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Sample records for pruriens var pruriens

  1. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Haridas Pulikkalpura; Rajani Kurup; Paravanparampil Jacob Mathew; Sabulal Baby

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr...

  2. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  3. The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis ) for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) was studied over a 4-week period using 168 broiler chicks at 28 days of age. They were individually weighed and then randomly allocated to four dietary treatments incorporating, respectively, 0, 50, 100, and 150 g M. pruriens per kg of diet. Feed and water were ...

  4. Nutritional and anti-nutritional potential of three accessions of itching bean (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC var. pruriens): an under-utilized tribal pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Balasubiramanian Kamatchi; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2010-08-01

    Three accessions of the under-utilized legume itching bean (Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens) were analysed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acid), fatty acid profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and certain anti-nutritional factors. All three accessions of M. pruriens var. pruriens contained higher amounts of crude protein and crude lipid when compared with most of the commonly consumed pulses. The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained a higher concentration of palmitic acid and linoleic acids. Amino acid profiles of M. pruriens var. pruriens revealed that the seed protein contained relatively higher levels of certain essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO requirement pattern. The investigated seeds are rich in minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and manganese. Anti nutritional substances such as total free phenolics, tannins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor activity, oligosaccharides and phytohaemagglutinating activity were investigated. The anti-nutritional fatty acid, behenic acid, also was detected in the present study.

  5. PHOSPHATE NUTRITION EFFECTS ON ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; MEIJBOOM, FW; KUIPER, PJC

    The response of roots of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis to aluminium depends on the duration of exposure and the type of experiment. In a short-term study, the usual reduction of root elongation rate by Al was found. In contrast, a study for a longer period of time, 4 weeks, showed a stimulation of

  6. Slaughter weight and carcass of male New Zealand White rabbits after rationing with koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis

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    SUTARNO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Santoso U, Sutarno. 2009. Slaughter weight and carcass of male New Zealand White rabbits after rationing with koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 117-122. The objectives of the research were to know the effects of koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis present on slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits and to know the optimum dosage that resulted the best slaughter weight and carcass. The research used Randomized Block Design whereas 25 heads of six weeks old rabbits with 450-1270 g of body weight were devided into five groups according to the body weight. Each group were treated with different treatment. The treatment were unpresent of M. pruriens as a control (R0 and various percentage of M. pruriens as much as 21.5%, in the ration with treatment as follows: R1 (raw, R2 (heating, R3 (boiling, and R4 (fermentation. The parameters observed were slaughter weight, carcass weight, meat weight, bone weight, and adipose tissue weigth. The data analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The present of processed M. pruriens could increase production of slaughter weight better than the present of unprocessed M. pruriens. The additional of 21.5% of fermented M. pruriens resulted in the best production of slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits.

  7. Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikkalpura, Haridas; Kurup, Rajani; Mathew, Paravanparampil Jacob; Baby, Sabulal

    2015-06-01

    Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. M. pruriens varieties are protein rich supplements, and are used as food and fodder worldwide. Here, we report L-dopa contents in seeds of fifty six accessions of four M. pruriens varieties, M. pruriens var. pruriens, M. pruriens var. hirsuta, M. pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. thekkadiensis, quantified by HPTLC-densitometry. L-dopa contents varied between 0.58 to 6.42 (%, dr. wt.). High and low L-dopa yielding genotypes/chemotypes of M. pruriens could be multiplied for medicinal and nutritional purposes, respectively. HPTLC profiles of M. pruriens seeds on repeated extraction (24 h) in 1:1 formic acid-alcohol followed by development in butanol:acetic acid:water (4:1:1, v/v) showed consistent degradation of L-dopa (Rf 0.34 ± 0.02) into a second peak (Rf 0.41 ± 0.02). An average of 52.11% degradation of L-dopa was found in seeds of M. pruriens varieties. Since M. pruriens seeds and/or L-dopa are used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and as an aphrodisiac both in modern and/or traditional systems of medicine, the finding of high level of L-dopa degradation (in pure form and in M. pruriens extracts) into damaging quinones and ROS is very significant.

  8. AL AVOIDANCE AND AL TOLERANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS - EFFECTS OF A HETEROGENEOUS ROOT ENVIRONMENT AND THE NITROGEN FORM IN THE ROOT ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; STULEN, [No Value; VANNOORDWIJK, M; KUIPER, PJC

    In Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, grown with nitrate-N in a hydroponic split-root system, an Al avoidance reaction of root growth was observed, which was ascribed to local P stress in the Al containing compartment. The Al avoidance reaction was similar to the avoidance of Mucuna roots of acid subsoil

  9. Bobot potong dan karkas kelinci New Zealand White jantan setelah pemberian ransum dengan kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis

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    URIP SANTOSO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Santoso U, Sutarno. 2010. Bobot potong dan karkas kelinci New Zealand White jantan setelah pemberian ransum dengan kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Bioteknologi 7: 19-26. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian tepung kacang koro (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis terhadap produksi bobot potong dan karkas kelinci galur New Zealand White serta mengetahui dosis optimum pemberian tepung kacang koro yang memberikan bobot badan dan karkas terbaik. Metode penelitian digunakan adalah eksperimen dengan pola Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Sebanyak 25 ekor kelinci berumur sekitar 6 minggu yang memiliki kisaran bobot badan 450-1270 g dikelompokan menjadi lima kelompok menurut bobot badannya. Masing-masing kelompok mendapat perlakuan yang berbeda, perlakuan yang diberikan adalah ransum tanpa tepung kacang koro (R0 sebagai kontrol dan ransum dengan pemberian tepung kacang koro masing-masing sebanyak 21,5%, dengan perlakuan sebagai berikut: R1 (mentah, R2 (pemanasan, R3 (perebusan, dan R4 (fermentasi. Parameter yang diamati bobot potong, bobot karkas, bobot daging, bobot tulang, dan bobot lemak. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis ragam (ANAVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan (DMRT. Pemberian tepung kacang koro hasil olahan dalam ransum meningkatkan produksi bobot potong dan karkas yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pemberian tepung kacang koro tanpa diolah dan pada tingkat 21,5% pemberian tepung kacang koro hasil fermentasi dalam ransum menyebabkan peningkatan produksi bobot potong dan karkas paling baik.

  10. Identification and optimization of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in Mucuna pruriens DC. var. utilis.

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    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Singh, Satendra

    2010-05-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, an iron containing tetrahydrobiopterin dependent monooxygenase (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase; EC 1.14.16.2), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in which L: -dopa is formed from the substrate L-tyrosine. L-Dopa concentration and activity of L-tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme were measured in roots, stem, leaves, pods, and immature seeds of Mucuna pruriens. Immature seeds contained maximum L-dopa content and mature leaves possessed maximum catalytic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. Tyrosine hydroxylase from leaf homogenate was characterized as a 55 kDa protein by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis with monoclonal mouse IgG2a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody. The conditions for maximum tyrosine hydroxylase activity from the leaf extract were optimized with respect to temperature, pH, cofactor 6-MPH(4), and divalent metal ions. The tyrosine hydroxylase from leaf extract possessed a K (m) value of 808.63 microM for L-tyrosine at 37 degrees C and pH 6.0. The activity of the enzyme was slightly inhibited at 2,000 microM L-tyrosine. Higher concentrations of the cofactor 6-MPH(4), however, completely inhibited the synthesis of L-dopa. Tyrosine hydroxylase converted specific monophenols such as L-tyrosine (808.63 microM) and tyramine (K (m) 1.1 mM) to diphenols L-dopa and dopamine, respectively. Fe(II) activated the enzyme while higher concentration of other divalent metals reduced its activity. For the first time, tyrosine hydroxylase from M. pruriens is being reported in this study.

  11. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Raffaella Lampariello; Alessio Cortelazzo; Roberto Guerranti; Claudia Sticozzi; Giuseppe Valacchi

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In ad...

  12. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampariello, Lucia Raffaella; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Guerranti, Roberto; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  13. The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens

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    Lucia Raffaella Lampariello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac. It has been shown that its seeds are potentially of substantial medicinal importance. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally used M. pruriens, even to treat such things as Parkinson's disease. M. pruriens has been shown to have anti-parkinson and neuroprotective effects, which may be related to its anti-oxidant activity. In addition, anti-oxidant activity of M. pruriens has been also demonstrated in vitro by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this review the medicinal properties of M. pruriens are summarized, taking in consideration the studies that have used the seeds extracts and the leaves extracts.

  14. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  15. Limited uptake, translocation and enhanced metabolic degradation contribute to glyphosate tolerance in Mucuna pruriens var. utilis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; De Prado, Rafael; Luque de Castro, María Dolores; Franco, Antonio Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens, Fabaceae) plants exhibits an innate, very high resistance (i.e., tolerance) to glyphosate similar to that of plants which have acquired resistance to this herbicide as a trait. We analyzed the uptake of [(14)C]-glyphosate by leaves and its translocation to meristematic tissues, and used scanning electron micrographs to further analyze the cuticle and 3D capillary electrophoresis to investigate a putative metabolism capable of degrading the herbicide. Velvet bean exhibited limited uptake of glyphosate and impaired translocation of the compound to meristematic tissues. Also, for the first time in a higher plant, two concurrent pathways capable of degrading glyphosate to AMPA, Pi, glyoxylate, sarcosine and formaldehyde as end products were identified. Based on the results, the innate tolerance of velvet bean to glyphosate is possibly a result of the combined action of the previous three traits, namely: limited uptake, impaired translocation and enhanced degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE BY MUCUNA-PRURIENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; KUIPER, PJC

    The hypothesis was tested that the avoidance of acid subsoil by the velvet bean Mucuna pruriens is based on a mechanism acting on the whole root system rather than on individual roots. In a split-root experiment with circulating nutrient solution the growth of plants with Al-containing (+/+) or

  17. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Janeth; Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Pozzi, Nicolò G.; Isaias, Ioannis U.; Contin, Manuela; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in all tropical areas worldwide, may be used as alternative source of levodopa for indigent individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) who cannot afford long-term therapy with marketed levodopa preparations. Methods: We investigated efficacy and safety of single-dose intake of MP powder from roasted seeds obtained without any pharmacologic processing. Eighteen patients with advanced PD received the following treatments, whose sequence was randomized: (1) dispersible levodopa at 3.5 mg/kg combined with the dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide (LD+DDCI; the reference treatment); (2) high-dose MP (MP-Hd; 17.5 mg/kg); (3) low-dose MP (MP-Ld; 12.5 mg/kg); (4) pharmaceutical preparation of LD without DDCI (LD−DDCI; 17.5 mg/kg); (5) MP plus benserazide (MP+DDCI; 3.5 mg/kg); (6) placebo. Efficacy outcomes were the change in motor response at 90 and 180 minutes and the duration of on state. Safety measures included any adverse event (AE), changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and the severity of dyskinesias. Results: When compared to LD+DDCI, MP-Ld showed similar motor response with fewer dyskinesias and AEs, while MP-Hd induced greater motor improvement at 90 and 180 minutes, longer ON duration, and fewer dyskinesias. MP-Hd induced less AEs than LD+DDCI and LD−DDCI. No differences in cardiovascular response were recorded. Conclusion: Single-dose MP intake met all noninferiority efficacy and safety outcome measures in comparison to dispersible levodopa/benserazide. Clinical effects of high-dose MP were similar to levodopa alone at the same dose, with a more favorable tolerability profile. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02680977. PMID:28679598

  18. Ingestion volontaire et digestibilité apparente d'une ration à base de la farine de graines de Mucuna pruriens var. utilis complétée de fourrages chez les lapins

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    Aboh, AB.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Volontary Ingestion and Apparent Digestibility of a Ration Based on Mucuna pruriens var. utilis Seeds Flour Completed with Forage on Rabbits. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (mucuna detoxified seeds flour is used as a vegetable protein source, in a basal diet of fifteen growing rabbits divided in five groups of tree. Each rabbit received per day a fixed quantity of basal diet (130.5 g DM, but as only feed (RP for control group; plus 40.5 g DM of Panicum maximum forage and, 60 g DM of one of the four experimental legumes of Aeschynomene histrix (RH, Mucuna pruriens (RFM, Stylosanthes scabra Secca (RS and Tridax procumbens (RT for the others groups. The experiment conducted in Benin has lasted 26 days, split in 19 days for diet adaptability and 7 days for data collection. Voluntary daily feed intake varied from 28 to 42 g/kg of dry mater (DM of live weight (LW for basal diet and from 10.5 to 18 g DM/kg of LW for Panicum maximum. Green forage consumption of Aeschynomene histrix, Mucuna pruriens and Stylosanthes scabra were higher compared to the one of Tridax procumbens (P< 0.01. The supply of green forage to basal diet has increased the total daily feed intake that is about 67 to 89 g DM/kg of LW and 26 to 39 g DM/day for dung production.Water intake is higher for rabbit fed with RP diet. Feed resource RFM but also RS and RH have been digestible with 70%, 61% and 54% DM. They gave high weight gain of 30-22 g/day.

  19. Nutrient digestibility of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) bean in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, L): Effects of heat treatment and levels of incorporation in diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahouda, M; Toléba, S S; Youssao, A K I; Hambuckers, A; Dangou-Sapoho, R; Martin, G B; Fillet, M; Hornick, J-L

    2009-09-01

    1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on guinea fowl to assess the effects of two types of heat processing (cooking and toasting) on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of Mucuna seeds offered alone or incorporated at three concentrations (40, 120 or 200 g/kg) in complete diets. 3. Diets containing 200 g/kg seeds had more crude fibre and less ether extract. L-Dopa content increased with the amount of Mucuna inclusion. Cooking reduced markedly L-Dopa content while toasting had no effect. When fed alone, Mucuna seeds dramatically decreased feed intake. 4. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were not influenced by the complete diets. Cooking significantly increased crude fibre digestibility. 5. It is suggested that cracked and cooked Mucuna bean can be incorporated at a safe level of 120 g/kg in complete diets for guinea fowl production.

  20. Studies on the incorporation of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed and its effect on growth performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Pugalenthi, Muthiah

    2010-10-01

    The effect of replacement of soybean meal by the velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient on the growth performance of broiler chickens was investigated. The raw seeds of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck], an under-utilized food legume collected from South India, was found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (273.2 g/kg DM), lipid (60.61 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fiber (84.3 g/kg DM), and ash content (56.04 g/kg DM). Soaking in 0.2% sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving treatment caused a substantial reduction on the levels of various antinutritional compounds such as tannins (84%), L: -Dopa (79%), phytic acid (87%), raffinose (93%), stachyose (83%), verbascose (73%), haemagglutinating activity (84%), trypsin inhibitor activity (77%), and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity (78%) without affecting the nutritional quality of velvet bean seeds. The processed velvet bean meal was incorporated as an alternative protein source by replacing soybean meal protein at 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% levels in the broiler diets. Replacement of soybean meal protein up to 40% level, which corresponds to the inclusion of velvet bean meal up to 15.7% and 11% in the starter and finisher phase poultry feeds, respectively, exhibited better growth performance of broiler birds without any adverse effects.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens.

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    Manyam, Bala V; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Hare, Theodore A

    2004-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens possesses significantly higher antiparkinson activity compared with levodopa in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. The present study evaluated the neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder on the nigrostriatal tract of 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder significantly increased the brain mitochondrial complex-I activity but did not affect the total monoamine oxidase activity (in vitro). Unlike synthetic levodopa treatment, Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder treatment significantly restored the endogenous levodopa, dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin content in the substantia nigra. Nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q-10, that are shown to have a therapeutic benefit in Parkinson's disease, were present in the Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder. Earlier studies showed that Mucuna pruriens treatment controls the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This additional finding of a neurorestorative benefit by Mucuna pruriens cotyledon powder on the degenerating dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra may be due to increased complex-I activity and the presence of NADH and coenzyme Q-10. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mucuna pruriens (Konch Beej precipitates manic symptoms

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    Supriya Vaish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the popular misconception that all ayurvedic preparations are completely safe, a vast majority of these are indiscriminately consumed by people procured as over the counter drugs. These preparations are combinations of multiple products that are often unidentified and dangerous and can precipitate various psychiatric symptoms. Hereby, we present a case of adolescent male in acute manic excitement after consumption of ayurvedic preparation containing "konchbeej" (Mucuna pruriens which is rich in l-3,4 dihydroxyphenyl alanine; precursor of dopamine.

  3. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... of Mucuna pruriens on DMBA-induced breast cancer in female ... DNA smears obtained from single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) suggested ..... sign ifican t reduction. (p. <. 0.01). Valu es carrying superscript. (c) sho wed.

  4. Antiproliferative potential of aqueous leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . pruriens and weight determination was employed using standard protocol. Comet assay protocol was employed to determine level of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation while hematoxylin and eosin were used for histological assay.

  5. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was tested for their possible androgenic activity in Wister male albino rats. The methanolic extract of M. pruriens plant was gavaged separately into 2 group of rat at similar doses of 1000 mg/kg b.wt and 1500 mg/kg b.wt for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were ...

  6. In vitro hypoglycemic effects of Albizzia lebbeck and Mucuna pruriens

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    Bhutkar, Mangesh; Bhise, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic potential of stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) and seeds of Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) using various in vitro techniques. Methods The plant extracts were studied for their effects on glucose adsorption, diffusion amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across yeast cells. Results Both the plant extracts adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. No significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed between the adsorption capacities of A. lebbeck and M. pruriens. In amylolysis kinetic experimental model the rate of glucose diffusion was found to increase with time from 30 to 180 min, and both the plant extracts demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on movement of glucose into external solution across dialysis membrane as compared to control. The retardation of glucose diffusion by A. lebbeck extract was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than M. pruriens. These effects were reflected with higher glucose dialysis retardation index values for A. lebbeck than M. pruriens. The plant extracts also promoted glucose uptake by yeast cells. The rate of uptake of glucose into yeast cells was linear in all the 5 glucose concentrations used in the study. M. pruriens extract exhibited significantly higher (P≤0.05) activity than the extract of A. lebbeck at all concentrations. Conclusions The results verified the antidiabetic potential of A. lebbeck and M. pruriens. The hypoglycemic effect exhibited by the extracts is mediated by increasing glucose adsorption, decreasing glucose diffusion rate and at the cellular level by promoting glucose transport across the cell membrane as revealed by simple in vitro model of yeast cells.

  7. Effects of Mucuna pruriens protease inhibitors on Echis carinatus venom.

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    Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozie Stanley; Ogueli, Godwin Ifeanyi; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Cerutti, Helena; Cito, Annarita; Aguiyi, John C; Guerranti, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    The medicinal plant Mucuna pruriens, with reputed anti-snake venom properties has been reported to contain a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the protease inhibitory potential of gpMuc, a multiform glycoprotein, and other protein fractions from M. pruriens seeds against trypsin, chymotrypsin, Echis carinatus snake venom, ecarin and thrombin. The results showed that gpMuc inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin activities and was thermally stable, maintaining its trypsin inhibitory activity at temperatures of up to 50°C. Its structural conformation was also maintained at pH ranges of 4-7. Immunoreactivity study confirms that it contains protease-recognizing epitope on one of its isoforms. The whole protein extract of M. pruriens seeds inhibited prothrombin activation by ecarin and whole E. carinatus venom, and also thrombin-like activity using chromogenic assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antiparkinson drug--Mucuna pruriens shows antioxidant and metal chelating activity.

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    Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Tharakan, Binu; Manyam, Bala V

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no neurorestorative therapeutic treatment is currently available. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, traditionally uses Mucuna pruriens to treat Parkinson's disease. In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant activity of Mucuna pruriens was demonstrated by its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals and reactive oxygen species. Mucuna pruriens significantly inhibited the oxidation of lipids and deoxyribose sugar. Mucuna pruriens exhibited divalent iron chelating activity and did not show any genotoxic/mutagenic effect on the plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect of Mucuna pruriens may be related to its antioxidant activity independent of the symptomatic effect. In addition, the drug appears to be therapeutically safe in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 1Department of Biotechnology, J. J.College of Arts and Science, Pudukottai-622 404, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Zoology, Raja Serfoji ... pruriens seeds in the management of Parkinson's disea- se by virtue of their L-DOPA content .... and to clarify their mechanism of action. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

  10. EFFECT OF MUCUNA (Mucuna pruriens) ON SPERMIOGRAMS OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF BUCKS

    OpenAIRE

    James Olamitibo Daramola; John Adesanya Abiona; Olusiji Frederick Smith; Olubunkola Ajike Isah; Olusiji Sunday Sowande; Moshood Olajire Olaniyi; Jimoh Alao Olanite

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the potential effect of Mucuna pruriens seed powder on spermiograms of West African Dwarf bucks (WAD). Twenty bucks were randomly assigned to five treatments consisting of four animals each receiving 0, 25, 50, 75, 100mg/Bw of Mucuna pruriens seed powder administered via oral route for 30 days consecutively. Following treatment, spermiograms of the animals were determined. The results showed that exposure of bucks to Mucuna pruriens powder led to a sig...

  11. Influence de divers traitements physico-chimiques de graines de Mucuna pruriens sur leur composition chimique en nutriments

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    Dossa, CS.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Various Physicochemical Treatments of Mucuna pruriens Seeds on the Nutrient Chemical Composition. Mucuna pruriens is being intensively used to fight off couch grass Imperata cylindrica and restore washed out lithosol fertility, in most of the agro ecological zones of Benin. From the huge amount of grains harvested, only a small part is used as seeds. This study was made to determine the effects of different ways of processing Mucuna pruriens var. utilis and M. pruriens var. cochichennensis grains on the toxic factor contents such as L-dopa and other antinutritionnal factors. Of the different physical and chemical treatment tested, grilling remarkably increased the potential nutritional content while boiling gave lower nutrient values. While awaiting assessment of the residual L-dopa level, the following treatment could be advised : after a preliminary soaking of the grains in cold water during 24 hours, they were dehulled and grilled for one hour. That procedure offered higher dry matter, higher crude protein and higher nitrogen-free extract in the preparations. The chemical contents of the two cultivars are not identical but dry matter and phosphorus contents are comparable.

  12. Mucuna pruriens attenuates haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Amjadkhan A; Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Kasture, Ameya S; Kasture, Sanjay B

    2011-04-01

    Neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. The agents improving dopaminergic transmission improve TD. Mucuna pruriens seed contains levodopa and amino acids. The effect of methanolic extract of M. pruriens seeds (MEMP) was studied on haloperidol-induced TD, alongside the changes in lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The effect of MEMP was also evaluated in terms of the generation of hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. MEMP (100 and 200 mg kg⁻¹) inhibited haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements, orofacial bursts and biochemical changes. MEMP also inhibited hydroxyl radical generation and DPPH. The results of the present study suggest that MEMP by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity prevents neuroleptic-induced TD.

  13. FRAKSI ETANOL 96% BIJI KORO BENGUK (Mucuna pruriens L. SEBAGAI PENINGKAT KUALITAS SPERMATOZOA MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Sri Winarni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The examination of sperm quality is the main priority for infertility diagnosis. Based on previous study with mice, active ingredient of Mucuna pruriens L. or koro benguk (Papilionaceae, the L-dopa, may affect the quality of spermatozoa.Objective: Research was to study the effect of 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed on spermatozoaquality of mice exposed to 2-Methoxy ethanol. L-dopa in 96% ethanol fraction of M. pruriens seed was 14.7%.Methode: This was an experimental study using complete randomized design. Subjects were BALB/C mice (Mus musculus. Five groups served as control, 3 groups received subcutaneos injection of 2-ME as muchas 100 mg/kg.bw/day for 12 days, followed with 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed starting from14 mg/kg.bw/day, 28 mg/kg.bw/day, and 56 mg/kg.bw/day for 51 days.Result: The 96% ethanol fraction of Mucuna pruriens seeds are significant increase motility (p<0,01 andthe percentage of normal spermatozoa morphology (p= 0,042.Conclusion: 96% ethanol fraction of Mucuna pruriens seeds are able to increase motility and the percentage of normal spermatozoa morphology in mice exposed to 2-ME. Keywords: Mucuna pruriens L., L-dopa, mouse spermatozoa

  14. EFFECT OF MUCUNA (Mucuna pruriens ON SPERMIOGRAMS OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF BUCKS

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    James Olamitibo Daramola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the potential effect of Mucuna pruriens seed powder on spermiograms of West African Dwarf bucks (WAD. Twenty bucks were randomly assigned to five treatments consisting of four animals each receiving 0, 25, 50, 75, 100mg/Bw of Mucuna pruriens seed powder administered via oral route for 30 days consecutively. Following treatment, spermiograms of the animals were determined. The results showed that exposure of bucks to Mucuna pruriens powder led to a significant increase in weight gain, scrotal width, scrotal circumference, testicular weight, gonadosomatic index, sperm motility and testicular parenchyma of animals compared to the control and the improvement in these parameters was much pronounced in bucks that received 75mg Mucuna pruriens seed powder (P<0.05. Higher (P<0.05 sperm concentration was observed in 100mg inclusion of Mucuna pruriens seed powder compared to other treatments. The results showed a decline (P<0.05 in the level of testosterone with increasing level of Mucuna pruriens seed powder administration. The findings showed that oral administration of Mucuna pruriens seed powder to the bucks for 30 days resulted in improved testicular measurements and sperm quality without any adverse effect on structure of reproductive physiology of the bucks.

