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Sample records for prunus sp cultivated

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

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    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  2. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

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    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  3. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

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    Andrulevičiūtė, Vaida; Skorupskaitė, Virginija; Kasperovičienė, Jūratė; Makareviciene, Prof. dr. Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medi...

  4. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  5. Enhancing lipid productivity by co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10.

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    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Xuya; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianhua; Huang, Zunxi

    2014-07-01

    To improve lipid productivity, co-cultivation of Chlorella sp. U4341 and Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 for lipid production was studied. Compared with mono-cultivations, co-cultivation of the two microalgae significantly increased the accumulation of total biomass and total lipid yield, and enhanced the lipid productivity (29.52 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Fatty acid compositions significantly varied in different cultivations. The content of C18 fatty acids in co-cultivation significantly increased, especially for oleic acid (32.45%) and linolenic acid (10.03%) compared with that in mono-cultivation. Moreover, high saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (55.85%) were obtained in co-cultivation, which suggests their potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

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    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  7. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

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    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  8. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. with livestock waste compost for lipid production.

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    Zhu, L-D; Li, Z-H; Guo, D-B; Huang, F; Nugroho, Y; Xia, K

    2017-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. with livestock waste compost as an alternative nutrient source was investigated in this present study. Five culture media with different nutrient concentrations were prepared. The characteristics of algal growth and lipid production were examined. The results showed that the specific growth rate together with biomass and lipid productivities was different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration decreased, the lipid content of Chlorella sp. increased. The variations in lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. among all the cultures were mainly due to the deviations in biomass productivity. The livestock waste compost medium with 2000mgL-1COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for Chlorella sp. cultivation, where the highest productivities of biomass (288.84mgL-1day-1) and lipid (104.89mgL-1day-1) were presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The evaluation of the growth and nutrition conditions of the garden nursery material Prunus and Thuja according to the use of various cultivating substrates and systems of fertilization

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    Tomáš Meisl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different peat-based cultivating substrates and the system of fertilization on the nutrition conditions and growth characteristics of garden nursery material Prunus kurilensis ‘Brillant’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘Smaragd’ were observed during a three-year experiment. Three kinds of substrates were tested: peat + pumice (pemza proportioned 8:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2. Two fertilizers were used: granular controlled-release fertilizer – Osmocote, and watersoluble with irrigation – Kristalon.A higher content of macroelements was observed in the leaves of Prunus. The only exception was potassium, the quantity of which was demonstrably higher in the assimilative organs of Thuja. On the contrary, Thuja had a higher content of trace elements except for copper and iron. The highest contents of nitrogen, potassium, and iron were statistically proved in leaves of woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice due to its higher sorption capability. A better nutrition conditions in almost all nutrients were observed at plants where the gradually effective Osmocote was applied. The exceptions were calcium, molybdenum and iron, the content of which was, on the contrary, higher where Kristalon with irrigation were used. Physical characteristics of the growing substrates that contained bark were significantly worse at the end of the experiment. This was even intensified by clay. The substrate containing peat and pumice were less stable. The best growth was observed in woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice, ie where peat was not substituted by bark, and, at the same time, expanded clay was used instead of classic clay. Higher values of growth characteristics were demonstratively observed after the Osmocote fertilizer was applied.The results of the experiment reveal that pumice should be recommended, pemza with a high sorption capability and the

  10. Metabolite diversification by cultivation of the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp. in halogen containing media: Cultivation of terrestrial fungus in seawater.

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    Wijesekera, Kanchana; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2017-06-01

    The endophytic fungus, Dothideomycete sp. CRI7, isolated from the terrestrial plant, Tiliacora triandra, was salt tolerant, capable of growing in the culture medium prepared from seawater; salts in seawater did not have any effects on the fungal growth. Metabolite productions of the fungus CRI7 cultivated in media prepared from seawater (MSW), prepared from deionized water supplemented with potassium bromide (MKBr) or potassium iodide (MKI), and prepared from deionized water (MDW) were investigated. It was found that the cultivation of the fungus CRI7 in MKBr and MSW enabled the fungus to produce nine new metabolites (1-9). The production of an azaphilone, austdiol (10), of the fungus CRI7 grown in MDW was 0.04g/L, which was much lower than that grown in MSW, MKBr, and MKI media which provided the yields of 0.5, 0.9, and 1.2g/L, respectively, indicating that halogen salts significantly enhanced the production of the polyketide 10. The cultivation of terrestrial fungi in media containing halogen salts could therefore be useful for the metabolite diversification by one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) approach. Moreover, the isolated polyketides had significant biosynthetic relationship, suggesting that the cultivation of fungi in halogen containing media could provide the insights into certain polyketide biosynthesis. One of the isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 100μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple approaches to enhance the cultivability of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp

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    Sipkema, D.; Schippers, K.J.; Maalcke, W.J.; Yang, Y.; Salim, S.; Blanch, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Three methods were examined to cultivate bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.: agar plate cultures, liquid cultures, and floating filter cultures. A variety of oligotrophic media were employed, including media with aqueous and organic sponge extracts, bacterial signal

  12. Differences in energy transfer of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, grown in different cultivation media.

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    Niki, Kenta; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Currently, cyanobacteria are regarded as potential biofuel sources. Large-scale cultivation of cyanobacteria in seawater is of particular interest because seawater is a low-cost medium. In the present study, we examined differences in light-harvesting and energy transfer processes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown in different cultivation media, namely modified A medium (the optimal growth medium for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and f/2 (a seawater medium). The concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions were varied in both media. Higher nitrate ion and/or phosphate ion concentrations yielded high relative content of phycobilisome. The cultivation medium influenced the energy transfers within phycobilisome, from phycobilisome to photosystems, within photosystem II, and from photosystem II to photosystem I. We suggest that the medium also affects charge recombination at the photosystem II reaction center and formation of a chlorophyll-containing complex.

  13. Pretreatment of brewery effluent to cultivate Spirulina sp. for nutrients removal and biomass production.

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    Lu, Qian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wen; Zhong, Yuming; Ming, Caibing; Qian, Wei; Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianliang

    2017-10-01

    Due to the low concentration of nitrate and high contents of organics, brewery effluent was not suitable for the cultivation of Spirulina sp. This work changed the nutrient profile of brewery effluent effectively by dilution, addition of nitrate, and anaerobic digestion. The result showed that the optimum dilution rate and NaNO3 addition for brewery effluent were 20% and 0.5 g/L, respectively. Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent produced 1.562 mg/L biomass and reduced concentrations of nutrients to reach the permissible dischargeable limits. In addition, Spirulina sp. grown in pretreated brewery effluent had much higher protein content and oil content. So the appropriate treatment converted brewery effluent into a nutrient balanced medium for algae cultivation and alleviated the potential environmental problems. Pretreatment procedure developed in this work is an effective way to realize the sustainable utilization of brewery effluent and produce algal biomass with valuable nutrients.

  14. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp on Fresh Water and Waste Water of Tofu Industry

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    Widayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella sp. is a microalgae that potential for food supplement, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, aqua culture and cosmetics. Chlorella sp. commonly growth in sea water. Indonesia as a producer of tofu generated more liquid waste. Nutrient that contained in the tofu wastewater are very useful for the production of microalgae. Cultivation carried out for 7 days at different percent volume of tofu liquid waste showed that the more volume of tofu liquid waste make them longer process decipherment of polymer compounds in the waste, that’s make the growth rate of Chlorella sp. are slowness. Variable of10%V has the fastest growth rate. While, 90% v/v variable has the highest concentration of algae. It shows that Chlorella sp. better to grows in tofu wastewater than seawater.

  15. Paenibacillus panaciterrae sp. nov., isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil.

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    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Singh, Priyanka; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A novel bacterium, designated DCY95T, was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. On the basis of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequence analysis, this isolate was assigned to the genus Paenibacillus and found to be closely related to Paenibacillus sacheonensis SY01T (97.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Paenibacillus taihuensis THMBG22T (96.4 %). The partial gyrB gene of DCY95T possessed 69.6-83.9 % sequence identity to those of other members of the genus Paenibacillus. Strain DCY95T was Gram-reaction-negative, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Ellipsoidal free spores or subterminal endospores were produced in sporangia. MK-7 was the diagnostic menaquinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diamonopimelic acid as the diamino acid. Whole-cell sugars comprised ribose, mannose and glucose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified aminophospholipids, and two unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 60.7 ± 0.9 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results placed strain DCY95T within the genus Paenibacillus. However, DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DCY95T and P. sacheonensis KACC 14895T or P. taihuensis NBRC 108766T were lower than 36 %. The low DNA relatedness data in combination with phylogenetic and (GTG)5-PCR analyses, as well as biochemical tests, indicated that strain DCY95T could not be assigned to any recognized species. In conclusion, the results in this study support the classification of strain DCY95T as a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus panaciterrae is proposed. The type strain is DCY95T ( = KCTC 33581T = DSM 29477T).

