no measured behavior affected in the light/dark box. Despite elevated basal glucocorticoids, CR rats had very similar hormonal and central responses to 15-min restraint to the AD rats. Both CR and AD rats responded to restraint stress with a robust increase in glucocorticoids that was resolved by 60 min. Both groups also showed robust neuronal activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in other stress- and feeding-sensitive brain regions that was not substantially affected by calorie intake. Our findings thus demonstrate chronic mild CR is subtly anxiolytic and is not likely to affect HPA axis responses to psychological stress. These findings support research suggesting a beneficial effect of mild CR.

  11. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  12. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  13. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikant Saraogi; Ritwika Mallik; Sujoy Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swolle...

  14. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-hua LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common non-motor symptom (NMS in Parkinson's disease (PD, which affects the patients' quality of life and increases the burden of caregivers. Cognitive dysfunction in PD can be mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. MCI presents in the early stage of PD and the incidence rate is increasing with the disease progression. In some cases it can advance to dementia. The diagnosis of MCI in PD includes inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and damage level evaluation. Non-pharmacological therapy, such as exercise and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT can improve the symptoms of MCI in PD, while the pharmacological treatment remains to be further studied. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.002

  15. [Electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene under mild conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-ping; Cao, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yan-li

    2005-01-01

    Effect of cathode materials (S1, S2, AB5, graphite, Ni plate, Fe plate) on the electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene of light concentration under mild conditions(current density less than 1.0 mA/cm2, pH in the range of 4 - 9), was experimentally studied. In aqueous solution, S1, S2 and AB5 electrodes showed high selectivity of nitrobenzene reduction to aniline, with the nitrobenzene conversion and aniline yield being over 85% and 75%, respectively. The results obtained by cyclic voltammograms and single sweep voltammograms showed that nitrobenzene was directly reduced at S1 and S2 electrodes, while reduced by hydrogen at AB5 electrode. The products electroreduced from nitrobenzene on S1, S2 and AB5 cathodes could be easily degraded by aniline degrading strain AN3 under aerobic condition.

  16. Delayed epidural hematoma after mild head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traumatic delayed epidural hematoma (DEH can be defined as insignificant or not seen on the initial CT scan performed after a trauma but seen on the subsequent CT scan as a “massive” epidural bleeding. Case report. We presented two cases of traumatic DEH after mild head injury. Both patients were conscious and without neurological deficit on the admission. Initial CT scan did not reveal intracranial hematoma. Repeated CT scan, that was performed after neurological deterioration, revealed epidural hematoma in both cases. The patients were operated with a favorable surgical outcome. Conclusion. Traumatic DEH could occur in the patients with head injuries who were conscious on the admission with a normal initial CT scan finding. Early detection of DEH and an urgent surgical evacuation were essential for a good outcome.

  17. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-10-26

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes.

  18. Pulmonary Gas Exchange Abnormalities in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Implications for Dyspnea and Exercise Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Webb, Katherine A; Guenette, Jordan A; Jensen, Dennis; Mourad, Sahar M; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2015-06-15

    Several studies in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown a higher than normal ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide ([Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co2) during exercise. Our objective was to examine pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities and the mechanisms of high [Formula: see text]e/[Formula: see text]co2 in mild COPD and its impact on dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Twenty-two subjects (11 patients with GOLD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease] grade 1B COPD, 11 age-matched healthy control subjects) undertook physiological testing and a symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise test with arterial blood gas collection. Patients (post-bronchodilator FEV1: 94 ± 10% predicted; mean ± SD) had evidence of peripheral airway dysfunction and reduced peak oxygen uptake compared with control subjects (80 ± 18 vs. 113 ± 24% predicted; PArterial blood gases were within the normal range and effective alveolar ventilation was not significantly different from control subjects throughout exercise. The alveolar-arterial O2 tension gradient was elevated at rest and throughout exercise in COPD (Parterial to end-tidal CO2 difference were all higher (Parterial blood gas homeostasis but at the expense of earlier dynamic mechanical constraints, greater dyspnea, and exercise intolerance in mild COPD.

  19. Pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Šilc, Mateja

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis examines characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. The research analyses the characteristics of vocabulary, grammatical and substantive structures of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities in storytelling, and concludes the characteristics of storytelling according to gender and age. Uncoincidental, scheduled pattern has been used in data collection of 60 pupils with mild intellectual disabilities, aging from 7 to 9 years. ...

  20. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  1. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  2. Association of body mass index with amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment risk in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Minghui; Han, Zhaoli; Li, Dai; Zhang, Shishuang; Zhang, Yongqiang; Kong, Xiaodong; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Lei, Ping

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies focused on the relationship between body mass index and cognitive disorder and obtained many conflicting results. This study explored the potential effects of body mass index on the risk of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic) in the elderly. The study enrolled 240 amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, 240 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and 480 normal cognitive function controls. Data on admission and retrospective data at baseline (6 years ago) were collected from their medical records. Cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Being underweight, overweight or obese at baseline was associated with an increased risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 2.30, 95%CI: 1.50 ~ 3.52; OR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.36 ~ 2.20; OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.32 ~ 2.22, respectively). Being overweight or obese at baseline was also associated with an increased risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.51, 95%CI: 1.20 ~ 1.92; OR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.21 ~ 1.97, respectively). In subjects with normal weights at baseline, an increased or decreased body mass index at follow-up was associated with an elevated risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.10 ~ 3.05; OR: 3.96, 95%CI: 2.88 ~ 5.49, respectively), but only an increased body mass index was associated with an elevated risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.16 ~ 2.59). Unhealthy body mass index levels at baseline and follow-up might impact the risk of both types of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic).

  3. Mild renal dysfunction and metabolites tied to low HDL cholesterol are associated with monocytosis and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Anjali; Magnusson, Martin; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Ai, Ding; Wang, Thomas J; Gerszten, Robert E; Melander, Olle; Tall, Alan R

    2013-03-05

    The number of circulating blood monocytes impacts atherosclerotic lesion size, and in mouse models, elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol suppress blood monocyte counts and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individuals with mild renal dysfunction at increased cardiovascular risk would have reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, high blood monocyte counts, and accelerated atherosclerosis. To test whether mild renal dysfunction is associated with an increase in a leukocyte subpopulation rich in monocytes that has a known association with future coronary events, we divided individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) into baseline cystatin C quintiles (n=4757). Lower levels of renal function were accompanied by higher monocyte counts, and monocytes were independently associated with carotid bulb intima-media thickness cross-sectionally (P=0.02). Cystatin C levels were positively and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels negatively associated with monocyte counts at baseline, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Several amino acid metabolites tied to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance measured in a subset of individuals (n=752) by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were independently associated with a 22% to 34% increased risk of being in the top quartile of monocytes (P<0.05). A low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance phenotype occurs in subjects with mild renal dysfunction and is associated with elevated monocytes and atherosclerosis. High blood monocyte counts may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the strong relationship between cystatin C and cardiovascular risk.

  4. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Liana G; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral symptoms are common in both mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3,456 MCI and 2,641 mild AD National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination, functional impairment, marital status and family history on the presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with a higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed a higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI patients had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI patients. Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had an effect on selected behaviors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and mild or moderate renal impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P D; Schwartz, E N; Chen, P; Misurski, D A; Krege, J H

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of both osteoporosis and renal impairment increases with age. Using data from the Fracture Prevention Trial, the safety and efficacy of teriparatide [rhPTH(1-34)] in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and renal impairment were explored. Patients were required to have serum creatinine concentrations assessments to have normal (GFR > or =80 ml/min), mildly impaired (GFR 50-79 ml/min), or moderately impaired (GFR 30-49 ml/min) renal function for bone mineral density (BMD) and amino-terminal extension peptide of procollagen type 1 (PINP) analyses, and normal (GFR > or =80 ml/min) or impaired (GFR 0.05). Similarly, teriparatide-mediated vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk reductions were similar and did not differ significantly between patients with normal or impaired renal function (treatment-by-subgroup interactions p>0.05). The incidences of treatment-emergent and renal-related adverse events were consistent across treatment assignment in the normal, mildly impaired, and moderately impaired renal function subgroups. Teriparatide induced changes in mean GFR were unaffected by baseline renal function (treatment-by-renal function interaction p>0.05 for normal, mildly impaired, or moderately impaired subgroups). Patients in all renal function categories treated with teriparatide 20 or 40 mcg had an increased incidence of 4-6-h postdose serum calcium >10.6 mg/dl (the upper limit of normal) versus placebo; however, teriparatide 20 mcg/day was not associated with significantly increased incidence of 4-6-h postdose serum calcium >11 mg/dl in any renal function category. Teriparatide therapy was associated with increased incidence of elevated uric acid, with the incidences being highest in patients with moderately impaired renal function and in those receiving teriparatide 40 mcg/day. Even so, adverse event data did not suggest an increased incidence of gout or arthralgia or of nephrolithiasis events in teriparatide-treated patients with normal, mild

  6. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. ...