  15. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans from Mucuna pruriens.

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    Dendup, Tshewang; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2014-05-01

    Three new isoflavanones (1-3) and thirteen known compounds (4-16) were isolated from the roots of Mucuna pruriens. The absolute configurations of isoflavanones 1-3 and parvisoflavanone (4), lespedeol C (5), and uncinanone C (6) were addressed by a circular dichroism technique. Isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans of M. pruriens were found to be α-glucosidase inhibitors. Medicarpin (7) and parvisoflavone B (9) were potent α-glucosidase inhibitors (twofold less active than the standard drug acarbose). The production of bioactive metabolites in M. pruriens seems to be season-dependent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Fraksi Etanol 96% Biji Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens L.) Sebagai Peningkat Kualitas Spermatozoa Mencit (Mus Musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Winarni, Sri; Judiwati, Rina; Prajogo, Bambang; Hayati, Alfiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The examination of sperm quality is the main priority for infertility diagnosis. Based on previous study with mice, active ingredient of Mucuna pruriens L. or koro benguk (Papilionaceae), the L-dopa, may affect the quality of spermatozoa.Objective: Research was to study the effect of 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed on spermatozoaquality of mice exposed to 2-Methoxy ethanol. L-dopa in 96% ethanol fraction of M. pruriens seed was 14.7%.Methode: This was an experimental stu...

  17. In vitro evaluation of Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. antioxidant activity

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    Joy Ganem Longhi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens (L. Dc is a plant of the Fabaceae family, commonly known as velvet bean, itchy bean, chiporro bean, mucuna, among others. This plant has several medicinal properties, including its potential to treat Parkinson's disease (PD. International studies have shown that this plant surpasses the benefits of the substance levodopa in the treatment of PD. Taking into account that nerve cells are highly sensitive to oxidative substances, this study evaluated the antioxidant activity of mucuna and compared it to that of levodopa. The plant seeds' phenolic concentration was quantified by using the Folin-Denis reagent and the antioxidant activity assays were performed by using three different methods: the reduction of the phosphomolybdenium complex, the reduction of radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and the formation of radical monocation ABTS•+, from the acid [2-2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate]. Results showed that M. pruriens presents high antioxidant capacity, although not superior to isolated levodopa antioxidant capacity. Therefore, further studies should be performed to elucidate the activity of this plant in humans.A Mucuna pruriens (L. Dc é uma planta da família Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente como feijão-veludo, fava-coceira, feijão chiporro, mucuna, entre outros. Possui diversas propriedades medicinais, entre elas, o tratamento da doença de Parkinson (DP. Estudos internacionais vêm demonstrando que essa planta possui atividade superior à do fármaco levodopa para o tratamento da DP. O presente estudo avaliou a possibilidade da atividade antioxidante dessa planta auxiliar nesses resultados, uma vez que as células nervosas são altamente sensíveis às substâncias oxidativas. Para isto foi quantificada a concentração fenólica da semente da mucuna e os testes empregados para a avaliação da atividade antioxidante foram o teste de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, redução do radical 1

  18. Effect of temperature on aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A K; Chourasia, H K

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of temperature on the level of aflatoxin production in Mucuna pruriens seeds. The highest level of aflatoxin B1 (1.75 micrograms/g) was detected in the samples incubated at 25 degrees C for three weeks. At 20, 30, and 35 degrees C, aflatoxin levels were 0.30 to 0.56, 0.37 to 1.20, and 0.26 to 0.65 micrograms/g, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin B1 (0.10 to 0.29 microgram/g) was produced at 15 degrees C. PMID:2719482

  19. Anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens: A study on role of dopaminergic system in epilepsy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champatisingh, D; Sahu, P K; Pal, A; Nanda, G S

    2011-04-01

    To assess the anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity of leaves of Mucuna pruriens in albino rats. Haloperidol-induced catalepsy (HIC), maximum electro-shock (MES) method, pilocarpine-induced Status epilepticus (PISE) and single-dose effect of M. pruriens were employed. M. pruriens (100 mg/kg) had significant anticataleptic and antiepileptic activity in HIC, MES, and PISE. M. pruriens extract has the potential to be an anticataleptic and antiepileptic drug. Dopamine and 5-HT may have a role in such activity.

  20. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on oxidative stress mediated damage in aged rat sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2010-02-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn., a leguminous plant, has been recognized as an aphrodisiac and spermatogenic agent. Protective efficacy of M. pruriens on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathophysiological alterations in structural and functional integrity of epididymal sperm in aged Wister albino rat was analysed. Animals were grouped as groups I, II, III and IV, i.e. young (control), aged, aged treated with ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg b.w.) of M. pruriens and young rats treated with M. pruriens, respectively. At the end of the experimental period, i.e. after 60 days animals were sacrificed, epididymal sperm were collected and subjected to count, viability, motility, morphology and morphometric analysis. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential were estimated. Results obtained from the aged animals showed significant reduction in sperm count, viability and motility, increased morphological damage and an increase in the number of sperm with cytoplasmic remnant, and these alterations were significantly reversed in M. pruriens treated group. Significant increase in LPO, HO and H(2)O(2) production and significant decline in the levels of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in the aged animals. Supplementation of M. pruriens significantly reduced ROS and LPO production and significant increase in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels. There were significant DNA damage, loss of chromosomal integrity and increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability in aged rat sperm. This was significantly reduced in group III. Present observation indicates the antioxidant enhancing property, free radical quenching ability and spermatogenic efficacy of the M. pruriens. Collectively, sperm damage in ageing was significantly reduced by quenching ROS, improving antioxidant defence system and mitochondrial function.

  1. Growth performance of goats supplemented with Mucuna pruriens in North Cameroon

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    E. Pamo Tendonkeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the level of supplementation with Mucuna pruriens on growth performances of West African Dwarf bucks and digestibility of the rations during the dry season in North Cameroon was studied at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development polyvalent station of Garoua between November 2004 and July 2005. A total of 24 West African Dwarf male goats were divided into three groups of eight bucks each, fed with a basal diet made up of Andropogon gayanus and Ficus sycomorus, and supplemented with 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The evaluation of the live weight, average daily weight gain and body condition score was carried out every 14 days during 90 days. At the end of this phase, the evaluation of carcass weight and yield was carried out on two slaughtered bucks per group. Then, nine goats were divided into three groups of three animals, and each group was subjected to one of the three above treatments in order to study the influence of the level of supplementation of M. pruriens on the digestibility of the basal diet. The results showed that, in absence of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 10.44 kg, - 10 g and 1.87, respectively. With 100 g of M. pruriens in the ration, the live weight, the average daily weight gain and the body condition score were 12.16 kg, 9 g and 2.94, whereas it was 12.98 kg, 18 g and 3.56, respectively, with a ration containing 150 g of M. pruriens. The carcass weight and yield, and the weight at slaughter increased significantly (P < 0.05 with the increase of the level of M. pruriens in the ration. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter was 45.25, 62.34 and 70.97%, respectively, with the rations containing 0, 100 and 150 g of M. pruriens. The nitrogen digestibility was 38.46, 55.29 and 60.95%, respectively, with the same ration. It appears that the supplementation of the rations with M. pruriens during the dry season

  2. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  3. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of L-dopa from Mucuna pruriens LINN and formulations containing M. pruriens by HPTLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Ketan Pravinbhai; Patel, Natvarlal Manilal; Goyal, Ramesh Kishorilal

    2008-03-01

    A selective, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the analysis of L-dopa in Mucuna pruriens seed extract and its formulations. The method involves densitometric evaluation of L-dopa after resolving it by HPTLC on silica gel plates with n-butanol-acetic acid-water (4.0+1.0+1.0, v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of L-dopa was carried out in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The relationship between the concentration of L-dopa and corresponding peak areas was found to be linear in the range of 100 to 1200 ng/spot. The method was validated for precision (inter and intraday), repeatability, and accuracy. Mean recovery was 100.30%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the precision were found to be in the range 0.64-1.52%. In conclusion, the proposed TLC method was found to be precise, specific and accurate and can be used for identification and quantitative determination of L-dopa in herbal extract and its formulations.

  5. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men

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    Kamla Kant Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of Mucuna pruriens in infertile men who were under psychological stress. Study included 60 subjects who were undergoing infertility screening and were found to be suffering from psychological stress, assessed on the basis of a questionnaire and elevated serum cortisol levels. Age-matched 60 healthy men having normal semen parameters and who had previously initiated at least one pregnancy were included as controls. Infertile subjects were administered with M. pruriens seed powder (5 g day−1 orally. For carrying out morphological and biochemical analysis, semen samples were collected twice, first before starting treatment and second after 3 months of treatment. The results demonstrated decreased sperm count and motility in subjects who were under psychological stress. Moreover, serum cortisol and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels were also found elevated along with decreased seminal plasma glutathione (GSH and ascorbic acid contents and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase activity. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly ameliorated psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility. Treatment also restored the levels of SOD, catalase, GSH and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men. On the basis of results of the present study, it may be concluded that M. pruriens not only reactivates the anti-oxidant defense system of infertile men but it also helps in the management of stress and improves semen quality.

  6. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamla Kant; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankwar, Satya Narain; Tiwari, Sarvada Chandra

    2010-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of Mucuna pruriens in infertile men who were under psychological stress. Study included 60 subjects who were undergoing infertility screening and were found to be suffering from psychological stress, assessed on the basis of a questionnaire and elevated serum cortisol levels. Age-matched 60 healthy men having normal semen parameters and who had previously initiated at least one pregnancy were included as controls. Infertile subjects were administered with M. pruriens seed powder (5 g day(-1)) orally. For carrying out morphological and biochemical analysis, semen samples were collected twice, first before starting treatment and second after 3 months of treatment. The results demonstrated decreased sperm count and motility in subjects who were under psychological stress. Moreover, serum cortisol and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels were also found elevated along with decreased seminal plasma glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid contents and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly ameliorated psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility. Treatment also restored the levels of SOD, catalase, GSH and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men. On the basis of results of the present study, it may be concluded that M. pruriens not only reactivates the anti-oxidant defense system of infertile men but it also helps in the management of stress and improves semen quality.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Vidhya, V G; Ramya, M

    2008-12-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (Ppruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds.

  8. Evaluation of Hypotensive and Antihypertensive Effects of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Galicia-Martínez, Saulo; Acevedo-Fernández, Juan José; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesus; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension could cause significant worldwide health problems that affect 15-20% of all adults; according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 29% of the adult population in the United States are hypertensive. Recent research has shown that peptides derived from the hydrolysis of food proteins can decrease blood pressure. This study was carried out to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates in in vitro and in vivo models. M. pruriens protein concentrate was prepared by wet fractionation and enzymatically hydrolyzed using Alcalase ® , Flavourzyme ® , and the sequential system Alcalase-Flavourzyme at different times (5-120 min). The biological potential was measured in vitro based on the IC 50 value as well as in vivo effect, measuring the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in normotensive and antihypertensive Wistar-Kyoto rats by the tail-cuff method. Hydrolysis of M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial enzymes generated extensive hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 0.589-0.993 mg/mL) and hypotensive (SBP: 0.6-47.43%, DBP: 1.94-43.47%) and antihypertensive (SBP: 8.84-27.29% DBP: 16.1-29.37%) effect. These results indicate that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysate (MPPH) could be used as a functional ingredient to prevent blood pressure increase.

  9. The protective effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds against snake venom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Marinello, Enrico; Guerranti, Roberto; Aguiyi, John C

    2009-06-22

    The seed, leaf and root of Mucuna pruriens have been used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. To study the protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against the lethalities of various snake venoms. Rats were pre-treated with Mucuna pruriens seed extract and challenged with various snake venoms. The effectiveness of anti-Mucuna pruriens (anti-MPE) antibody to neutralize the lethalities of snake venoms was investigated by in vitro neutralization. In rats, MPE pre-treatment conferred effective protection against lethality of Naja sputatrix venom and moderate protection against Calloselasma rhodostoma venom. Indirect ELISA and immunoblotting studies showed that there were extensive cross-reactions between anti-MPE IgG and venoms from many different genera of poisonous snakes, suggesting the involvement of immunological neutralization in the protective effect of MPE pre-treatment against snake venom poisoning. In vitro neutralization experiments showed that the anti-MPE antibodies effectively neutralized the lethalities of Asiatic cobra (Naja) venoms, but were not very effective against other venoms tested. The anti-MPE antibodies could be used in the antiserum therapy of Asiatic cobra (Naja) bites.

  10. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Islam, Najmul; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Ahmad, Sohail

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

  11. Immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) In male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, F; Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Atta, A; Fatima, H

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots and Mucuna pruriens seeds in male albino rats. The roots of A. pyrethrum and seeds of M. pruriens were extracted with methanolic solvent (70:30) and administered at dose concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight to healthy male rats. The immune system of rats was suppressed by injecting carbon tetrachloride to animals in the toxic control group and test group animals. Cell-mediated immune response of animals was examined by performing neutrophil adhesion test and the humoral immune response was evaluated by determining serum immunoglobulin levels of the animals under study. The administration of methanolic extracts of A. pyrethrum roots and M. pruriens seeds significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fiber. Increase in % neutrophil adhesion was observed in animals treated with 200 mg of each plant extract. Significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in immunoglobulin levels was recorded in the extract treated group animals, showing that the root extract of A. pyrethrum and seed extract of M. pruriens have immunomodulatory potential. We therefore conclude that the tested extracts can be used as immunomodulatory agents to stimulate the immune system.

  12. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majekodunmi, Stephen O; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Umukoro, Solomon; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2011-08-01

    To explore the antidiabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens(M. pruriens). Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of 120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice. Results showed that the administration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose > 450 mg/dL) resulted in 18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) resulted in 59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (Ppruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration of M. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes. The study clearly supports the traditional use of M. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyam, Bala V; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Hare, Theodore A

    2004-02-01

    HP-200, which contains Mucuna pruriens endocarp, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens endocarp has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to elucidate the long-term effect of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in HP-200 on monoaminergic neurotransmitters and its metabolite in various regions of the rat brain. HP-200 at a dose of 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg/day was mixed with rat chow and fed daily ad lib to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 for each group) for 52 weeks. Controls (n = 6) received no drug. Random assignment was made for doses and control. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 52 weeks and the neurotransmitters were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and striatum. Oral administration of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in the form of HP-200 had a significant effect on dopamine content in the cortex with no significant effect on levodopa, norepinephrine or dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites- HVA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA in the nigrostriatal tract. The failure of Mucuna pruriens endocarp to significantly affect dopamine metabolism in the striatonigral tract along with its ability to improve Parkinsonian symptoms in the 6-hydorxydopamine animal model and humans may suggest that its antiparkinson effect may be due to components other than levodopa or that it has an levodopa enhancing effect. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Immunomodulation of Parkinson's disease using Mucuna pruriens (Mp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sachchida Nand; Birla, Hareram; Zahra, Walia; Singh, Saumitra Sen; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-11-01

    Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These changes in the glial phenotype can affect the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment by producing a pro-inflammatory milieu that speeds PD pathogenesis. Mucuna pruriens (Mp) is the most popular drug in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. Several reports have suggested that it possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-epileptic and anti-microbial activities. Mp contain L-DOPA and ursolic acid which has an anti-inflammatory property. There are very few literatures which show the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in PD, several researchers have tried to work on the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in some other diseases. The results of several studies show that Mp modulate the immune components like TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-λ, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-2 in the CNS. It also modulates the activity of the transcription factor NF-kB which plays an important role in the progression of the PD. Thus, by altering these cytokines or transcription factors, Mp protects or prevents the progression of PD. Thus in this review we try to explore the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in PD. Copyright © 2017

  15. Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Subramanian; Sabesan, Muthukumaran

    2010-01-01

    Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform – infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible. PMID:21808573

  16. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract.

  17. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential of standardized Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar; De, Apurba; Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (Fabaceae) is a tropical legume, traditionally used for controlling blood pressure. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the successful strategies for controlling hypertension. The present study evaluated the ACE inhibition potential of the standardized extract of M. pruriens seeds. Standardization of the extract and its fractions were carried out by RP-HPLC method [methanol and 1% v/v acetic acid in water (5:95 v/v)] using levodopa as a marker. The ACE inhibition activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL) using the HPLC-DAD and the UV spectrophotometric method. The liberation of hippuric acid (HA) from hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) was estimated in the spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC assay at 228 nm. Methanol extract and aqueous fraction showed a maximum activity with IC50 values of 38.44 ± 0.90 and 57.07 ± 2.90 µg/mL (RP-HPLC), and 52.68 ± 2.02 and 67.65 ± 2.40 µg/mL (spectrophotometry), respectively. The study revealed that the aqueous extract contains the highest amount of levodopa. Eventually the methanol extract showed highest ACE inhibition activity except levodopa alone. It was further observed that the inhibition was altered with respect to the change in the content of levodopa in the extract. Thus, it can be assumed that levodopa may be responsible for the ACE inhibition activity of M. pruriens seeds. It can be concluded that M. pruriens seed is a potential ACE inhibitor can be explored further as an effective antihypertensive agent.

  19. The Antiparkinsonian and Antidyskinetic Mechanisms of Mucuna pruriens in the MPTP-Treated Nonhuman Primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Lieu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic treatment with levodopa (LD in Parkinson's disease (PD can cause drug induced dyskinesias. Mucuna pruriens endocarp powder (MPEP contains several compounds including natural LD and has been reported to not cause drug-induced dyskinesias. We evaluated the effects of Mucuna pruriens to determine if its underlying mechanistic actions are exclusively due to LD. We first compared MPEP with and without carbidopa (CD, and LD+CD in hemiparkinsonian (HP monkeys. Each treatment ameliorated parkinsonism. We then compared the neuronal firing properties of the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR and subthalamic nucleus (STN in HP monkeys with MPEP+CD and LD+CD to evaluate basal ganglia circuitry alterations. Both treatments decreased SNR firing rate compared to HP state. However, LD+CD treatments significantly increased SNR bursting firing patterns that were not seen with MPEP+CD treatments. No significant changes were seen in STN firing properties. We then evaluated the effects of a water extract of MPEP. Oral MPWE ameliorated parkinsonism without causing drug-induced dyskinesias. The distinctive neurophysiological findings in the basal ganglia and the ability to ameliorate parkinsonism without causing dyskinesias strongly suggest that Mucuna pruriens acts through a novel mechanism that is different from that of LD.

  20. The Antiparkinsonian and Antidyskinetic Mechanisms of Mucuna pruriens in the MPTP-Treated Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Christopher A; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Gilmour, Timothy P; Rao, Anand N; Petticoffer, Andrew C; Gilbert, Erin V; Deogaonkar, Milind; Manyam, Bala V; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic treatment with levodopa (LD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause drug induced dyskinesias. Mucuna pruriens endocarp powder (MPEP) contains several compounds including natural LD and has been reported to not cause drug-induced dyskinesias. We evaluated the effects of Mucuna pruriens to determine if its underlying mechanistic actions are exclusively due to LD. We first compared MPEP with and without carbidopa (CD), and LD+CD in hemiparkinsonian (HP) monkeys. Each treatment ameliorated parkinsonism. We then compared the neuronal firing properties of the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in HP monkeys with MPEP+CD and LD+CD to evaluate basal ganglia circuitry alterations. Both treatments decreased SNR firing rate compared to HP state. However, LD+CD treatments significantly increased SNR bursting firing patterns that were not seen with MPEP+CD treatments. No significant changes were seen in STN firing properties. We then evaluated the effects of a water extract of MPEP. Oral MPWE ameliorated parkinsonism without causing drug-induced dyskinesias. The distinctive neurophysiological findings in the basal ganglia and the ability to ameliorate parkinsonism without causing dyskinesias strongly suggest that Mucuna pruriens acts through a novel mechanism that is different from that of LD.

  1. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamla Kant; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shankhwar, Satya Narain; Rajender, Singh; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari

    2009-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of action of Mucuna pruriens in the treatment of male infertility. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry, Urology, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India. Seventy-five normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 75 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay for quantitation of dopa, adrenaline, and noradrenaline in seminal plasma and blood. Estimation by RIA of hormonal parameters in blood plasma, namely T, LH, FSH, and PRL. Before and after treatment, serum T, LH, FSH, PRL, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline in seminal and blood plasma were measured. Decreased sperm count and motility were seen in infertile subjects. Serum T and LH levels, as well as seminal plasma and blood levels of dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline were also decreased in all groups of infertile men. This was accompanied by significantly increased serum FSH and PRL levels in oligozoospermic subjects. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly improved T, LH, dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline levels in infertile men and reduced levels of FSH and PRL. Sperm count and motility were significantly recovered in infertile men after treatment. Treatment with M. pruriens regulates steroidogenesis and improves semen quality in infertile men.

  2. Utilization of Mucuna pruriens whole pods to feed lactating hair ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Gonzalez, Irina Nadieska; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2018-03-27

    Twenty nine Pelibuey × Katahdin hair ewes rearing single lamb were used during 42 days of lactation to evaluate the effect of including the Mucuna pruriens whole pods in the diets of lactating ewes on milk production and offspring performance. Animals were distributed at random into three experimental diets: a control diet without Mucuna (M0), and two more diets with the inclusion of 13 (M13) and 26% (M26), of milled pods of Mucuna pruriens, respectively. Dry matter intake, was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among diets. Milk yield (P > 0.05) was 734, 786, and 694 g/day for diets M0, M13, and M26, respectively. Milk fat (P > 0.05), milk protein (P > 0.05), and milk lactose (P > 0.05) did not differ between treatments. Lambs had similar daily weight gain (P > 0.05) among diets (180, 174, and 171 g/day for diets M0, M13, and M26, respectively). Diets with Mucuna whole pods were 5.6 and 12.9% more profitable (M13 and M26, respectively) than control diet. Under the conditions of this work, Mucuna pruriens whole pods can be included up to 26% in the diets of lactating crossbred hair ewes without negatively affecting their productive performance during the first 6 weeks of lactation.

  3. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in epididymal sperm of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Prakash, Seppan

    2013-01-09

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (M. pruriens) is a leguminous plant that has been recognized as an herbal medicine for improving fertility and related disorders in the Indian traditional system of medicine, however without proper scientific validations. To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens on mitochondrial dysfunction and the DNA damage in hyperglycemic rat epididymal spermatozoa. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control (Sham), diabetes induced [streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1M citrate buffer] (STZ), diabetic rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (STZ+MP) and normal rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (Sham+MP). M. pruriens was administered (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. On 60th day animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation sperm were collected from epididymis and subjected various analysis like antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significant reduction in the sperm count, motility, viability and significant increase in the number of abnormal sperm in STZ compared to sham was noticed. STZ rat sperm showed significant increase in LPO and DNA damage. Both the enzymic and non-enzymic were decreased; MMP and the mitochondrial functions were severely affected in STZ group. The diabetic rats supplemented with M. pruriens showed a remarkable recovery in antioxidant levels and reduced LPO with well preserved sperm DNA. MMP and mitochondrial function test were also preserved in STZ+MP rat sperm. The present study has clearly demonstrated the potency of M. pruriens to reduce the diabetic induced sperm damage induced by oxidative stress (OS). These observations are encouraging to perform similar studies in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dopamine mediated antidepressant effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Digvijay G; Galani, Varsha J

    2014-01-01

    The effects of antidepressant treatments have traditionally been discussed primarily in terms of effects on noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Multiple lines of investigation have also explored the role of dopaminergic systems in mental depression. Seed of Mucuna pruriens Linn. (DC) (Leguminoseae) is well-known with dopaminergic action and has several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases including Parkinsonism. To elucidate the anti-depressent profile and possible dopaminergic modulating action of M. pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression. In the present study, antidepressant effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the M. pruriens seeds (MPE) (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was investigated in the Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), and Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS) test in mice. Further, dopaminergic interaction of same doses of MPE in the FST and TST were checked by the administration of a haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and bromocriptine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 7(th) day of MPE treatment. Effect of MPE on locomotor activity was also checked using actophotometer. MPE produced a significant reduction of the immobility time in the FST and TST. Further, antidepressant action of MPE was significantly inhibited by haloperidol and potentiated by bromocriptine in the FST and TST. 21 days of MPE treatment produced protection in CUMS as indicated by a significant increase of sucrose intake of stressed mice. Locomotor activities of mice were not significantly changed after 1 h and 7(th) day of the MPE treatment. The results of this study indicate that hydroalcoholic extract of MPE have antidepressant action, which may be mediated by an interaction with the dopaminergic system.