  16. Cultivation of Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae in Batch culture using Nile tilapia effluent.

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    Guerrero-Cabrera, Luis; Rueda, José A; García-Lozano, Hiram; Navarro, A Karin

    2014-06-01

    Monoraphidium sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. algae were cultured in three volumes of Tilapia Effluent Medium (TEM) in comparison with the Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (Nichols and Bold, 1965). Specific growth rate (μ'), biomass dry productivity (Q), volumetric productivity (Qv) as well as lipid and protein content were measured. Then, volumetric productivities for both lipids and proteins were calculated (QVL and QVP). In Scenedesmus sp., BBM produced higher μ' and Qv than TEM in 1.5L volume. Chlorella sp. showed a higher QVL for BBM than TEM. Any observed difference in protein or lipid productivities among volumes was in favor of a greater productivity for 1.5L volume. Even when TEM had a larger protein content in Chlorella sp. than BBM, QVP was not different. Current results imply that TEM can be used as an alternative growth medium for algae when using Batch cultures, yet productivity is reduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

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    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  18. UTILIZATION OF CO2 IN SEMI-CONTINUOUS CULTIVATION OF Spirulina sp. AND Chlorella fusca AND EVALUATION OF BIOMASS COMPOSITION

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    J. B. Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Cultivation conditions and the process considerably influence the composition of microalgae. The objective of this study was to use CO2 as a carbon source in semi-continuous cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and to evaluate the influence of the renewal rate on the biomass composition and production of these microalgae. Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 were cultivated with 10% (v/v CO2. The blend concentration was 1.6 g L-1, and 20 and 40% (v/v renewal rates were studied. Spirulina sp. LEB 18 presented the best kinetic results and the maximum biomass concentration and biopolymer yield when grown with CO2 as the carbon source. Under the same conditions (10% (v/v CO2, the microalgae Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 exhibited maximum levels of protein, carbohydrates and lipids.

  19. Fate of H2S during the cultivation of Chlorella sp. deployed for biogas upgrading.

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    González-Sánchez, Armando; Posten, Clemens

    2017-04-15

    The H 2 S may play a key role in the sulfur cycle among the biogas production by the anaerobic digestion of wastes and the biogas upgrading by a microalgae based technology. The biogas is upgraded by contacting with slightly alkaline aqueous microalgae culture, then CO 2 and H 2 S are absorbed. The dissolved H 2 S could limit or inhibit the microalgae growth. This paper evaluated the role of dissolved H 2 S and other sulfured byproducts under prevailing biogas upgrading conditions using a microalgal technology. At initial stages of batch cultivation the growth of Chlorella sp. was presumably inhibited by dissolved H 2 S. After 2 days, the sulfides were oxidized mainly by oxic chemical reactions to sulfate, which was later rapidly assimilated by Chlorella sp., allowing high growing rates. The fate of H 2 S during the microalgae cultivation at pH > 8.5 was assessed by a mathematical model where the pentasulfide, thiosulfate and sulfite were firstly produced and converted finally to sulfate for posterior assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peroxidases e fenóis totais em tecidos de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. nos períodos de crescimento vegetativo e de dormência Peroxidases activity and total phenols in the tissue rootstock of Prunus sp. in the vegetative development and rest periods

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    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidases e a concentração de fenóis apresentam uma grande importância na união entre o enxerto e o porta-enxerto, podendo, desta forma, influenciar as respostas de estresse da incompatibilidade no processo de enxertia. O presente trabalho objetivou quantificar a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais em cultivares de Prunus sp. Amostras de casca e de lenho foram processadas e quantificadas por espectrofotometria, a partir dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras Mirabolano e Marianna comum, cultivados nos viveiros do Departamento de Fitotecnia da FAEM/UFPel. Concluiu-se que a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais varia entre porta-enxertos, período de crescimento e tipo de tecido; a maior atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais ocorre nos porta-enxertos Mirabolano e Marianna; a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais é maior na casca do que no lenho; no período de dormência, ocorre maior atividade das peroxidases e menor quantidade de fenóis totais, sendo o inverso no período vegetativo.The peroxidase activities and total phenols present a great importance in the union between the stock and the rootstock, and this is a way to evaluate the response to stress of the incompatibility in the graft process. This work aimed to quantify peroxidase activities and total phenols in order to verify its influence on the physiological and biochemical processes of Prunus sp. cultivars grafting. Those metabolic processes the samples in the bark and wood were processed and quantified by spectrophotometry, starting from peach rootstock GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi; and plum rootstock cv. Mirabolano and Marianna Comum, from nurseries of the Department of Plant Science of FAEM/UFPel. It is concluded that: peroxidase and the total phenol activities vary among rootstocks, growth period and tissue type; the highest peroxidase activities and total

  1. Macromolecular composition of a Cellulomonas sp. cultivated in continuous culture under glucose and zinc limitation.

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    Summers, R J; Srinivasan, V R

    1979-01-01

    The mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. (ATCC 21399) was cultivated under glucose and zinc limitation at a variety of growth rates in continuous culture. The growth characteristics and macromolecular composition of the population varied with the limitation imposed and the growth rate. Glucose- and zinc-limited cultures maintained a constant relative protein content. The relative ribonucleic acid content increased, whereas the carbohydrate and deoxyribonucleic acid contents decreased with an increase in the population growth rate in glucose-limited cultures. Free unbound lipid remained constant. The maximum population growth rate in zinc-limited cultures was directly proportional to the zinc concentration and demonstrated a traditional steady-state function. The nucleic acid content increased with increased growth rate; however, the relative nucleic acid content was significantly depressed when compared to glucose limited cells. This manner of cultivation may prove to be a useful tool for the production of single cell protein with lowered nucleic acid content and the elucidation of micronutrient involvement in growth-related processes. PMID:114114

  2. Biomass production of a Scenedesmus sp. under phosphorous-starvation cultivation condition.

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    Yin-Hu, Wu; Yin, Yu; Xin, Li; Hong-Ying, Hu; Zhen-Feng, Su

    2012-05-01

    Microalgae-based bioenergy has gained extensive attention, but the consumption of non-renewable resource such as phosphorous is inevitable in the production of its feedstock. In this work, the minimal phosphorous consumption for algal biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was investigated by monitoring the growth and nutrient uptake under two different cultivation modes: phosphorous-starvation and luxury-nutrient. The results showed that continuous nitrogen and phosphorous feeding in luxury-nutrient mode had no stimulating effect on biomass productivity at the nutrient level in this study, TN: 245 mg L(-1), TP: 5.4 mg L(-1). However, the sustained growth of biomass after the exhaust of phosphate in phosphorous-starvation mode led to significant increase in the biomass yield of phosphorous up to 160 g biomass/g -P, which was nearly six times more than that with nutrient feeding. To minimize phosphorous resource consumption in production of algal biomass, a phosphorous-starvation cultivation mode is proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  4. Process optimization and modeling for the cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis striata via response surface methodology.

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    Imamoglu, Esra; Demirel, Zeliha; Conk Dalay, Meltem

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal physical process conditions for the cultivation of locally isolated strains of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis striata to achieve maximum growth rate. It was essential to evaluate biomass production at different agitation rates, light intensities, and temperature levels. Central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and optimize the cultivation process for Nannochloropsis sp. and T. striata. The specific growth rate of 0.250 d(-1) was obtained for Nannochloropsis sp. cells under the light intensity of 54 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) , at the agitation rate of 151 rpm in 24.5°C. The optimal physical process conditions for T. striata were obtained under the light intensity of 56 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) in 25.5°C at the agitation rate of 151 rpm in 25.5°C, resulting in a specific growth rate of 0.226 d(-1) . The predicted values were justified by the verification tests. Good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental values confirmed the validity of the models for the cultivation of microalgal strains. In this article, the noteworthy result was that temperature was a dominant factor in obtaining high chl-a content for Nannochloropsis sp., whereas the growth of T. striata strongly depended on light exposure. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Bacillus niabensis sp. nov., isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Bong; Go, Seung-Joo; Lee, Gil-Bok

    2007-08-01

    A group of five bacilli, designated strains 4T12, 4T19(T), 5M45, 5M53 and 5T52, isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation, were examined. These strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, spore-forming rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, showing the highest levels of similarity (approx. 96.6-96.9 %) with respect to Bacillus herbersteinensis DSM 16534(T). The values for DNA-DNA hybridization (approx. 85-96 %) among these five strains revealed that they belong to the same species. The major menaquinone present was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (approx. 24.5-33.9 %) and C(16 : 0) (approx. 15.1-34.1 %). The DNA G+C contents were 37.7-40.9 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and comparative genomic analyses, the five isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus niabensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4T19(T) (=KACC 11279(T) =DSM 17723(T)).