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury in children is associated with a low risk for posttraumatic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenard, Anna L; Miller, Brandon A; Sarda, Samir; Capasse, Meredith; Reisner, Andrew; Chern, Joshua J

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Of the 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in the US, a third occur in patients under 14 years of age. The rate of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) may be as high as 19% after severe pediatric TBI, but the risk for seizures after mild TBI is unknown. Although the rate of seizures after mild TBI may be low, current practice is often driven by high clinical concern for posttraumatic seizures. In this study, the authors evaluated electroencephalography (EEG) results and antiepileptic drug (AED) use in a large cohort of children with mild TBI to estimate the incidence of posttraumatic seizures in this population. METHODS Patients presenting to Children's Hospital of Atlanta for mild TBI from 2010 to 2013 were evaluated. Five thousand one hundred forty-eight patients with mild TBI were studied and divided into 3 groups: 4168 who were discharged from the emergency department, 868 who were admitted without neurosurgical intervention, and 112 who underwent neurosurgical procedures (craniotomy for hematoma evacuation or elevation of depressed skull fractures) but were discharged without an extended stay. Demographic information, CT characteristics, EEG reports, and prescriptions for AEDs were analyzed. Long-term follow-up was sought for all patients who underwent EEG. Correlation between EEG result and AED use was also evaluated. RESULTS All patients underwent head CT, and admitted patients were more likely to have an abnormal study (p < 0.0001). EEG evaluations were performed for less than 1.0% of patients in all 3 categories, without significant differences between groups (p = 0.97). Clinicians prescribed AEDs in less than 2.0% of patients for all groups, without significant differences between groups (p = 0.094). Even fewer children continue to see a neurologist for long-term seizure management. The EEG result had good negative predictive value, but only an abnormal EEG reading that was diagnostic of seizures correlated significantly with AED prescription (p

  8. Elevated serum triglycerides are independently associated with persistent organ failure in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Easler, Jeffrey; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Singh, Vijay P; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) represents a major health problem with prevalence exceeding 30% in the U.S. The present study aims to assess the effect of elevated serum triglyceride (TG) levels on the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Prospectively enrolled AP patients were categorized into normal, mild, moderate, and severe/very severe categories based on their TG levels and compared in respect to demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate analysis determined whether elevated TG levels were independently associated with persistent organ failure. Two hundred and one out of 400 AP patients had serum TGs measured within 72 h of presentation, of which 115 had normal TG levels and 86 HTG (20 mild, 41 moderate, and 25 severe/very severe). Patients with HTG were of younger age (44 vs. 52 years), predominantly male (65% vs. 45%), obese (57% vs. 34%), diabetic (38% vs. 17%), and developed more frequently persistent organ failure (40% vs. 17%) compared with those with normal TGs (PHTG severity grades (17% when normal TGs, 30% in mild, 39% in moderate, and 48% in severe/very severe HTG, PtrendHTG (odds ratio (OR), 2.6; P=0.04) and severe/very severe HTG (OR, 4.9; P=0.009) were independently associated with persistent organ failure. Elevated serum TGs in AP patients are independently and proportionally correlated with persistent organ failure regardless of etiology. TG-mediated lipotoxicity may be an attractive target to design novel interventions for severe AP.

  9. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  10. Bacterial phosphating of mild (unalloyed) steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Müller, B; Repphun, G; Wanner, O; Zehnder, A J

    2000-10-01

    Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached -510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at -510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion.

  11. [Prolonged symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte; Jensen, Steffen Skov

    2010-09-27

    Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) do not undergo consistent follow-up in Denmark and the risk factors for long-term symptoms are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to look into symptom frequency, sick-leave frequency and to try to identify risk factors for long-term symptoms following MTBI. Patients were recruited from the emergency room at Viborg Hospital. Initial data were registered and telephone interviews were conducted one month and one year after trauma. 60% were asymptomatic within the first month; an additional 11% became asymptomatic within the next year, leaving 29% with residual symptoms one year after trauma. 70% reported a sick leave period one month and 2% > one year. The average trauma-to-emergency room contact reached 158 min (median 65 min). Gender, age, blood pressure (BP), pulse, Glasgow coma score (GCS), admission to hospital, unconsciousness, amnesia, alcohol intake, time or type of trauma were not associated with long term symptoms. Even patients with minor head trauma have a relatively high risk of long-term symptoms regardless of gender, age, BP, pulse, GCS, admission to hospital, unconsciousness, amnesia, alcohol intake, time or type of trauma. Nevertheless, the risk of long-term sick leave is relatively small.

  12. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  13. Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V; Eckermann, A

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers.......To assess the efficacy at 12 months of an early psychosocial counselling and support programme for outpatients with mild Alzheimer's disease and their primary care givers....

  14. Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…

  15. Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. There was a higher rate of weight-loss of mild steels and stainless steels in 1% HCl methanolic solution than in aqueous NaCl ...

  16. Anticorrosion potential of hydralazine for corrosion of mild steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at 303-333 K temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency of inhibitor by Weight loss method is around 90%, Tafel polarization method is ...

  17. Synergistic Effect of Potassium Iodide on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The effect of Nypa fruticans' wurmb extract and the mixture of various concentration of KI and Nypa fruticans' wurmb extract on corrosion of mild steel in 0.1M and 0.5M HCl have been investigated using weight loss methods. The study revealed that mild steel is more efficiently inhibited by Nypa fruticans' wurmb ...

  18. Synergistic Effect of Potassium Iodide on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Nypa fruticans' wurmb extract and the mixture of various concentration of KI and Nypa fruticans' wurmb extract on corrosion of mild steel in 0.1M and 0.5M HCl have been investigated using weight loss methods. The study revealed that mild steel is more efficiently inhibited by Nypa fruticans' wurmb in the ...

  19. Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

  20. Heterogeneity in executive impairment in patients with very mild Alzheimer's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, J.; Gade, Anders; Vogel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of executive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) has primarily been demonstrated by means of group comparison. Whether executive dysfunction is a common feature of mild AD or only present in a subgroup of patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the fre...

  1. Blast exposure causes early and persistent aberrant phospho- and cleaved-tau expression in a murine model of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bertrand R; Meabon, James S; Martin, Tobin J; Mourad, Pierre D; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C; Emery, Michael J; Swenson, Erik R; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R; Cook, David G

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the 'signature injury' of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phospho- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes.

  2. Predicting impaired extinction of traumatic memory and elevated startle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalloor

    Full Text Available Emotionally traumatic experiences can lead to debilitating anxiety disorders, such as phobias and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Exposure to such experiences, however, is not sufficient to induce pathology, as only up to one quarter of people exposed to such events develop PTSD. These statistics, combined with findings that smaller hippocampal size prior to the trauma is associated with higher risk of developing PTSD, suggest that there are pre-disposing factors for such pathology. Because prospective studies in humans are limited and costly, investigating such pre-dispositions, and thus advancing understanding of the genesis of such pathologies, requires the use of animal models where predispositions are identified before the emotional trauma. Most existing animal models are retrospective: they classify subjects as those with or without a PTSD-like phenotype long after experiencing a traumatic event. Attempts to create prospective animal models have been largely unsuccessful.Here we report that individual predispositions to a PTSD-like phenotype, consisting of impaired rate and magnitude of extinction of an emotionally traumatic event coupled with long-lasting elevation of acoustic startle responses, can be revealed following exposure to a mild stressor, but before experiencing emotional trauma. We compare, in rats, the utility of several classification criteria and report that a combination of criteria based on acoustic startle responses and behavior in an anxiogenic environment is a reliable predictor of a PTSD-like phenotype.There are individual predispositions to developing impaired extinction and elevated acoustic startle that can be identified after exposure to a mildly stressful event, which by itself does not induce such a behavioral phenotype. The model presented here is a valuable tool for studying the etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and provides a platform for testing behavioral and pharmacological

  3. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant Saraogi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swollen and echogenic pancreas, loss of peripancreatic fat plane and pancreatic duct was not dilated. Vildagliptin was stopped and the pancreatits resolved. On Follow up, no secondary cause was not identified. This appears to be the first reported case of acute pancreatitis from India probably attributable to use of vildagliptin, thus raising the possibility that this rare reaction may be a class effect of the DPP-4 inhibitors.

  4. Mild acute pancreatitis with vildagliptin use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ravikant; Mallik, Ritwika; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2012-01-01

    Vildagliptin has not been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in postmarketing reports except one case report from Sydney, Australia. We present the case report of 42 year old male, diabetic, with no historyof alcohol use, on vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin 500 mg daily since 6 months, who presented with severe abdominal pain radiating to back, nausea and fever. On evaluation, serum pancreatic enzymes were elevated, triglycerides were not raised and ultrasound showed swollen and echogenic pancreas, loss of peripancreatic fat plane and pancreatic duct was not dilated. Vildagliptin was stopped and the pancreatits resolved. On Follow up, no secondary cause was not identified. This appears to be the first reported case of acute pancreatitis from India probably attributable to use of vildagliptin, thus raising the possibility that this rare reaction may be a class effect of the DPP-4 inhibitors. PMID:23565473

  5. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of veterans: Differential effects of mild traumatic brain injury and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskey, Holly M; Shura, Robert D; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; Rowland, Jared A

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric complaints often accompany mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a common condition in post-deployed Veterans. Self-report, multi-scale personality inventories may elucidate the pattern of psychiatric distress in this cohort. This study investigated valid Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles in post-deployed Veterans. Measures of psychopathology and mTBI were examined in a sample of 144 post-deployed Veterans divided into groups: healthy controls (n = 40), mTBI only (n = 31), any mental health diagnosis only (MH; n = 25), comorbid mTBI and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (mTBI/PTSD; n = 23), and comorbid mTBI, PTSD, and other psychological diagnoses (mTBI/PTSD/MDD+; n = 25). There were no significant differences between the mTBI and the control group on mean PAI subscale elevation, or number of subscale elevations above 60T or 70T. The other three groups had significantly higher overall mean scores, and more elevations above 60 and 70T compared to both controls and mTBI only. The mTBI/PTSD/MDD+ group showed the highest and most elevations. After entering demographics, PTSD, and number of other psychological diagnoses into hierarchical regressions using the entire sample, mTBI history did not predict mean PAI subscale score or number of elevations above 60T or 70T. PTSD was the only significant predictor. There were no interaction effects between mTBI and presence of PTSD, or between mTBI and total number of diagnoses. This study suggests that mTBI alone is not uniquely related to psychiatric distress in Veterans, but that PTSD accounts for self-reported symptom distress.