  5. Cyclodextrin-facilitated bioconversion of 17 beta-estradiol by a phenoloxidase from Mucuna pruriens cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Frijlink, H.W.; Lerk, C.F.; Malingré, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    After complexation with beta-cyclodextrin, the phenolic steroid 17 beta-estradiol could be ortho-hydroxylated into a catechol, mainly 4-hydroxyestradiol, by a phenoloxidase from in vitro grown cells of Mucuna pruriens. By complexation with beta-cyclodextrin the solubility of the steroid increased

  6. The effects of Mucuna pruriens extract on histopathological and biochemical features in the rat model of ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Vanishri S; Kumar, Nitesh; D'Souza, Antony S; Nayak, Sunil S; Cheruku, Sri P; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2017-12-13

    Stroke is considered to be one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Global ischemia causes widespread brain injury and infarctions in various regions of the brain. Oxidative stress can be considered an important factor in the development of tissue damage, which is caused because of arterial occlusion with subsequent reperfusion. Kapikacchu or Mucuna pruriens, commonly known as velvet bean, is well known for its aphrodisiac activities. It is also used in the treatment of snakebites, depressive neurosis, and Parkinson's disease. Although this plant has different pharmacological actions, its neuroprotective activity has received minimal attention. Thus, this study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the neuroprotective action of M. pruriens in bilateral carotid artery occlusion-induced global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. The carotid arteries of both sides were occluded for 30 min and reperfused to induce global cerebral ischemia. The methanolic plant extract was administered to the study animals for 10 days. The brains of the Wistar rats were isolated by decapitation and observed for histopathological and biochemical changes. Cerebral ischemia resulted in significant neurological damage in the brains of the rats that were not treated by M. pruriens. The group subjected to treatment by the M. pruriens extract showed significant protection against brain damage compared with the negative control group, which indicates the therapeutic potential of this plant in ischemia.

  7. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy value for growing lambs of the Mucuna pruriens seed and the whole pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galván, Adan; Belmar-Casso, Roberto; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Whole pod and seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were included in diets for growing sheep used to validate previously estimated ME values of 9.7 MJ and 12.6 MJ for whole pod and seed respectively. Twenty-four lambs, 15 females and nine males of 18.7 ± 2.4 kg average weight, were allocated in three treatments using a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Each group was given a diet with a ratio of 60% of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 40% of a supplement with the addition of 0%, 50% whole pod or 66% of M. pruriens seeds, for TI, TII and TIII respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for 100-g daily live weight gain (LWG). The total dry matter intake (836 g a(-1) d(-1), forage + supplement), LWG (90 g a(-1) d(-1)) and feed conversion (9.66 kg DM/kg LWG) of lambs from TIII were lower (P 0.05) between TI and TII in the three evaluated variables. The ME values of whole pod and seeds of M. pruriens used in this work were validated. It was concluded that M. pruriens can be included as a component in diets for growing sheep, as a partial replacement of conventional feedstuffs.

  8. A proton NMR study of the effect of Mucuna pruriens on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Bansal, Navneeta; Jaiswer, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narain

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this study was to employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on the metabolic profile of seminal plasma of infertile patients. A total of 180 infertile patients were administered M. pruriens seed powder for a period of three months. Age-matched healthy men comprised the control (n=50) group in the study. Lactate, alanine, choline, citrate, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutamine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine were measured in seminal plasma by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. To evaluate the degree of infertility and extent of hormonal imbalance induced by this milieu, separate sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide in seminal plasma and LH, FSH, T, and PRL hormone concentration in serum were measured using standard laboratory methods and RIA, respectively, in the same subjects. M. pruriens therapy rectifies the perturbed alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine and phenylalanine content in seminal plasma and improves the semen quality of post-treated infertile men with compared to pre-treated. Concomitantly, clinical variables in seminal plasma and blood serum were also improved over post therapy in infertile men. On the basis of these observations, it may be proposed that M. pruriens seed powder not only reactivates the enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also rejuvenates the harmonic balance of male reproductive hormones in infertile men. These findings open more opportunities for infertility treatment and management by improving semen quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analyzing trichomes and spatio-temporal expression of a cysteine protease gene Mucunain in Mucuna pruriens L. (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2018-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod. The external surface trichomes have protuberance with unknown function. The unicellular trichomes of Mucuna show the flowing fluid or cytoplasm inside the trichome. The unigenes regulating the differentiation and development of the trichome such as GLABRA-1, GLABRA-2, and cpr-5 have been identified in M. pruriens transcriptome of the leaf. The Mucunain shows a higher transcript abundance in the flower and pod cover compared to the seeds. The Mucunain was found in every stage of plant growth, but it was highly expressed during maturity (about 170 days) with a high fragment per kilobase per million value.

  10. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  11. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  12. Synthesize of zinc nanoparticles using Indonesian velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) extract and evaluate its potency in lowering catalepsy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eko Sardjono, Ratnaningsih; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthopa, Iqbal; Khairunisa, Dinar; Astuti Suganda, Putri; Rachmawati, Rahmi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to synthesize zinc nanoparticles using Indonesian velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seed extract and evaluate its potency in lowering catalepsy in mice. The research conducted consist of extraction of M. pruriens seed powder, synthesis of zinc-M. pruriens seed extract nanoparticles (Zn-MPn), characterization of Zn-MPn, and catalepsy test of Zn-MPn. M. pruriens seed powder was extracted by maceration using ethanol-water (1:1) at pH 3 adjusted with citric acid. The Zn-MPn was synthesized by reacting zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO2)2.2H2O) solution with M. pruriens seed extract for 40 min, dispersibility of the reaction was controlled by using sonication and ultrasonic homogenizer. The Zn-MPn obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Catalepsy test of Zn-MPn was conducted at doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight. The results of SEM-EDX and TEM analysis showed that the Zn-MPn formed nanoparticles with a particle diameter of 55 nm. Based on FTIR analysis, the absorption band at 464.8 cm-1 was a typical absorption indicated the Zn-O interaction on Zn-MPn. Catalepsy test showed that Zn-MPn on the all five doses were able to lower the catalepsy in mice with the best dose was 10 mg/kg body weight.

  13. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  14. Antiproliferative effect of isolated isoquinoline alkaloid from Mucuna pruriens seeds in hepatic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pranesh; Rawat, Atul; Keshari, Amit K; Singh, Ashok K; Maity, Siddhartha; De, Arnab; Samanta, Amalesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative action of isolated M1 (6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) from Mucuna pruriens seeds using human hepatic carcinoma cell line (Huh-7 cells). Initially, docking studies was performed to find out the binding affinities of M1 to caspase-3 and 8 enzymes. Later, cytotoxic action of M1 was measured by cell growth inhibition (MTT), followed by caspase-3 and 8 enzymes assay colorimetrically. Our results collectively suggested that M1 had strong binding affinity to caspase-8 in molecular modelling. M1 possessed antiproliferative activity on Huh-7 cells (EC50 = 13.97 μM) and also inhibited the action of caspase-8 enzyme, signified process of apoptosis. M1 was active against Huh-7 cells that may be useful for future hepatic cancer treatment.

  15. Protein characterization of protein bodies from cotyledons of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giglioni, Stefania; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2013-03-01

    Seeds of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) were analyzed for protein composition of protein bodies isolated from cotyledons. Protein bodies were successfully separated by Lympholyte and those of dry seeds, observed by scanning electron microscope, were elliptical or spherical in shape with a diameter of 5-12 μm. Protein content in dry seed protein bodies was 10.6 mg/g dry weight. Globulin was the largest protein fraction isolated (62.5 %), followed by albumin (18.3 %), glutelin (15.8 %) and prolamin (3.4 %). The prolamin fraction and high glutelin content are uncommon in legumes. SDS-PAGE of albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins provided different band numbers and molecular weights under reducing and non reducing conditions and suggested that the albumin fraction is rich in disulphide bonds.

  16. Mucuna pruriens and its effect on the productivity of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen contribution to the soil Typic Haplustalfs through the species Mucuna pruriens as a green manure and cover crop, and its effects on sweet corn yield were evaluated. There was a max fixation in the soil of 201 kg ha-1 which contrasted with the control. The treatment using the green manure and compost 2.5 t ha-1 and chemical fertilizer 125 kg ha-1 obtained the highest yield of dry corn grain 7 t ha-1 which is con­sidered very high for this agro ecological zone. The use of compost and fertilizer synthesis as a cover had no significant effect on the corn yield, possibly due to its dynamic losses.

  17. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  18. Improved health-relevant functionality in dark germinated Mucuna pruriens sprouts by elicitation with peptide and phytochemical elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Reena; Kwon, Young-In; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-10-01

    The health-relevant functionality of Mucuna pruriens was improved by priming the seeds with elicitors of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), lactoferrin (LF) and oregano extract (OE) followed by dark germination. FPH elicited the highest phenolic content of 19 mg/g FW on day 1, which was 38% higher than control sprouts. OE enhanced Parkinson's disease-relevant L-DOPA content by 33% on day 1 compared to control sprouts. Anti-diabetes-relevant alpha-amylase inhibition percent (AIP) and alpha-glucosidase inhibition percent (GIP) were high in the cotyledons and decreased following elicitation and sprouting. For potential anti-diabetic applications, low AIP and high GIP with moderate L-DOPA content on day 4 of dark germination could be optimal. Improved L-DOPA concentrations in a soluble phenolic and antioxidant-rich M. pruriens background on day 1 sprouts have potential for Parkinson's disease management.

  19. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

    2009-04-01

    Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages.

  20. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Agbafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4 treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P>.05 from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P<.05 in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P<.05 relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbafor, K. N.; Nwachukwu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4) treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight) of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P > .05) from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P < .05) in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P < .05) relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants. PMID:21547085

  2. MP-4 Contributes to Snake Venom Neutralization by Mucuna pruriens Seeds through an Indirect Antibody-mediated Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Chitra; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality due to snakebite is a serious public health problem, and available therapeutics are known to induce debilitating side effects. Traditional medicine suggests that seeds of Mucuna pruriens can provide protection against the effects of snakebite. Our aim is to identify the protein(s) that may be important for snake venom neutralization and elucidate its mechanism of action. To this end, we have identified and purified a protein from M. pruriens, which we have named MP-4. The full-length polypeptide sequence of MP-4 was obtained through N-terminal sequencing of peptide fragments. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein may belong to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family and therefore may potentially neutralize the proteases present in snake venom. Using various structural and biochemical tools coupled with in vivo assays, we are able to show that MP-4 does not afford direct protection against snake venom because it is actually a poor inhibitor of serine proteases. Further experiments showed that antibodies generated against MP-4 cross-react with the whole venom and provide protection to mice against Echis carinatus snake venom. This study shows that the MP-4 contributes significantly to the snake venom neutralization activity of M. pruriens seeds through an indirect antibody-mediated mechanism. PMID:26987900

  3. Effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (Fabaceae) on haematological profile in normal and haloperidol treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Busayo, Fadeyibi I

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (Fabaceae) is a climbing plant claimed in traditional medicine to possess anti-anaemic effect. The study is to investigate the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of M. pruriens (MP) on haematological profile in normal and haloperidol treated rats. MP was administered p.o. at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg to groups of rats daily for 28 days. Control animals received distilled water. Rats were sacrificed on the 28th day and blood samples collected for evaluation of haematological parameters and serum iron. Another set of animals received MP p.o. at same doses but along with haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 4 days. Three other groups of rats received distilled water, haloperidol, and MP at 400 mg/kg alone. Haematological parameters and serum iron were determined. Extract iron content, phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity studies were also carried out. MP administered to normal rats for 28 days significantly (p Mucuna pruriens possibly possess beneficial effects in anaemic conditions especially associated with iron deficiency.

  4. MP-4 Contributes to Snake Venom Neutralization by Mucuna pruriens Seeds through an Indirect Antibody-mediated Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Chitra; Nair, Deepak T; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2016-05-20

    Mortality due to snakebite is a serious public health problem, and available therapeutics are known to induce debilitating side effects. Traditional medicine suggests that seeds of Mucuna pruriens can provide protection against the effects of snakebite. Our aim is to identify the protein(s) that may be important for snake venom neutralization and elucidate its mechanism of action. To this end, we have identified and purified a protein from M. pruriens, which we have named MP-4. The full-length polypeptide sequence of MP-4 was obtained through N-terminal sequencing of peptide fragments. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein may belong to the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family and therefore may potentially neutralize the proteases present in snake venom. Using various structural and biochemical tools coupled with in vivo assays, we are able to show that MP-4 does not afford direct protection against snake venom because it is actually a poor inhibitor of serine proteases. Further experiments showed that antibodies generated against MP-4 cross-react with the whole venom and provide protection to mice against Echis carinatus snake venom. This study shows that the MP-4 contributes significantly to the snake venom neutralization activity of M. pruriens seeds through an indirect antibody-mediated mechanism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Development of a microchip-pulsed electrochemical method for rapid determination of L-DOPA and tyrosine in Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinchun; Chen, Zuanguang; Yang, Fan; Pan, Jianbin; Li, Yinbao

    2013-05-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a well-recognized therapeutic compound to Parkinson's disease. Tyrosine is a precursor for the biosynthesis of L-DOPA, both of which are widely found in traditional medicinal material, Mucuna pruriens. In this paper, we described a validated novel analytical method based on microchip capillary electrophoresis with pulsed electrochemical detection for the simultaneous measurement of L-DOPA and tyrosine in M. pruriens. This protocol adopted end-channel amperometric detection using platinum disk electrode on a homemade glass/polydimethylsiloxane electrophoresis microchip. The background buffer consisted of 10 mM borate (pH 9.5) and 0.02 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which can produce an effective resolution for the two analytes. In the optimal condition, sufficient electrophoretic separation and sensitive detection for the target analytes can be realized within 60 s. Both tyrosine and L-DOPA yielded linear response in the concentration range of 5.0-400 μM (R(2) > 0.99), and the LOD were 0.79 and 1.1 μM, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the established method were favorable. The present method shows several merits such as facile apparatus, high speed, low cost and minimal pollution, and provides a means for the pharmacologically active ingredients assay in M. pruriens. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Protective efficacy of Mucuna pruriens (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Asgari, Syed Mohideen; Kurian, Amitha; Elumalai, Preetham; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K

    2018-04-01

    The impact of Mucuna pruriens (L.) seed meal diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported for the first time. Infected O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg -1 , 4 g kg -1 , and 6 g kg -1 of M. pruriens seed meal diets significantly increased initial body weight (IBW) and final body weight (FBW) over control, for a period of 4 weeks. At 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 the enriched diet significantly (P pruriens can be used as a feed additive to stimulate immunity for effective production of economically valuable freshwater fish, O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed extract pretreatment protects against cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Marinello, Enrico; Guerranti, Roberto; Aguiyi, John Chinyere

    2011-04-01

    Mucuna pruriens has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. The protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) were investigated against the pharmacological actions of N. sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in rats. The results showed that MPE-pretreatment protected against cardiorespiratory and, to a lesser extent, neuromuscular depressant effects of N. sputatrix venom. These may be explained at least in part by the neutralisation of the cobra venom toxins by anti-MPE antibodies elicited by the MPE pretreatment.

  8. Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Satheesh Kumar; Arumugam, Kottai Muthu

    2012-10-02

    The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100 mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10 mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (ppruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (ppruriens).

  9. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on oxidative stress-induced structural alteration of corpus cavernosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2011-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications of diabetes. Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens), a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and fertility enhancing properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. The objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on free radicals-mediated penile tissue alterations in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods.  Male albino rats were divided as group I (sham) control, group II (STZ) diabetes-induced (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight [bw] in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III (STZ + MP) diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV (STZ + SIL) diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate, group V (sham + MP) administered with 200 mg/kg bw of extract alone, and group VI (sham + SIL) administered with 5 mg/kg bw of sildenafil citrate. The M. pruriens and sildenafil citrate were given (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. At the end of 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and subjected to analysis of reactive oxygen species levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant levels, levels of NOx, histological, and histomorphometrical study of penile tissue. Remedial use of M. pruriens seed extract on diabetes-induced erectile tissue damage. Significantly high levels of oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants in the penile tissue seem to contribute to the increased collagen deposition and fibrosis of erectile tissue in STZ rats. Relatively, there was increased damage in STZ + SIL group. Supplementation of M. pruriens in STZ + MP group has revealed the potency to overcome oxidative stress, and good preservation of penile histoarchitecture.  The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed significantly recovered or protected erectile tissue from the oxidative stress-induced degeneration by its antioxidant potentials. These findings propound to serve mankind by the treatment of

  10. Mucuna pruriens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trials lasting 28 days were conducted to investigate the nutritive value of raw and urea treated/toasted mucuna bean for broiler chicks. Raw mucuna bean contains 30.33% crude protein, 7.20% crude fibre, 6.9% ether extract and 5.0% ash. Mucuna bean seeds were divided into two batches. One batch was ground ...

  11. Mucuna Pruriens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    bean seeds is higher at lateral loading position than at the longitudinal loading position. Key Words: Physical ... pulses and considered viable source of dietary proteins. [13] due to its .... replications of the test were taken for velvet bean seed. The test room ..... [31] Ueno Y .Risk of multi exposure to natural toxins. Mycotoxins ...

  12. Ultrastructural and biochemical investigations of protein mobilization of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccifora, Simonetta; Guerranti, Roberto; Muzzi, Chiara; Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozies S; Pagani, Roberto; Leoncini, Roberto; Bellani, Lorenza M

    2010-03-01

    The mobilization of storage reserves, with particular emphasis on storage proteins of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., cotyledons, and embryo was investigated from the ultrastructural and biochemical points of view. Proteins and starch were the two main storage substances in cotyledons, and proteins and lipids were the main ones in the embryo. Embryo protein bodies were smaller and fewer in number than those of cotyledons. Structural and ultrastructural data determined between 24 and 48 h after imbibition and between 48 and 72 h after imbibition, the end of significant embryo and cotyledon protein mobilization, respectively, indicating more precocious storage protein mobilization in the axis than cotyledons. Moreover, storage protein mobilization in embryo and cotyledons occurred before the end of germination. Water soluble proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, producing 29 bands with molecular weights from 14 to 90 KDa. Embryo extract contained more proteins than cotyledon extract, contained seven characteristic bands, and showed a higher variability of the optical density trend than cotyledon.

  13. Enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Saijo, Masaaki; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    We developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for the enantiomeric determination of DOPA in dietary supplements containing Mucuna pruriens. L- and D-DOPA were ultrasonically extracted with 1% formic acid aqueous solution. The isolated extracts were analyzed by LC/MS using a Crownpak CR (-) column at 30℃. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive mode of electrospray ionization, and the mobile phase was aqueous formic acid (pH 2.0). L-DOPA-ring-d3 was used as an internal standard. The method was validated for a dietary supplement spiked with L- and D-DOPA at 50 and 500 μg/g, respectively, and the recoveries of the DOPA enantiomers were between 97.5% and 101.3%. Relative standard deviation values of repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 7%. The method was applied to 14 dietary supplements. L-DOPA was detected in these supplements in the range of 0.88-12.8 mg/unit. D-DOPA was not detected.

  14. Phytochemical Assay and Antiplatelet Activity of Fractions of Velvet Bean Seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR IMMANUEL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is an important factor contributing to the formation of thrombus due to an uncontrolled blood clotting. An antiplatelet agent is a compound which decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. The objectives of this study were to determine the class of compound employing phytochemical assay and to determine the in vitro antiplatelet activity of four fraction, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L. using epinephrine (EPN as agonist of platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activities were tested in human platelet rich plasma with hyperaggregation. To determine the activities, EPN was arranged at 4 level of concentrations (300, 150, 75, and 30 μM, and antiplatelet agents were at 500 µg/ml. The results indicated that ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction contained high flavonoids and moderate phenols. The water, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of velvet bean seeds exhibited potential inhibition of EPN-induced platelet aggregation at all concentrations. The strongest antiplatelet agent was water fraction and had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at level 150, 75, and 30 μM of EPN. Butanol fraction had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at the lowest EPN (30 μM.

  15. Phytochemicalassay and Antiplatelet Activity of Fractions of Velvet Bean Seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU WIDOWATI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is an important factor contributing to the formation of thrombus due to an uncontrolled blood clotting. An antiplatelet agent is a compound which decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. The objectives of this study were to determine the class of compound employing phytochemical assay and to determine the in vitro antiplatelet activity of four fraction, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L. using epinephrine (EPN as agonist of platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activities were tested in human platelet rich plasma with hyperaggregation. To determine the activities, EPN was arranged at 4 level of concentrations (300, 150, 75, and 30 ì M, and antiplatelet agents were at 500 µg/ml. The results indicated that ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction contained high flavonoids and moderate phenols. The water, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions of velvet bean seeds exhibited potential inhibition of EPN-induced platelet aggregation at all concentrations. The strongest antiplatelet agent was water fraction and had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at level 150, 75, and 30 ì M of EPN. Butanol fraction had the same antiplatelet activity as aspirin at the lowest EPN (30 ì M.