  6. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  7. The influences of cultivation setting on inflorescence lipid distributions, concentrations, and carbon isotope ratios of Cannabis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Hambach, Bastian; Barnette, Janet E; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2016-05-01

    While much is known about how the growth environment influences many aspects of floral morphology and physiology, little is known about how the growth setting influences floral lipid composition. We explored variations in paraffin wax composition in Cannabis sp., a cash crop grown both indoors and outdoors across the United States today. Given an increased focus on regulation of this crop, there are additional incentives to certify the setting of Cannabis cultivation. To understand the impacts of the growth environment, we studied distributions, concentrations, and carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes isolated from Cannabis sp. inflorescences to assess if variations within these lipid parameters were related to known growth settings of specimens seized by federal agents. We found that Cannabis plants cultivated under open-field settings had increased inflorescence paraffin wax abundances and greater production of lower molecular weight n-alkanes relative to plants grown in enclosed environments. Further, the carbon isotope ratios of n-C29 from Cannabis plants grown in enclosed environments had relatively lower carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values compared to plants from open-field environments. While this set of observations on seized plant specimens cannot address the particular driver behind these observations, we posit that (a) variations in irradiance and/or photoperiod may influence the distribution and concentration of inflorescence lipids, and (b) the δ(13)C value of source CO2 and lipid concentration regulates the δ(13)C values of inflorescence n-C29 and bulk Cannabis plant materials. Nonetheless, by using a cultivation model based on δ(13)C values of n-C29, the model correctly identified the growth environment 90% of time. We suggest that these lipid markers may be used to trace cultivation methods of Cannabis sp. now and become a more powerful marker in the future, once the mechanism(s) behind these patterns is uncovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  8. Integrated process of two stage cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. for nutraceutically valuable eicosapentaenoic acid along with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Madhusree; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis is one of the potential producers of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a valued nutraceutical. Nannochloropsis sp. was cultivated under photoautotrophic condition utilizing CO2 in a two phase cultivation process in order to enhance the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) productivity. It was cultivated in a photobioreactor up to late log phase for cell growth (phase I). Then, the culture was harvested and confronted to relatively low temperature (10 °C) and low light (30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in both photobioreactor and Erlenmeyer flask (phase II), thus augmenting EPA% by 3.4 fold. Lower temperature with low light favored the synthesis of EPA although, biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity were slightly decreased relative to phase I. The total lipids extracted from Nannochloropsis sp. fractionated into neutral lipids (NLs), glycolipids (GLs) and phospholipids (PLs) and a major proportion of EPA was found in phospholipids. Results suggested that low temperature and low light may ameliorate partitioning towards EPA in phospholipids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixotrophic cultivation of oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 mediated by actual coal-fired flue gas for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Kim, Bohwa; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Kyubock; Cho, Sunja; Hyun, Ju-Soo; Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jin-Suk; Oh, You-Kwan

    2014-10-01

    Flue gases mainly consist of CO2 that can be utilized to facilitate microalgal culture for bioenergy production. In the present study, to evaluate the feasibility of the utilization of flue gas from a coal-burning power plant, an indigenous and high-CO2-tolerant oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1, was cultivated under mixotrophic conditions, and the results were evaluated. When the culture was mediated by flue gas, highest biomass (0.8 g cells/L·d) and FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) productivity (121 mg/L·d) were achieved in the mixotrophic mode with 5 g/L glucose, 5 mM nitrate, and a flow rate of 0.2 vvm. By contrast, the photoautotrophic cultivation resulted in a lower biomass (0.45 g cells/L·d) and a lower FAME productivity (60.2 mg/L·d). In general, the fatty acid profiles of Chlorella sp. KR-1 revealed meaningful contents (>40 % of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids) under the mixotrophic condition, which enables the obtainment of a better quality of biodiesel than is possible under the autotrophic condition. Conclusively then, it was established that a microalgal culture mediated by flue gas can be improved by adoption of mixotrophic cultivation systems.

  10. Seawater cultivation of freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 drastically alters amino acid composition and glycogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eIijima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water use assessment is important for bioproduction using cyanobacteria. For eco-friendly reasons, seawater should preferably be used for cyanobacteria cultivation instead of freshwater. In this study, we demonstrated that the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 could be grown in a medium based on seawater. The Synechocystis wild-type strain grew well in an artificial seawater (ASW medium supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The addition of HEPES buffer improved cell growth overall, although the growth in ASW medium was inferior to that in the synthetic BG-11 medium. The levels of proteins involved in sugar metabolism changed depending on the culture conditions. The biosynthesis of several amino acids including aspartate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ornithine, and lysine, was highly up-regulated by cultivation in ASW. Two types of natural seawater (NSW were also made available for the cultivation of Synechocystis cells, with supplementation of both nitrogen and phosphorus sources. These results revealed the potential use of seawater for the cultivation of freshwater cyanobacteria, which would help to reduce freshwater consumption during biorefinery using cyanobacteria.

  11. Seawater cultivation of freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 drastically alters amino acid composition and glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Water use assessment is important for bioproduction using cyanobacteria. For eco-friendly reasons, seawater should preferably be used for cyanobacteria cultivation instead of freshwater. In this study, we demonstrated that the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 could be grown in a medium based on seawater. The Synechocystis wild-type strain grew well in an artificial seawater (ASW) medium supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The addition of HEPES buffer improved cell growth overall, although the growth in ASW medium was inferior to that in the synthetic BG-11 medium. The levels of proteins involved in sugar metabolism changed depending on the culture conditions. The biosynthesis of several amino acids including aspartate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ornithine, and lysine, was highly up-regulated by cultivation in ASW. Two types of natural seawater (NSW) were also made available for the cultivation of Synechocystis cells, with supplementation of both nitrogen and phosphorus sources. These results revealed the potential use of seawater for the cultivation of freshwater cyanobacteria, which would help to reduce freshwater consumption during biorefinery using cyanobacteria.

  12. Cultivation of Acidophilic Algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in Media Derived from Acidic Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14) in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively) compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ∼2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ∼2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4(+), NO3(-) or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4(+) was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4(+) was 107.42 ± 1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight). P. sp. YKT1 cells in the

  13. Cultivation of acidophilic algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in media derived from acidic hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hirooka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14 in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ~2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ~2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4+, NO3- or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4+ was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4+ was 107.42±1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight. P. sp. YKT1 cells in the

  14. Cultivation of Acidophilic Algae Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 in Media Derived from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess a high potential for producing pigments, antioxidants, and lipophilic compounds for industrial applications. However, the cultivation of microalgae comes at a high cost. To reduce the cost, changes from a closed bioreactor to open pond system and from a synthetic medium to environmental or wastewater-based medium are being sought. However, the use of open pond systems is currently limited because of contamination by undesirable organisms. To overcome this issue, one strategy is to combine acidophilic algae and acidic drainage in which other organisms are unable to thrive. Here, we tested waters from sulfuric acidic hot springs (Tamagawa, pH 1.15 and Tsukahara, pH 1.14) in Japan for the cultivation of the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria 074G and the green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1. Both of these spring waters are rich in phosphate (0.043 and 0.145 mM, respectively) compared to other environmental freshwater sources. Neither alga grew in the spring water but they grew very well when the waters were supplemented with an inorganic nitrogen source. The algal yields were ∼2.73 g dry weight/L for G. sulphuraria and ∼2.49 g dry weight/L for P. sp. YKT1, which were comparable to those in an autotrophic synthetic medium. P. sp. YKT1 grew in the spring waters supplemented either of NH4+, NO3- or urea, while G. sulphuraria grew only when NH4+ was supplemented. For P. sp. YKT1, the spring water was adjusted to pH 2.0, while for G. sulphuraria, no pH adjustment was required. In both cases, no additional pH-buffering compound was required. The phycocyanin of the thermophilic G. sulphuraria is known to be more thermostable than that from the Spirulina platensis currently used in phycocyanin production for commercial use. The phycocyanin content in G. sulphuraria in the Tsukahara water supplemented with NH4+ was 107.42 ± 1.81 μg/mg dry weight, which is comparable to the level in S. platensis (148.3 μg/mg dry weight). P. sp. YKT1 cells in the Tamagawa

  15. Simultaneous microalgal biomass production and CO2 fixation by cultivating Chlorella sp. GD with aquaculture wastewater and boiler flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Jian, Jhong-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Bin; Wan, Xin-Hua; Lai, Jinn-Tsyy; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. GD, cultivated in aquaculture wastewater (AW) aerated with boiler flue gas, was investigated. When AW from a grouper fish farm was supplemented with additional nutrients, the microalgal biomass productivity after 7days of culture was 0.794gL(-1)d(-1). CO2 fixation efficiencies of the microalgal strains aerated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3vvm of boiler flue gas (containing approximately 8% CO2) were 53, 51, 38, and 30%, respectively. When the microalgal strain was cultured with boiler flue gas in nutrient-added AW, biomass productivity increased to 0.892gL(-1)d(-1). In semi-continuous cultures, average biomass productivities of the microalgal strain in 2-day, 3-day, and 4-day replacement cultures were 1.296, 0.985, and 0.944gL(-1)d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Chlorella sp. GD cultivations in AW aerated with boiler flue gas for reusing water resources, reducing CO2 emission, and producing microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  17. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

  18. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  19. Screening of cultivated and wild adzuki bean for resistance to race 3 of Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola, cause of brown stem rot

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, NORIO; Shimada, Hisanori; Fujita, Shohei

    2009-01-01

    Two diseases of adzuki bean, brown stem rot (BSR, caused by Cadophora gregata f. sp. adzukicola) and adzuki bean Fusarium wilt (AFW, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. adzukicola), are serious problems in Hokkaido and have been controlled using cultivars with multiple resistance. However, because a new race of BSR, designated race 3, was identified, sources of parental adzuki bean for resistance to race 3 were needed. Therefore, we examined 67 cultivars and lines of cultivated and wild adzuk...

  20. Cultivation of freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. using a low-cost inorganic fertilizer for enhanced biomass and lipid yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manoranjan; Thirunavoukkarasu, Manikkannan; Mohanty, Rama C

    2016-01-01

    The potential of an inorganic fertilizer as an alternative nutrient source for the cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 was investigated. With a preliminary study at a shake-flask scale, the microalgae cultivation was scaled up in a photobioreactor containing an inorganic fertilizer medium. Microalgae cultured in a shake flask containing 0.1 g L(-1) of urea and 1.0 g L(-1) of NPK (Nitrogen: Phosphorus: Potassium) fertilizers showed a promising result in biomass productivity. During the scale-up study in a photobioreactor the specific growth rate (μ d(-1)), biomass yield (g L(-1)), and total biomass productivity (mg L(-1) d(-1)), was found to be 0.265, 1.19 and 66.1, respectively. The lipid yield (%) as per dry cell weight (DCW) and lipid productivity (mg L(-1) d(-1)) was found to be a maximum of 28.55 and 18.87, respectively, in a stationary phase of the microalgae growth. The fatty acids methyl ester profile was proven to be desirable for biodiesel production.