  6. Vestibular rehabilitation following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, James M; Hujsak, Bryan D; Kelly, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and imbalance are a symptom complex that is commonly found following concussion. Early metabolic changes following concussion may lead to worsening of the injury and symptoms in individuals not properly managed from the outset. When symptoms do not recover spontaneously, skilled vestibular rehabilitation can be an effective modality in an attempt to normalize the individual's vestibular responses. The purpose of this review is to appraise the current and accepted methods available to the skilled clinician in quantifying and treating vestibular dysfunction following concussion. Incidence and prognostic indicators will be reviewed along with common barriers to recovery. Vestibular Rehabilitation following concussion utilizes similar tools and techniques employed when treating those solely with peripheral pathology. The clinician must not only have a solid understanding of when and why certain exercises are required, but also be willing to accept that less exercise may be indicated in this population. As injury to the system following mild traumatic brain injury can include both peripheral and central structures, the duration of therapy and the time to recovery may be prolonged. Co-morbidities including cognitive and behavioral issues, visual-perceptual dysfunction, metabolic dysfunction, and autonomic dysfunction may hamper the effectiveness of the traditional Vestibular Rehabilitation approach. As successful treatment does not occur in a vacuum, working closely with other disciplines well versed in treating these co-morbid issues will help the individual to obtain optimal recovery. Vestibular Rehabilitation is an effective modality for managing dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance following concussion. Careful consideration of the acuity of the injury, along with effective management of co-morbid conditions will optimize the result.

  7. Induced mild therapeutic hypothermia following cardiac arrest in the setting of acute myocardial infarction and successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Gobert Damasceno Campos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It was presented the case of a 50-year-old male, with no previous history of cardiovascular disease, who was successfully treated with induced mild hypothermia and primary percutaneous coronary intervention after cardiac arrest and prolonged resuscitation (twelve electrical cardioversions, following acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patient had full recovery and uneventful short and long-term neurological course. Mild hypothermia has been considered a safe option for cerebral preservation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Several mechanisms mediate brain protection during hypothermia, including a possible prevention of apoptosis (programmed cell death. The role of apoptosis following ischemic and/or hypoxic brain injury is also reviewed.

  8. [Endoscopic cholangiography in mild acute biliary pancreatitis: when and for whom?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Huezo, María Sarai; Jeréz-González, Luis; Bobadilla-Díaz, Juan; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Uscanga, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), with or without sphincterotomy, has been widely used in patients with severe biliary acute pancreatitis (BAP) or those with cholangitis and/or obstruction of the biliary tree. Its use in subjects with mild BAP is more controversial. To optimize use of ERCP in patients with mild pancreatitis due to gallstones by identifying clinical and biochemical predictors of choledocholithiasis. The clinical and biochemical data, images, and outcomes of 83 patients with mild BAP hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" from January 1, 1988 to May 30, 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received elective cholecystectomy at hospital admission. In 35 cases, ERCP was performed before cholecystectomy (group A). The remaining 48 were operated on without ERCP (group B). In 30, transcystic-cholangiography was done. Forty-seven (57%) were female. Mean age was 47 years (19-90). Mean time between onset of AP and hospital admission was 2.2 days (1-15), and between clinical onset and cholecystectomy, eight days (1-26). Statistical differences were evaluated by non-parametric methods. An univariated and multivariated analysis was performed looking for data to identify choledocholithiasis. Choledocholithiasis was found in 27 cases (32%), 18 from group A (51%), and nine for group B (19%) (RR = 4.58, IC 95% = 1.7-12.25, p = 0.004). ERCP was performed in all cases because of clinical suspicion of choledocholithiasis (jaundice, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase alteration and/or choledochal dilation); however, none of the patients of group B in whom choledocholithiasis was operatively diagnosed showed biochemical or radiologic alterations. Subjects with choledocolithiasis presented more frequently a history of biliary pain (RR = 5.75, IC 95% = 1.76-18.7), jaundice (RR = 3.07, IC 95% = 1.15-8.16) and/or alkaline phosphatase elevation (RR = 4.11, IC 95% = 1.3-12.7). The high

  9. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N

    2011-04-01

    Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.

  10. Depressive Symptoms in Oldest-Old Women: Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P.; Rebok, George W.; Stone, Katie L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Yaffe, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that depression is a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this is true among the oldest old. We determined whether elevated depressive symptoms predicted five-year incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and neuropsychological test performance among oldest-old women. Design Prospective Setting Three study sites Participants 302 women ≥85 years (mean, 87 ±2) Measurements Depressive symptoms were measured with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); scores ≥6 indicated elevated symptoms. Five years later, participants completed neuropsychological testing and clinical cognitive status was adjudicated. Results In analyses of MCI vs. normal cognition, 70% of women with GDS ≥6 at baseline developed MCI vs. 37% with GDS dementia vs. normal cognition, 65% of women with GDS ≥6 developed dementia compared to 37% of those with GDS depressive symptoms had worse scores on tests of global cognition and working memory. Conclusion Elevated depressive symptoms are an important risk factor for cognitive disorders and lower cognitive performance among women living to their ninth and tenth decades. PMID:22015706

  11. Microstructure Correlation with Formability for Biaxial Stretching of Magnesium Alloy AZ31B at Mildly Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, Isaac; Miles, Michael P.; Fullwood, David T.; Carsley, John E.; Mishra, Raj K.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-05-01

    Magnesium AZ31B sheets of 2 mm thickness were stretch formed with a 101.6-mm-diameter punch at temperatures from 25°C to 150°C, in 25°C increments. Surface strains were measured with a digital image correlation method. The punch height versus load curve was found to be the same for temperatures of 25°C and for 50°C, whereas at 75°C and above, the load for a given punch height started to decrease, indicating a potential change in deformation mechanism. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to quantify features of the microstructure in the tested specimens. In particular, the gradual decrease in twinning activity as a result of easier thermally activated slip with increasing temperatures is quantified across this range. Moreover, twin activity was found to predominantly involve the formation of \\{{10\\bar{1}1} \\} compression twins that rapidly transform to create secondary twins for easier strain accommodation.

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Stressors: Evidence for Elevated Negative Affect in Response to Mild Stressors When Sleep Deprived

    OpenAIRE

    Minkel, Jared D.; Banks, Siobhan; Htaik, Oo; Moreta, Marisa C.; Jones, Christopher W.; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Simpson, Norah S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Stress often co-occurs with inadequate sleep duration, and both are believed to impact mood and emotion. It is not yet known whether inadequate sleep simply increases the intensity of subsequent stress responses or interacts with stressors in more complicated ways. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation on subjective stress and mood in response to low-stress and high-stress cognitive testing conditions in healthy adult volunteers in two sepa...

  13. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan M. Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-corrosive property of Capsicum annuum fruit paste (CFP on mild steel was investigated. Weight loss and SEM analysis showed that the aqueous and ethanolic solutions of CFP exhibits excellent corrosion inhibition in 2 M HCl. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated the formation of active compound-Fe complex. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  14. Farmakologisk behandling af mild ukompliceret hypertension i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maja Skov; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In Denmark, patients with hypertension are primarily managed in primary care. A recent Cochrane review concluded that pharmacotherapy of patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg; diastolic blood...... pressure 90-99 mmHg; no diabetes or cardiovascular disease) did not reduce mortality or morbidity. The evidence for pharmacotherapy in patients having mild/uncomplicated hypertension is weak. However, current Danish guidelines have taken this into consideration in their recommendations of pharmacotherapy...... to patients with mild/uncomplicated hypertension....

  15. Anticorrosive behaviour of lumefantrine hydrophobic layer on mild steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra M. Krishnegowda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of mild steel was achieved by chemical treatment in lumefantrine (LF solution. The surface morphology and wettability of modified surface was analysed by 3D profilometer and contact angle goniometer. The corrosion inhibition performance of modified mild steel surface in 1.0 M HCl solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques.Electroche­mical measurements illustrate that the corrosion of mild steel in acidic chloride medium get substantially reduced by introducing LF film on its surface (94 % efficiency. Quantum chemical parameters were evaluated by ab initio method and they confer appropriate theoretical support to the experimental findings.

  16. Pancreatic function and enzyme synthesis rates in mild chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I; Boyd, E J; Jacyna, M R; Penston, J G; Soutar, J S; Bouchier, I A

    1986-06-01

    Incorporation of intravenous 75Se-methionine into duodenal juice proteins during pancreatic stimulation was measured as an index of pancreatic enzyme synthesis rates in 12 patients with a normal pancreatogram and in 6 with mild chronic pancreatitis. Isotope incorporation was significantly greater in subjects with mild chronic pancreatitis than in those with a normal pancreatogram. Thus in most patients in whom pancreatography demonstrates the characteristic radiological features of 'mild chronic pancreatitis' pancreatic acinar function is abnormal. The coexistence of morphological and functional abnormality implies that such patients do have chronic pancreatitis.

  17. Time estimation in mild Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelli Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time information processing relies on memory, which greatly supports the operations of hypothetical internal timekeepers. Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET postulates the existence of a memory component that is functionally separated from an internal clock and other processing stages. SET has devised several experimental procedures to map these cognitive stages onto cerebral regions and neurotransmitter systems. One of these, the time bisection procedure, has provided support for a dissociation between the clock stage, controlled by dopaminergic systems, and the memory stage, mainly supported by cholinergic neuronal networks. This study aimed at linking the specific memory processes predicted by SET to brain mechanisms, by submitting time bisection tasks to patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, that are known to present substantial degeneration of the fronto-temporal regions underpinning memory. Methods Twelve mild AD patients were required to make temporal judgments about intervals either ranging from 100 to 600 ms (short time bisection task or from 1000 to 3000 ms (long time bisection task. Their performance was compared with that of a group of aged-matched control participants and a group of young control subjects. Results Long time bisection scores of AD patients were not significantly different from those of the two control groups. In contrast, AD patients showed increased variability (as indexed by increased WR values in timing millisecond durations and a generalized inconsistency of responses over the same interval in both the short and long bisection tasks. A similar, though milder, decreased millisecond interval sensitivity was found for elderly subjects. Conclusion The present results, that are consistent with those of previous timing studies in AD, are interpreted within the SET framework as not selectively dependent on working or reference memory disruptions but as possibly due to distortions in different

  18. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  19. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  20. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  1. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients. There...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems.......Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...