  16. Mucuna pruriens for Parkinson's disease: Low-cost preparation method, laboratory measures and pharmacokinetics profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cilia, Roberto; Laguna, Janeth; Barichella, Michela; Contin, Manuela; Cereda, Emanuele; Isaias, Ioannis U; Sparvoli, Francesca; Akpalu, Albert; Budu, Kwabena Ofosu; Scarpa, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2016-06-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition. Levodopa (LD) is the gold standard therapy for PD patients. Most PD patients in low-income areas cannot afford long-term daily Levodopa therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate if Mucuna pruriens (MP), a legume with high LD content that grows in tropical regions worldwide, might be potential alternative for poor PD patients. We analyzed 25 samples of MP from Africa, Latin America and Asia. We measured the content in LD in various MP preparations (dried, roasted, boiled). LD pharmacokinetics and motor response were recorded in four PD patients, comparing MP vs. LD+Dopa-Decarboxylase Inhibitor (DDCI) formulations. Median LD concentration in dried MP seeds was 5.29%; similar results were obtained in roasted powder samples (5.3%), while boiling reduced LD content up to 70%. Compared to LD+DDCI, MP extract at similar LD dose provided less clinical benefit, with a 3.5-fold lower median AUC. Considering the lack of a DDCI, MP therapy may provide clinical benefit only when content of LD is at least 3.5-fold the standard LD+DDCI. If long-term MP proves to be safe and effective in controlled clinical trials, it may be a sustainable alternative therapy for PD in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feeding Mucuna pruriens on helminth parasite infestation in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T; Gaskin, J M; Courtney, C H; Raji, A M; Kang, T

    2010-02-17

    Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume anecdotally reputed to have anthelmintic properties. This study was conducted to examine the validity of such claims. The aim of this study was to determine if ingestion of Mucuna seeds reduces helminth parasite infestation in lambs. Thirty-six Dorper x Katahdin ram lambs were assigned to three treatments, a cottonseed meal based control diet, a diet in which Mucuna replaced cottonseed meal and the control diet with levamisole (7.5mg/kg body weight) administration. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The 12 lambs in each treatment were assigned randomly to 4 pens, each containing 3 lambs. Lambs were trickle infected three times per week by gavage with infectious Haemonchus contortus larvae (2000 larvae/lamb) for 3 weeks. Levamisole treatment decreased fecal egg counts by 87% and abomasal worm counts by 83%. Mucuna intake did not statistically affect fecal egg counts or abomasal worm counts, though numerical (P>0.10) reductions of 7.4% and 18.1%, respectively were evident. Anemia indicators, feed intake, and lamb growth were unaffected by treatment. Levamisole reduced the Haemonchus parasite burden in lambs significantly but feeding Mucuna reduced the burden by levels unlikely to eliminate the clinical effects of parasitism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A water extract of Mucuna pruriens provides long-term amelioration of parkinsonism with reduced risk for dyskinesias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Christopher A; Kunselman, Allen R; Manyam, Bala V; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2010-08-01

    Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Mucuna pruriens, a legume extensively used in Ayurveda to treat PD, is reputed to provide anti-parkinsonian benefits without inducing DID. We compared the behavioral effects of chronic parenteral administration of a water extract of M. pruriens seed powder (MPE) alone without any additives, MPE combined with the peripheral dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) benserazide (MPE+BZ), LD+BZ and LD alone without BZ in the hemiparkinsonian rat model of PD. A battery of behavioral tests assessed by blinded investigators served as outcome measures in these randomized trials. In experiment 1, animals that received LD+BZ or MPE+BZ at high (6mg/kg) and medium (4mg/kg) equivalent doses demonstrated significant alleviation of parkinsonism, but, developed severe dose-dependent DID. LD+BZ at low doses (2mg/kg) did not provide significant alleviation of parkinsonism. In contrast, MPE+BZ at an equivalent low dose significantly ameliorated parkinsonism. In experiment 2, MPE without any additives (12mg/kg and 20mg/kg LD equivalent dose) alleviated parkinsonism with significantly less DID compared to LD+BZ or MPE+BZ. In experiment 3, MPE without additives administered chronically provided long-term anti-parkinsonian benefits without causing DID. In experiment 4, MPE alone provided significantly more behavioral benefit when compared to the equivalent dose of synthetic LD alone without BZ. In experiment 5, MPE alone reduced the severity of DID in animals initially primed with LD+BZ. These findings suggest that M. pruriens contains water-soluble ingredients that either have an intrinsic DDCI-like activity or mitigate the need for an add-on DDCI to ameliorate parkinsonism. These unique long-term anti-parkinsonian effects of a parenterally administered water extract of M. pruriens seed powder may provide a platform for future drug

  19. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL 7,8-DIHYDROXY N-DI-N-PROPYL 2-AMINOTETRALIN USING A PHENOLOXIDASE FROM CELL-CULTURES OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRAS, N; BATTERMAN, S; DIJKSTRA, D; HORN, AS; MALINGRE, TM

    1990-01-01

    Alginate-entrapped cells of Mucuna pruriens as well as the phenoloxidase isolated from the cell cultures, are able to ortho-hydroxylate several mono-, bi- and tri-cyclic monophenols. In this study, 7,8-dihydroxy N-di-n-propyl 2-aminotetralin, a catechol of pharmaceutical interest and difficult to

  20. MUCUNA PRURIENS - IMPROVEMENT OF THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF THE ANTI-PARKINSON DRUG L-DOPA BY PLANT-CELL SELECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRAS, N; WOERDENBAG, HJ; BATTERMAN, S; VISSER, JF; VANUDEN, W

    1993-01-01

    Routinely grown cell suspension cultures of Mucuna pruriens L. (Fabaceae) were able to endogenously accumulate the anti-Parkinson drug L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in the range between 0.2 and 2% on a dry weight (DW) basis. The green colour that developed in light-exposed cultures, appeared to

  1. The effect of managing improved fallows of Mucuna pruriens on maize production and soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in sub-humid Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitbread, A.M.; Jiri, O.; Maasdorp, B.

    2004-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens has emerged as a successful forage or green manure legume for use in the smallholder animal-livestock systems of Zimbabwe. The efficiency of N recovery from mucuna residues in subsequent maize crops can be low and the loss of nitrate nitrogen from the soil profile prior to maize N

  2. Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) in antitubercular drugs and alcohol models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obogwu, Mercy B; Akindele, Abidemi J; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2014-04-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a significantly increasing health problem worldwide, and the extent of the problem has stimulated interest in the search for hepatotherapeutic agents from plants. This study investigated the hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves in antitubercular and alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity assays in rats. In each of the models used, seven groups were allotted. The different groups received normal saline (10 mL·kg(-1), p.o.); hepatotoxicant (isoniazid-rifampicin, INH-RIF, 100 mg·kg(-1), i.p. or 20% ethanol 5 g·kg(-1), p.o.) and normal saline (10 mL·kg(-1), p.o.); hepatotoxicant and extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg(-1) p.o.; hepatotoxicant and silymarin 50 mg·kg(-1) p.o.; and extract at 400 mg·kg(-1) p.o. On the 21(st) day of treatment, blood was collected for assessment of serum biochemical parameters and harvested liver samples were assessed for antioxidants. The hepatotoxicants significantly (P pruriens significantly reversed (P pruriens (100-400 mg·kg(-1)) elicited significant reduction (P Mucuna pruriens leaves possesses hepatoprotective activity with enhancement of in vivo antioxidants as a possible mechanism of action. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Bekir; Sarı, Aysel; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ulu, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathological changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. The study comprised 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; group 2: fed an HFrD; group 3: fed normal rat chow and M. pruriens; group 4: fed an HFrD and M. pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid levels were measured in 1 cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between 2 independent groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than 2 independent groups. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed an HFrD. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in Indian Mucuna pruriens using an intraspecific F₂population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, S; Leelambika, M; Jaheer, Md; Anithakumari, A M; Sathyanarayana, N

    2016-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-recognized agricultural and horticultural crop with important medicinal use. However, antinutritional factors in seed and adverse morphological characters have negatively affected its cultivation. To elucidate the genetic control of agronomic traits, an intraspecific genetic linkage map of Indian M. pruriens has been developed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers using 200 F₂ progenies derived from a cross between wild and cultivated genotypes. The resulting linkage map comprised 129 AFLP markers dispersed over 13 linkage groups spanning a total distance of 618.88 cM with an average marker interval of 4.79 cM. For the first time, three QTLs explaining about 6.05-14.77% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three quantitative (seed) traits and, eight QTLs explaining about 25.96% of the corresponding total phenotypic variation for three qualitative traits have been detected on four linkage groups. The map presented here will pave a way for mapping of genes/QTLs for the important agronomic and horticultural traits contrasting between the parents used in this study.

  5. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart.

  6. Enhanced production of L-DOPA in cell cultures of Mucuna pruriens L. and Mucuna prurita H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, S; Kumar, V; Ramesh, C K; Khan, M H Moinuddin

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study on the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was carried out in cell cultures of two Mucuna species by elicitor treatment and precursor feeding. The influence of elicitors and the precursor molecule on L-DOPA production, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and tyrosinase activities was also studied. Callus cultures were initiated in Mucuna pruriens L. and Mucuna prurita H. on MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at different concentrations. Suspension cultures were established in MS liquid medium supplemented with BAP, IAA, the elicitors methyl jasmonate, chitin and pectin or the precursor L-tyrosine at different concentrations for L-DOPA production. Compared to the controls, several-fold increases in L-DOPA concentration were observed in elicitor-treated and precursor-fed suspension cultures of both plant species. L-DOPA concentrations were comparatively higher in precursor-fed cultures than those receiving elicitor treatments. A parallel increase in tyrosinase and PPO levels was also observed. Loss of cell viability was observed at high concentrations of elicitor-treated cultures, whereas L-tyrosine did not cause any cell death. Compared to elicitor treatments, precursor feeding resulted in higher concentrations of L-DOPA production and tyrosinase activity. The efficacy of L-DOPA production was found to be higher for suspension cultures of M. pruriens compared to M. prurita in all treatments.

  7. Quantitative Determination of L-DOPA in Seeds of Mucuna Pruriens Germplasm by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Archana P; Khatri, Renu

    2011-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. is an important medicinal plant used for treatment of Parkinson's disease and many others in ancient Indian medical system. L-DOPA extracted from seeds of Mucuna is a constituent of more than 200 indigenous drug formulations and is more effective as drug than the synthetic counterpart. A densitometric high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for quantification of L-DOPA content present in the seeds extract. The method involves separation of L-DOPA on precoated silica gel 60 GF(254) HPTLC plates using a solvent system of n-butanol-acetic-acid-water (4:1:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Quantification was done at 280 nm using absorbance reflectance mode. Linearity was found in the concentration range of 100 to 1000 ng/spot with the correlation coefficient value of 0.9980. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and repeatability. Mean recovery was 100.89%. The LOD and LOQ for L-DOPA determination were found to be 3.41 ng/spot and 10.35 ng/spot respectively. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be precise, specific and accurate for quantitative determination of L-DOPA. It can be used for rapid screening of large germplasm collections of Mucuna pruriens for L-DOPA content. The method was used to study variation in fifteen accessions of Mucuna germplasm collected from different geographical regions.

  8. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson disease: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Roberto; Laguna, Janeth; Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Pozzi, Nicolò G; Isaias, Ioannis U; Contin, Manuela; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in all tropical areas worldwide, may be used as alternative source of levodopa for indigent individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) who cannot afford long-term therapy with marketed levodopa preparations. We investigated efficacy and safety of single-dose intake of MP powder from roasted seeds obtained without any pharmacologic processing. Eighteen patients with advanced PD received the following treatments, whose sequence was randomized: (1) dispersible levodopa at 3.5 mg/kg combined with the dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide (LD+DDCI; the reference treatment); (2) high-dose MP (MP-Hd; 17.5 mg/kg); (3) low-dose MP (MP-Ld; 12.5 mg/kg); (4) pharmaceutical preparation of LD without DDCI (LD-DDCI; 17.5 mg/kg); (5) MP plus benserazide (MP+DDCI; 3.5 mg/kg); (6) placebo. Efficacy outcomes were the change in motor response at 90 and 180 minutes and the duration of on state. Safety measures included any adverse event (AE), changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and the severity of dyskinesias. When compared to LD+DDCI, MP-Ld showed similar motor response with fewer dyskinesias and AEs, while MP-Hd induced greater motor improvement at 90 and 180 minutes, longer ON duration, and fewer dyskinesias. MP-Hd induced less AEs than LD+DDCI and LD-DDCI. No differences in cardiovascular response were recorded. Single-dose MP intake met all noninferiority efficacy and safety outcome measures in comparison to dispersible levodopa/benserazide. Clinical effects of high-dose MP were similar to levodopa alone at the same dose, with a more favorable tolerability profile. NCT02680977. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Mucuna pruriens restores spermatogenesis in mice after exposure to 2-methoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Oky Tania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing industrial activity is causing many problems in reproductive health, such as infertility. The factors causing infertility are hormones, infection, radiation, drugs and chemicals. One of these is 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP seed fraction on spermatogenesis, including number of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoal membrane protein profiles after exposure to 2-ME in mice. Methods This study was of experimental design. Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups, i.e. 2 control groups and 3 treatment groups. All mice were injected subcutaneously with 2-ME doses of 100mg/kg body weight (BW/day, for a period of 12 days. Positive (PC and negative controls (NC were treated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC. The three treatment groups were given MP seed fraction in doses of 14 (T1, 28 (T2 and 56 mg/kg BW (T3, respectively, from day 13 until day 64. Data on spermatogenic cells were collected from histological cross-sections and analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The spermatozoal membrane protein profile was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE with silver staining and were analyzed descriptively. Results Administration of MP seed fractions resulted in significantly different numbers of spermatocytes I and round spermatids between PC and T1, T2, and T3. A protein with the molecular weight of 41.6 kDa was expressed in all groups except the positive controls, while a 24.5 kDa protein was expressed in the positive controls only. Conclusion MP seed fraction effectively recovers spermatogenesis loss in mice due to 2-ME exposure.

  10. Mucuna pruriens reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in Parkinsonian mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp. PQ doses were given intraperitoneally, twice in a week and oral dose of ethanolic extract of Mp seed was given for 9 weeks. Nitrite content and lipid peroxidation was measured in all treated groups along with respective controls. RNA was isolated from the nigrostriatal tissue of control and the treated mice and was reverse transcribed into cDNA. PCR was performed to amplify iNOS mRNA and western blot analysis was performed to check its protein level. We had also perfused the mice in all treated group and performed Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and iNOS immunoreactivity in substantia nigra region of mice brain. PQ-treatment increased nitrite content, expression of iNOS and lipid peroxidation compared to respective controls. Mp treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of iNOS expression, nitrite content and lipid peroxidation demonstrating that it reduces nitric oxide in PQ-induced Parkinson's disease. Interestingly; we also observed that mRNA, protein expression and immunoreactivity of iNOS was significantly decreased after Mp treatment and TH immunoreactivity was significantly improved after the treatment of Mp. Our results demonstrated that Mp protects the dopaminergic neurons from the NO injury in substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic profiling and post-translational modifications in human keratinocytes treated with Mucuna pruriens leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; Lampariello, Raffaella L; Sticozzi, Claudia; Guerranti, Roberto; Mirasole, Cristiana; Zolla, Lello; Sacchetti, Gianni; Hajek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2014-02-03

    Mucuna pruriens (Mp) is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family, with several medicinal properties among which its potential to treat diseases where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogeneses. The aim was to investigate the effects of Mp leaf methanolic extract (MPME) on human keratinocytes protein expression and its role in preventing proteins oxidation after oxidative stress (OS) exposure. The effects of MPME on HaCaT cells protein expression were evaluated treating cells with different concentrations of MPME, with glucose oxidase (GO, source of OS) and with MPME subsequently treated with GO. The protein patterns of treated HaCaT cells are analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and compared with that of untreated HaCaT. Immunoblotting was then used to evaluate the role of MPME in preventing the 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts (4-HNE PAs) formation (marker of OS). Eighteen proteins, identified by mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-CID-MS/MS), were modulated distinctly by MPME in HaCaT. Overall, MPME counteract GO effect, reducing the GO-induced overexpression of several proteins involved in stress response (T-complex protein 1, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3, Protein DJ-1, and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1), in cell energy methabolism (Inorganic pyrophosphatase, Triosephosphate isomerase isoform 1, 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase, and Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform 1), in cytoskeletal organization (Cytokeratins 18, 9, 2, Cofilin-1, Annexin A2 and F-actin-capping protein subunit beta isoform 1) and in cell cycle progression (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 isoform B). In addition, MPME decreased the 4-HNE PAs levels, in particular on 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase and Cytokeratin 9. Our findings show that MPME might be helpful in the treatment of OS-related skin diseases by preventing protein post-translational modifications (4-HNE PAs). © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Nutritional quality evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens) exposed to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere R; Seena, Sahadevan

    2008-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on Mucuna pruriens seeds at various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) on the proximate composition, mineral constituents, amino acids, fatty acids and functional properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation resulted in a significant increase of crude protein at all doses, while the crude lipid, crude fibre and ash showed a dose-dependent decrease. Raw Mucuna seeds were rich in minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and selenium). Sodium, copper and manganese were significantly decreased on irradiation at all the doses, while magnesium and iron showed a significant decrease only above 10 kGy. The essential amino acids of raw and gamma-irradiated Mucuna seeds were comparable with the FAO/WHO recommended pattern. A significant increase of in vitro protein digestibility was seen in seeds irradiated at 30 kGy. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids in Mucuna seeds decreased significantly after irradiation. However, linoleic acid was not present in raw seeds but detected after irradiation and it was elevated to high level at 30 kGy. Behenic acid, a major anti-nutritional factor, was reduced significantly on irradiation, indicating the positive effect of gamma irradiation on Mucuna seeds. Significant enhancement in the water absorption and oil absorption capacities, protein solubility, emulsion activity and improvement in the gelation capacity was recorded after irradiation. Results of the present investigation reveal that application of gamma irradiation does not affect the overall nutritional composition and can be used as an effective method of preservation of Mucuna seed and their products.

  13. In vitro studies on callus induction in gamma-irradiated velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Misra, Pragati; Shukla, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays are often used for developing plants varieties that are agriculturally and economically important and have high productivity potential with the minimum input. Ionizing radiations are currently a very important way to create genetic variability that is not exists in nature or that is not available to the breeder. Irradiation treatments performed at in vitro culture has been also employed to increase genetic variability and mutants as a potential source of new commercial cultivars. Large number of research reports suggests also that mutagenesis in combination with tissue culture has high potential in plant breeding programs. Mucuna pruriens L., also known as velvet bean, contains L-DOPA, a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and formulation of the seed power has been studied for management of Parkinson's disease. Seeds were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (10 kGy, 20 kGy and 30 kGy) using 60 Co as source, at National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) Lucknow. Gamma treated and untreated seeds (control) were inoculated in MS media supplemented with different phytohormone concentrations and combinations. The best callus induction was observed in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l kinetin, 2 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed poor callus induction in the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction was poor in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 2.0 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed even poor callus induction under the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction frequency was in declined gradually with the increasing dose of gamma radiation. Gamma treated seeds developed greenish and fragile callus and also showed decreased weight as compare to control which was white greenish, compact and heavier. (author)

  14. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson Disease: A Kinetic-Dynamic Comparison With Levodopa Standard Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Manuela; Lopane, Giovanna; Passini, Andrea; Poli, Ferruccio; Iannello, Carmelina; Guarino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We compared levodopa (LD) kinetic-dynamic profile of a dose of LD/aromatic amino acid decarboxylase peripheral inhibitors versus a nominally equivalent dose of a commercial Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna) seeds extract in 2 patients with Parkinson disease chronically taking LD standard combined with self-prescribed Mucuna. Patients were challenged with a fasting morning dose of 100 mg LD/25 mg carbidopa (patient 1) or benserazide (patient 2) versus 100 mg LD from Mucuna capsules in 2 different sessions, after a 12-hour standard LD formulations' washout. They underwent kinetic-dynamic LD monitoring based on LD dose intake and simultaneous serial assessments of plasma drug concentrations and motor test performances. Quantitative analysis of LD in Mucuna capsules was also performed. Levodopa bioavailability was markedly lower after Mucuna administration compared with LD standard formulations: in patient 1, peak plasma LD concentration (Cmax) decreased from 2.0 to 1.0 mg/L and the area under the plasma concentration time curve from 137 to 33.6 mg/L per minute; in patient 2, Cmax was 0.7 mg/L after LD/benserazide and nearly undetectable after Mucuna. In patient 1, impaired LD bioavailability from Mucuna resulted in reduced duration and overall extent of drug response compared with LD/carbidopa. In patient 2, no significant subacute LD motor response was observed in either condition. Quantitative analysis of Mucuna formulation confirmed the 100 mg LD content for the utilized capsules. Our results show an impaired LD bioavailability from Mucuna preparation, as expected by the lacking aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors coadministration, which might explain the suggested lower dyskinetic potential of Mucuna compared with standard LD formulations.

  15. Mucuna pruriens restores spermatogenesis in mice after exposure to 2-methoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Oky Ari Tania

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing industrial activity is causing many problems in reproductive health, such as infertility. The factors causing infertility are hormones, infection, radiation, drugs and chemicals. One of these is 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP seed fraction on spermatogenesis, including number of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoal membrane protein profiles after exposure to 2-ME in mice. Methods This study was of experimental design. Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups, i.e. 2 control groups and 3 treatment groups. All mice were injected subcutaneously with 2-ME doses of 100mg/kg body weight (BW/day, for a period of 12 days. Positive (PC and negative controls (NC were treated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC. The three treatment groups were given MP seed fraction in doses of 14 (T1, 28 (T2 and 56 mg/kg BW (T3, respectively, from day 13 until day 64. Data on spermatogenic cells were collected from histological cross-sections and analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The spermatozoal membrane protein profile was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE with silver staining and were analyzed descriptively. Results Administration of MP seed fractions resulted in significantly different numbers of spermatocytes I and round spermatids between PC and T1, T2, and T3. A protein with the molecular weight of 41.6 kDa was expressed in all groups except the positive controls, while a 24.5 kDa protein was expressed in the positive controls only. Conclusion MP seed fraction effectively recovers spermatogenesis loss in mice due to 2-ME exposure.

  16. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson's disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenschlager, R; Evans, A; Manson, A; Patsalos, P; Ratnaraj, N; Watt, H; Timmermann, L; Van der Giessen, R; Lees, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: The seed powder of the leguminous plant, Mucuna pruriens has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for diseases including parkinsonism. We have assessed the clinical effects and levodopa (L-dopa) pharmacokinetics following two different doses of mucuna preparation and compared them with standard L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD). Methods: Eight Parkinson's disease patients with a short duration L-dopa response and on period dyskinesias completed a randomised, controlled, double blind crossover trial. Patients were challenged with single doses of 200/50 mg LD/CD, and 15 and 30 g of mucuna preparation in randomised order at weekly intervals. L-Dopa pharmacokinetics were determined, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and tapping speed were obtained at baseline and repeatedly during the 4 h following drug ingestion. Dyskinesias were assessed using modified AIMS and Goetz scales. Results: Compared with standard LD/CD, the 30 g mucuna preparation led to a considerably faster onset of effect (34.6 v 68.5 min; p = 0.021), reflected in shorter latencies to peak L-dopa plasma concentrations. Mean on time was 21.9% (37 min) longer with 30 g mucuna than with LD/CD (p = 0.021); peak L-dopa plasma concentrations were 110% higher and the area under the plasma concentration v time curve (area under curve) was 165.3% larger (p = 0.012). No significant differences in dyskinesias or tolerability occurred. Conclusions: The rapid onset of action and longer on time without concomitant increase in dyskinesias on mucuna seed powder formulation suggest that this natural source of L-dopa might possess advantages over conventional L-dopa preparations in the long term management of PD. Assessment of long term efficacy and tolerability in a randomised, controlled study is warranted. PMID:15548480

  17. RESPON PEMBENTUKAN KALUS KORO BENGUK (MUCUNA PRURIENS L. PADA BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI 2,4-D DAN BAP

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    R. Ariani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan konsentrasi 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D dan benzylamino purin (BAP optimal dalam pembentukan kalus dari eksplan setengah biji koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens L.. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan ialah rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor, yaitu konsentrasi 2,4-D (0,5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1,5 ppm, 2 ppm dan BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm untuk induksi kalus. Hasil induksi dipindahkan pada media MS0, kemudian dilanjutkan pada media MS yang ditambah BAP, IBA, GA. Parameter yang diamati adalah waktu terbentuk kalus, persentase eksplan berkalus, berat kalus per eksplan, warna dan tekstur kalus. Pada tahap induksi kalus, BAP 3 mg/l menyebabkan pertumbuhan kalus terberat dibandingkan konsentrasi lainnya. Sementara pada tahap diferensiasi, konsentrasi BAP 3 ppm dan 2,4-D 1 ppm merupakan konsentrasi yang mengakibatkan persentase kalus sehat tertinggi. Perlakuan 2,4-D 1 ppm dan BAP 3 ppm menghasilkan kalus putih transparan, kompak, dan berat kalus tertinggi (0,49 gram. Konsentrasi tersebut merupakan konsentrasi yang disarankan untuk menumbuhkan kalus koro bengukThis research aimed to determine the optimal concentration of 2,4-D and BAP in callus formation from an explant of half seed Mucuna pruriens. The research design was used completely randomized design with two factors: the concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 ppm, 1 ppm, 1.5 ppm, 2 ppm  and BAP (1 ppm, 2 ppm, and 3 ppm for callus inductions. The induction result is moved to MS0 medium, then continued to MS medium which was added by BAP, IBA, GA. The measured parameters were: callus formation time, the percentage of callus explants, the weight of callus for each explants, color and texture of callus. During induction phase BAP 3 ppm caused the heaviest callus growth than others, meanwhile in differentiation phase BAP 3 ppm and 2,4-D 1 ppm caused the highest percentage of healthy callus. Treatment of 2,4-D 1 ppm and BAP 3 ppm produced white and compact transparent

  18. Mechanism of antihypertensive effect of Mucuna pruriens L. seed extract and its isolated compounds.

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    Khan, Mohammad Yaseen; Kumar, Vimal

    2017-06-21

    Background In the search of safe and effective lead molecules from natural sources, Mucuna pruriens (MP) L. (Fabaceae) seeds were utilized for exploring the antihypertensive potential. Traditionally, it is used as diuretic and hypotensive. Methods Bioassay-guided fractions were utilized for the isolation of active compounds by column chromatography. IC50 value, enzyme kinetics and inhibition mechanism were determined. In vivo time and dose-dependent hypotensive study followed by changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by angiotensin I (3 nmol/kg), angiotensin II (3 nmol/kg), and bradykinin (10 nmol/kg) in anesthetized rats was done. Plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis by spectroscopic techniques revealed the presence of known compounds like genistein, ursolic acid and L-DOPA from the ethyl acetate and water fraction, respectively. In vitro study revealed MP ethyl acetate (MPEA) fraction and genistein as the most active fraction (IC50 156.45 µg/mL) and compound (IC50 253.81 µM), respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. ACE protein precipitation was the suggested mechanism for inhibition. The extract showed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in MAP. Genistein was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 53±1.5 mmHg (40 mg/kg, i.v.). As compared to control, it showed a dose-dependent decrease in plasma ACE activity of 40.61 % and 54.76 % at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. It also decreased the ACE activity in the aorta (107.67nM/ml min at 10 mg, p<0.001; 95.33nM/ml min at 20 mg p<0.001). Captopril was used as a standard for various in vitro and in vivo assays. Conclusions The study revealed the antihypertensive potential of MP seed compounds via ACE inhibition.