  1. Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Min, Min; Chen, Yifeng; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Roger R

    2010-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  3. Mycelium cultivation, chemical composition and antitumour activity of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P H; Zhang, Q X; Wu, J Y

    2006-08-01

    To examine and illustrate the morphological characteristics and growth kinetics of Cs-HK1, a Tolypocladium fungus, isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis in solid and liquid cultures, and the major chemical constituents and antitumour effects of Cs-HK1 mycelium. The Cs-HK1 fungus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild C. sinensis and identified as a Tolypocladium sp. fungus. It grew rapidly at 22-25 degrees C on a liquid medium containing glucose, yeast extract, peptone and major inorganic salts, with a specific growth rate of 1.1 day(-1), reaching a cell density of 23.0 g dw l(-1) in 7-9 days. Exopolysaccharides accumulated in the liquid culture to about 0.3 g l(-1) glucose equivalent. In comparison with natural C. sinensis, the fungal mycelium had similar contents of protein (11.7-microg) and carbohydrate (654.6-microg) but much higher contents of polysaccharide (244.2 mg vs 129.5 mg), adenosine (1116.8-microg vs 264.6 microg) and cordycepin (65.7 microg vs 20.8 microg) (per gram dry weight). Cyclosporin A, an antibiotic commonly produced by Tolypocladium sp., was also detected from the mycelium extract. The hot water extract of mycelium showed low cytotoxic effect on B16 melanoma cells in culture (about 25% inhibition) but significant antitumour effect in animal tests, causing 50% inhibition of B16 cell-induced tumour growth in mice. The Tolypocladium sp. fungus, Cs-HK1, can be easily cultivated by liquid fermentation. The mycelium biomass contained the major bioactive compounds of C. sinensis, and the mycelium extract had significant antitumour activity. The Cs-HK1 fungus may be a new and promising medicinal fungus and an effective and economical substitute of the wild C. sinensis for health care.

  4. Continuous Cultivation for Apparent Optimization of Defined Media for Cellulomonas sp. and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. J.; Boudreaux, D. P.; Srinivasan, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    Steady-state continuous culture was used to optimize lean chemically defined media for a Cellulomonas sp. and Bacillus cereus strain T. Both organisms were extremely sensitive to variations in trace-metal concentrations. However, medium optimization by this technique proved rapid, and multifactor screening was easily conducted by using a minimum of instrumentation. The optimized media supported critical dilution rates of 0.571 and 0.467 h−1 for Cellulomonas and Bacillus, respectively. These values approximated maximum growth rate values observed in batch culture. PMID:16345417

  5. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  6. An ultrastructural and histopathological study of Henneguya pellucida n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae infecting Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano E.A.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During a study of myxosporean parasites of cultivated freshwater fish, a new myxosporean species, Henneguya pellucida n. sp., was discovered. Of the 120 Piaractus mesopotamicus sampled, only 10 specimens (8.3% were infected. Yellow, round plasmodia measuring 0.5-3 mm were found in the serous membrane of the visceral cavity and in the tunica externa of the swim bladder. Sporogenesis was asynchronous, with the earliest developmental stages aligned prevailingly along the endoplasmic periphery and mature spores in the central zone. The mature spores were pear shaped (total length: 33.3 ± 1.5 μm, mean ± SD; width: 4.1 ± 0.4 μm; body length: 11.4 ± 0.3 μm; caudal process length: 24.1 ± 1.5 μm. The polar capsules were elongated (length: 4.0 ± 0.4 μm; width: 1.6 ± 0.2 μm. The development of the parasite in the swim bladder produced thickening of the tunica externa and a granulomatous reaction. There was no correlation between the prevalence of the parasite and the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. Infection was recorded only in juvenile specimens ranging in size from 9.5 to 20 cm.

  7. An ultrastructural and histopathological study of Henneguya pellucida n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae) cultivated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, E A; Arana, S; Cordeiro, N S

    2005-09-01

    During a study of myxosporean parasites of cultivated freshwater fish, a new myxosporean species, Henneguya pellucida n. sp., was discovered. Of the 120 Piaractus mesopotamicus sampled, only 10 specimens (8.3%) were infected. Yellow, round plasmodia measuring 0.5-3 mm were found in the serous membrane of the visceral cavity and in the tunica externa of the swim bladder. Sporogenesis was asynchronous, with the earliest developmental stages aligned prevailingly along the endoplasmic periphery and mature spores in the central zone. The mature spores were pear shaped (total length: 33.3 +/- 1.5 microm, mean +/- SD; width: 4.1 +/- 0.4 microm; body length: 11.4 +/- 0.3 microm; caudal process length: 24.1 +/- 1.5 microm). The polar capsules were elongated (length: 4.0 +/- 0.4 microm; width: 1.6 +/- 0.2 microm). The development of the parasite in the swim bladder produced thickening of the tunica externa and a granulomatous reaction. There was no correlation between the prevalence of the parasite and the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. Infection was recorded only in juvenile specimens ranging in size from 9.5 to 20 cm.

  8. Complete Genomic Structure of the Cultivated Rice Endophyte Azospirillum sp. B510

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takakazu; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakatsukasa, Hiroki; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Ono, Akiko; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Katoh, Midori; Nakazaki, Naomi; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei

    2010-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a diazotrophic endophyte, Azospirillum sp. B510. Strain B510 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from stems of rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare). The genome of B510 consisted of a single chromosome (3 311 395 bp) and six plasmids, designated as pAB510a (1 455 109 bp), pAB510b (723 779 bp), pAB510c (681 723 bp), pAB510d (628 837 bp), pAB510e (537 299 bp), and pAB510f (261 596 bp). The chromosome bears 2893 potential protein-encoding genes, two sets of rRNA gene clusters (rrns), and 45 tRNA genes representing 37 tRNA species. The genomes of the six plasmids contained a total of 3416 protein-encoding genes, seven sets of rrns, and 34 tRNAs representing 19 tRNA species. Eight genes for plasmid-specific tRNA species are located on either pAB510a or pAB510d. Two out of eight genomic islands are inserted in the plasmids, pAB510b and pAB510e, and one of the islands is inserted into trnfM-CAU in the rrn located on pAB510e. Genes other than the nif gene cluster that are involved in N2 fixation and are homologues of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 include fixABCX, fixNOQP, fixHIS, fixG, and fixLJK. Three putative plant hormone-related genes encoding tryptophan 2-monooxytenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetaldehyde hydrolase (iaaH), which are involved in IAA biosynthesis, and ACC deaminase (acdS), which reduces ethylene levels, were identified. Multiple gene-clusters for tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic-transport systems and a diverse set of malic enzymes were identified, suggesting that B510 utilizes C4-dicarboxylate during its symbiotic relationship with the host plant. PMID:20047946

  9. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  11. Comparison of pinoresinol diglucoside production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 in different media and the characterisation and product profiles of the cultivation in mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Che, Jinxin; Shao, Dongyan; Liu, Yanlin

    2016-09-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus with the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application in biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. In order to enhance the production of PDG, 18 different natural materials were tested in solid-state cultivation of Phomopsis sp. XP-8. Most of the tested natural materials promoted the production of PDG. A supplement derived from mung beans produced the highest PDG yield and better fungal growth than the other materials. Also, pinoresinol monoglucoside, pinoresinol and other substrates (phenylalanine, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid) were obtained after fermentation on mung beans. Furthermore, PDG production was much higher when mung beans were incorporated into solid state agar versus a liquid medium. The highest pinoresinol diglucoside production (72.1 mg kg(-1) in fresh culture) was obtained in 9 days using a solid state culture of Phomopsis sp. XP-8 on a mung bean grain medium containing 100 g kg(-1) glucose. Mung bean water-soluble polysaccharide was identified as a major promoter of PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8. Mung bean, especially its water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, was an efficient natural material to promote PDG production by Phomopsis sp. XP-8. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera cultivation under various climate change projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    Full Text Available Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS and MIROC-H (MR GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication.

  13. Risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) cultivation under various climate change projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication.