  2. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  3. Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS): the identification of c.1783C>T mutation in two unrelated infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Alchamat, Ghalia; Madania, Ammar; Alhalabi, Marwan

    2017-06-28

    Two unrelated men complaining of primary male infertility presented to Orient Hospital in Damascus city. Physical examination showed moderate hypoandrogenic features. Both men were azoospermic. Hormone profiles revealed an elevation of follicle-stimulating hormone in one patient, but all the other hormones tested were within normal limits for both patients. Further genetic analyses, including karyotype and microdeletions in the AZF region of the Y chromosome, were normal in both patients. Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome was expected in the two patients. Sequencing analysis of the first exon in the androgen receptor (AR) gene have shown c.1783C>T mutation in the two patients with azoospermia. This paper sheds light on the need to screen for mutations in the AR gene, causing male infertility whenever mild hypoandrogenic features are present with unexplained male infertility. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Lyme Carditis Buried Beneath ST-Segment Elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Basia; Umpierrez De Reguero, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. There are nearly 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported to the CDC each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting Lyme carditis. The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. Here we report a 45-year-old gentleman that presented to the hospital with intense nonradiating chest pressure and tightness. Lab studies were remarkable for elevated troponins. EKG demonstrated normal sinus rhythm with mild ST elevations. Three weeks prior to hospital presentation, patient had gone hunting near Madison. One week prior to admission, he noticed an erythematous lesion on his right shoulder. Because of his constellation of history, arthralgias, and carditis, he was started on ceftriaxone to treat probable Lyme disease. This case illustrates the importance of thorough history taking and extensive physical examination when assessing a case of possible acute myocardial infarction. Because Lyme carditis is reversible, recognition of this syndrome in young patients, whether in the form of AV block, myocarditis, or acute myocardial ischemia, is critical to the initiation of appropriate antibiotics in order to prevent permanent heart block, or even death.

  5. Lyme Carditis Buried Beneath ST-Segment Elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basia Michalski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. There are nearly 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported to the CDC each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting Lyme carditis. The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. Here we report a 45-year-old gentleman that presented to the hospital with intense nonradiating chest pressure and tightness. Lab studies were remarkable for elevated troponins. EKG demonstrated normal sinus rhythm with mild ST elevations. Three weeks prior to hospital presentation, patient had gone hunting near Madison. One week prior to admission, he noticed an erythematous lesion on his right shoulder. Because of his constellation of history, arthralgias, and carditis, he was started on ceftriaxone to treat probable Lyme disease. This case illustrates the importance of thorough history taking and extensive physical examination when assessing a case of possible acute myocardial infarction. Because Lyme carditis is reversible, recognition of this syndrome in young patients, whether in the form of AV block, myocarditis, or acute myocardial ischemia, is critical to the initiation of appropriate antibiotics in order to prevent permanent heart block, or even death.

  6. 76 FR 15900 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... County, Hawaii, the headings are corrected to read as set forth below: * Elevation in feet (NGVD... Communities affected Elevation in feet (LTD) Effective Modified Maui County, Hawaii * * * * * BILLING CODE...

  7. Elever med adfærdsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    Artikel i særnummer om folkeskolens urolige elever, hvor der redegøres for den viden der aktuelt er i Danmark på området samt vanskelighederne med at skelne mellem de elever i skolen, der reagerer "sundt" på omgivelsernes pres og de elever som har alvorligere problemer. De kan se ens ud på...

  8. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  9. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF.Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5. The sham group (n = 5 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group.We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  10. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Feng; Chen, Xin-Pei; Shi, Xiang-Min; Guo, Hong-Yang; Lin, Kun; Guo, Jian-Ping; Shan, Zhao-Liang; Wang, Yu-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI) without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF. Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5). The sham group (n = 5) underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed. Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group. We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  11. Mild thyroid peroxidase deficiency caused by TPO mutations with residual activity: Correlation between clinical phenotypes and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Satoshi; Fox, Larry A; Fukudome, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Zenichi; Sugisawa, Chiho; Abe, Kiyomi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2017-11-29

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) deficiency, caused by biallelic TPO mutations, is a well-established genetic form of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). More than 100 patients have been published, and the patients have been diagnosed mostly in the frame of newborn screening (NBS) programs. Correlation between clinical phenotypes and TPO activity remains unclear. Here, we report clinical and molecular findings of two unrelated TPO mutation-carrying mildly hypothyroid patients. The two patients were born at term after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery, and were NBS negative. They sought medical attention due to goiter at age 8 years. Evaluation of the thyroid showed mild elevation of serum TSH levels, normal or slightly low serum T 4 levels, high serum T 3 to T 4 molar ratio, high serum thyroglobulin levels, and high thyroidal 123 I uptake. We performed next-generation sequencing-based genetic screening, and found that one patient was compound heterozygous for two novel TPO mutations (p.Asp224del; c.820-2A>G), and the other was homozygous for a previously known mutation (p.Trp527Cys). In vitro functional analyses using HEK293 cells showed that the two amino acid-altering mutations (p.Asp224del and p.Trp527Cys) caused partial loss of the enzymatic activity. In conclusion, we report that TPO mutations with residual activity are associated with mild TPO deficiency, which is clinically characterized by marked goiter, mild TSH elevation, high serum T 3 to T 4 molar ratio, and high serum thyroglobulin levels. Our findings illuminate the hitherto under-recognized correlation between clinical phenotypes and residual enzymatic activity among patients with TPO deficiency.

  12. Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean? Page Content Article Body After confirming an asthma diagnosis, your pediatrician will grade the severity of your child’s condition. This grading ...

  13. Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H SO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    electron microscopic studies provided confirmatory evidence of an improved surface condition, due to adsorption, for corrosion protection. KEYWORDS. Terminalia chebula, acid corrosion inhibitor, electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mild steel. 1. Introduction. Large amounts of sulphuric ...

  14. Steel fiber replacement of mild steel in prestressed concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In traditional prestressed concrete beams, longitudinal prestressed tendons serve to resist bending moment and : transverse mild steel bars (or stirrups) are used to carry shear forces. However, traditional prestressed concrete I-beams : exhibit earl...

  15. T1 mapping for diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkes, Temel; Lin, Chen; Fogel, Evan L; Sherman, Stuart S; Wang, Qiushi; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the T1 relaxation time of the pancreas can detect parenchymal changes in mild chronic pancreatitis (CP). This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study analyzed 98 patients with suspected mild CP. Patients were grouped as normal (n = 53) or mild CP (n = 45) based on history, presenting symptomatology, and concordant findings on both the secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). T1 maps were obtained in all patients using the same 3D gradient echo technique on the same 3T scanner. T1 relaxation times, fat signal fraction (FSF), and anterior-posterior (AP) diameter were correlated with the clinical diagnosis of CP. There was a significant difference (P T1 relaxation times between the control (mean = 797 msec, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 730, 865) and mild CP group (mean = 1099 msec, 95% CI: 1032, 1166). A T1 relaxation time threshold value of 900 msec was 80% sensitive (95% CI: 65, 90) and 69% specific (95% CI: 56, 82) for the diagnosis of mild CP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.81). Multiple regression analysis showed that T1 relaxation time was the only statistically significant variable correlating with the diagnosis of CP (P T1 relaxation times showed a weak positive correlation with the pancreatic FSF (ρ = 0.33, P = 0.01) in the control group, but not in the mild CP group. The T1 relaxation time of the pancreatic parenchyma was significantly increased in patients with mild CP. Therefore, T1 mapping might be used as a practical quantitative imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected mild CP. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1171-1176. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Mild ovarian stimulation for IVF: 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Bart C J M; Nargund, Geeta; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2010-01-01

    is to summarize the studies performed during the last decade to develop the concept of mild stimulation aiming to obtain fewer than eight oocytes. Here we examine the balance between IVF success and patient discomfort, and complications and cost, and how these might improve by simpler ovarian stimulation...... protocols aimed at retrieving fewer oocytes. We intend to analyse why progress has been rather slow and why there is much resistance to mild stimulation. Finally, presumed useful directions for future research will be discussed....

  17. Significantly elevated serum lipase in pregnancy with nausea and vomiting: acute pancreatitis or hyperemesis gravidarum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amanda; Cluskey, Bethany; Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Devin, Courtney; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua; Dola, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  19. Risk of lung cancer according to mild steel and stainless steel welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anita Rath; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hansen, Johnni

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Whether the elevated risk of lung cancer observed among welders is caused by welding emissions or by confounding from smoking or asbestos exposure is still not resolved. This question was addressed in a cohort with a long follow-up and quantified estimates of individual exposure...... to welding fume particulates. METHODS: Male metal workers employed at least 1 year at one or more Danish stainless or mild steel industrial companies from 1964 through 1984 were enrolled in a cohort. Data on occupational and smoking history were obtained by questionnaire in 1986. Welders in the cohort who...... started welding in 1960 or later (N=4539) were followed from April 1968 until December 2003, when information on cancer diagnosis was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. During the follow-up, 75 cases of primary lung cancer were identified. Lifetime accumulated exposure to welding fume particulates...

  20. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  1. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  2. Frequency discrimination and literacy skills in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, L F; Bishop, D V M

    2005-10-01

    It has been suggested that specific reading disability (SRD) may be attributable to an impaired ability to perceive spectral differences between sounds that leads to a deficit in frequency discrimination and subsequent problems with language and literacy. The objective of the present study was three-fold. We aimed to (a) determine whether children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were impaired in their ability to discriminate frequency, (b) assess the extent to which any such deficits may be due to an inability to use information derived from phase locking, and (c) examine whether frequency discrimination abilities were predictive of measures of word and nonword reading and nonword repetition. Difference limens for frequency (DLFs) were obtained for 22 children with mild to moderate hearing loss (SNH group) and 22 age-matched controls (CA group) at central frequencies of 1 kHz, where phase-locking information is available, and 6 kHz, where it is not. A battery of standardized tests of language and literacy was also administered. The SNH group exhibited significantly elevated DLFs at both 1 and 6 kHz relative to controls, despite considerable variability of thresholds in both groups. Although no group differences were found for receptive and expressive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and nonword reading, the SNH group performed worse than controls on word reading and nonword repetition, even though word reading scores were age-appropriate. Frequency discrimination abilities were associated with reading and nonword repetition across groups, but these correlations largely disappeared when the two groups were analyzed separately. Together, these results provide evidence for a dissociation between impaired frequency discrimination and relatively "spared" language and literacy in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. These results cast doubt on the assertion that a deficit in frequency discrimination necessarily leads to marked

  3. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Methods/design: This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo......Background: Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated......-controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed...