  19. Carboxylesterases from the seeds of an underutilized legume, Mucuna pruriens; isolation, purification and characterization.

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    Chandrashekharaiah, K S; Swamy, N Ramachandra; Murthy, K R Siddalinga

    2011-12-01

    Two carboxylesterases (ME-III and ME-IV) have been purified to apparent homogeneity from the seeds of Mucuna pruriens employing ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and preparative PAGE. The homogeneity of the purified preparations was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), gel-electrofocussing and SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights determined by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-200 were 20.89 kDa (ME-III) and 31.62 kDa (ME-IV). The molecular weights determined by SDS-PAGE both in the presence and absence of 2-mercaptoethanol were 21 kDa (ME-III) and 30.2 kDa (ME-IV) respectively, suggesting a monomeric structure for both the enzymes. The enzymes were found to have Stokes radius of 2.4 nm (ME-III) and 2.7 nm (ME-IV). The isoelectric pH values of the enzymes, ME-III and ME-IV, were 6.8 and 7.4, respectively. ME-III and ME-IV were classified as carboxylesterases employing PAGE in conjunction with substrate and inhibitor specificity. The K(m) of ME-III and ME-IV with 1-naphthyl acetate as substrate was 0.1 and 0.166 mM while with 1-naphthyl propionate as substrate the K(m) was 0.052 and 0.0454 mM, respectively. As the carbon chain length of the acyl group increased, the affinity of the substrate to the enzyme increased indicating hydrophobic nature of the acyl group binding site. The enzymes exhibited an optimum temperature of 45°C (ME-III) and 37°C (ME-IV), an optimum pH of 7.0 (ME-III) and 7.5 (ME-IV) and both the enzymes (ME-III and ME-IV) were stable up to 120 min at 35°C. Both the enzymes were inhibited by organophosphates (dichlorvos and phosphamidon), but resistant towards carbamates (carbaryl and eserine sulfate) and sulphydryl inhibitors (p-chloromercuricbenzoate, PCMB). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atividades antioxidante, antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória das folhas de Mucuna pruriens (L. DC Antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. leaves

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    E.V.S. Motta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. (Fabaceae é popularmente conhecida no Brasil como "café berão" e "pó de mico". Suas sementes são bastante estudadas sendo empregadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de desordens nervosas e do aparelho reprodutor, porém poucas informações sobre a composição química e atividade farmacológica das folhas dessa espécie são descritas na literatura. Assim, os objetivos desse estudo foram: a determinação do perfil fitoquímico, a avaliação da atividade antioxidante in vitro, e a avaliação das atividades anti-inflamatória e antinociceptiva in vivo do extrato metanólico das folhas de M. pruriens nas concentrações de 100 e 300 mg/kg. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio da pesquisa qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais e flavonoides. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado pelos métodos do DPPH e poder de redução. As atividades anti-inflamatória e antinociceptiva foram a ante foi promissor, com CI50 de 13,2∝g/mL pelo método do DPPH, e CE50 de 47,9∝g/mL pelo método que avalia o poder de redução. Em relação à atividade anti-inflamatória, o extrato foi capaz de inibir o edema de orelha em 63% (100mg/kg e 28% (300mg/kg. Quanto à atividade antinociceptiva, houve redução do número de contorções abdominais de 64% (100 mg/kg e 69% (300 mg/kg. Estes resultados indicam que M. pruriens apresenta um potencial farmacológico promissor e reforçam o conceito de que a pesquisa de plantas com usos etnofarmacológicos pode revelar um número substancial de respostas em ensaios in vitro e in vivo.The species Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. (Fabaceae is popularly known in Brazil as "café berão" and "pó de mico". Its seeds have been widely studied and used in folk medicine for the treatment of nervous and reproductive system disorders; however, few studies are related to the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of its

  1. Efecto de Mucuna pruriens como abono verde y cobertura, sobre algunas propiedades físicas del suelo

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    Oscar Eduardo Sanclemente-Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el aporte de Mucuna pruriens como abono verde y cobertura muerta con un complemento de fertilización, sobre la estabilidad estructural, el contenido de humedad del suelo y la dinámica de pérdida de suelo por erosión. Se encontró un incrementó máximo en la estabilidad estructural de 0.63 cuando se usó la cobertura muerta, complementada con abono orgánico más fertilizante de síntesis. Al contrario, la aplicación de los tratamientos no tuvo efecto sobre la cantidad de humedad del suelo, ni sobre las pérdidas de suelo debidas a erosión.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD AND CULTIVATED Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. ACCESSIONS ANALYZED USING THIRTY MORPHO-AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERS

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    N Sathyanarayana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and relatedness among 31 wild and 9 cultivated Mucuna pruriens accessions collected from diverse eco-climatic regions in India were evaluated using 30 morpho-agronomical characters. The experiments were carried by growing the plants in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in four replications for two seasons. The results of PCA for 22 quantitative and 8 qualitative characters indicated that the first two PCs together explained 65.18% and 67.50% of the total variation respectively, which were drawn across a range of traits. Cluster analysis demonstrated on the whole high morphological diversity (63.05% amongst wild and cultivated accessions and low diversity (36.95% within cultivated accessions. Analysis of six yield traits based on LSD5% values revealed distinct genotypes under each category which are of potential value in breeding programs. Low morphological diversity within cultivated accessions emphasizes the need for expanding its genetic base in India.

  3. Velvet bean severe mosaic virus: a distinct begomovirus species causing severe mosaic in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Kumar, Yogesh; Hallan, Vipin; Zaidi, A A

    2011-08-01

    Velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC] is one of the most important medicinal plants. It is used to treat many ailments, but is widely used for the treatment especially for Parkinson's disease because of the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in it. It was noticed in last 5 years that the plants in the field showed severe mosaic, downward curling of the leaves, stunting, etc. This is consistently observed over the years in India. The disease was transmitted by whiteflies and by grafting and the causal agent was found to be a bipartite begomovirus. The whole genome was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ-29 DNA polymerase and characterized. DNA-A and DNA-B shared a 124-nucleotide (nt) long highly conserved (98%) common region (CR). Comparisons with other begomovirus showed that DNA-A sequence has highest identity (76%) with an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV; AY937195) reported from India. This data suggested that the present isolate is a new species of genus Begomovirus for which the name "Velvet bean severe mosaic virus" (VbSMV) is proposed. DNA-B has a maximum sequence identity of 49% with an isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV; AM932426) reported from India. Infectious clones consisting of a 1.7 mer partial tandem repeat of DNA-A and a dimer of DNB-B were constructed and agro-inoculated to Macuna pruriens (L.) DC plants, which showed field observed symptoms 24 days post-infiltration (dpi). In phylogenetic analysis, DNA-A and DNA-B of the present isolate grouped with DNA-A of different begomoviruses reported from fabaceous crops. The study presents first ever molecular evidence of any disease in velvet bean and whole genome analysis of the causative virus which is a distinct bipartite species of Begomovirus.

  4. Therapeutic potential of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on ageing induced damage in dorsal nerve of the penis and its implication on erectile function: an experimental study using albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppan, Prakash; Muhammed, Ibrahim; Mohanraj, Karthik Ganesh; Lakshmanan, Ganesh; Premavathy, Dinesh; Muthu, Sakthi Jothi; Wungmarong Shimray, Khayinmi; Sathyanathan, Sathya Bharathy

    2018-02-15

    To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens on damaged dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) in aged rat in relation to penile erection. The rats were divided into four groups Young (3 months), Aged (24 - 28 months), Aged + M. pruriens, and Young + M. pruriens (200 mg/kg b.w/60 days) and were subjected to the hypophysial - gonadal axis, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and penile reflex. DNP sections were stained with nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NaDPH) diaphorase, androgen receptor (AR), and osmium tetroxide. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining, electron microscopy(EM) and histometric analyses were done. Significant disturbance in hypophysial - gonadal axis was noted in aged rat. With reduced number of myelinated fibers, diameter, vacuolization, indentation of the myelin sheath, and degeneration. nNOS and its cofactor (NaDPH diaphorase) were reduced in aged rat DNP. NCV was slow in aged rats and concomitant poor penile reflex was also noted. AR showed reduced expression in aged rat DNP when compared to young and control groups. TUNEL positive cells were increased in aged rat DNP. These pathological changes were remarkably reduced or recovered in M. pruriens treated aged rats. The results indicate a multi-factorial therapeutic activity in penile innervations towards sustaining the penile erection in the presence of the extract in aged rats and justifying the claim of traditional usage.

  5. The belonging of gpMuc, a glycoprotein from Mucuna pruriens seeds, to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explains its direct anti-snake venom activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Bertoli, Enrico; Furlani, Emiliano; Nadozie, Hope-Onyekwere N; Cerutti, Helena; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Bini, Luca; Guerranti, Roberto

    2011-07-15

    In Nigeria, Mucuna pruriens seeds are locally prescribed as an oral prophylactic for snake bite and it is claimed that when two seeds are swallowed they protect the individual for a year against snake bites. In order to understand the Mucuna pruriens antisnake properties, the proteins from the acqueous extract of seeds were purified by three chromatographic steps: ConA affinity chromatography, tandem anionic-cationic exchange and gel filtration, obtaining a fraction conventionally called gpMucB. This purified fraction was analysed by SDS-PAGE obtaining 3 bands with apparent masses ranging from 20 to 24 kDa, and by MALDI-TOF which showed two main peaks of 21 and 23 kDa and another small peak of 19 kDa. On the other hand, gel filtration analysis of the native protein indicated a molecular mass of about 70 kDa suggesting that in its native form, gpMucB is most likely an oligomeric multiform protein. Infrared spectroscopy of gpMucB indicated that the protein is particularly thermostable both at neutral and acidic pHs and that it is an all beta protein. All data suggest that gpMucB belongs to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explaining the direct anti-snake venom activity of Mucuna pruriens seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Pretreatment on the Responses of Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria and Aortic Ring to Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom

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    Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Aguiyi, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (velvet bean) has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. Rats pretreated with M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) have been shown to protect against the lethal and cardiovascular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venoms, and the protective effect involved immunological neutralization of the venom toxins. To investigate further the mechanism of the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity, the actions of Naja sputatrix venom on spontaneously beating rat atria and aortic rings isolated from both MPE pretreated and untreated rats were studied. Our results showed that the MPE pretreatment conferred protection against cobra venom-induced depression of atrial contractility and atrial rate in the isolated atrial preparations, but it had no effect on the venom-induced contractile response of aortic ring preparation. These observations suggested that the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity involves a direct protective action of MPE on the heart function, in addition to the known immunological neutralization mechanism, and that the protective effect does not involve action on blood vessel contraction. The results also suggest that M. pruriens seed may contain novel cardioprotective agent with potential therapeutic value. PMID:21785646

  7. The behavioral performance tests of Mucuna pruriens gold nanoparticles in the 1-methyl 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treated mouse model of Parkinsonism

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    Subramanian Arulkumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation is aimed to carry out the behavioural changes of the Mucuna pruriens extract (MPE and Mucuna pruriens Goldnanoparticles (MPGNPs against MPTPinduced neurotoxicity. Methods: MPGNPs prepared from the methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds using Chloroauricchloride (HAuCl4. The seed powder has been found to show the anti-parkinsonian effects. Mice were induced with 10 mg/kg of MPTP, four injections i.p., at 1 h intervals within 24 h. MPE was administered at the dose 200 mg/kg (i.p and MPGNPs was administered at different doses of 500 毺 g/kg, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg (i.p in different groups once a day for seven days and the dose on the first day was given 30 min prior to first MPTP injection. Results: The behavioural changes were studied using the rotarod test, hang test and narrow beam test. MPE and MPGNPs significantly (P<0.05 improved the behavioural activities. Conclusions: MPGNPs possesses significant behavioural activity than MPE against MPTP induced neurotoxicity.

  8. Effect of Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Pretreatment on the Responses of Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria and Aortic Ring to Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra Venom

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    Shin Yee Fung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens Linn. (velvet bean has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. Rats pretreated with M. pruriens seed extract (MPE have been shown to protect against the lethal and cardiovascular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra venoms, and the protective effect involved immunological neutralization of the venom toxins. To investigate further the mechanism of the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity, the actions of Naja sputatrix venom on spontaneously beating rat atria and aortic rings isolated from both MPE pretreated and untreated rats were studied. Our results showed that the MPE pretreatment conferred protection against cobra venom-induced depression of atrial contractility and atrial rate in the isolated atrial preparations, but it had no effect on the venom-induced contractile response of aortic ring preparation. These observations suggested that the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity involves a direct protective action of MPE on the heart function, in addition to the known immunological neutralization mechanism, and that the protective effect does not involve action on blood vessel contraction. The results also suggest that M. pruriens seed may contain novel cardioprotective agent with potential therapeutic value.

  9. Transcriptomic resources for the medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens: de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation, identification and validation of EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, N; Pittala, Ranjith Kumar; Tripathi, Pankaj Kumar; Chopra, Ratan; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Belamkar, Vikas; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Doyle, Jeff J; Egan, Ashley N

    2017-05-25

    The medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. has attracted attention worldwide as a source of the anti-Parkinson's drug L-Dopa. It is also a popular green manure cover crop that offers many agronomic benefits including high protein content, nitrogen fixation and soil nutrients. The plant currently lacks genomic resources and there is limited knowledge on gene expression, metabolic pathways, and genetics of secondary metabolite production. Here, we present transcriptomic resources for M. pruriens, including a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, as well as differential transcript expression analyses between root, leaf, and pod tissues. We also develop microsatellite markers and analyze genetic diversity and population structure within a set of Indian germplasm accessions. One-hundred ninety-one million two hundred thirty-three thousand two hundred forty-two bp cleaned reads were assembled into 67,561 transcripts with mean length of 626 bp and N50 of 987 bp. Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases with over 80% of transcripts annotated. We identified 7,493 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs, including 787 polymorphic repeats between the parents of a mapping population. 134 SSRs from expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) were screened against 23 M. pruriens accessions from India, with 52 EST-SSRs retained after quality control. Population structure analysis using a Bayesian framework implemented in fastSTRUCTURE showed nearly similar groupings as with distance-based (neighbor-joining) and principal component analyses, with most of the accessions clustering per geographical origins. Pair-wise comparison of transcript expression in leaves, roots and pods identified 4,387 differentially expressed transcripts with the highest number occurring between roots and leaves. Differentially expressed transcripts were enriched with transcription factors and transcripts annotated as belonging to secondary metabolite pathways. The M

  10. Karakteristik Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Berbasis Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata, Tepung Kacang Koro (Mucuna prurien, dan Tepung Sagu (Metroxilon sago (The Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuit Formulation with Curcubita moschata, Mucuna prurien, and Metroxilon sago Based

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    Rachma Wati

    2016-07-01

    Riskesdas (2013 shows that prevelance of children under nutrition in Aceh province based on index weight for age, height for age, and weight for height are above National prevalency, comprising 25%, 40%, and 15% respectively. One of the efforts conducted to reduce nutrition problem is the adminstration of supplementary food for children. Development of biscuit from local food can be used as supplemetary food to help the unfortunate children. This research was aimed to study the  organoleptic characteristic of biscuit formulation based on local food pumpkin flour (Cucurbita moschata, koro bean flour (mucuna prurien and sago flour (Metroxilon sago. The research design used was one factor complete randomized design, with  the combination of pumpkin flour, koro bean and sago in biscuit combination. The quality of the biscuits was assessed organolepticaly using 30 semi trained panelists.  The result of the analysis of variance of colours and flavour paramaters showed a significant difference at  95% confident interval. The analysis of variance resulted in confident interval 95% (α=0,05, while from the smell and texture parameter it does not show a significantly different result. Based on the characteristic of organoleptics, the preferrred biscuit formulation chosen by panelists is biscuit with the combination of 20 g pumpkin flour, 10 g koro bean flour and 20 g sago flour. Keywords : biscuit, pumpkin flour, koro bean flour, sago flour, organoleptic

  11. PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN SUPEROKSIDA DISMUTASE PADA TIKUS HIPERGLIKEMI DENGAN ASUPAN TEMPE KORO BENGUK (Mucuna pruriens L. (Increased Superoxide Dismutase Antioxidant Activity in Hyperglycemia Rat with Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.Tempe Diet

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    Christiana Retnaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Hiperglikemi menimbulkan stress oksidatif dan patogenesis komplikasi diabetes. Untuk menurunkan hiperglikemi perlu dipertimbangkan kombinasi antara pengobatan modern dengan terapi tardisional melalui pangan fungsional guna mengurangi kerusakan sel beta pankreas. Bahan pangan yang memiliki potensi fungsional tersebut adalah biji koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens L yang difermentasi menjadi bentuk tempe. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuktikan pengaruh asupan tempe koro benguk terhadap kadar glukosa darah dan status antioksidan serum pada tikus hiperglikemi. Penelitian ini menggunakan 50 ekor tikus jantan jenis Sprague Dawley umur 2-3 bulan. Tikus dibagi ke dalam 5 kelompok dengan cara random alokasi. Kelompok 1 kontrol negatif (C-, kelompok 2 kontrol positif (C+, kelompok 3 adalah X1-TK10%, kelompok 4 adalah X2-TK10%, kelompok 5 adalah X3-TK10%. Tikus kelompok C+, X1, X2, X3 diinduksi streptozotocin (STZ dengan dosis 40 mg/kg BB secara inta peritoneal. Penelitian dilakukan selama 30 hari. Data dianalisis dengan Paired T test, One way Anova dan dilanjutkan dengan Uji Wilayah Ganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa STZ meningkatkan kadar glukosa darah dan menurunkan aktivitas antioksidan SOD serum. Hasil analisis in vivo pada tkus menunjukkan bahwa asupan tempe koro benguk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah dan meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan SOD serum. Kata kunci: Tempe koro benguk, antioksidan, hiperglikemi

  12. Docking, thermodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) studies of a non-canonical protease inhibitor, MP-4, from Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Kaur, Harmeet; Jain, Abha; Nair, Deepak T; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2018-01-12

    Sequence and structural homology suggests that MP-4 protein from Mucuna pruriens belongs to Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family. However, biochemical assays showed that this protein is a poor inhibitor of trypsin. To understand the basis of observed poor inhibition, thermodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies on binding of MP-4 to trypsin were carried out. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that temperature influences the spectrum of conformations adopted by the loop regions in the MP-4 structure. At an optimal temperature, MP-4 achieves maximal binding while above and below the optimum temperature, its functional activity is hampered due to unfavourable flexibility and relative rigidity, respectively. The low activity at normal temperature is due to the widening of the conformational spectrum of the Reactive Site Loop (RSL) that reduces the probability of formation of stabilizing contacts with trypsin. The unique sequence of the RSL enhances flexibility at ambient temperature and thus reduces its ability to inhibit trypsin. This study shows that temperature influences the function of a protein through modulation in the structure of functional domain of the protein. Modulation of function through appearance of new sequences that are more sensitive to temperature may be a general strategy for evolution of new proteins.

  13. Inducing mutations through γ-irradiation in seeds of Mucuna pruriens for developing high L-DOPA-yielding genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Yadav, Deepti; Lal, Raj Kishori; Gupta, Madan M; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-04-01

    To develop elite genotypes in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC with high L-DOPA (L-3, 4 dihydroxyphenylalanine) yields, with non-itching characteristics and better adaptability by applying γ-irradiation. Molecular and chemical analysis was performed for screening based on specific characteristics desired for developing suitable genotypes. Developed, mutant populations were analyzed for L-DOPA % in seeds through TLC (thin layer chromatography), and the results obtained were validated with the HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). The DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) was isolated from the leaf at the initial stage and used for DNA polymorphism. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) was isolated from the leaf during maturity and used for expression analysis. The selected mutant T-I-7 showed 5.7% L-DOPA content compared to 3.18% of parent CIM-Ajar. The total polymorphism obtained was 57% with the molecular marker analysis. The gene expression analysis showed higher fold change expression of the dopadecarboxylase gene (DDC) in control compared to selected mutants (T-I-7, T-II-23, T-IV-9, T-VI-1). DNA polymorphism was used for the screening of mutants for efficient screening at an early stage. TLC was found suitable for the large-scale comparative chemical analysis of L-DOPA. The expression profile of DDC clearly demonstrated the higher yields of L-DOPA in selected mutants developed by γ-irradiation in the seeds of the control.

  14. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

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    Akhand Pratap Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD, and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ethinyl estradiol (EE was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  15. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

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    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  16. Dose- and time-dependent effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on sexual behaviour of normal male rats.

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    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Prakash, Seppan

    2009-04-21

    According to Indian Systems of Medicine, Mucuna pruriens Linn., belonging to the leguminous family (Papilionaceae), were used for treating male sexual disorders since ancient times. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extracts of the Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on general mating behaviour, libido and potency of normal male Wister albino rats were investigated and also compared with the standard reference drug, Sildenafil citrate. Animals were divided into one control group (Group I--received saline) and four experimental groups (Groups II-V). Experimental groups were divided on the basis of the dosage of extract to the animals as follows: 150 mg/kg body weight (Group I), 200mg/kg body weight (Group II) and 250 mg/kg body weight (Group IV) while Group V received Sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg body weight). Animals were fed PO with saline or extract or standard drug once in a day for 45 days. To analyse the mating behaviour, female rats with oestrus phase were used. The extract administered PO significantly increased the mounting frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculation latency, and decreased the mounting latency, intromission latency, post-ejaculatory interval and inter-intromission interval. The potency test significantly increased erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. Therefore, the results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats at a particular dose (200mg/kg). When compared to control, all the drug-treated groups have shown drug-induced effects for a few parameters. However in Group II, there was an obvious enhancement in all parameters, without affecting the normal behaviour. When compared with the standard drug, the net effect of extract is even less than that in Group II. Therefore, the resulting aphrodisiac activity of the extract lends support to the claim that it has traditionally been used for the treatment of sexual

  17. Mucuna pruriens and its major constituent L-DOPA recover spermatogenic loss by combating ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15(th) day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro-spermatogenic properties of M. pruriens. The manuscript bears CDRI

  18. OCCURRENCE OF L-DOPA AND DOPAMINE IN PLANTS AND CELL-CULTURES OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS AND EFFECTS OF 2,4-D AND NACL ON THESE COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WICHERS, HJ; VISSER, JF; HUIZING, HJ; PRAS, N

    The development of the L-DOPA-content of roots, stems and leaves of Mucuna pruriens during growth of the plants is described. Besides L-DOPA, the leaves, but not the stems and the roots, also contain the related catechol dopamine. The time course of dopamine accumulation is compared to that of

  19. Effect of Enzymatic Digestion of Protein Derivatives Obtained from Mucuna pruriens L. on Production of Proinflammatory Mediators by BALB/c Mouse Macrophages.