  14. Evaluation of the cultivation conditions of marine microalgae Chlorella sp. to be used as feedstock in ultrasound-assisted ethanolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus S. Amaral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 8 assays was conducted to study the influence of different variables namely, light intensity, CO2 level, NaNO3 concentration and aeration rate, on the cultivation of the marine microalgae Chlorella sp. to enhance the biomass feedstock availability for biodiesel. The experiments were designed using a Taguchi L8 experimental array set at two levels of operation, having light intensity (0.85 and 14.5 klux, CO2 (5 and 10%, NaNO3 (0.025 and 0.075 g L-1 and aeration rate (3:33 and 1.67 vvm as independent variables and considering biomass productivity and lipid content as response variables. All the experiments were performed in six photobioreactor vessels connected in series with a total volume of 8.4 L and working volumes of 2 L and 4 L, depending on the conditions assessed. The highest biomass productivity was 210.9 mg L-1day-1, corresponding to a lipid content of 8.2%. Such results were attained when the culture conditions were set at 0.85 klux light intensity, 5% CO2 and 0.075 g L-1 NaNO3. The aeration rate showed no significant influence on the biomass productivity. On the other hand, the highest lipid content was achieved when the cultures were grown using the lowest concentration of NaNO3 (0.025 g L-1 and an aeration rate of 1.67 vvm, while the other factors had no statistical significance. Under these conditions, the lipid content obtained was 19.8%, at the expense of reducing the biomass productivity to 85.9 mg L-1day-1.The fatty acid profile of the lipid material characterized by gas chromatography identified fourteen fatty acids with carbon chain ranging from C8 to C20 in which most of the fatty acids present were saturated (58.7 % and monounsaturated (36.1% fatty acids. Those obtained at higher proportions were the oleic (22.8%, palmitic (20.7% and lauric (17.7 % acids, indicating a suitable composition for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE synthesis. This was confirmed by acid catalysis performed under ultrasound irradiations

  15. The application of two-step linear temperature program to thermal analysis for monitoring the lipid induction of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 in large scale cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongmun; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-02-01

    Recently, microalgae was considered as a renewable energy for fuel production because its production is nonseasonal and may take place on nonarable land. Despite all of these advantages, microalgal oil production is significantly affected by environmental factors. Furthermore, the large variability remains an important problem in measurement of algae productivity and compositional analysis, especially, the total lipid content. Thus, there is considerable interest in accurate determination of total lipid content during the biotechnological process. For these reason, various high-throughput technologies were suggested for accurate measurement of total lipids contained in the microorganisms, especially oleaginous microalgae. In addition, more advanced technologies were employed to quantify the total lipids of the microalgae without a pretreatment. However, these methods are difficult to measure total lipid content in wet form microalgae obtained from large-scale production. In present study, the thermal analysis performed with two-step linear temeperature program was applied to measure heat evolved in temperature range from 310 to 351 °C of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 obtained from large-scale cultivation. And then, we examined the relationship between the heat evolved in 310-351 °C (HE) and total lipid content of the wet Nostoc cell cultivated in raceway. As a result, the linear relationship was determined between HE value and total lipid content of Nostoc sp. KNUA003. Particularly, there was a linear relationship of 98% between the HE value and the total lipid content of the tested microorganism. Based on this relationship, the total lipid content converted from the heat evolved of wet Nostoc sp. KNUA003 could be used for monitoring its lipid induction in large-scale cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of novel Micractinium sp. ME05 on vinasse and its scale up for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Iskin Kose; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Yücel, Ayse Meral; Oktem, Huseyin Avni

    2018-03-01

    Direct disposal of vinasse, a by-product of molasses fermentation plants, threatens environmental health. This study investigated the usage of vinasse as a nutrient source for the heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of novel Micractinium sp. ME05. The 500-mL flask experiments resulted in higher biomass productivities under mixotrophic conditions (0.16 ± 0.01 g L -1  day 1 ) than the heterotrophic conditions (0.13 ± 0.01 g L -1  day 1 ). A 1.7-fold increase in biomass productivity was achieved by scaling up from 500-mL flasks (0.16 ± 0.01 g L -1  day 1 ) to 2-L flasks (0.27 ± 0.019 g L -1  day 1 ). The 5-L bioreactor experiments resulted in a biomass productivity of 0.32 ± 0.2 g L -1  day 1 and lipid productivity of 3.4 ± 0.20 g L -1  day -1 . This study demonstrated that Micractinium sp. ME05 can be cultivated with vinasse to produce large amounts of biomass. The FAME profile of mixotrophic Micractinium sp. ME05 cells was promising for further biodiesel production. This study highlights the feasibility of industrial by- product-vinasse as the nutrient source for biomass and lipid productions using the novel Micractinium sp. ME05 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  18. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher production of C-phycocyanin by nitrogen-free (diazotrophic) cultivation of Nostoc sp. NK and simplified extraction by dark-cold shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Kyeong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-03-01

    Nostoc sp. NK (KCTC 12772BP) was isolated and cultivated in a BG11 medium and a nitrate-free BG11 medium (BG110). To enhance C-phycocyanin (C-PC) content in the cells, different fluorescent lamps (white, plant, and red) were used as light sources for complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). The maximum biomass productivity was 0.42g/L/d and 0.32g/L/d under BG11 and BG110 conditions, respectively. The maximum C-PC contents were 8.4% (w/w) under white lamps, 13.6% (w/w) under plant lamps, and 18% (w/w) under BG110 and the red light condition. The maximum C-PC productivity was 57.4mg/L/d in BG110 under the red lamp condition. These results indicate that a higher C-PC content could be obtained under a diazotrophic condition and a CCA reaction. The C-PC could be released naturally from cells without any extraction processes, when Nostoc sp. NK was cultivated in the BG110 medium with CO2 aeration and put in dark conditions at 5°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  1. Isolation and diversity of natural product biosynthetic genes of cultivable bacteria associated with marine sponge Mycale sp. from the coast of Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei; Wang, De-Xiang; Ding, Shao-Xiong; Zhao, Jing

    2014-04-01

    The marine sponge Mycale sp., a potential source of natural bioactive products, is widely distributed along the coast of Fujian, China. The cultivable bacterial community associated with Mycale sp., the antibacterial activities, and the PKS (polyketide synthase) and NRPS (nonribosomal peptide synthetase) gene diversity of these bacteria were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 51 isolates from Mycale sp. belonged to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Among them, some bacteria were first isolated from marine sponge. The 20 isolates with antimicrobial activities were primarily clustered within the groups Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacillus. Strain HNS054, which showed 99% similarity to Streptomyces labedae, exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 1430, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441) and Vibrio species. The screening of natural product biosynthetic genes revealed that 8 Actinobacteria species with antimicrobial activities possessed PKS-KS (ketosynthase) or NRPS-A domains, and the Nocardiopsis species contained a hybrid or mixed PKS-NRPS system. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences indicated that the identified KS domains clustered with those from diverse bacterial groups, including Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes. Most KS domain sequences had high homology (>80%) to type I KSs, but the KS domain of Nocardiopsis sp. strain HNS048 had 77% similarity to the type II KS domain of Burkholderia gladioli. The NRPS-A domains of the 8 isolates were grouped into the Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes groups. The NRPS-A gene of strain HNS052, identified as Nocardiopsis cyriacigeorgica, showed only 54% similarity to Rhodococcus opacus. All results suggested that Mycale sp. harboured diverse bacteria that could contribute to the production of novel

  2. Phycospheric Native Bacteria Pelagibaca bermudensis and Stappia sp. Ameliorate Biomass Productivity of Tetraselmis striata (KCTC1432BP) in Co-cultivation System through Mutualistic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsoo; Park, Bum Soo; Wang, Pengbin; Patidar, Shailesh K; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Sae-Hee; Han, Myung-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Effective sustainable algal cultivation techniques are essential for mass production of the marine microalga Tetraselmis for biofuel and array of co-products. The phycospheric communities affect the microalgal growth and metabolism through various allelochemical and nutrient interactions; hence, their potential to affect the quantity and quality of both biomass and bioproducts is significant. In the present study, we have screened the phycospheric communities of biofuel producing Tetraselmis striata (KCTC1432BP). A total of 26 bacterial strains were isolated and identified from the phycosphere of T. striata mass culture. Then, each bacterial strain was tested in co-cultivation conditions with T. striata for evaluating its growth promoting and inhibitory effects. Among these all strains, two promising strains (Pelagibaca bermudensis KCTC 13073BP and Stappia sp. KCTC 13072BP) were selected because of their maximum growth promoting effects and mutualistic interactions. The growth rate, biomass productivity, lipid contents, and fatty acids were analyzed during their combined growth in O3 media and compared with axenic growth of T. striata. Later, growth promoting mechanisms in the co-cultivation environment were investigated for these promising bacterial strains under replete and limited conditions of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and vitamin B12). The growth promoting potential of P. bermudensis was illustrated by the two fold enhancement in biomass productivity. These bacteria are promising for microalgal cultivation without any negative effects on the native seawater bacterial communities, as revealed by next generation sequencing analysis. This study represents, to date, the first report highlighting the role of phycospheric growth promoting bacteria of promising biofuel feedstock T. striata.