  4. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and elevated serum uric acid in US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar, Jie Xiao, Alan DucatmanDepartment of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USABackground: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, are man-made chemicals that have been detected in the blood of over 98% of the US population. Serum uric acid is a novel biomarker, even mild elevations of which has been implicated in the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. We examined the relationship of serum perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, and elevated uric acid levels in a representative sample of US adults.Methods: We examined 3883 participants from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys,a representative, multiethnic population-based survey of noninstitutionalized US adults. Serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate were analyzed as quartiles. The main outcome was hyperuricemia.Results: We found that serum levels of perfluoroalkyl chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate, were positively associated with hyperuricemia. This association appeared to be independent of confounders such as age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared with subjects in quartile 1 (referent, the multivariate odds ratio for hyperuricemia among subjects in quartile 4 was 1.97 (95% confidence interval 1.44–2.70, P < 0.0001 for perfluorooctanoic acid and 1.48% (95% confidence interval 0.99–2.22, P = 0.0433 for perfluorooctane sulfonate. This observed association persisted in subgroup analysis by gender and body mass index.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl chemicals are associated with hyperuricemia even at low perfluoroalkyl chemical exposure levels as seen in the US

  5. Region-specific changes in brain diffusivity in fetal isolated mild ventriculomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Institute for Research in Military Medicine, The Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, The Dr. Pinchas Bornstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Tel Aviv (Israel); Katorza, Eldad [Sheba Medical Center, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bercovitz, Ronen; Bergman, Dafi; Greenberg, Gahl; Hoffmann, Chen [Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the impact of symmetric and asymmetric isolated mild ventriculomegaly (IMVM, atrial width 10-15 mm) on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in fetal brain areas. Sixty-seven sequential fetal head magnetic resonance imaging scans (feMRI) of VM cases performed between 2009 and 2014 were compared to 38 normal feMRI scans matched for gestational age (controls). Ultrasound- and MRI-proven IMVM cases were divided into asymmetrical (AVM, ≥2 mm difference in atrial width), symmetrical (SVM, <2 mm difference in atrial width), and asymmetrical IMVM with one normal-sized ventricle (AV1norm). ADC values were significantly elevated in the basal ganglia (BG) of the SVM and AV1norm groups compared to controls (p < 0.004 and p < 0.013, respectively). High diffusivity was constantly detected in the BG ipsilateral to the enlarged atria relative to the normal-sized atria in the AV1norm group (p < 0.03). Frontal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM and SVM groups (p < 0.003 and p < 0.003 vs. controls). Temporal lobe ADC values were significantly reduced in the AVM group (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly is associated with distinct ADC value changes in different brain regions. This phenomenon could reflect the pathophysiology associated with different IMVM patterns. (orig.)

  6. Acute minocycline treatment prevents neurobehavioral impairment in a rat model of mild blast traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet eKovesdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild blast induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI and its associated memory impairment and anxiety elevation currently represent one of the major military health challenges. Our earlier work using a rodent model of mbTBI indicated that the pathology underlying the observed neurobehavioral abnormalities includes neuroinflammation. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of acute treatment with minocycline, an FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the functional and molecular outcomes of mbTBI. Beginning four hours after a single exposure to mild blast overpressure, animals received a daily dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg or physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p. for 4 days. Physiological parameters (arterial blood O2 saturation, heart and breath rates, and pulse distension and neurobehavior (locomotor activity, anxiety, and spatial memory were monitored at multiple time points. At the termination of the experiment (51 days post-injury, we analyzed sera and select brain regions for changes in protein markers of inflammation as well as vascular, neuronal, and glial integrity. We found that acute treatment with minocycline completely prevented memory impairment and anxiety development by ameliorating the inflammatory response to injury and substantially reducing neuronal and glial cell loss. Based on our findings, we urge testing the effect of minocycline treatment in human mbTBI.

  7. A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ditkovskaya, L

    A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism.......A new disease? Persistent isolated beta.hydroxybutyrate ketosis and mild congenital hyperinsulinism....

  8. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  9. Efficacy of punch elevation combined with fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in facial atrophic acne scarring: A randomized split-face clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18-55 with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO 2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO 2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56. Their evaluation found that fractional CO 2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO 2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02. Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO 2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring.

  10. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  11. A novel cosmetic antifungal/anti-inflammatory topical gel for the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label trial utilizing clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall' Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Fusto, Carmelinda M; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dinotta, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Topical cosmetic agents may play a role in the management of facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production. Advanced digital photography, equipped with technology able to provide a detailed evaluation of red skin components corresponding to vascular flare (erythema-directed digital photography), is a useful tool for evaluation of erythema in patients affected by inflammatory dermatoses. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new cosmetic topical gel containing piroctone olamine, lactoferrin, glycero-phospho-inositol, and Aloe vera for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis by clinical and advanced digital photography evaluation. An open-label, prospective, clinical trial was conducted on 25 patients with mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. Subjects were instructed to apply the gel twice daily for 45 days. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring at baseline, at day 15 and 45 the degree of desquamation (by clinical examination) and erythema (by digital photography technology via VISIA-CR™ system equipped with RBX™), using a 5-point severity scale, and pruritus (by subject-completed Visual Analogue Scale; scale from 0 to 100 mm). Finally, at baseline and at the end of the study, IGA (Investigator Global Assessment) was performed using a 5-point severity scale (from 0 = worsening to 4 = excellent response). At the end of treatment, a significant reduction (P80% improvement) was recorded in 47.9% of patients, with no case of worsening. No signs of local intolerance were documented. The tested cosmetic topical gel was effective in treating mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face. Erythema-directed digital photography may represent a noteworthy tool for the therapeutic monitoring of facial seborrheic dermatitis and an important adjunct aid in the dermatologic clinical practice.

  12. Does mild COPD affect prognosis in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD affects independence and survival in the general population, but it is unknown to which extent this conclusion applies to elderly people with mild disease. The aim of this study was to verify whether mild COPD, defined according to different classification systems (ATS/ERS, BTS, GOLD impacts independence and survival in elderly (aged 65 to 74 years or very elderly (aged 75 years or older patients. Methods We used data coming from the Respiratory Health in the Elderly (Salute Respiratoria nell'Anziano, SaRA study and compared the differences between the classification systems with regards to personal capabilities and 5-years survival, focusing on the mild stage of COPD. Results We analyzed data from 1,159 patients (49% women with a mean age of 73.2 years (SD: 6.1. One third of participants were 75 years or older. Mild COPD, whichever was its definition, was not associated with worse personal capabilities or increased mortality after adjustment for potential confounders in both age groups. Conclusions Mild COPD may not affect survival or personal independence of patients over 65 years of age if the reference group consists of patients with a comparable burden of non respiratory diseases. Comorbidity and age itself likely are main determinants of both outcomes.

  13. Adults with mild hearing impairment: Are we meeting the challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Barbra H B; Hickson, Louise; Launer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hearing impairment is recognized by the World Health Organization as the third leading cause of disability, with a mild impairment being the most prevalent. The aim of this study was to review research literature concerned with adults with acquired mild hearing impairment; the definitions and prevalence, the resulting activity limitations and participation restrictions, and hearing-aid interventions. This study involved a systematized review of research literature identified through searches in citation databases and through reference checking. A total of 151 papers were identified and of these, 33 papers were included in this review. Prevalence rates are significantly influenced by the definition used for mild hearing impairment, and range from 1 in 3 to 1 in 5 adults. The weak correlations between audiological assessments and self-reported difficulties suggest that further assessment of individuals with mild hearing impairment is warranted. The most common intervention is the provision of hearing aids with varying rates of use, benefit, and satisfaction. The development of appropriate audiological assessment in the clinic, and further evaluation of the real-world listening needs and performance of people with mild hearing impairment is required to provide a more effective pathway for this clinical population.

  14. A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agero, Anna Liza C; Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2004-09-01

    Xerosis is a common skin condition (1) characterized by dry, rough, scaly, and itchy skin, (2) associated with a defect in skin barrier function, and (3) treated with moisturizers. People in the tropics have effectively used coconut oil as a traditional moisturizer for centuries. Recently, the oil also has been shown to have skin antiseptic effects. A moisturizer with antiseptic effects has value, but there are no clinical studies to document the efficacy and safety of coconut oil as a skin moisturizer. This study aimed to determine the effectivity and safety of virgin coconut oil compared with mineral oil as a therapeutic moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on mild to moderate xerosis in 34 patients with negative patch-test reactions to the test products. These patients were randomized to apply either coconut oil or mineral oil on the legs twice a day for 2 weeks. Quantitative outcome parameters for effectivity were measured at baseline and on each visit with a Corneometer CM825 to measure skin hydration and a Sebumeter SM 810 to measure skin lipids. For safety, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured with a Tewameter TM210, and skin surface hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was measured with a Skin pH Meter PH900. Patients and the investigator separately evaluated, at baseline and at each weekly visit, skin symptoms of dryness, scaling, roughness, and pruritus by using a visual analogue scale and grading of xerosis. Coconut oil and mineral oil have comparable effects. Both oils showed effectivity through significant improvement in skin hydration and increase in skin surface lipid levels. Safety was demonstrated through no significant difference in TEWL and skin pH. Subjective grading of xerosis by the investigators and visual analogue scales used by the patients showed a general trend toward better (though not statistically evident) improvement with coconut oil than with mineral oil

  15. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, T.M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  16. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior by Upregulation of Sirt-1: Involvement in Suppression of Hippocampal Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yun; Li, Dan; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Kan, Li-Yuan; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a crucial signaling molecule with a wide range of physiological functions. Previously, we confirmed that stress-induced depression is accompanied with disturbance of H2S generation in hippocampus. The present work attempted to investigate the inhibitory effect of H2S on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and the underlying mechanism. We established the rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress to simulate depression. Open field test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test were used to assess depressive-like behaviors. The expression of Sirt-1 and three marked proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP-78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12) were detected by western blot. We found that chronic unpredictable mild stress-exposed rats exhibit depression-like behavior responses, including significantly increased immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, and decreased climbing time and swimming time in the forced swim test. In parallel, chronic unpredictable mild stress-exposed rats showed elevated levels of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress and reduced levels of Sirt-1. However, NaHS (a donor of H2S) not only alleviated chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress, but it also increased the expression of hippocampal Sirt-1 in chronic unpredictable mild stress-exposed rats. Furthermore, Sirtinol, an inhibitor of Sirt-1, reversed the protective effects of H2S against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behaviors and hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress. These results demonstrated that H2S has an antidepressant potential, and the underlying mechanism is involved in the inhibition of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress by upregulation of Sirt-1 in hippocampus. These findings identify H2S as a novel therapeutic target for depression.