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    Martínez Leo, Edwin E; Arana Argáez, Victor E; Acevedo Fernández, Juan J; Puc, Rosa Moo; Segura Campos, Maira R

    2018-04-25

    Inflammation is considered to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of chronic non-communicable diseases. Macrophages are important immune cells, which regulate inflammation and host defense by secretion of proinflammatory mediators. Obtaining biopeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis adds value to proteins of vegetative origin, such as Mucuna pruriens L. The present study evaluated the effect of enzymatic digestion of protein derivatives obtained from M. pruriens L. on the production of proinflammatory mediators by BALB/c mouse macrophages. Five different molecular weight peptide fractions were obtained (F > 10, 5-10, 3-5, 1-3, and < 1 kDa, respectively). At 300 μg/mL, F5-10 kDa inhibited 50.26 and 61.00% NO and H 2 O 2 production, respectively. Moreover, F5-10 kDa reduced the IL-6 and TNFα levels to 60.25 and 69.54%, respectively. After enzymatic digestive simulation, F5-10 kDa decreased the inflammatory mediators.

  20. Mucuna pruriens seed extract reduces oxidative stress in nigrostriatal tissue and improves neurobehavioral activity in paraquat-induced Parkinsonian mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Treatment for this disease is still under investigation. Mucuna pruriens (L.), is a traditional herbal medicine, used in India since 1500 B.C., as a neuroprotective agent. In this present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of aqueous extract of M. pruriens (Mp) seed in Parkinsonian mouse model developed by chronic exposure to paraquat (PQ). Results of our study revealed that the nigrostriatal portion of Parkinsonian mouse brain showed significantly increased levels of nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of catalase compared to the control. In the Parkinsonian mice hanging time was decreased, whereas narrow beam walk time and foot printing errors were increased. Treatment with aqueous seed extract of Mp significantly increased the catalase activity and decreased the MDA and nitrite level, compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Mp treatment also improved the behavioral abnormalities. It increased hanging time, whereas it decreased narrow beam walk time and foot printing error compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum region of the brain, after treatment with PQ which was considerably restored by the use of Mp seed extract. Our result suggested that Mp seed extract treatment significantly reduced the PQ induced neurotoxicity as evident by decrease in oxidative damage, physiological abnormalities and immunohistochemical changes in the Parkinsonian mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practical use of CMC-amended rhizobial inoculant for Mucuna pruriens cultivation to enhance the growth and protection against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeron, Abhinav; Khare, Ekta; Kumar Arora, Naveen; Kumar Maheshwari, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of the world Mucuna pruriens is used as an important medicinal, forage and green manure crop. In the present investigation the effect of the addition of CMC in carrier during development of bioformulation on shelflife, plant growth promotive and biocontrol activity against Macrophomina phaseolina was screened taking M. pruriens as a test crop. Ensifer meliloti RMP6(Ery+Kan+) and Bradyrhizobium sp. BMP7(Tet+Kan+) (kanamycin resistance engineered by Tn5 transposon mutagenesis) used in the study showed production of siderophore, IAA, solubilizing phosphate and biocontrol of M. phaseolina. RMP6(Ery+Kan+) also showed ACC deaminase activity. The survival of both the strains in sawdust-based bioformulation was enhanced with an increase in the concentration of CMC from 0 to 1%. At 0% CMC Bradyrhizobium sp. BMP7(Tet+Kan+) showed more increase in nodule number/plant (500.00%) than E. meliloti RMP6(Ery+Kan+) (52.38%), over the control in M. phaseolina-infested soil. There was 185.94% and 59.52% enhancement in nodule number/plant by RMP6(Ery+Kan+) and BMP7(Tet+Kan+) with an increase in the concentration of CMC from 0% to 1% in the bioformulations. However further increase in concentration of CMC did not result in enhancement in survival of either the strains or nodule number/plant.

  2. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Mucuna pruriens Peptide Fractions Purified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography as Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antioxidants, Antithrombotic and Hypocholesterolemic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur-Ancona, David; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-02-01

    A Mucuna pruriens protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with a digestive (pepsin-pancreatin) enzymatic system. The soluble portion of the hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration and the ultrafiltered peptide fraction (PF) with lower molecular weight was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The PF obtained were evaluated by testing the biological activity in vitro. Fractions showed that the ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme had IC50 values that ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 μg/mL. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values ranged from 132.20 to 507.43 mM/mg. The inhibition of human platelet aggregation ranged from 1.59% to 11.11%, and the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility ranged from 0.24% to 0.47%. Hydrophobicity, size, and amino acid sequence could be factors in determining the biological activity of peptides contained in fractions. This is the first report that M. pruriens peptides act as antihypertensives, antioxidants, and inhibitors for human platelet aggregation and cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro.

  3. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  4. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

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    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  5. Daily intake of Mucuna pruriens in advanced Parkinson's disease: A 16-week, noninferiority, randomized, crossover, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Roberto; Laguna, Janeth; Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Raspini, Benedetta; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    Thousands of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) in low-income countries have limited access to marketed levodopa preparations. Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in tropical areas, may be a sustainable alternative therapy for indigent patients. Single-dose intake of MP proved noninferior to marketed levodopa preparations. Fourteen PD patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias received MP powder (obtained from roasted seeds) and marketed levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) in a randomized order and crossover design over a 16-week period. Efficacy measures were changes in quality of life, motor and non-motor symptoms, and time with good mobility without troublesome dyskinesias. Safety measures included tolerability, frequency of adverse events, changes in laboratory indices and electrocardiogram. Daily intake of MP was associated with a variable clinical response, especially in terms of tolerability. Seven patients (50%) discontinued MP prematurely due to either gastrointestinal side-effects (n = 4) or progressive worsening of motor performance (n = 3), while nobody discontinued during the LD/CD phase. In those who tolerated MP, clinical response to MP was similar to LD/CD on all efficacy outcome measures. Patients who dropped out entered a study extension using MP supernatant water (median[IQR], 16 [7-20] weeks), which was well tolerated. The overall benefit provided by MP on the clinical outcome was limited by tolerability issues, as one could expect by the relatively rapid switch from LD/CD to levodopa alone in advanced PD. Larger parallel-group studies are needed to identify appropriate MP formulation (e.g. supernatant water), titration scheme and maintenance dose to minimize side-effects in the long-term. CLINICAL TRIALS. NCT02680977. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Levodopa Content in Commercial Mucuna pruriens Products Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumyanath, Amala; Denne, Tanya; Hiller, Amie; Ramachandran, Shaila; Shinto, Lynne

    2018-02-01

    Mucuna pruriens (MP) seeds contain levodopa (up to 2% by weight) and have been used in traditional Indian medicine to treat an illness named "Kampavata," now understood to be Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have shown MP to be beneficial, and even superior, to levodopa alone in treating PD symptoms. Commercial products containing MP are readily available from online and retail sources to patients and physicians. Products often contain extracts of MP seeds, with significantly higher levodopa content than the seeds. However, MP products have limited regulatory controls with respect to quality and content of active ingredient. The aim of this study was to apply a quantitative method to determine levodopa content in readily available MP products that might be used by patients or in research studies. Levodopa present in six commercial MP products was quantified by solvent extraction followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). Certificates of analysis (COA) were obtained, from manufacturers of MP products, to assess the existence and implementation of specifications for levodopa content. HPLC-FD analysis revealed that the levodopa content of the six commercial MP products varied from 6% to 141% of individual label claims. No product contained levodopa within normal pharmacopeial limits of 90%-110% label claim. The maximum daily dose of levodopa delivered by the products varied from 14.4 to 720 mg/day. COAs were inconsistent in specifications for and verification of levodopa content. The commercial products tested varied widely in levodopa content, sometimes deviating widely from the label claim. These deficiencies could impact efficacy and safety of MP products used by PD patients and compromise the results of scientific studies on MP products. The HPLC-FD method described in this study could be utilized by both manufacturers and scientific researchers to verify levodopa content of MP products.

  7. Assessment of symptomatic and neuroprotective efficacy of Mucuna pruriens seed extract in rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Sanjay; Pontis, Silvia; Pinna, Annalisa; Schintu, Nicoletta; Spina, Liliana; Longoni, Rosanna; Simola, Nicola; Ballero, Mauro; Morelli, Micaela

    2009-02-01

    Mucuna pruriens (MP) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine as support in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, no systematic preclinical studies that aimed at evaluating the efficacy of this substance are available to date. This study undertook an extensive evaluation of the antiparkinsonian effects of an extract of MP seeds known to contain, among other components, 12.5% L: -dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA), as compared to equivalent doses of L: -DOPA. Moreover, the neuroprotective efficacy of MP and its potential rewarding effects were evaluated. The results obtained reveal how an acute administration of MP extract at a dose of 16 mg/kg (containing 2 mg/kg of L: -DOPA) consistently antagonized the deficit in latency of step initiation and adjusting step induced by a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion, whereas L: -DOPA was equally effective only at the doses of 6 mg/kg. At the same dosage, MP significantly improved the placement of the forelimb in vibrissae-evoked forelimb placing, suggesting a significant antagonistic activity on both motor and sensory-motor deficits. The effects of MP extract were moreover investigated by means of the turning behavior test and in the induction of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) after either acute or subchronic administration. MP extract acutely induced a significantly higher contralateral turning behavior than L: -DOPA (6 mg/kg) when administered at a dose of 48 mg/kg containing 6 mg/kg of L: -DOPA. On subchronic administration, both MP extract (48 mg/kg) and L: -DOPA (6 mg/kg) induced sensitization of contralateral turning behavior; however, L: -DOPA alone induced a concomitant sensitization in AIMs suggesting that the dyskinetic potential of MP is lower than that of L: -DOPA. MP (48 mg/kg) was also effective in antagonizing tremulous jaw movements induced by tacrine, a validated test reproducing parkinsonian tremor. Furthermore, MP induced no compartment preference in the place preference test

  8. Mucuna pruriens Protects against MPTP Intoxicated Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease through NF-κB/pAKT Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sachchida N; Birla, Hareram; Singh, Saumitra S; Zahra, Walia; Patil, Ravishankar R; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Gedda, Mallikarjuna R; Singh, Surya P

    2017-01-01

    Till date, drugs that have been used to manage Parkinson's disease (PD) have only shown symptomatic relief with several adverse effects besides their inability to prevent neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of PD and can be targeted for its effective treatment. Researchers have suggested that herbal plants exhibiting the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are therefore beneficial to human health. Conventionally, Mucuna pruriens (Mp) seeds are used for maintaining male virility in India. Reportedly, Mp is used as a rejuvenator drug having neuroprotective property. Our study aimed to investigate effects of aqueous extract of Mp (100 mg/kgbwt) on neuroinflammation, orally administered to mice intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as well as the molecular mechanism involved in the progression of PD. In this study, we have observed significant behavioral abnormalities beside decreased antioxidant defense in MPTP intoxicated mice. We have also observed significant increase in inflammatory parameters like Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule, and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of parkinsonian mice, while Mp treatment has notably reduced these inflammatory parameters. Mp also inhibited the MPTP induced activation of NF-κB and promoted pAkt1 activity which further prevented the apoptosis of the dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, Mp exhibited significant antioxidant defense by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level, and by improving catalase activity and enhancing GSH level in nigrostriatal region of mouse brain. Mp also recovered the behavioral abnormalities in MPTP treated mice. Additionally, Mp treatment considerably increased the immunoreactivity of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Transporter in SNpc of parkinsonian mice. Our high performance liquid chromatography

  9. Protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract pretreatment against cardiovascular and respiratory depressant effects of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Sim, S M

    2010-12-01

    The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract (MPE) against the cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular paralytic effects induced by injection of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) venom in anaesthetized rats were investigated. While MPE pretreatment did not reverse the inhibitory effect of the venom on the gastrocnemius muscle excitability, it significantly attenuated the venom-induced cardio-respiratory depressant effects (p < 0.05). The protection effects may have an immunological mechanism, as indicated by the presence of several proteins in the venom that are immunoreactive against anti-MPE. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the pretreatment may exert a direct, non-immunological protective action against the venom.

  10. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Simone; De Rose, Francescaelena; Marotta, Roberto; Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I), 10-15 (II) and 20-25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment.

  11. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  12. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean rescues motor, olfactory, mitochondrial and synaptic impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster genetic model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Poddighe

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9 gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD. Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe, a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3-6 (I, 10-15 (II and 20-25 (III days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1% ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment.

  13. Facteurs d'adoption des innovations d'intégration agriculture-élevage: cas du Mucuna pruriens en zone cotonnière ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of Innovation Factors of Agriculture and Breeding Integration: Case of Mucuna pruriens in Western Cotton Zone of Burkina Faso. This paper analyzes the factors influencing the adoption of Mucuna pruriens in the Western cotton zone of Burkina Faso. The data were collected in 3 villages by participative data collection methods and by conducting a survey with 50 farmers involved in the development of Mucuna production techniques adapted to local farming systems characteristics. The co-construction of these techniques was carried out from 2005 to 2015 according to an action research approach in partnership. The results of the logistic regression showed that the variables which positively influence the decision to adopt are the number of workers and pit dunghills, sex, market access, experimentation of M. pruriens by farmers, the practice of animal fattening (P<0.1 and the number of participations to the innovation platform meetings (P<0.05. On the other hand, the quantity of urea applied by hectare and the farm income affect negatively the adoption (P<0.01. The success of development actions of forage legumes cultivation requires taking rational account of these factors.

  14. Synthesize, characterization, and anti-Parkinson activity of silver-Indonesian velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) seed extract nanoparticles (AgMPn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardjono, R. E.; Khoerunnisa, F.; Musthopa, I.; Akasum, N. S. M. M.; Rachmawati, R.

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson is one of the progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Various efforts are made in handling this disease, one of them is the utilization of plant extracts that have anti-Parkinson activity, for example, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.). Changing the particle size of the extract into nanoscale particle is expected to increase its anti-parkinson activity. The research was conducted to synthesize silver-velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) seed extract nanoparticles (AgMPn) and to evaluate its antiparkinson activity through the catalepsy test in mice. The research consisted of several stages i.e. extraction of velvet bean seed powder, synthesis and characterization of AgMPn, and catalepsy test of AgMPn. Velvet bean seed powder was extracted by maceration method using ethanol-water (1:1) at pH 3 adjusted with citric acid. AgMPn was synthesized by reacting the silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with the extract of velvet bean seed for 40 min, dispersibility of solution during the reaction was controlled by using sonication and ultrasonic processor homogenizer. Characterization of AgMPn was done by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalepsy test was conducted on AgMpn at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight. The results of SEM-EDX and TEM showed that AgMPn formed aggregates with several shapes such as rectangle, oval, and spherical, with the average particle diameter was 36.5 nm. FT-IR spectra showed a band at 464.8 cm-1 absorbance area which is typical band indicated the interaction of Ag-O of AgMPn. Catalepsy test demonstrated that AgMPn at the doses of 5, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight lowered the catalepsy symptoms in mice significantly, with the best dose was 5 mg/kg body weight.

  15. Pengaruh Diameter Partikel Terhadap Konsentrasi L-Dopa, Kc Dan De Pada Ekstraksi L-Dopa Dari Biji Kara Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens Dc.

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    Eni Budiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens (biji kara benguk merupakan tanaman penghasil bahan obat-obatan karena mengandung senyawa L-Dopa. Senyawa tersebut dapat digunakan untuk pengobatan penyakit gangguan syaraf, anti bisa ular, meningkatkan bobot dan kekuatan otot, vitalitas seksual pria, zat anti-aging dan obat cacing pada manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengekstraksi L- Dopa dari biji kara benguk dengan menggunakan pelarut air. Di samping itu, penelitian ini juga mengevaluasi pengaruh dari diameter partikel terhadap konsentrasi L- dopa hasil ekstraksi, koefisien transfer massa (kC, dan difusivitas efektif (De. Tahapan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah, persiapan bahan baku, proses ekstraksi, dan analisis L-Dopa. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dalam tangki yang dilengkapi dengan thermometer. Analisis L-Dopa dilakukan dengan dengan High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin kecil diameter partikel maka konsentrasi L-Dopa terekstrak semakin besar. Konsentrasi tertinggi diperoleh pada diameter partikel 0,5 mm yaitu 1739,56 ppm. Nilai difusivitas efektif (De untuk variabel diameter partikel (0,5; 0,675; 2,18; dan 2,5 mm hampir sama yaitu 2,99.10–5 sampai 3,07.10–5 cm2/menit. Sedangkan nilai koefisien transfer massa (kC berbanding terbalik dengan diameter partikel. Nilai kC berkisar antara 2,83.10-2 sampai 3,98.10-2 g/cm2.menit. 

  16. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

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    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  17. Appraisal on the wound healing activity of different extracts obtained from Aegle marmelos and Mucuna pruriens by in vivo experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppo, F A; Pawar, R S

    2016-01-01

    The use of a simple and reproducible model is inevitable for an objective statement of the effects of external factors on wound healing. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate wound healing activities of sequential different extracts of Aegle marmelos leaves (AM) and Mucuna pruriens seeds (MP) by in vivo experimental models. Wistar albino rats were subjected to excision, incision and dead space wounds measuring approximately 250 mm2, 3 cm and implanting sterilized polyvinyl chloride tube on the back of each rat near either side of the vertebral column respectively. The experimental animals were randomized into eight groups (n = 6), control, standard and treatment groups. Hydrogel of different extracts were applied topically once daily. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelization period, tensile strength, hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue, and histological changes during wound healing. The statistical study revealed that in excision, incision, and dead space wound models all formulations have significant (P < 0.01) wound healing potential. However, methanolic extract formulation was found to be superior to all other treatments as evidenced by rapid wound contraction, lesser number of days required for complete epithelization, increased tensile strength and significant increase in hydroxyproline content. As compared to the reference standard treated group the wound healing process of the experimental groups was decelerated. All extracts obtained from AM and MP facilitated the wound healing process in all experimental models.

  18. In vitro clonal propagation of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic fidelity of the regenerated shoots was confirmed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis employing 15 operon primers. This system provides high fidelity micro-propagation system for efficient and rapid micro-propagation of this important green manure cover crop with medicinal properties.

  19. In vitro clonal propagation of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... there is a need to develop in vitro germplasm of the wild and cultivated species of ... was used as basal medium excepting seed germination medium, which completely lacked ..... Department of Botany. Bharathiar University.

  20. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of levodopa and MD01 in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of mucuna pruriens extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangjie; Zhang, Fangrong; Deng, Linfang; Chen, Chang; Cheng, Zhongzhe; Huang, Jiangeng; Liu, Jiangyun; Jiang, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an ancient Indian herbal medicine containing levodopa, is widely used for Parkinson's disease. In order to simultaneously determine levodopa and 1,1-dimethyl-3-carboxy-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MD01) in rat plasma, an improved LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for a pharmacokinetic study in rats orally administered levodopa or Mucuna pruriens extract (MPE). Elimination of matrix effect and improvement of extraction recovery were achieved through systematic optimization of reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic conditions together with sample clean-up procedures. A satisfactory chromatographic performance was obtained with a Thermo Aquasil C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3 µm) using acetonitrile and water containing 0.2% formic acid as mobile phases. Futhermore, sodium metabisulfite and formic acid were used as stabilizers in neat solutions as well as rat plasma. The method was validated in a dynamic range of 20.0-10,000 ng/mL for levodopa and MD01; the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable. The method was successfully utilized to determine the levodopa level in plasma samples of rats administered levodopa or MPE. Pharmacokinetic results showed that an increase in the AUC of levodopa was observed in rats following oral administration of multiple doses of MPE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effects of soybean ingestion on pharmacokinetics of levodopa and motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease--In relation to the effects of Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tomoyoshi; Sakata, Mayumi; Koh, Jinsoo; Ito, Hidefumi

    2016-02-15

    Mucuna pruriens is a levodopa-containing legume and its favorable effects on motor complications in Parkinson disease patients have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of another legume, soybeans, on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of levodopa. Seven parkinsonian patients with the wearing-off phenomenon and dyskinesia and five healthy volunteers participated in this study. We conducted a crossover study of the clinical effects on the participants before and after taking either levodopa (100mg)/carbidopa (10mg) only (LD/CD) or levodopa/carbidopa with 11 g of ground soybeans (LD/CD/soy). Parkinsonism and dyskinesia before and after ingestion of these substances were evaluated using UPDRS part III, the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (mAIMS) and a self-rating scale. The concentrations of plasma levodopa and its major metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical assessment and blood sampling were conducted before and three hours after the ingestion of ground soybeans. When the patients took LD/CD/soy, they had a significantly longer on-period (p=0.028) and a lower mAIMS score (p<0.001). From the comparison of the results of pharmacokinetic study before and after taking LD/CD or LD/CD/soy, the estimated marginal mean (EMM) of HVA after LD/CD/soy increased in the PD group. EMMs of 3-OMD after LD/CD/soy significantly decreased both in PD patients and healthy controls. These results indicate that soy partly increased the bioavailability of levodopa and suppressed levodopa degradation through COMT. Soybeans may have favorable effects on the motor complications occurring under current levodopa therapy. Further investigation to clarify the mechanism underlying such effects is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mucuna pruriens Protects against MPTP Intoxicated Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease through NF-κB/pAKT Signaling Pathways

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    Sachchida N. Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Till date, drugs that have been used to manage Parkinson’s disease (PD have only shown symptomatic relief with several adverse effects besides their inability to prevent neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of PD and can be targeted for its effective treatment. Researchers have suggested that herbal plants exhibiting the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are therefore beneficial to human health. Conventionally, Mucuna pruriens (Mp seeds are used for maintaining male virility in India. Reportedly, Mp is used as a rejuvenator drug having neuroprotective property. Our study aimed to investigate effects of aqueous extract of Mp (100 mg/kgbwt on neuroinflammation, orally administered to mice intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP as well as the molecular mechanism involved in the progression of PD. In this study, we have observed significant behavioral abnormalities beside decreased antioxidant defense in MPTP intoxicated mice. We have also observed significant increase in inflammatory parameters like Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule, and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of parkinsonian mice, while Mp treatment has notably reduced these inflammatory parameters. Mp also inhibited the MPTP induced activation of NF-κB and promoted pAkt1 activity which further prevented the apoptosis of the dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, Mp exhibited significant antioxidant defense by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level, and by improving catalase activity and enhancing GSH level in nigrostriatal region of mouse brain. Mp also recovered the behavioral abnormalities in MPTP treated mice. Additionally, Mp treatment considerably increased the immunoreactivity of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Transporter in SNpc of parkinsonian mice. Our high performance liquid

  3. Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC chemo sensitize human breast cancer cells via downregulation of prolactin-mediated JAK2/STAT5A signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonam; Sharma, Sonal; Vora, Jaykant; Shah, Heta; Srivastava, Anshu; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2018-05-10

    Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC (MP) is an ancient Indian medicinal plant traditionally used to treat Parkinson's disease. L-Dopa (LD), precursor of dopamine is abundantly found in the seeds of MP. L-dopa is a natural inhibitor of prolactin (PRL) hormone which is required to maintain lactation in women but it's over production (hyperprolactinemia) plays critical role in advancement of breast cancer. We aim to examine the pharmacological effect of LD and MP on this hyperprolactinemia associated breast cancer and related signaling for effective management of the disease. We also investigated chemo-sensitizing effect of MP on hyperprolactinemia-mediated cisplatin resistance. Methanolic seed extract of MP were prepared and analysed using HPLC. Effect of LD and MP on the cellular viability of breast cancer cells (T47D, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231) were evaluated using MTT assay. Further, effect of LD and MP on colony forming potential, DNA damage, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis was determined using agar/agarose method, comet assay and annexin and PI method followed by FACS analysis. To reveal the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer activity of MP, transcriptional and translational level analysis of the key proteins involved in the PRL-mediated signaling, was performed using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of MP extract on PRL-mediated signaling was validated using dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine. MP extract and cisplatin was given in different combination with appropriate controls to check their effect on chemo-resistivity of breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that MP seed extract has the potential to inhibit cellular proliferation of PRL expressing T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells via induction of DNA damage, G1 phase of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis more effectively as compare to LD. Further, MP-mediated anti-cancerous effect was associated with the downregulation of PRL expression, further suppressing the JAK2/STAT5A

  4. Mucuna pruriens Protects against MPTP Intoxicated Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease through NF-κB/pAKT Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sachchida N.; Birla, Hareram; Singh, Saumitra S.; Zahra, Walia; Patil, Ravishankar R.; Jadhav, Jyoti P.; Gedda, Mallikarjuna R.; Singh, Surya P.