  3. Effective cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production: a pilot-scale evaluation of a novel oleaginous microalga Graesiella sp. WBG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaobin; Du, Kui; Wang, Zhongjie; Peng, Xinan; Luo, Liming; Tao, Huanping; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Dan; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2016-01-01

    Commercial production of microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically viable, largely because of low storage lipid yield in microalgae mass cultivation. Selection of lipid-rich microalgae, thus, becomes one of the key research topics for microalgal biodiesel production. However, the laboratory screening protocols alone cannot predict the ability of the strains to dominate and perform in outdoor ponds. Comprehensive assessment of microalgae species should be performed not only under the laboratory conditions, but also in the fields. Laboratory investigations using a bubbled column photobioreactor indicated the microalga Graesiella sp. WBG-1 to be the most productive species among the 63 Chlorophyta strains. In a 10 L reactor, mimicking the industrial circular pond, Graesiella sp. WBG-1 produced 12.03 g biomass m(-2) day(-1) and 5.44 g lipids (45.23 % DW) m(-2) day(-1) under 15 mol m(-2) day(-1) artificial light irradiations. The lipid content decreased to ~34 % DW when the microalga was cultured in 30 L tank PBR under natural solar irradiations, but the decline of lipid content with scaling up was the minimum among the tested strains. Based on these results, the microalga was further tested for its lipid production and culture competitiveness using a pilot-scale raceway pond (200 m(2) illuminated area, culture volume 40,000 L). Consequently, Graesiella sp. WBG-1 maintained a high lipid content (33.4 % DW), of which ~90 % was storage TAGs. Results from the outdoor experiments indicated the nice adaptability of the Graesiella sp. WBG-1 to strong and fluctuating natural solar irradiance and temperature, and also demonstrated several other features, such as large cell size (easy for harvest and resistant to swallow by protozoa) and tolerance to high culture pH (helpful to CO2 fixation). Graesiella sp. WBG-1 was a promising strain capable of accumulating large amount of storage lipid under nature solar irradiance and temperature. The high lipid content

  4. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (bacteria prevailing in banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  5. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  6. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

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    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits

  7. Synthesis of high 4-hydroxybutyrate copolymer by Cupriavidus sp. transformants using one-stage cultivation and mixed precursor substrates strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq, Ishak Muhammad; Huong, Kai-Hee; Shantini, K; Vigneswari, S; Aziz, Nursolehah Abd; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah; Bhubalan, Kesaven

    2017-03-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is noted for its high biocompatibility, which makes it an excellent candidate for biopharmaceutical applications. The wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 strain is able to synthesize P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymers with different 4HB monomer compositions (up to 70mol%) in shaken flask cultures. Combinations of 4HB carbon precursors consisting of 1,6-hexanediol and γ-butyrolactone were applied for the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) with different 4HB molar fraction. A sharp increase in 4HB monomer composition was attained by introducing additional copies of PHA synthase gene (phaC), responsible for P(3HB-co-4HB) polymerization. The phaC of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 and Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 were cloned and heterologously introduced into host, wild-type Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020. The gene dosage treatment resulted in the accumulation of 93mol% 4HB by the transformant strains when grown in similar conditions as the wild-type USMAA1020. The PHA synthase activities for both transformants were almost two-fold higher than the wild-type. The ability of the transformants to produce copolymers with high 4HB monomer composition was also tested in large scale production system using 5L and 30L bioreactors with a constant oxygen mass transfer rate. The 4HB monomer composition could be maintained at a range of 83-89mol%. The mechanical and thermal properties of copolymers improved with increasing 4HB monomer composition. The copolymers produced could be tailored for specific biopharmaceutical applications based on their properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linalool and methyl chavicol present basil (Ocimum sp. cultivated in Brazil Linalol e metil-chavicol presentes em manjericão (Ocimum sp. cultivados no Brasil

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    R.A. de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Ocimum species are commonly known as aromatic and restorative herbs. The present research aimed to study the chemical composition of the essential oils of fresh and dry basil (Ocimum sp leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The obtained yield was 0.70% for dry leaves and 0.26% for fresh leaves. The major compounds were: linalool (29.50-32.26% and methyl chavicol (36.81-41.62%. Eucalyptol could also be detected (9.99-7.68%. The oil from dry leaves presented a more complex chemical composition. This study serves to contribute to the knowledge of medicinal plants occurring in Brazil.No Brasil, as espécies de Ocimum são conhecidas como ervas aromáticas e restaurativas. Nesse trabalho foi estudado a composição química dos óleos essenciais das folhas frescas e secas de manjericão (Ocimum sp obtido por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-FID e CG-EM. Os teores encontrados foram de 0,70% para as folhas secas e 0,26% para as folhas frescas. Os componentes majoritários foram: Linalol (29,50-32,26% e metil-chavicol (36,81-41,62%. Eucaliptol também foi detectado (9,99-7,68%. O óleo das folhas secas apresentou composição química mais complexa. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das plantas medicinais de ocorrência no Brasil.

  9. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  10. Study on the Composition of Biogenic Iron-Containing Materials Obtained Under Cultivation of the Leptothrix sp. on Different Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopska, M; Paneva, D; Kadinov, G; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z; Mitov, I; Iliev, M

    2017-03-01

    The biogenic iron oxide/hydroxide materials possess useful combination of physicochemical properties and are considered for application in various areas. Their production does not require special investments because these compounds are formed during cultivation of neurophilic iron bacteria. Bacteria from genus Leptothrix develop intensively in the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria isolation medium and feeding media of Fedorov and Lieske. These media are different in their composition which determined the present study as an attempt to clear up the reasons that define the differences in the composition of the laboratory-obtained biomasses and the natural biomass finds. FTIRS, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and XRD were used in the research. Comparative analysis showed that the biomass and control samples contain iron compounds (α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, β-FeOOH, γ-Fe2O3) in different ratios. The biomass samples were enriched in oxyhydroxides of higher dispersion. Organic residuals of bacterial origin, SO4, CO3, and PO4 groups were registered in the biogenic materials.

  11. Two-Step Separation of Nostotrebin 6 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp. by High Performance Countercurrent Chromatography

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    José Cheel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC was successfully applied for the separation of nostotrebin 6 from cultivated soil cyanobacteria in a two-step operation. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (4:5:4:5, v/v/v/v was employed for the HPCCC separation. In the first-step operation, its neutral upper phase was used as stationary phase and its basic lower phase (1% NH3 in lower phase was employed as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. In the second operation step, its neutral upper phase was used as stationary phase, whereas both its neutral lower phase and basic lower phase were employed as mobile phase with a linear gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The revolution speed and temperature of the separation column were 1,000 rpm and 30 °C, respectively. Using HPCCC followed by clean-up on Sephadex LH-20 gel, 4 mg of nostotrebin 6 with a purity of 99% as determined by HPLC/DAD-ESI-HRMS was obtained from 100 mg of crude extract. The chemical identity of the isolated compound was confirmed by comparing its spectroscopic data (UV, ESI-HRMS, ESI-HRMS2 with those of an authentic standard and data available in the literature.

  12. Separation of Aeruginosin-865 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography combined with Gel Permeation Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheel, José; Minceva, Mirjana; Urajová, Petra; Aslam, Rabya; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kopecký, Jiří

    2015-10-01

    Aeruginosin-865 was isolated from cultivated soil cyanobacteria using a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and gel permeation chromatography. The solubility of Aer-865 in different solvents was evaluated using the conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS). The CPC separation was performed in descending mode with a biphasic solvent system composed of water-n-BuOH-acetic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v). The upper phase was used as a stationary phase, whereas the lower phase was employed as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The revolution speed and temperature of the separation column were 1700 rpm and 25 degrees C, respectively. Preparative CPC separation followed by gel permeation chromatography was performed on 50 mg of crude extract yielding Aer-865 (3.5 mg), with a purity over 95% as determined by HPLC. The chemical identity of the isolated compound was confirmed by comparing its spectroscopic data (UV, HRESI-MS, HRESI-MS/MS) with those of an authentic standard and data available in the literature.

  13. Optimization of flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluation of its composition in different cultivation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandik, Yohanis Irenius; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize flocculation efficiency of lipid-rich marine Chlorella sp. biomass and evaluate its composition in different cultivation modes. Among three flocculants including Al(3+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) tested, Al(3+) was most effective for harvesting microalgal biomass. Four important parameters for flocculation were optimized through response surface methodology. The maximum flocculation efficiency in photoautotrophic culture was achieved at pH 10, flocculation time of 15 min, Al(3+) concentration of 2.22 mM and microalgal cells of 0.47 g/L. The flocculation in mixotrophic culture required lower amount of Al(3+) (0.74 mM) than that in photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures (2.22 mM). The biomass harvested from mixotrophic culture contained lipid at the highest content of 42.08 ± 0.58% followed by photoautotrophic (32.08 ± 3.88%) and heterotrophic (30.42 ± 1.13%) cultures. The lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) contained protein as high as 38-44% and several minerals showing their potential use as animal feed and their carbohydrate content were 16-29%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous cultivation of lipid rich microalga Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG for improved biodiesel productivity via control variable optimization and substrate driven pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Kumar, Vikram; Mukherjee, Mayurketan; Ahlawat, Saumya; Das, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    A novel two-stage continuous heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG was demonstrated for enhanced lipid productivity. Initially, effect of control variable e.g. dilution rate and feed stream substrate concentrations on biomass productivity was evaluated. This showed significant variation in biomass productivity from 2.4gL(-1)day(-1) to 11.2gL(-1)day(-1). Further, these control variables were optimized by using multi-nutrient mechanistic model for maximizing the biomass productivity. Finally, continuous production of lipid rich algal biomass was demonstrated in two sequential bioreactors for enhanced lipid productivity. The biomass productivity of 92.7gL(-1)day(-1) was observed in the first reactor which was operated at model predicted optimal substrate concentrations of feed stream. The intracellular neutral lipid enrichment by acetate addition resulted in lipid productivity of 9.76gL(-1)day(-1) in the second reactor. Both the biomass and lipid productivities obtained from current study are significantly high amongst similarly reported literatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of 2,4-D Butyl Ester Degrading Acinetobacter sp. ZX02 from a Chinese Ginger Cultivated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jia, Hai-Fei; Jeong, In-Hong; Ahn, Young-Joon; Zhu, Yong-Zhe

    2017-08-30

    Strain ZX02 was isolated from Chinese ginger cultivated soil contaminated with various pesticides, which could utilize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D butyl ester) as the sole carbon source. On the basis of the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as the morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of strain ZX02, the organism belonged to Gram-negative bacterium and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ZX02. The strain ZX02 showed a remarkable performance in 2,4-D butyl ester degradation (100% removal in <96 h) in pure culture. Strain ZX02 was sensitive to tetracycline and resistant to amoxicillin and chloramphenicol in an antibiotic sensitivity test. The curing study indicates that the gene for degradation of 2,4-D butyl ester was encoded on a single plasmid of 23 kb. The gene encoding resistance to polymixin B sulfate was also located on this plasmid. On the basis of its greater biodegradation activity, this bacterium is a potential candidate as a bioremediation agent in soils contaminated with 2,4-D butyl ester.