  18. Tonic arterial chemoreceptor activity contributes to cardiac sympathetic activation in mild ovine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Daniel T; May, Clive N; Booth, Lindsea C; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with a large increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA), which has detrimental effects on the heart and promotes arrhythmias and sudden death. There is increasing evidence that arterial chemoreceptor activation plays an important role in stimulating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in HF. Given that sympathetic nerve activity to individual organs is differentially controlled, we investigated whether tonic arterial chemoreceptor activation contributes to the increased CSNA in HF. We recorded CSNA and RSNA in conscious normal sheep and in sheep with mild HF induced by rapid ventricular pacing (ejection fraction chemoreceptor function was evaluated by supplementing room air with 100% intranasal oxygen (2-3 l min(-1)) for 20 min, thereby deactivating chemoreceptors. The effects of hyperoxia on resting levels and baroreflex control of heart rate, CSNA and RSNA were determined. In HF, chemoreceptor deactivation induced by hyperoxia significantly reduced CSNA [90 ± 2 versus 75 ± 5 bursts (100 heart beats)(-1), P chemoreceptor deactivation reduced heart rate without a significant effect on CSNA or RSNA. In summary, deactivation of peripheral chemoreceptors during HF reduced the elevated levels of CSNA, indicating that tonic arterial chemoreceptor activation plays a critical role in stimulating the elevated CSNA in HF. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in oral leukoplakia patients with mild dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Siles, Mariano; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Ros-Llor, Irene; López-Jornet, Pia

    2014-12-01

    A study is made of DNA damage and apoptosis in a group of patients with oral leukoplakia (OL) with mild dysplasia. The study comprised 30 patients with a clinicopathological diagnosis of OL with mild dysplasia and 30 controls. Both samples were similar in terms of age and gender distribution. Brush samples of lesion epithelial cells were collected, followed by cell centrifugation, preparation of the slides, fixation and staining, and analysis under the fluorescent light microscope. The exfoliated cells were examined to detect micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds, binucleated cells, condensed chromatin, pyknosis, and cells with karyorrhexis and karyolysis. The patients with OL with mild dysplasia showed a greater frequency of MN (P Leukoplakia lesions must be biomonitorized periodically. Biomonitorization offers sensibility, no morbidity, speed, and low cost. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Simulation of MILD combustion using Perfectly Stirred Reactor model

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Z.

    2016-07-06

    A simple model based on a Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) is proposed for moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. The PSR calculation is performed covering the entire flammability range and the tabulated chemistry approach is used with a presumed joint probability density function (PDF). The jet, in hot and diluted coflow experimental set-up under MILD conditions, is simulated using this reactor model for two oxygen dilution levels. The computed results for mean temperature, major and minor species mass fractions are compared with the experimental data and simulation results obtained recently using a multi-environment transported PDF approach. Overall, a good agreement is observed at three different axial locations for these comparisons despite the over-predicted peak value of CO formation. This suggests that MILD combustion can be effectively modelled by the proposed PSR model with lower computational cost.

  1. Endothelial microparticles in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomashow, Michael A; Shimbo, Daichi; Parikh, Megha A; Hoffman, Eric A; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Hueper, Katja; Fu, Jessie; Liu, Chia-Ying; Bluemke, David A; Ventetuolo, Corey E; Doyle, Margaret F; Barr, R Graham

    2013-07-01

    Basic research implicates alveolar endothelial cell apoptosis in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. However, information on endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in mild COPD and emphysema is lacking. We hypothesized that levels of CD31(+) EMPs phenotypic for endothelial cell apoptosis would be elevated in COPD and associated with percent emphysema on computed tomography (CT). Associations with pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF), diffusing capacity, and hyperinflation were also examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited participants with COPD and control subjects age 50-79 years with greater than or equal to 10 pack-years without clinical cardiovascular disease. CD31(+) EMPs were measured using flow cytometry in 180 participants who also underwent CTs and spirometry. CD62E(+) EMPs phenotypic for endothelial cell activation were also measured. COPD was defined by standard criteria. Percent emphysema was defined as regions less than -950 Hounsfield units on full-lung scans. PMBF was assessed on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperinflation was defined as residual volume/total lung capacity. Linear regression was used to adjust for potential confounding factors. CD31(+) EMPs were elevated in COPD compared with control subjects (P = 0.03) and were notably increased in mild COPD (P = 0.03). CD31(+) EMPs were positively related to percent emphysema (P = 0.045) and were inversely associated with PMBF (P = 0.047) and diffusing capacity (P = 0.01). In contrast, CD62E(+) EMPs were elevated in severe COPD (P = 0.003) and hyperinflation (P = 0.001). CD31(+) EMPs, suggestive of endothelial cell apoptosis, were elevated in mild COPD and emphysema. In contrast, CD62E(+) EMPs indicative of endothelial activation were elevated in severe COPD and hyperinflation.

  2. Neurotropism In Vitro and Mouse Models of Severe and Mild Infection with Clinical Strains of Enterovirus 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a common etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and fatal neurological diseases in children. The neuropathogenicity of severe EV71 infection has been documented, but studies comparing mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurovirulence of EV71 strains and the differences in serum cytokine and chemokine levels in mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection. Nine EV71 isolates belonging to the C4 subgenogroup (proposed as genotype D displayed infectivity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells; moreover, ultrastructural observation confirmed viral particle replication. The survival rate of the severe model was 71.43% (5/7, and 60% (3/5 of the surviving severe model mice displayed sequelae of paralysis, whereas the only symptom in mild model mice was ruffled fur. Dynamic detection of serum cytokine and chemokine levels demonstrated that interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (also called Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted (CCL5/RANTES were significantly up-regulated at the early period of infection, indicating that these factors might herald a severe outcome. Our findings suggest that elevated cytokines and chemokines may have potential value as prognostic markers in mouse models.

  3. The role of autotaxin in cholestatic pruritus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Puritus (jeuk) is een veelvoorkomend symptoom bij verschillende cholestatische leverziekten. Hierbij hopen stoffen die anders in de gal uitgescheiden worden zich op in de circulatie. Waarschijnlijk zorgt diffusie van één of meer van die stoffen naar de huid voor activatie van jeukzenuwen, wat leidt

  4. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  5. Finding even more anthropogenic indicators in mildly prepared sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples are often numerous in types as well as in abundance. Preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion holds the potential of severe bias leaving the NPP assemblages devoid of acid vulnerable NPPs. In many cases it might...... be worth the effort to prepare the NPP samples with as mild a preparation method as possible. We have mildly prepared NPP samples from a small forest hollow, Tårup Lund, Denmark. From the recovered NPP assemblages we attempt identifying anthropogenic indicators by comparing to the environmental information...

  6. Prognosis in patients with cirrhosis and mild portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2006-01-01

    HVPG has been sparse. In this study, long-term survival and the risk of complications in mild portal hypertension were analysed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients with cirrhosis and HVPG below 10 mmHg were included in the study. Data were collected from medical files and National Patient...... with that in the background population. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of complications in patients with mild portal hypertension is considerable, and guidelines for follow-up or medical prophylaxis are warranted. The risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices is low and bleeding-related deaths rare....

  7. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  8. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING......: Academic community outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N = 430). MEASUREMENTS: Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain...

  9. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... research program 36 consecutive patients with mild AD (MMSE above 19), 30 with amnesic MCI and 33 matched controls were examined. Using three methods for awareness assessment we found no significant differences in the level of awareness between MCI and AD. Both groups had impaired awareness and significant...

  10. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  11. 77 FR 76916 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) modified Cobb... Mountain Creek confluence. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in... At the Hurricane Creek +975 Unincorporated Areas of confluence. Douglas County. Approximately 1,200...

  12. 75 FR 19328 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above Flooding source(s) elevation ground... upstream of the confluence with Gray Creek. Hurricane Creek (Backwater effects From the confluence None... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level...

  13. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... are amended as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) # Depth Flooding source...-1207 Hurricane Creek Approximately 500 feet +125 Town of Clarks, Village downstream of the of Grayson. railroad. Approximately 0.66 mile +160 upstream of State Highway 126. Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  14. 78 FR 29652 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... referenced Depth in feet Communities affected elevation above ground Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified... Smalling +85 Road. Hurricane Creek Just downstream of I-20.. +79 Unincorporated Areas of Richland Parish... downstream of Jaggers Lane. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in...

  15. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Incorporated Areas * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above Flooding source(s... Cass upstream of U.S. Route County. 59. Hurricane Creek Approximately 250 feet None +237 Unincorporated... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the...

  16. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the... Areas of Caldwell Parish, Louisiana Louisiana Unincorporated Areas of Hurricane Creek/Branch 2-3...