    2017-01-01

    Till date, drugs that have been used to manage Parkinson’s disease (PD) have only shown symptomatic relief with several adverse effects besides their inability to prevent neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the advancement of PD and can be targeted for its effective treatment. Researchers have suggested that herbal plants exhibiting the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are therefore beneficial to human health. Conventionally, Mucuna pruriens (Mp) seeds are used for maintaining male virility in India. Reportedly, Mp is used as a rejuvenator drug having neuroprotective property. Our study aimed to investigate effects of aqueous extract of Mp (100 mg/kgbwt) on neuroinflammation, orally administered to mice intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as well as the molecular mechanism involved in the progression of PD. In this study, we have observed significant behavioral abnormalities beside decreased antioxidant defense in MPTP intoxicated mice. We have also observed significant increase in inflammatory parameters like Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule, and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of parkinsonian mice, while Mp treatment has notably reduced these inflammatory parameters. Mp also inhibited the MPTP induced activation of NF-κB and promoted pAkt1 activity which further prevented the apoptosis of the dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, Mp exhibited significant antioxidant defense by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level, and by improving catalase activity and enhancing GSH level in nigrostriatal region of mouse brain. Mp also recovered the behavioral abnormalities in MPTP treated mice. Additionally, Mp treatment considerably increased the immunoreactivity of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Transporter in SNpc of parkinsonian mice. Our high performance liquid chromatography

  5. In vitro and in vivo investigation of natural compounds from seed extract of Mucuna pruriens lacking l-DOPA for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangnin, Natthachai; Phitak, Thanyaluck; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the biological effects of the Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) seed extracts that lacked l-DOPA, which was formerly reported as the active ingredient, on erectile dysfunction (ED) both in vitro and in vivo. Seed of M. pruriens plant that cultivated in Mae Taeng District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, was collected. Component of its seeds were extracted and isolated into 2 fractions using methanol, polar and nonpolar. Each fraction was investigated for phytochemicals using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy and was screened for biological activity in vitro using three different cell lines. The most biological active fraction was used to treat both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus-erectile dysfunction (DM-ED) male Wistar rats and normal rats (n = 6 per groups) to compare the effect on sexual behavior parameters, including number of intromission, mounting and ejaculation, with that of rats given Sildenafil by individually pairing with their female counterparts. Penile tissues and serums were collected to determine histological structure, related gene expression and biomolecules. The phytochemicals of the polar fraction were possibly catechol and its derivatives plus polyphenols, whereas the nonpolar fraction consisted of lipid derivatives. l-DOPA was not detected in either of the extracts. The polar fraction was able to up-regulate the expression of ED-related genes including eNOS and nNOS in vitro which subsequently promotes nitric oxide production and maintains intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels. When administrated to DM-ED rats, the polar extract significantly improved all sexual behavior parameters in DM-ED rats compared to untreated group (18.3 ± 1.8 to 10.8 ± 2.9 for intromission, 9.8 ± 2.2 to 5.7 ± 1.3 for mounting, and 1.8 ± 0.6 to 0.2 ± 0.4 for ejaculation). That effect might due to the ability of the extract to stimulate the expression of eNOS and nNOS which results in nitric oxide

  6. Optimization of vegetable milk extraction from whole and dehulled Mucuna pruriens (Var Cochinchinensis) flours using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Dimitry Y; Abdou, Armand B; Njintang, Nicolas Y; Djiogue, Edith J M; Panyo, Emmanuel A; Bernard, Clemence; Ndjouenkeu, Robert; Loura, Benoît B; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-01-01

    Extraction conditions for maximum values of protein yield, protein content, sugar content and dry matter of vegetable milk extracts from dehulled Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour and whole Mucuna cochinchinensis bean flour were investigated using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCFD) with three factors: temperature (25 to 95 °C); extraction time (6 to 74 min.) and water to flour ratio (6 to 24 mL/g) were used. Data analysis showed that all the factors significantly (p < 0.05) affected the responses variables. The optimal conditions determined for extraction were temperature 63-66 °C, water to flour ratio 12-13 mL/g and extraction time of 57-67 min. At these optimum points the protein and sugar contents, extraction yield of protein and dry matter were respectively 14.0 g/100 mL, 4.8 g/100 mL, 53.8 g/100 g, 12.1 g/100 g for vegetable milk produced from dehulled M. cochinchinensis bean flour and 6.4 g/100 mL, 3.5 g/100 mL, 50.0 g/100 g and 8.0 g/100 g for vegetable milk extracted from whole M. cochinchinensis bean flour milk. The optimal condition was verified at the optimum points for model validation and the response values were not significantly different from the predicted values.

  7. Performance of Mashona doelings supplemented with different levels of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L. DC. var. utilis) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Mutema, Nyasha; Chimonyo, Michael; Bakare, Archibold Garikai; Mapiye, Cletos

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing levels of velvet bean seed meal (VBM; 0, 12, 24, and 36 %) on the performance of Mashona doelings. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the control diet compared to VBM diets, but linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. Average daily weight gain was significantly different between experimental groups. Doelings' final live weights and average daily gains were slightly higher in control group than other three supplemented groups where they linearly declined (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of VBM. The cost per kilogram of feed, however, decreased with high inclusion level of VBM. Result suggested that high inclusion level of VBM negatively influenced the growth of young goats probably due to the presence of some anti-nutritional factors which needs further investigation.

  8. Kandungan L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine Suatu Bahan Neuroprotektif pada Biji Koro Benguk (Mucuna pruriens Segar, Rebus, dan Tempe (L-3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE CONTENT AS A NEUROPROTECTIVE MATERIAL ON FRESH, COOKED AND FERMENTED OF KORO BENGUK (MUCUNA PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich in flora potentially used for herbal medication. One of the potential herbal is koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens beans, where in Central Java and Yogyakarta is proccessed into tempe (fermented mucuna beans for daily human consumption. Koro benguk has high level of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA which has a potential neuroprotective effect on Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the L-DOPA content in fresh beans, cooked and fermented of koro benguk beans. The investigation were done in fresh mucuna beans, white color (BR D and black color (BR A beans originated from Wonogiri, Central Java, and fresh, white color (KP C, cooked, and fermented beans collected from Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The samples were extracted using ethanol and n-propanol solutions and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. The results show that the highest L-DOPA level (8,56% was found in fresh white koro benguk beans from Wonogiri extracted using ethanol. The lowest L-DOPA level (0,016% was found in fermented beans that extracted using n-propanol. Extraction using ethanol yield a higher L-DOPA level as compared to that of using n-propanol. In brief, all of the samples starting from fresh bean, cooked, and fermented koro benguk beans contain L-DOPA, with highest L-DOPA level was found in the white fresh koro benguk beans, from Wonogiri, Central Java. The lowest ingredient L-DOPA level was found in the fermented beans from Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. ABSTRAK Indonesia sangat kaya dengan keanekaragaman flora yang potensial untuk terapi herbal, salah satunya tanaman koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens yang bijinya bisa diolah menjadi tempe sebagai konsumsi harian masyarakat di sekitar Yogyakarta dan Jawa Tengah. Biji koro benguk diketahui mengandung L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA tinggi dan berpotensi menjadi agen neuroprotektor pada penyakit Parkinson. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji

  9. Comparison of the neuroprotective potential of Mucuna pruriens seed extract with estrogen in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Westfall, Susan; Verma, Mradul; Singh, Tryambak Deo; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In Ayurveda, Mucuna pruriens (Mp), a leguminous plant, is used as an anti-inflammatory drug. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of Mp seed is evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD and compared to estrogen, a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+Mp and MPTP+estrogen. The behavioural recovery in both Mp and estrogen treated mice was investigated using the rotarod, foot printing and hanging tests. The recovery of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region was estimated by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), immunostaining. Additionally inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity was evaluated to assess the level of oxidative damage and glial activation respectively. The levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the nigrostriatal region were measured by HPLC. Mp treatment restored all the deficits induced by MPTP more effectively than estrogen. Mp treatment recovered the number of TH-positive cells in both the SN region and the striatum while reducing the expression of iNOS and GFAP in the SN. Treatment with Mp significantly increased the levels of dopamine, DOPAC and homovanillic acid compared to MPTP intoxicated mice. Notably, the effect of Mp was greater than that elicited by estrogen. Mp down regulates NO production, neuroinflammation and microglial activation and all of these actions contribute to Mp's neuroprotective activity. These results suggest that Mp can be an effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, especially PD by decreasing oxidative stress and possibly by

  10. Quality and acceptability of velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) foliage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appearance, smell and texture of all the silage mixtures compromised increasing level of VBF while the pH increased. The pH of the silage varied from 3.92-7.98. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) concentration in the silages ranged from 20.67 – 26.65, 8.02 – 15.77, 26.42 - 1926g/100g, ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens on selected bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare TA (1995). An Alternative. Medicine Treatment for Parkinson's diease: Results of a Multicenter. Clinical Trial, J. Altern. Complement Med., 1(3): 249-255. Russell AD, Furr JR (1977). Antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediamine ...

  12. Phytochemical and toxicological studies of Mucuna pruriens leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, saponins, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids in the plant. The extract at doses of 0.5, 2 and 8g/kg decreased creatinine and increased Na+ and Ca++ levels. No significant differences in other parameters were found. No signs of ...

  13. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  14. Energy balance analysis of different agroecological management systems of the soil in the cultures of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Typic Haplustalfs (USDA soil of the municipality of Palmira – Valle (Colombia the rotation system velvet bean Mucuna pruriens Var. Utilis – maize Zea mays L. was established in design of complete blocks at random with seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments in the rotation were: T1 (Without M. pruriens and fertilizing, T2 (green manure of M. pruriens without fertilizing, T3 (mulching of M. pruriens without fertilizing T4 (green manure of M. pruriens more compostado organic manure, T5 (green manure of M. pruriens more fertilizer of chemical synthesis, T6 (green manure of M. pruriens plus complemented compostado organic manure with fertilizer of chemical synthesis, T7 (mulching of M. pruriens plus complemented compostado organic manure with fertilizer of chemical synthesis. The energy balance was characterized and contributes nutritional using software Energy 3.01., from the entrances energetics in each treatment. The greater efficiency was obtained energetics in the T2 with 114.1 Mj.Mj-1 that was significantly greater (p<0.05 to the other treatments. The T5 where fertilization of chemical synthesis was used obtained value of 19.1 Mj.Mj-1, reflecting high entrances energetics and low productivity. The majors contribute nutritional were obtained in T3, T4, T6 and T7. Nevertheless, the treatments T3 and T4 stand out respectively where it was used mulching and green manure of M. pruriens more compost; since they are treatments where more efficient use becomes of the power resources by the use of consumptions readily accessible for the producer, being able to generate benefits like feeding for almost 50 persons.ha-1.year-1. These results suggest this valuable alternative association as for use in familiar agriculture farmer.

  15. Drought response of Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. inoculated with ACC deaminase and IAA producing rhizobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aansa Rukya Saleem

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major constraints limiting agricultural production worldwide and is expected to increase in the future. Limited water availability causes significant effects to plant growth and physiology. Plants have evolved different traits to mitigate the stress imposed by drought. The presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR could play an important role in improving plant performances and productivity under drought. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere of plants and increase drought tolerance by lowering ethylene formation. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential to improve the growth of velvet bean under water deficit conditions of two different strains of PGPR with ACCd (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate deaminase activity isolated from rainfed farming system. We compared uninoculated and inoculated plants with PGPR to assess: a photosynthetic performance and biomass; b ACC content and ethylene emission from leaves and roots; c leaf isoprene emission. Our results provided evidence that under drought conditions inoculation with PGPR containing the ACCd enzyme could improve plant growth compared to untreated plants. Ethylene emission from roots and leaves of inoculated velvet bean plants was significantly lower than uninoculated plants. Moreover, isoprene emission increased with drought stress progression and was higher in inoculated plants compared to uninoculated counterparts. These findings clearly illustrate that selected PGPR strains isolated from rainfed areas could be highly effective in promoting plant growth under drought conditions by decreasing ACC and ethylene levels in plants.

  16. Production of L-DOPA by suspension grown cells of Mucuna pruriens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro cultured plant cells can be utilized for the production of valuable metabolites. Many biochemical and physiological characteristics of ln vitro cultured plant cells depend on various environmental parameters, such as the composition of the growth medium in which many parameters are

  17. STIMULASI PUBERTAS PUYUH BETINA DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG BIJI KORO BENGUK (MUCUNA PRURIENS DALAM PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Christijanti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Biji koro benguk banyak dipergunakankan untuk tambahan pakan ternak seperti babi dan unggas dengan memberikan hasil berupa meningkatnya berat badan dan performan tubuh yang baik. Tercapainya pubertas pada puyuh dapat diamati dari performan tubuh, munculnya suara, bertelur dan secara morfologi adalah dengan melihat perkembangan folikel ovariumnya. Senyawa bioaktif dalam biji koro benguk yang diduga berefek fertilitas adalah alkaloid dan L-Dopa melalui pengaruhnya pada sekresi hormon gonadotropin dari kelenjar hipofisis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh penambahan tepung biji koro benguk untuk stumulasi pubertas puyuh. Sampel penelitian adalah 16 ekor puyuh prapubertas yang terbagi menjadi empat, yaitu kelompok 0 %, 10 %, 20 % dan 40 % tepung biji koro benguk. Tepung yang dicampur pakan diberikan 2 kali sehari selama 30 hari. Data berupa berat ovarium dianalisis dengan anava satu jalan pada taraf uji 5 % dan Beda Nyata Terkecil. Struktur morfologi ovarium dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan mengamati folikelnya. Hasil penelitian menunujukkan bahwa ada pengaruh tepung biji koro benguk pada berat ovarium dengan hasil F hitung 3,60 > dari F tabel 3,49 dan terdapat beda nyata antara kelompok yang mendapatkan 0 % dengan 20 % dan 40 %, namun tidak berbeda antara kelompok 0 dengan 10 % dan 20 % dengan 40 %. Struktur morfologi ovarium menunjukkan bahwa ada kecenderungan bertambahnya folikel yang berkembang dengan semakin banyaknya persentase tepung yang diberikan. Simpulan yang diambil adalah bahwa penambahan tepung biji koro benguk mampu mempercepat pubertas puyuh betina yang ditunjukkan dengan adanya perbedaan rata-rata berat ovarium antara kelompok Kontrol dan perlakuan serta gambaran folikel ovarium kelompok perlakuan yang berkembang lebih baik dibanding Kontrol.

  18. Drought response of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. inoculated with ACC deaminase and IAA producing rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Aansa Rukya; Brunetti, Cecilia; Khalid, Azeem; Della Rocca, Gianni; Raio, Aida; Emiliani, Giovanni; De Carlo, Anna; Mahmood, Tariq; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Drought is one of the major constraints limiting agricultural production worldwide and is expected to increase in the future. Limited water availability causes significant effects to plant growth and physiology. Plants have evolved different traits to mitigate the stress imposed by drought. The presence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could play an important role in improving plant performances and productivity under drought. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere of plants and increase drought tolerance by lowering ethylene formation. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential to improve the growth of velvet bean under water deficit conditions of two different strains of PGPR with ACCd (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate deaminase) activity isolated from rainfed farming system. We compared uninoculated and inoculated plants with PGPR to assess: a) photosynthetic performance and biomass; b) ACC content and ethylene emission from leaves and roots; c) leaf isoprene emission. Our results provided evidence that under drought conditions inoculation with PGPR containing the ACCd enzyme could improve plant growth compared to untreated plants. Ethylene emission from roots and leaves of inoculated velvet bean plants was significantly lower than uninoculated plants. Moreover, isoprene emission increased with drought stress progression and was higher in inoculated plants compared to uninoculated counterparts. These findings clearly illustrate that selected PGPR strains isolated from rainfed areas could be highly effective in promoting plant growth under drought conditions by decreasing ACC and ethylene levels in plants.

  19. Characterization of Effective Rhizobacteria Isolated from Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens) to Enhance Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A. R.; Mahmood, T.; Batool, A.; Khalid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobacteria with plant growth promoting ability exist in association with plant roots and ameliorate over all plant development and yield. Numerous species of rhizobacteria have been identified with plant growth promoting ability, which can be attributed to multiple microbial characteristics. In the current study rhizobacterial isolates with best plant growth promotion traits were subjected to screening for plant growth promotion under axenic condition. The results of lab assays revealed that out of five rhizobacterial isolates three of bacterial isolate were Gram -ve and two of them were Gram +ve bacterial group. All isolates found positive for the auxin production and ACC-demainase activity. The isolate HS9 showed highest ACC activity (331 ketobutyrate nmol mg-1 biomass hr-1) and auxin production (3.85 without L-TRP). PGPR increase plant growth by reducing the ethylene release and its inhibitory effects, the role of isolates to decrease ethylene effects was affirmed via classical triple response assay on velvet bean. Furthermore, isolate were assessed for resistance test, three efficient strains (G9, HS9 and H38) exhibited antibiotic resistance for streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin at 100 mg L-1in TSB medium. For the purpose of co-inoculation, all three isolates showed positive relation to grow together. The results concluded that rhizobacteria selected from rain fed areas were found effective to improve plant growth with their multiple growth enhancing traits. Therefore, PGPR with various characteristics could be a better option for inoculation and co-inoculation to improve plant growth in well watered and water stressed environment. (author)

  20. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of the bark methanolic extract of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahul Chandran

    The glucose homeostasis was observed till 180th min in glucose loaded rats treated with the ... formation.1 The pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes is not fully under- stood. .... Becker.15 The results are expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The ..... (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) extracts and certain non-protein amino/imino · acids ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 204 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2001), Effect of harvest methods on yield and quality of Marketable flowers of greenhouse rose cultivars of different growth habits, Abstract PDF. TJ Msogoya, A ... Vol 3, No 2 (2000), Effects of moist heat and dry heat on the nutritional value of velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens Var. Utilis) for the ...

  3. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  4. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 40, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood biochemistry and haematology of weaner rabbits fed sun-dried, ensiled, and fermented cassava peel-based diets · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Regenerative capacity and factors influencing the management of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis live-mulch · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 31, No 1 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen distribution in the milk and blood of Bunaji (White Fulani) cattle fed broiler-litter-based concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum (Jacq) hay · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) for broiler finishers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 444 of 444 ... Vol 31, No 1 (1998), The nutritive value of quality protein maize in the diets of broiler chickens, Abstract. SA Osei, CC Atuahene, DB Okai, A Donkoh, AK Tuah. Vol 31, No 1 (1998), The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) for broiler finishers, Abstract. SA Osei, HK Dei. Vol 47, No 1 (2014) ...

  7. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Koro Bengu (Mucuna pruriens Dalam Air Kapur (Ca(OH2 Terhadap Kadar Asam Siana (HCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nurmawan Toro

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: There was a significant effect of soaking time koro benguk in lime-water on levels of cyanide. Soaking in lime-water to neutralize the cyanide acid to be more effective than soaking in water.

  8. PENGARUH LAMA PERENDAMAN KORO BENGU (Mucuna pruriens DALAM AIR KAPUR (Ca(OH2 TERHADAP KADAR ASAM SIANIDA (HCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nurmawan Toro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Masyarakat Indonesia masih menitikberatkan pada komoditas kacang kedelai sebagai sumber utama protein, sedangkan pemanfaatan komoditas lain seperti koro benguk masih sangat minim. Minimnya pemanfaatan koro benguk ini karena di dalamnya terkandung senyawa alami berupa glokusida sianogenik yang dapat mengalami hidrolisis enzimatis menjadi asam sianida (HCN yang bersifat racun. Karena asam sianida bersifat asam yang sangat mudah larut dalam air, maka dilakukan perendaman menggunakan air kapur (Ca(OH2 bersifat basa yang dirasa cukup efektif menetralkan HCN dalam koro benguk.   Tujuan Penelitian: Mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman koro benguk dalam air kapur terhadap kadar asam sianida dan mengetahui apakah air kapur lebih efektif dibandingkan air biasa dalam menetralkan HCN koro benguk.   Metode Penelitian: Penelitian dengan desain post test with control group. Obyek penelitian ini adalah koro benguk varietas benguk putih berumur 4-6 bulan yang diperoleh di Dusun Nogosari, Desa Purwosari, Kecamatan Girimulyo, Kabupaten Kulon Progo, DIY yang dilakukan perendaman dalam air sebagai kelompok kontrol dan air kapur 100 mg/L sebagai kelompok perlakuan selama 12, 24 dan 36 jam kemudian dilakukan destilasi. Destilat direaksikan dengan asam pikrat 1% kemudia diukur kadar HCN secara spektrofotometri.   Hasil: Kadar HCN  koro benguk pada perendaman dalam air selama 12 jam adalah 20,736 mg/kg, selama 24 jam adalah 19,348 mg/kg dan selama 36 jam adalah 16,786 mg/kg. Sedangkan kadar HCN pada perendaman air kapur 100 mg/L selama 12 jam adalah 19,020 mg/kg, selama 24 jam adalah 1,635 mg/kg dan selama 36 jam adalah 9,307 mg/kg. Hasil Uji ANOVA satu jalan pada kelompok perlakuan didapatkan nilai signifikansi 0.000 (p< 0.05.   Kesimpulan: Ada pengaruh bermakna lama perendaman koro benguk dalam air kapur terhadap kadar asam sianida. Perendaman dalam air kapur terbukti lebih efektif menetralkan asam sianida koro benguk dibandingkan perendaman dalam air.

  9. EFFECT OF UV TREATMENT ON THE ANTI NUTRITIONAL FACTORS OF TWO ACCESSIONS OF VELVET BEAN,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubiramanian Kamatchi Kala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of UV radiation on the antinutritional factors such as, total free phenolics, tannin, l-dopa, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, total oxalate, trypsin inhibitor activity, oligosaccharides and phytohaemagglutinating activity in the seeds of two accessions of velvet bean, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis collected from Karaiyar and Servalaru, Tirunelveli district, Tamil nadu, were investigated. UV treatment on overnight soaked seeds showed increase in the level of total free phenolics and tannins. UV treated raw seeds for 20 minutes reduce the level of L-dopa content of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis white coloured seed coat by 42%, black coloured seed coat by 44% whereas; UV treatment on overnight soaked seeds showed significant (p

  10. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  11. Dehulling reduces toxicity and improves in vivo biological value of proteins in vegetal milk derived from two mucuna (Mucuna pruriens L.) seeds varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Yannick Dimitry; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Abdou, Bouba Armand; Scher, Joel; Bernard, Clémence; Mbofung, Moses C

    2016-06-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the nutritive quality (proximate and antinutrients composition) of vegetable milks prepared from whole and dehulled mucuna bean flours. Casein and mucuna milk diets were fed to rats (four weeks old; n = 8 per group) for 28 days to determine protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein efficiency ratio (NPER), true and apparent digestibility (TD and AD, respectively), organ-to-body weight ratios and hematological parameters. The experimental design was a factorial design with two variety of mucuna (cochinchinensis and veracruz) and two treatments (whole and dehulled beans). Protein, total sugar, dry matter and ash-content of mucuna milks ranged from 6.40 to 12.13 g/100 mL, 10.52 to 13.08 g/100 mL, 8.59 to 12.88 g/100 g and 0.31 to 0.92 g/100 g, respectively. Milks from dehulled flours had lower contents of tannins (80-87.08 %), phytates (76.67-78.16 %) and L-Dopamine (44.45-66.66 %) than that from whole flours. The PER of dehulled mucuna diets were 22.76-21.74 %, but negative PER and low NPER was observed for whole mucuna milk diets. TD for dehulled mucuna milk (85.15-85.96 %) were higher and similar to casein when compared to that of whole mucuna milk (47.87-51.17 %). Rats fed with diets containing whole mucuna milk lost weight and had higher kidney weight. In addition, the rats fed with milk from whole mucuna flours showed significantly lower levels of lymphocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit than that fed with dehulled mucuna milk.