  17. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

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    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  18. Cultivation of Hylocerus sp. focusing on vegetative propagation, shading and mineral fertiliser=Cultivo de Hylocereus sp. com enfoque na propagação vegetativa, sombreamento e adubação mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Igor Bernardo Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The red pitahaya is a semi-epiphytic cactaceous plant, whose cultivation has attracted great interest in recent years as a result of the growing demand for the fruit, characterised by an exotic appearance and the significant price acquired in the market. However, studies and information on this crop are still rare, especially for the conditions of soil and climate found in Brazil. Currently there are areas in Brazil for the commercial cultivation of red pitahaya, which are based on information adapted from such countries as Colombia, Israel, Mexico and Vietnam, pioneers with greater experience in the cultivation of this fruit. Information generated in the state of São Paulo is also used for other producing regions of Brazil; however it is basic and insufficient for achieving maximum potential productivity. Basic information regarding vegetative propagation, shading and mineral nutrition has not been scientifically defined, and acts as a limitation to crop development and production in the country, particularly in the Northeast. The aim therefore, was to make a brief presentation of the red pitahaya crop and gather relevant scientific results, so that they can contribute to improve exploitation of the crop in Brazil. Studies of Hylocereus sp. in the state of Ceará and other producing regions of Brazil point to the excellent adaptation of this species to environmental conditions in Brazil, and indicate its high productive potential. Some characteristics, such as the easy rooting of cuttings, acclimatisation to cultivation in full sunlight, positive response to mineral fertilizer, and precocity, make Hylocereus sp. a potential option for the diversification of irrigated fruit production in Brazil. = A pitaia vermelha é uma cactácea semi-epífita, cujo cultivo vem despertando grande interesse nos últimos anos em função da crescente demanda pelos seus frutos, caracterizados pela aparência exótica e pelos preços expressivos que adquirem no

  19. Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. and N. ostovani sp.nov. (Acari: Camerobiidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Yazdanpanah, Shima; Masoudian, Farshad

    2014-02-12

    Two new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described: Neophyllobius lorestanicus sp. nov. collected from soil under Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae) in Markazi province and Neophyllobius ostovani sp. nov. from soil and rotten leaves of oak trees in Fars province, Iran. A key to all known Iranian and Turkish species of Neophyllobius is provided.

  20. Cultivation and complete genome sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a lava cave in Kīlauea Caldera, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V; Kunkel, Dennis D; Foster, Jamie S; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P

    2013-01-01

    The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421(T) is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1(T), from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in Kīlauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1(T) and G. violaceus PCC 7421(T) genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1(T), for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1(T) has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1(T) genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1(T) may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis.

  1. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  4. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.

  5. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  6. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  7. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Screening of endophytic sources of exopolysaccharides: Preliminary characterization of crude exopolysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Diaporthe sp. JF766998 under different cultivation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi have been described as producers of important bioactive compounds; however, they remain under-exploited as exopolysaccharides (EPS sources. Therefore, this work reports on EPS production by submerged cultures of eight endophytes isolated from Piper hispidum Sw., belonging to genera Diaporthe, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phyllosticta and Schizophyllum. After fermentation for 96 h, four endophytes secreted EPS: Diaporthe sp. JF767000, Diaporthe sp. JF766998, Diaporthe sp. JF767007 and Phoma herbarum JF766995. The EPS from Diaporthe sp. JF766998 differed statistically from the others, with a higher percentage of carbohydrate (91% and lower amount of protein (8%. Subsequently, this fungus was grown under submerged culture for 72, 96 and 168 h (these EPS were designated EPSD1-72, EPSD1-96 and EPSD1-168 and the differences in production, monosaccharide composition and apparent molecular were compared. The EPS yields in mg/100 mL of culture medium were: 3.0 ± 0.4 (EPSD1-72, 15.4 ± 2.2 (EPSD1-96 and 14.8 ± 1.8 (EPSD1-168. The EPSD1-72 had high protein content (28.5% and only 71% of carbohydrate; while EPSD1-96 and EPSD1-168 were composed mainly of carbohydrate (≈95 and 100%, respectively, with low protein content (≈5% detected at 96 h. Galactose was the main monosaccharide component (30% of EPSD1-168. Differently, EPSD1-96 was rich in glucose (51%, with molecular weight of 46.6 kDa. It is an important feature for future investigations, because glucan-rich EPS are reported as effective antitumor agents.

  9. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  10. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  11. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  12. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  13. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  14. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  15. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  16. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  17. Phenolic Polyketides from the Co-Cultivation of Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 and Streptomyces fradiae 007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium sp. WC-29-5 was co-cultured with Streptomyces fradiae 007 to produce five natural products (1–3, 4a and 4b that were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Interestingly, these compounds were found to be different from those produced in discrete fungal and bacterial controls. Among these compounds, the absolute configurations of compounds 4a and 4b were determined for the first time by X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of these compounds revealed that 4b was moderately cytotoxic towards HL-60 and H1975 tumor cells with IC50 values of 3.73 and 5.73 µM, respectively, whereas compound 4a was only moderately cytotoxic towards H1975 cells with an IC50 value of 3.97 µM.

  18. Dynamic model of a thin layer photobioreactor, used for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella sp. and bacteria in wastewater of high organic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gines Alfaro-Vives

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model is presented to describe the symbiotic growth of the microalgae Chlorella sp. and bacteria in a photobioreactor thin film used in the wastewater treatment of high organic load. A good correlation is shown by the experimental results, since the variations of the process parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide and substrate concentration in the culture medium were compared with the experimental results and in 95 % of cases coincide with an error of + -3%. Furthermore, the influence of the operating parameters on the performance of algae obtained is evaluated, using the model, the total net productivity per unit area was obtained with a maximum error of + -2, 5 % with respect to the experimental values.

  19. The support of local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through the cultivation of giant reed (Arundo donax sp.). An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Impagliazzo, Adriana; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Langella, Giuliano; Mori, Mauro; Fagnano, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    In literature on climate change, the bioenergy crops are well known for their ability to reduce greenhouse gases emission and increase the soil carbon stock. Nevertheless, in several countries they are considered in competition with food crops, representing a problem for facing the current and future "Food Security" issue related to climate change and population increase. At same time, in order to sustain local farming communities and crop production, mitigation actions at farm scale are identified to face climate change. However, in some cases the specific actions required by the pedo-climatic conditions, are not always economically sustainable by farmers. In this contest, the energy crops with high environmental adaptability and high productive performances, as the giant reed (Arundo donax spp.), cultivated in the areas not suitable for food crop (marginal areas) may represent an opportunity to increase the farmers' incomes, through the direct sale of above ground biomass (AGB) (as raw material for energy or green chemistry) or by means of the obtained biofuel or biogas. Moreover, the bioenergy crops, with low-input cropping systems (i.e. without irrigation and fertilized with compost from organic residues) are considered the most efficient crops for Greenhouse Gases reduction. In fact, they have a direct effect on processes affecting the CC at global scale: i) preserving and improving the soil carbon stock, ii) reducing the soil tillage and preserving the soil erosion, iii) allowing the conservation of fossil fuel resources with a reduction of CO2 emission in the atmosphere. Finally, their high environmental adaptability allows a riparian vegetation use (in the soils near water drains or rivers) with an important effect on the interception of nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus that, if leached, have a high environmental impact on watercourses (e.g. eutrophication). Thus the correct use of this crops allows to respond to 3 of 17 Sustainable Development Goals

  20. Enhancement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production in Spirulina (Arthrospira sp.) by two-step cultivation process and partial characterization of their polysaccharidic moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentir, Imene; Hamdi, Marwa; Doumandji, Amel; HadjSadok, Abelkader; Ouada, Hatem Ben; Nasri, Moncef; Jridi, Mourad

    2017-12-01

    The interactive effects of light intensity and NaCl concentration were investigated for Spirulina two-step cultivation process using Full Factorial Design. In the experiment interval, light intensity had no effect while the NaCl concentration had significant effect on the enhancement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Interestingly, results revealed a significant negative interaction between light and NaCl concentration indicating that high NaCl concentration (40gL(-1)) and low light intensity (10μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)) enhanced the EPS production. Under these conditions, EPS production reached a maximum of 1.02gg(-1) of biomass (dry weight), which is 1.67-folds greater than EPS content under optimal growth conditions (10μmol photons m(-2)s(-1), 1gL(-1), 30°C). Desalting and deproteinezation steps of EPS were efficient to obtain polysaccharides (PS) with high carbohydrate (67.3±1.1%), low soluble proteins (5.14±0.32%), ash (5.85±0.71%) and sulfate (2.42±0.12%) contents. Rheological studies of PS at different concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5%) revealed that the viscosity of the solution increased with the increase of PS concentration. In addition, PS exhibited a non Newtonian shear-thinning nature, a predominant gel-like behavior and a good resistance to consecutive heating-cooling cycles. The adopted process could be, then, a promising and economic strategy to enhance EPS production and extract polysaccharides with interesting rheological properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Zheng, Zhijun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Cheng, Shifeng; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Min; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Pei; Bian, Chao; Zhu, Yinling; Zhang, Jiahui; Ma, Guosheng; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Hao, Fengge; Li, Yong; Huang, Guodong; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2014-07-31

    Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution. We perform large-scale resequencing of 10 wild and 74 cultivated peach varieties, including 9 ornamental, 23 breeding, and 42 landrace lines. We identify 4.6 million SNPs, a large number of which could explain the phenotypic variation in cultivated peach. Population analysis shows a single domestication event, the speciation of P. persica from wild peach. Ornamental and edible peach both belong to P. persica, along with another geographically separated subgroup, Prunus ferganensis. Our analyses enhance our knowledge of the domestication history of perennial fruit crops, and the dataset we generated could be useful for future research on comparative population genomics.