  17. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... as follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet Flooding source(s.... Approximately 1,390 feet +510 upstream of Berry Lane. Hurricane Creek (backwater effects from Approximately 0.75... County. ] Approximately 0.8 mile +381 upstream of County Road 13. Hurricane Creek I (backwater effects...

  18. 76 FR 21695 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Location of referenced Depth in feet above... +608 of Williams Avenue Southwest. Hurricane Creek Approximately 0.9 mile None +612 Town of Gurley... Meadow Road Northwest. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet...

  19. Vibration analysis of an elevated railway track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courage, W.M.G.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Ruiter, B. de

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study are described with respect to the vibration analysis of an elevated railway track. In this study a numerical model was developed. This model is validated and tuned by means of measurements. For a new elevated railway track in design stage, the model is used for calculating the

  20. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Road. Waiakea Stream/Waiakea Flood Control Approximately 460 feet 53 54 Hawaii County. Channel... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  1. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Tulare County, California California Unincorporated Areas of Lake Kaweah Entire shoreline None +722 Tulare County. California Unincorporated Areas of Middle Fork Kaweah River Approximately 1.0 mile... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county...

  2. 75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    .... West Clarks Run. At the northern county None +941 boundary. Ohio River Approximately 60 feet None +690... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  3. 77 FR 76420 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... County, West Virginia, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1229 Big Sandy River At the Ohio River... Agency 44 CFR Part 67 [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003] Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations...

  4. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Boulevard, Louisa, KY 41230. Meade County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Ohio River Approximately 2.8... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  5. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... from ly 1.0 mile of Chariton Missouri River). downstream County. of Ohio Road to approximate ly 825... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities...

  6. 76 FR 10253 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Areas of Lockwood Ditch. Vanderburgh County. At State Road 66 +389 Ohio River Approximately 7.3 miles... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003 Final Flood Elevation...-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The...

  7. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Elevated Troponin Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    becomes debatable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no such reported cases in the medical literature of acute pancreatitis with non ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction. The most common cause of elevated troponin levels in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the myocyte‑necrosis, mainly.

  8. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  9. Effect of physical activity on memory function in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-10-01

    It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  11. The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

    2014-07-01

    There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury.

  12. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arched palate, ptosis and lumbodorsal scoliosis. The latter abnormality may well have been secondary to the abnor- mality in the right lower extremity. The patient has a brother who has a mild degree of ptosis, high-arched palate, genu valgum and pes cavus. ... areas adjacent to the core region the myofibrils were closely.

  13. Validation of the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living in Persons with Mild Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (ETAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Reppermund, Simone; Schmiedeberg-Sohn, Anke; Book, Stephanie; Graessel, Elmar

    2016-05-26

    There are currently no valid, fast, and easy-to-administer performance tests that are designed to assess the capacities to perform activities of daily living in persons with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, such measures are urgently needed for determining individual support needs as well as the efficacy of interventions. The aim of the present study was therefore to validate the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living in Persons with Mild Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (ETAM), a performance test that is based on the International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF), which assesses the relevant domains of living in older adults with MCI and mild dementia who live independently. The 10 ICF-based items on the research version of the ETAM were tested in a final sample of 81 persons with MCI or mild dementia. The items were selected for the final version in accordance with 6 criteria: 1) all domains must be represented and have equal weight, 2) all items must load on the same factor, 3) item difficulties and item discriminatory powers, 4) convergent validity (Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale [B-ADL]) and discriminant validity (Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE], Geriatric Depression Scale 15 [GDS-15]), 5) inter-rater reliabilities of the individual items, 6) as little material as possible. Retest reliability was also examined. Cohen's ds were calculated to determine the magnitudes of the differences in ETAM scores between participants diagnosed with different grades of severity of cognitive impairment. The final version of the ETAM consists of 6 items that cover the five ICF domains communication, mobility, self-care, domestic life (assessed by two 3-point items), and major life areas (specifically, the economic life sub-category) and load on a single factor. The maximum achievable score is 30 points (6 points per domain). The average administration time was 35 min, 19 of which were needed for pure item

  14. Mild aphasia: is this the place for an argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. A person with mild aphasia and her husband recorded 4 conversations involving topical issues. The discourse dynamics and lexical-grammatical content were analyzed using systemic functional linguistic (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004) and conversation analysis (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974) frameworks. The couple demonstrated similarities in the types of conversational moves, but the language of the person with aphasia was more nonspecific and simplified, manifesting in difficulties developing a logical argument and responding to the partner's line of argument. In addition, the nonaphasic speaker recurrently overlapped the aphasic speaker in order to request clarification of particular points, highlighting the types of behaviors that can occur in this form of higher level language activity. The complex argument task and the multilevel and multi-approach analysis are useful tools for examining persons with mild aphasia, revealing aspects that are often overlooked in standard tests. Treatment could incorporate more complex notions such as evaluative language and the role of overlap in complex conversations.

  15. Convenient and mild synthesis and characterisation of some new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and various diamines in 2:1 molar ratio. These pure products were prepared in methanol solution under mild reaction conditions to afford good to high yields. The structures of the products have been characterized by ...

  16. Mild Solutions of Neutral Stochastic Partial Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Govindan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution for a neutral stochastic partial functional differential equation using a local Lipschitz condition. When the neutral term is zero and even in the deterministic special case, the result obtained here appears to be new. An example is included to illustrate the theory.

  17. Inhibitor for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H SO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Terminalia chebula, acid corrosion inhibitor, electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mild steel. 1. Introduction. Large amounts of sulphuric acid are used in the chemical in- dustry for the removal of undesired scale and rust. The addition of corrosion inhibitors effectively protects the metal ...

  18. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  19. Dual disorders: Mild intellectual disability and substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammink, A.B.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Mheen, H. van de; Dom, G.; Moggi, F.

    2015-01-01

    In European countries, there is an increasing awareness that substance abuse also occurs among people with a mild intellectual disability (MID). Individuals with MID often do not fit within the traditional (addiction) treatment systems and subsequently treatment outcomes can be poor. To improve

  20. Mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a heterogeneous elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the demographic, clinical and risk profile of Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia in a sample of elderly South Africans within a residential setting. Method: One hundred and forty participants residing in a group of residential homes for the elderly were assessed by psychiatrists and assigned ...

  1. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MM, et al. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal. Neurology 2014;82:317 – 325. 2. Norton M, Breitner JC, Welsh KA, Wyse BC. Characteristics of nonresponders in a community survey of the ...

  3. The Effect of Mild Preoperative Renal Impairment on Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Severe preoperative renal impairment (RI) is often included in score systems used to predict outcome after open cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mild preoperative RI on the early postoperative mortality after open heart surgery. Methods: We retrospectively collected ...

  4. The clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnant women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. STUDY DESIGN: This was a historical cohort study of 2904 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk factors...

  5. Recovery from mild traumatic brain injury: a focus on fatigue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Werf, S.P. van der; Bleijenberg, G.; Biert, J.; Brauer, J.; Vos, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most frequently reported symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI). To date, systematic and comparative studies on fatigue after MTBI are scarce, and knowledge on causal mechanisms is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the severity of fatigue six months after

  6. Haemodynamic consequences of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, R.; Braber, A.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vugt, R. van; Tjan, D.H.; Zanten, A.R. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) is used after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to minimize cerebral damage. Induced hypothermia may further interfere with cardiac function and influence haemodynamics after OHCA. METHODS: This was a prospective study of haemodynamic

  7. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... 2006). Mild leaf chlorosis and growth reduction occur in naturally infected commercial pepper cultivars. Fruits are small, malformed, mottled and sometimes develop necrotic depressed areas. Stunting is observed very severe in Capsicum spp. infected at early stages of growth. In field crops, infection may ...

  8. Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini Mental State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. ... Keywords: Cognitive impairment, Mini Mental State Examination, Nigerians. Access this article online. Quick Response Code ... including depression. All had been normally functional in.

  9. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis but have mainly considered syndromal depression. In this prospective study thirty-two subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  10. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.G.E.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  11. (Clivia nobilis) leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus, carbon and molybdenum make up the remaining 0.314%. (Ilayaraja et al., 2011). Mild steel specimen was pressed cut into ..... from anode to cathode was monitored by measuring the volume of hydrogen gas evolved in a period of 30 minutes at intervals of 60 seconds. The results.

  12. Inhibition Effect of Deanol on Mild Steel Corrosion in Dilute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of deanol on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in dilute sulphuric acid with sodium chloride addition was studied by means of mass-loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrode potential monitoring, scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis. Results show that deanol performed excellently with ...

  13. INHIBITION OF THE CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by isatin glycine (ING) and isatin (IN) at 30-60 oC and concentrations of 0.0001 M to 0.0005 M was studied via weight loss method. At the highest inhibitor concentration studied ING exhibited inhibition efficiency of 87% while IN exhibited 84% at 60 oC.

  14. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  15. Management of mild to moderate acne vulgaris | Malahlela | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units. It is the most common diagnosis in dermatology and regularly affects adolescents and young adults. Acne can be mild, moderate or severe. Treatment includes topical keratolytics, topical retinoids, antibiotics, hormonal therapy and systemic retinoids in ...

  16. Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini Mental State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. It has been found to respond to therapeutic intervention, thus halting or significantly retarding the progression to dementia. Resource.poor countries like Nigeria can hardly afford to ...

  17. Distinct molecular signatures of mild extrinsic and intrinsic atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Litman, Thomas; Hald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with underlying defects in epidermal function and immune responses. In this study, we used microarray analysis to investigate differences in gene expression in lesional skin from patients with mild extrinsic or intrinsic AD compared...

  18. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  19. Parenting of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising

  20. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with hemophilia A have low bone density than healthy controls. It is now widely recognized that physical activity and sports are beneficial for patients with hemophilia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of ...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa.

  2. A mild and highly chemoselective iodination of alcohol using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. A mild and highly chemoselective iodination of alcohol using polymer supported DMAP ... Here, a simple and efficient method for conversion of alcohols into their iodides in high yield using polymer supported 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) is ...