  12. The Making of Salty Soy Sauce From Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens (Study of Saline Concentration of Salt Solution and Duration of Moromi's Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Febrianto Mulyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the saline concentration and moromi’s fermentation duration of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce at best organolepticly and determine consumers’ preferences towards Koro Benguk salty soy sauce from the best treatment results. The study was conducted using a randomized design method using two factors: the saline concentration (17%; 20%; and 23% and duration of moromi’s fermentation (2; 3; and 4 weeks. The best treatment results based on the Friedman test was on the saline concentration of 17% and moromi’s fermentation duration was 4 weeks, with the NP value of 1,000; had a preference color level of 5:40 (liked; aroma of 4.30 (rather liked; flavor of 4.55 (rather liked; and viscosity of 5.05 (liked. The obtained protein was 7.14%; and dissolved solids of 27obrix. Consumers’ preferences towards the best treatment showed that product of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce was acceptable to consumers.

  13. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  14. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  15. Development and Validation of a Methodology for Testing Topical Antipruritic Drugs Using Experimentally Induced Pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    no more than five minutes. The plant substance cowhage ( mucuna pruriens ) has been reported to produce a combination of chemical and mechanical... mucuna pruriens ) and its pruritogenic proteinase, mucunain. AMA Archives of Dermatology 1955;72:399-406. 9. Colton T. Statistics in medicine. Boston...variable both in intensity and duration, usually persisting for no more than five minutes. The plant substance cowhage ( mucuna pruriens ) has been

  16. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  17. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  18. The effects of fermentation and boiling on the level of hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fermentation and boiling on the level of hydrogen cyanide in Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) were investigated. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Mucuna pruriens revealed the presence that tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. Quantitative analysis revealed that raw Mucuna ...

  19. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  20. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José David Álvarez-Solís; Ramón Muñoz-Arroyo; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; José Nahed-Toral

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL OF UNDERUTILIZED LEGUMES OF THE GENUS MUCUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in finding new food sources to alleviate malnutrition in developing countries due to lack of protein rich food. Protein supply can be broadened by exploration and exploitation of alternate legume sources. Even though copious wild legume landraces have been identified, their utilization is limited due to inadequate attention. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white coloured seed coat Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens and Mucuna deeringiana are underutilized legume species having the credibility to be a rich protein source. This study was designed to assess the proximate composition, mineral profiles, vitamins (niacin and ascorbic acid, protein fractions, fatty acid profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility and antinutritional potential of the above said Mucuna varieties/species. The major findings of the study were as follows: crude protein content ranged from 23.76-29.74%, crude lipid 8.24-9.26%, total dietary fibre, 6.54-8.76%, ash 4.78-5.30%, carbohydrates 56.56-63.88%, and calorific value1783.02-1791.60kJ100g-1DM.  The examined seed samples contained minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg and P in abundance. The fatty acid profiles reveal that, the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of linoleic and palmitic acid. The antinutritional fatty acid, behenic acid (1.87-3.04% was also detected.  The current investigation helps in understanding the nutritional and antinutritional versatility of the Mucuna varieties/species, thereby developing further tactics for optimum utilization.

  2. EFECTO DEL TAMAÑO DE PARTICULA SOBRE, CONSUMO, DIGESTIBILIDAD Y BALANCE DEL NITRÓGENO EN OVINOS PELIBUEY ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS BASADAS EN FRIJOL TERCIOPELO (Mucuna pruriens Y GRANO DE MAIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Juventino Chay Canul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evaluó el efecto del tamaño de partícula sobre: el consumo, conducta ingestiva, digestibilidad aparente, cinética digestiva y el balance del N en ovinos Pelibuey. Los tratamientos fueron tres tamaños de partícula en la dieta: pequeño (P, mediano (M y grande (G, obtenidos del molido a través de cribas de 3, 13 y 25 mm de diámetro respectivamente. Se utilizaron 12 ovinos de pelo machos enteros (20±3.3 kg PV, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar. El consumo de MS de las dietas fue similar (P>0.05 entre tratamientos (101 g/kgPV0.75/d. El tiempo de masticación total (consumo + rumia no fue afectado por el tamaño de partícula (P>0.05, aunque hubo tendencia a incrementarse (P=0.0522 al aumentar el tamaño de partícula (408, 532 y 562 min/d para P, M y G respectivamente. La digestibilidad de la MS fue mayor (P

  3. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  4. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  5. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  6. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  7. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  8. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  9. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  10. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  11. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  12. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  13. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 31 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Performance Of Broiler Chicks fed Diets Containing Differently Processed Mucuna pruriens Seed Meals · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. OO Emenalom, 12-16 ...

  14. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  15. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  16. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  17. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  18. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  19. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  20. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  1. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  2. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  3. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  4. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  5. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  7. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  8. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  9. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  10. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  11. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  12. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  13. Influencia de abonos verdes sobre la dinámica de nitrógeno en un Typic Haplustert del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Augusto Sosa Rodrígues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio abordó el metabolismo del N, mediado por prácticas agroecológicas como los abonos verdes (AV, que incluyen leguminosas asociadas con rizobios -micorriza arbuscular y mejoran la nutrición de nitrógeno y fósforo. Se evaluó su influencia en la dinámica del nitrógeno de un Typic Haplustert en Candelaria (Colombia. En bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones, se asoció como AV Mucuna pruriens L. var. Utilis - Zea mays L. var. ICA 305 (tratamiento 1- T1 y, la arvense nativa Rottboellia cochinchinensis L. como Tratamiento 2 - T2. En prefloración de M. pruriens se evaluó en el suelo el contenido de C orgánico (CO, N total (NT, nitrato, amonio, número de copias de gen amoA de las bacterias oxidantes de amonio (BOA, porosidad total del suelo (PPA, temperatura, flujo de gases con efecto invernadero: metano (CH4, dióxido de carbono (CO2 y óxido nitroso (N2O; la materia seca (MS y el contenido de C, N y P en tejidos vegetales. Se registraron concentraciones significativamente (p<0.05 altas de CO, NT, amonio y nitrato, en T2. BOA fue significativamente mayor en T1, coincidiendo con mayor PPA y menor temperatura del suelo. El CO2 atmosférico fue significativamente menor en T1, mientras que CH4 y N2O alcanzaron los valores más altos. Al finalizar el ensayo, AV en T1 aportó cerca de 4 t MS/ha, 1668.3 kg C/ha, 78.7 kg N/ha y 11.0 kg P/ha, con beneficio económico-social de 9.2 ton choclo/ha.

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  15. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  16. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  17. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  18. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  19. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  2. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  3. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  4. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  5. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  6. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  7. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  9. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  10. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  11. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  12. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  13. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  14. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  15. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  17. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  18. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  19. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  20. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  1. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  2. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  3. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  4. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  5. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  6. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  7. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  8. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  9. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  10. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  11. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  12. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  15. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  16. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  17. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  18. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  19. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  20. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  2. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  3. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  4. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  6. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  7. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  8. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  9. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  10. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  11. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  12. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  15. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  16. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  17. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  18. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  19. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  20. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  2. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  3. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 309 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2005), Mucuna pruriens and its effect on some physical, ... Vol 1, No 1 (2000), A proposal for the compliation of a soil profile ... the simultaneous management of seabird populations and discards at sea ... Vol 25, No 2 (2017), An assessment of Environmental Conditions and the Benthic Fauna ...

  5. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  6. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  7. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 65, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Localization of oestrogen hormone receptors in the reproductive tract of giant African land snail (Archachatina marginata) and potential role of Mucuna pruriens on level of expression · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J A Abiona, O L Adeiga, M O Onagbesan, 221- ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary observations on the use of dry urea treatment and toasting for improving the nutritive value of jackbean Canavalia ensiformis for young broiler chicks. Abstract · Vol 25, No 1 (1998) - Articles Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds (Velvet Bean) On The Performance Of Finisher ...

  9. Biochemical and Heamatological Indices of Broiler Chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    investigate the implications of feeding broiler chickens with mucuna bean processed by simple domestic methods on performance, haematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods. Sample preparation: The raw Mucuna pruriens beans used in this study were purchased from International Institute of.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaboro, G. Vol 1, No 1 (1993) - Articles Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter Diets and Bean Influence on Finishing Broilers Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (1993) - Articles Vicine and Convicine: the Favic and Egg Weight Depressing Factors in Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) - A Review Abstract PDF.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 781 ... Vol 25, No 1 (1998), Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds (Velvet Bean) On The Performance Of Finisher Broilers, Abstract. OO Emenalom, ABI Udedibie. Vol 29, No 1 (2002), Effect of dietary salt levels on the performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, Abstract.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 444 ... Vol 40, No 1 (2007), Blood biochemistry and haematology of weaner rabbits fed sun-dried, ensiled, and fermented cassava peel-based diets, Abstract ... Vol 31, No 1 (1998), Characterization and preliminary evaluation of some accessions of local germplasm of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens DCvar.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    of 144 nine-day old broiler chickens fed on the experimental diets for 8 ... due to feeding. Consequently, the cost of feed ingredients remains the major determinant of profit margins in poultry farming in tropical developing countries where the situation is ..... cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 282 ... Vol 1, No 1 (1993), Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter Diets and Bean Influence on Finishing Broilers, Abstract PDF. G Olaboro. Vol 13, No 2 (2012), Molecular diagnostic tools targeting different taxonomic levels of Xanthomonads aid in disease management, Abstract ...

  15. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 2, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, carcass characteristics and economy of production of broilers fed maize grit and brewers' dried grain · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Biochemical and microbial qualities of raw, boiled and fermented Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 215 ... Vol 27, No 2 (2015), Studies on Haematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chickens Finished on an Unprocessed and Processed Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens (L.)) as Dietary Protein Sources, Abstract PDF. Aliyu I. Muhammad, Shua'ibu B. Adamu, Nuruddeen K. Alade, Abdulmumin B. Amin, ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 7651 - 7700 of 11090 ... Vol 6, No 9 (2007), Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155, using glucose limited exponential fedbatch cultures with variable specific .... Vol 14, No 8 (2015), Nutritional composition, phytochemicals and microbiological quality of the legume, Mucuna pruriens, Abstract.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 350 ... Vol 3, No 4 (2007), Aspects f the hematology, serum indices and neural metabolites of finisher broilers fed graded levels of sesame seed meal, Abstract. KC Okorie. Vol 2, No 4 ... Vol 2, No 2 (2006), Biochemical and microbial qualities of raw, boiled and fermented Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), Abstract.

  19. Nigeria Agricultural Journal - Vol 39 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiochemical nature and nutritive value of dried cassava Fufu meal for laying hens · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Effect of cracked –soaked and cooked velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) on the performance and organ characteristics of finisher broilers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 808 ... Vol 65, No 1 (2017), Evaluation of blood parameters of broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with embaceryl and chaya leaf (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius), Abstract. O O Oni, AA ... Vol 56, No 4 (2008), Evaluation of processed velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) meal in the diet of laying hens, Abstract.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... Vol 2, No 3-4 (2008), The effects of fermentation and boiling on the level of hydrogen cyanide in Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), Abstract. S Okorondu, L Aririatu, ... Vol 4, No 1 (2010), The Effects of Partial Replacement of Maize with Plantain Peels in Broiler Diets, Abstract. MC Uchegbu, KO Osuagwu, ...

  2. Effet de la supplémentation de la farine des feuilles de Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf flour in broiler production in Niger. ABSTRACT. In Niger, broilers are increasingly popular, and their diet requires a certain balance between the ..... caractéristiques des carcasses des poulets de chair alimentés avec des rations alimentaires à base de graines de. Mucuna pruriens. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 5(6):. 2306-231 ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adamu, Shua'ibu B. Vol 27, No 2 (2015) - Articles Studies on Haematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chickens Finished on an Unprocessed and Processed Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens (L.)) as Dietary Protein Sources Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0795-8080. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  5. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  6. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  7. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  8. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  9. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  10. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  11. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  12. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  13. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  14. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  15. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  16. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  17. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  18. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  19. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  20. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  1. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  2. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  3. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  4. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  5. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  6. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  7. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  8. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  9. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  10. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  12. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  13. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  14. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  16. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  17. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  18. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  19. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  20. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  1. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  2. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  3. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  4. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  5. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  6. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  7. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  8. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  9. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  10. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  12. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  13. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  14. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  15. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  17. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  18. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  19. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  20. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  1. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  2. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  3. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  4. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  5. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  6. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  7. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  8. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  9. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  10. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  11. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  12. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  13. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  14. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  15. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  16. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  17. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  19. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  20. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  1. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  2. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  3. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  5. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  6. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  7. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  8. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  9. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  10. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  11. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  12. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  13. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  14. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  15. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  16. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  17. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  18. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  20. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  3. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  4. Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

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    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH

  5. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

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    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  7. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement; Desempenho agronomico de mucuna-verde em diferentes arranjos espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: janaina@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.EMBRAP [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m{sup -1}). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m{sup -1} density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m{sup -1}1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  8. (Glossoscolecidae y Acanthodrilidae y leguminosas (Arachis pintoi en un suelo de traspatio

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    Esperanza Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste de la República Mexicana, en el trópico húmedo, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un cultivo de traspatio (huerto familiar con el fin de aumentar la fertilidad del suelo mediante la reproducción e inoculación de individuos de las especies Glossoscolecidae sp y Dichogaster saliens (oligochaeta las cuales tuvieron la mayor tasa de crecimiento diario (3 mg día-1 en sustratos con 1.5 % Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (leguminosa. Cuatro tratamientos con seis repeticiones de 3 x 2 m cada una fueron instalados en el huerto familiar. El contenido de materia orgánica (5.45 ± 1.6%, nitrógeno total (0.27 ± 0.05%, fósforo disponible (40.6 ± 22.5 mg kg-1 y potasio (1.05 ± 0.88 mg kg-1 fueron significativamente superiores (p < 0.05 en aquellas unidades experimentales con lombrices (27 gm-2 en conjunto con Arachis pintoi.

  9. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  10. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m -1 ). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m -1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m -1 1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  11. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  12. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  13. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  14. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  15. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  16. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  17. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  18. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  19. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  20. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  1. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  2. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  3. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  4. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  5. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of SU(VAR)3-9 distribution in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Daniil A; Laktionov, Petr P; Posukh, Olga V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Koryakov, Dmitry E

    2018-03-01

    Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of tissue and developmental expression of SU(VAR)3-9-bound genes indicates that in the somatic tissues tested, as well as in the ovarian nurse cells, SU(VAR)3-9 tends to associate with transcriptionally silent genes. In contrast, in the testes, SU(VAR)3-9 shows preferential association with testis-specific genes, and its binding appears dynamic during spermatogenesis. In somatic cells, the mere presence/absence of SU(VAR)3-9 binding correlates with lower/higher expression. No such correlation is found in the male germline. Interestingly, transcription units in piRNA clusters (particularly flanks thereof) are frequently targeted by SU(VAR)3-9, and Su(var)3-9 mutation affects the expression of select piRNA species. Our analyses suggest a context-dependent role of SU(VAR)3-9. In euchromatin, SU(VAR)3-9 may serve to fine-tune the expression of individual genes, whereas in heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and piRNA clusters, it may act more broadly over large chromatin domains.

  7. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  8. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  9. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  10. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  11. The Burr X Pareto Distribution: Properties, Applications and VaR Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ç. Korkmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-parameter Pareto distribution is introduced and studied. We discuss various mathematical and statistical properties of the new model. Some estimation methods of the model parameters are performed. Moreover, the peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate Value-at-Risk (VaR by means of the proposed distribution. We compare the distribution with a few other models to show its versatility in modelling data with heavy tails. VaR estimation with the Burr X Pareto distribution is presented using time series data, and the new model could be considered as an alternative VaR model against the generalized Pareto model for financial institutions.

  12. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  13. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  14. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-02-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana , P. densata , P. tabuliformis , and P. yunnanensis , with one to seven alleles per locus. The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species.

  15. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...... (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay......, using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  17. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    . In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  18. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brassica rapa var. peruviridis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brassica rapa var. peruviridis 名詞... 一般 * * * * コマツナ コマツナ コマツナ Thesaurus2015 200906099324987960 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Brassica rapa var . peruviridis

  20. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  1. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  2. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  3. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  4. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  5. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. - Highlights: • Brassica juncea var. foliosa can adapt to the stress of Th(<200 μM) under hydroponic condition. • Th was selectively distributed on cell wall, membranes and soluble fraction. • Th mainly existed in low-toxicity forms which were benefit for Th tolerance.

  6. [Investigation on Main Cultivation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Commercial Specifications Grades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-ting; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Ming-en; Duan, Hai-yan; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the main cultivation areas of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and to clarify its present cultivation status and commercial specification grades. Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus cultivated in Hunyuan and Ying County of Shanxi, Longxi, Weiyuan and Min County of Gansu and Wuchuan, Guyang and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia were investigated, including their ecological environment, cultivation history and present situation, harvesting and processing as well as commercial specification grades. The cultivation methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus changed greatly in the main cultivation areas. In Gansu and Inner Mongolia, the current major cultivation method was 2 - 3 years of seedling transplantation method, while the 3 - 5 years of seed-directly-sowed method in Inner Mongolia had been almost abandoned, and the 6 - 8 years of mountain direct seeding method was still in application in Hunyuan county of Shanxi province. On the other hand, the harvest method of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus had been gradually changed from manual harvesting in ancient times to the current mechanical harvesting although the latter method did more damage to environment of cultivation areas and the resource of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in regions Hunyuan county of Shanxi. Through investigating the processing methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in different cultivation areas, it was found that processing method varied from area to area, and no unified specifications had been formulated on processing methods in market. In addition, the current processing method was too complicated in processing the slices of prepared Astragali Radix and most were self processing by farmers themselves, creating market disorders. Moreover, the Astragali Radix products were basically without grading classification but sold as bulk cargo. It is urgent to unify the specifications and grades of Astragali Radix product, and standardize

  7. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  8. Controlling Kuka Industrial Robots : Flexible Communication Interface JOpenShowVar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Hatledal, Lars Ivar; Zhang, Houxiang; Fago, Massimiliano; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2015-01-01

    JOpenShowVar is a Java open-source cross-platform communication interface to Kuka industrial robots. This novel interface allows for read-write use of the controlled manipulator variables and data structures. JOpenShowVar, which is compatible with all the Kuka industrial robots that use KUKA Robot Controller version 4 (KR C4) and KUKA Robot Controller version 2 (KR C2), runs as a client on a remote computer connected with the Kuka controller via TCP/IP. Even though only soft real-time applica...

  9. Phenyl ethers from cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Nagakura, Naotaka; Hamada, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    Spore-derived mycobionts of the lichen Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose and their metabolites were investigated. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether was isolated from the cultures of the mycobionts of G. scripta var. serpentina, while a new phenyl ether, rikuzenol, along with two known diphenyl ethers, violaceol-I and violaceol-II, were isolated from those of G. rikuzensis. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods. Violaceol-I was chemically synthesized and interconversion between violaceol-I and violaceol-II was proven.

  10. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  11. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  12. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  13. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  14. Disruption of var2csa gene impairs placental malaria associated adhesion phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Viebig

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is one of the major causes of malaria related morbidity and mortality in newborn and mothers. The complications of pregnancy-associated malaria result mainly from massive adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA present in the placental intervillous blood spaces. Var2CSA, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family is the predominant parasite ligand mediating CSA binding. However, experimental evidence suggests that other host receptors, such as hyaluronic acid (HA and the neonatal Fc receptor, may also support placental binding. Here we used parasites in which var2csa was genetically disrupted to evaluate the contribution of these receptors to placental sequestration and to identify additional adhesion receptors that may be involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. By comparison to the wild-type parasites, the FCR3delta var2csa mutants could not be selected for HA adhesion, indicating that var2csa is not only essential for IE cytoadhesion to the placental receptor CSA, but also to HA. However, further studies using different pure sources of HA revealed that the previously observed binding results from CSA contamination in the bovine vitreous humor HA preparation. To identify CSA-independent placental interactions, FCR3delta var2csa mutant parasites were selected for adhesion to the human placental trophoblastic BeWo cell line. BeWo selected parasites revealed a multi-phenotypic adhesion population expressing multiple var genes. However, these parasites did not cytoadhere specifically to the syncytiotrophoblast lining of placental cryosections and were not recognized by sera from malaria-exposed women in a parity dependent manner, indicating that the surface molecules present on the surface of the BeWo selected population are not specifically expressed during the course of pregnancy-associated malaria. Taken

  15. Description of rainfall variability in Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, RN

    2004-01-01

    Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira (5–6th century AD) provides valuable information on the approach in ancient India towards monsoon rainfall, including its measurement and forecasting. In this context, we come across a description of the expected amount of total seasonal rainfall depending on the first rains under the 27 naks atras of Indian astronomy. This provides a rough statistical picture of what might have been the rainfall and its variability in the region around Ujjain, where Varâha-mi...

  16. On Setting Day-Ahead Equity Trading Risk Limits: VaR Prediction at Market Close or Open?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Fuertes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the information content of the ex post overnight return for one-day-ahead equity Value-at-Risk (VaR forecasting. To do so, we deploy a univariate VaR modeling approach that constructs the forecast at market open and, accordingly, exploits the available overnight close-to-open price variation. The benchmark is the bivariate VaR modeling approach proposed by Ahoniemi et al. that constructs the forecast at the market close instead and, accordingly, it models separately the daytime and overnight return processes and their covariance. For a small cap portfolio, the bivariate VaR approach affords superior predictive ability than the ex post overnight VaR approach whereas for a large cap portfolio the results are reversed. The contrast indicates that price discovery at the market open is less efficient for small capitalization, thinly traded stocks.

  17. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  18. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  19. Sub-grouping of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 var genes based on sequence analysis of coding and non-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali; Jensen, Anja T R

    2003-01-01

    and organization of the 3D7 PfEMP1 repertoire was investigated on the basis of the complete genome sequence. METHODS: Using two tree-building methods we analysed the coding and non-coding sequences of 3D7 var and rif genes as well as var genes of other parasite strains. RESULTS: var genes can be sub...

  20. Changes in var gene mRNA levels during erythrocytic development in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    , consistent with previous studies of other PfEMP1. Transcription of the pseudogene var1csa could not be detected in NF54VAR2CSA cells. CONCLUSION: The optimal sampling point for analysis of var transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR is the ring-stage, which is encouraging for the analysis of fresh...

  1. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  2. Bolívar ante la política de Cartagena en 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Forero

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available Veintinueve años contaba Simón Bolívar en los días de su llegada a Cartagena. Imaginación ardiente, ojos vivos, ademanes colmados de actividad eran los dones visibles al instante en el futuro Libertador. Traía en el alma un gran dolor.

  3. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volumetric additive reconciliation... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and...) For a facility which uses a gauge to measure the inventory of the detergent storage tank, the total...

  4. Novel adenovirus encoded virus-like particles displaying the placental malaria associated VAR2CSA antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria a...

  5. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  6. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  7. Choosing Expected Shortfall Over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe compare Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) following a Stochastic Dominance (SD) approach frequently used to order distributions in terms of welfare and in portfolio selection. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommends bank risk managers to shift the

  8. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  9. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  10. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); C. Pavlidis (Cristiana); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); P. Joly (Philippe); M. Bartsakoulia (Marina); C. Riemer (Cathy); W. Miller (Webb); G. Tzimas (Giannis); H. Wajcman (Henri); R.C. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHbVar (http://globin.bx.psu.edu/hbvar) is one of the oldest and most appreciated locus-specific databases launched in 2001 by a multi-center academic effort to provide timely information on the genomic alterations leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and

  11. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  12. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.; Ahmad, S.

    1996-01-01

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  13. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  14. Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus and a key to the taxa known from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve-Raventós, F.; Villarreal, M.; Heykoop, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydropus paradoxus var. xerophyticus, characterized by its long cystidia, broad spores and habitat in xerophytic basic pastures with communities of Thymus-Lavandula spp. is described as a new taxon from Spain. In addition, a key to 22 taxa known from Europe is given.

  15. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske hype...

  16. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  17. Clinical laboratories collaborate to resolve differences in variant interpretations submitted to ClinVar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Dolinsky, Jill S; Knight Johnson, Amy E; Pesaran, Tina; Azzariti, Danielle R; Bale, Sherri; Chao, Elizabeth C; Das, Soma; Vincent, Lisa; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-01

    Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.

  18. On the detection of effective marketing instruments and causality in VAR models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, C.; Otter, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic multivariate models become more and more popular in analyzing the behavior of competive marketing environments. Takada and Bass (1998), Dekimpe, Hanssens and Silva-Rosso (1999), and Dekimpe and Hanssens (1999) recommend to use Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models because they provide

  19. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one of the m...

  20. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which