  3. An approach to mild to moderate atopic eczema | Motswaledi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atopic eczema is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease of the skin characterised by dryness and itching, with typical distribution on the elbows and knees in younger children and on the cubital and popliteal fossae in older children and adults. It can be classified as mild, moderate or severe. S Afr Fam Pract 2012 ...

  4. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To compare the impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on the ... Results: The mean values of leptin, TNF- alpha, IL2, IL4, IL6, HOMA-IR and HBA1c were significantly decreased in ..... Br J Sports Med 2000;.

  5. Psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keightley, Michelle L; Côté, Pierre; Rumney, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding psychosocial consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in children. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were searched (2001-2012). Inclusion criteria included published peer-reviewed reports...

  6. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T.B.; Farinha, Ana C.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; le Feber, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy

  7. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  8. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults With Mild Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants’ characteristic risk factors for stressful social interactions were also identified. Minor and unintentional negative actions of others had high frequency but...

  9. Human Capability, Mild Perfectionism and Thickened Educational Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for a mild perfectionism in applying Amartya Sen's capability approach for an education transformative of student agency and well-being. Key to the paper is the significance of education as a process of being and becoming in the future, and education's fundamental objective of a positively changed human being. The capability…

  10. modelling of responses from orthogonal metal cutting of mild steel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The purpose of this research was to develop models for the prediction of responses from orthogonal metal cutting process that are responsible for the machinability ratings of this technological system. Mild steel work-piece material that is representative sample for various industrial applications was machined. The various ...

  11. Isolated Dextrocardia coexisting with Skeletal Anomalies and Mild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    cardiac anomalies. Conclusion: This case is reported as isolated dextrocardia coexisting with skeletal anomalies and mild cardiac anomalies. Extensive skeletal and cardiac evaluation is advised ... His mother was a thirty year old P teacher. Mother had antenatal ... with 30ml of packed red blood cells. The Orthopaedic and.

  12. Renal involvement in Gambian children with cerebral or mild malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. W.; Zimmermann, U.; van Hensbroek, M. B.; Frenkel, J.; Palmer, A.; Ehrich, J. H.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Kidney function was studied in 80 Gambian children with cerebral malaria, 73 children with mild malaria, and in 19 children with other febrile illnesses. Serum creatinine was measured, and the excretion in urine of immunoglobulin G, transferrin, albumin and alpha 1 microglobulin was determined.

  13. Facile, mild and convenient preparation and characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some novel Schiff base ligands have been prepared through condensation of salicylaldehyde with synthetic various primary diamines under mild reaction conditions. The used aromatic diamines were synthesized in good yields starting from low-cost commercially available materials. In these reactions, the Schiff base ...

  14. Educational Outcomes for Secondary Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Attention to the educational programming of secondary students with mild intellectual disability has declined in recent decades, although the need for the attention has not, particularly when considering the postschool outcomes of this population. This paper discusses the current state postschool outcomes and secondary education services for…

  15. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  16. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. SETTING: The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer...

  17. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (type IV hypersensitivity and type I hypersensitivity following aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils (Dhanwantharam thailam, Eladi coconut oil presenting as generalized erythema and pruritus with flexural eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    OpenAIRE

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  20. Activity restriction in mild COPD: a challenging clinical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell DE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Denis E O'Donnell,1 Kevin B Gebke2 1Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University and Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care Sports Medicine Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and activity restriction are already apparent in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, patients may not seek medical help until their symptoms become troublesome and persistent and significant respiratory impairment is already present; as a consequence, further sustained physical inactivity may contribute to disease progression. Ventilatory and gas exchange impairment, cardiac dysfunction, and skeletal muscle dysfunction are present to a variable degree in patients with mild COPD, and collectively may contribute to exercise intolerance. As such, there is increasing interest in evaluating exercise tolerance and physical activity in symptomatic patients with COPD who have mild airway obstruction, as defined by spirometry. Simple questionnaires, eg, the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale and the COPD Assessment Test, or exercise tests, eg, the 6-minute or incremental and endurance exercise tests can be used to assess exercise performance and functional status. Pedometers and accelerometers are used to evaluate physical activity, and endurance tests (cycle or treadmill using constant work rate protocols are used to assess the effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In addition, alternative outcome measurements, such as tests of small airway dysfunction and laboratory-based exercise tests, are used to measure the extent of physiological impairment in individuals with persistent dyspnea. This review describes the mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with mild COPD and the interventions that can potentially improve exercise tolerance. Also discussed are the

  1. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagshul, M E; McAllister, J P; Rashid, S; Li, J; Egnor, M R; Walker, M L; Yu, M; Smith, S D; Zhang, G; Chen, J J; Benveniste, H

    2009-07-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 +/- 83.21 microl vs. 15.52 +/- 2.00 microl; pulsations: 114.51 nl +/- 106.29 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  2. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagshul, M.; Smith, S.; Wagshul, M.; McAllister, J.P.; Rashid, S.; Li, J.; Egnor, M.R.; Walker, M.L.; Yu, M.; Smith, S.D.; Zhang, G.; Chen, J.J.; Beneveniste, H.

    2009-03-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 {+-} 83.21 {mu}l vs. 15.52 {+-} 2.00 {mu}l; pulsations: 114.51 nl {+-} 106.29 vs. 0.72 {+-} 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  3. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  4. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  5. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  6. The Structure and Validity of Self-reported Affect in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Carvalho, Janessa O.; Green, Robert C.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Stern, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study determined the reliability, validity, and factor structure of self-report emotions in persons with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relative to controls. Methods Participants (mild AD, n = 73; MCI, n = 159; controls, n = 96) rated current emotions with the Visual Analogue Mood Scales (Stern, 1997). Results Internal consistency reliabilities were comparable across groups, as were the factor structures of emotion. Persons with AD reported more negative affect (NA) than persons with MCI and controls. The emotion that most differentiated groups was confusion. NA and PA may be more bipolar in persons with AD than for persons with MCI and controls. Conclusions The underlying structure of affect was similar in persons with mild AD, MCI, and controls. Further, persons with MCI appeared to be “transitional” between cognitive health and dementia with regard to mood and affect. That is, participants with MCI tended to have affect scores that were intermediate between those with AD and controls. Implications for interventions to improve emotional well-being in AD and MCI are discussed. PMID:21429280

  7. Uncoupling protein-1 is protective of bone mass under mild cold stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amy D; Lee, Nicola J; Wee, Natalie K Y; Zhang, Lei; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Khor, Ee Cheng; Nie, Tao; Wu, Donghai; Sainsbury, Amanda; Baldock, Paul A; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), largely controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), has the ability to dissipate energy in the form of heat through the actions of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), thereby critically influencing energy expenditure. Besides BAT, the SNS also strongly influences bone, and recent studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between BAT activity and bone mass, albeit the interactions between BAT and bone remain unclear. Here we show that UCP-1 is critical for protecting bone mass in mice under conditions of permanent mild cold stress for this species (22°C). UCP-1 -/- mice housed at 22°C showed significantly lower cancellous bone mass, with lower trabecular number and thickness, a lower bone formation rate and mineralising surface, but unaltered osteoclast number, compared to wild type mice housed at the same temperature. UCP-1 -/- mice also displayed shorter femurs than wild types, with smaller cortical periosteal and endocortical perimeters. Importantly, these altered bone phenotypes were not observed when UCP-1 -/- and wild type mice were housed in thermo-neutral conditions (29°C), indicating a UCP-1 dependent support of bone mass and bone formation at the lower temperature. Furthermore, at 22°C UCP-1 -/- mice showed elevated hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) relative to wild type, which is consistent with the lower bone formation and mass of UCP-1 -/- mice at 22°C caused by the catabolic effects of hypothalamic NPY-induced SNS modulation. The results from this study suggest that during mild cold stress, when BAT-dependent thermogenesis is required, UCP-1 activity exerts a protective effect on bone mass possibly through alterations in central NPY pathways known to regulate SNS activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mild dehydration modifies the cerebrovascular response to the cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Blake G; Bear, Tracey L K; Lucas, Samuel J E; Mündel, Toby

    2016-01-01

    The cold pressor test (CPT) is widely used in clinical practice and physiological research. It is characterized by a robust autonomic response, with associated increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv(mean)). Hydration status is not commonly reported when conducting this test, yet blood viscosity alone can modulate MCAv(mean), potentially modifying the MCAv(mean) response to the CPT. We investigated the effect of mild dehydration on the physiological response to the CPT in 10 healthy men (mean ± SD: age 28 ± 5 years; body mass 83 ± 5 kg). All participants completed two CPTs, cold water (0°C) immersion of both feet for 90 s, with the order of the euhydration and dehydration trials counterbalanced. Beat-to-beat MCAv, MAP, HR and breath-by-breath partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (P(ET,CO2)) were measured continuously. Participants' pain perception was measured 1 min into the CPT using a visual analog scale (no pain = 0; maximal pain = 10). Dehydration significantly elevated plasma osmolality and urine specific gravity and reduced body mass (all P 0.05). After 90 s of immersion, the change in MCAv(mean) from baseline was less in the dehydration compared with the euhydration trial (change 0 ± 5 versus 7 ± 7 cm s(-1), P = 0.01), as was P(ET,CO2) (change -3 ± 2 versus 0 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Dehydration was associated with greater relative pain sensation during the CPT (7.0 ± 1.3 vs 5.8 ± 1.8, P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that mild dehydration can modify the cerebrovascular response to the CPT, with dehydration increasing perceived pain, lowering P ET ,CO2 and, ultimately, blunting the MCAv(mean) response. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  9. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  15. Akutan, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  16. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  1. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Crescent City, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Santa Monica, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Fort Bragg, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  11. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Central California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  15. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  17. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  2. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  5. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Sitka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  9. Hoonah, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  10. Yakutat, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  11. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Tatitlek, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  13. Key West, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Elevation Data for Jefferson County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  15. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...