  2. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  3. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  4. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  5. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  6. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  8. Cultivation of Leishmania sp. in nutrient broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilgin, A; Ozbel, Y; Alkan, M Z; Atambay, M; Ozcel, M A

    1995-08-01

    Bone-marrow aspiration and biopsy material samples obtained from two patients, one diagnosed as visceral and other as cutaneous leishmaniasis, were inoculated in Novy, McNeal, Nicolle (NNN) medium and nutrient broth (NB), containing fetal calf serum (FCS), penicillin and streptomycine. Both media were incubated at 27 degrees C for 10 days and observed daily for L. infantum and L. major promastigotes. Promastigotes were observed in nutrient broth after the first day, while in NNN media after the second or third day of incubation, indicating the effectiveness of nutrient broth in early diagnosis of both forms of leishmaniasis.

  9. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  10. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  11. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  12. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  13. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  14. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  15. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  16. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  18. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  19. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  20. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  1. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  2. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  3. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U L⁻¹ was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase.

  4. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  5. Influence of Phosphate Compounds on Certain Fungi and Their Preservative Effects on Fresh Cherry Fruits (Prunus cerasus, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, F. J.; Coblentz, W. S.; Chou, T. W.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1968-01-01

    Studies were conducted to ascertain the retarding effects of four phosphate compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetraphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on molding of fresh cherries (Prunus cerasus, L.). In vitro studies on their antimycotic effects against the most common fungal spoilers, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus nigricans, and Botrytis sp., were also carried out. Sodium tetraphosphate appeared to be the most effective compound in preserving cherries and also had the greatest antimycotic effects in the in vitro studies. A 10% concentration, when applied as a dip, inhibited fungal growth on fresh cherries for up to 30 days of storage at 1.1 C (34 F) and a relative humidity of 94%, whereas untreated controls showed fungal growth at 14 days. Following in order of effectiveness were sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate. PMID:4295176

  6. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  8. Polinização entomófila em pessegueiro (Prunus persica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Octávio Silveira da Mota

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento, realizado na região de Jaboticabal (SP, utilizou uma cultura de pêssego (Prunus persica L., durante a sua florada com a finalidade de verificar a atuação dos insetos visitantes nas flores na produção de frutos. A concentração média de açucares no néctar e a quantidade média produzida por dia de néctar é de 27,9% e de 3,2 mg, respectivamente. O peso médio das anteras por flor foi de 1,59 mg. A abelha Apis mellifera (73% foi o principal inseto visitante seguida da Trigona spinipes (17% e Xylocopa sp (4%. Observou-se a presença de beija-flores (6%, coletando néctar. A freqüência máxima das abelhas A. mellifera, para coleta de néctar e pólen, ocorreu as 12 horas. O número de frutos resultantes do tratamento em que as flores recebiam as visitas foi 14% maior que no tratamento em as flores não eram visitadas. Do total de frutos colhidos no tratamento coberto (sem visitas, 82% apresentaram-se perfeitos, com boa formação e simetria. No tratamento descoberto, 90,2% apresentaram-se com boa formação, havendo diferença estatística entre os dois tratamentos.

  9. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  10. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  11. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  13. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  15. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  16. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  17. Nestedness in bipartite networks of Thuja plicata, Prunus laurocerasus and Buxus sempervirens and their pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade with cultivated plants is one of the major pathways for the introduction of invasive species, pathogens included. Based on network analysis, the present study aimed the interaction between several species of cultivated woody perennials found in gardening outlets and nurseries trading with ornamental species and their documented pathogens. Focal species of the host list were Thuja plicata, Buxus sempervirens and Prunus laurocerasus, the selection being based on reported bestselling figures. Bipartite, qualitative, undirected networks were constructed to incorporate woody perennials as hosts and their documented pathogens. The tested network properties were: connectance, node degree distribution, web asymmetry and nestedness. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance and niche overlap index of Pianka were employed as additional pattern description metrics. The main network containing 33 host species and 112 pathogens was characterized by truncated power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of hosts and power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of pathogens, low connectance (C = 0.12, intermediate web asymmetry (W = 0.54 and high significant nestedness (N = 0.94. The network containing three focal hosts showed significant lower nestedness (N = 0.54, higher asymmetry (W = 0.94 and higher connectance (C = 0.38. Cluster analysis revealed the separation of focal species distinctly, the majority of other hosts merging in one cluster. Due to the prevalence of specialized pathogens the niche breadth was narrow, with small overlap in resources’ partition (Pianka index = 0.31. Our results showed that a random assembly of hosts (woody ornamentals displayed for sale in retail centers and nurseries could harbor pathogens which attached in a non-random manner, generating a characteristic pathosystem, with distinctive topology. The possible implications of the study consisted in a

  18. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  19. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  20. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp), LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp), LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo; Luis Octavio González Salcedo; Victoria Eugenia Quintero de Vallejo

    2006-01-01

    La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp), especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica,...

  2. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines.

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp, LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp, LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp, especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica, climatización por medio de mangueras térmicas y climatización por medio de resistencias eléctricas. Se analizaron factores como funcionalidad, mantenimiento, limitaciones organizativas, espaciales, y costos.The research was developed so that the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp, fish species that more taken place in Colombia can be exploited in regions where the good conditions for its normal development are not the appropriate ones as in the high regions with temperatures below the 24 °C, applying methodologies related with the use of the solar energy. The evaluated methodologies were: air conditioning by means of solar collectors, air conditioning by means of thermal blanket, air conditioning by means of thermal hoses and air conditioning by means of electric resistances. Factors like functionality, maintenance, organizational and space limitations, and costs were analized.

  4. A simple method for cultivating freshwater copepods used in biological control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, M F; Marten, G G; Clark, G G

    1992-12-01

    A simple method for indoor and outdoor cultivation of Mesocyclops aspericornis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops n. sp. copepods is presented. This method utilizes Chilomonas sp., Paramecium caudatum and fresh lettuce as food sources for copepod cultures. Steps for initiating and maintaining copepod cultures are provided.

  5. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  6. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  7. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  8. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  9. Cultivating the Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen

    1988-01-01

    Although administrators may view grapevines as threats to established leadership, informal communication is necessary to keep an organization functioning smoothly. No one can completely control the grapevine or its accuracy, but astute administrators can learn to cultivate and use informal communication systems wisely. (MLH)

  10. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  11. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael

    2017-06-21

    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g(-1) of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  12. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  13. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  15. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  16. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  17. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  18. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  19. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  20. High-throughput cultivation and screening platform for unicellular phototrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillich, Ulrich M; Wolter, Nick; Schulze, Katja; Kramer, Dan; Brödel, Oliver; Frohme, Marcus

    2014-09-16

    High-throughput cultivation and screening methods allow a parallel, miniaturized and cost efficient processing of many samples. These methods however, have not been generally established for phototrophic organisms such as microalgae or cyanobacteria. In this work we describe and test high-throughput methods with the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The required technical automation for these processes was achieved with a Tecan Freedom Evo 200 pipetting robot. The cultivation was performed in 2.2 ml deepwell microtiter plates within a cultivation chamber outfitted with programmable shaking conditions, variable illumination, variable temperature, and an adjustable CO2 atmosphere. Each microtiter-well within the chamber functions as a separate cultivation vessel with reproducible conditions. The automated measurement of various parameters such as growth, full absorption spectrum, chlorophyll concentration, MALDI-TOF-MS, as well as a novel vitality measurement protocol, have already been established and can be monitored during cultivation. Measurement of growth parameters can be used as inputs for the system to allow for periodic automatic dilutions and therefore a semi-continuous cultivation of hundreds of cultures in parallel. The system also allows the automatic generation of mid and long term backups of cultures to repeat experiments or to retrieve strains of interest. The presented platform allows for high-throughput cultivation and screening of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The platform should be usable for many phototrophic microorganisms as is, and be adaptable for even more. A variety of analyses are already established and the platform is easily expandable both in quality, i.e. with further parameters to screen for additional targets and in quantity, i.e. size or number of processed samples.

  1. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  2. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  3. Cultivating Leaders of Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    yaryyeva, Annagul; Sdunzik, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    "Cultivating Leaders of Indiana" was developed to establish connections between the Purdue student body and the Frankfort community. By engaging high school students in workshops that focused on local, national, and global identities, the goal of the project was to encourage students to appreciate their individuality and to motivate them to translate their skills into a global perspective.Moreover, workshops centering on themes such as culture, citizenship, media, and education were designed ...

  4. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  5. Ligninolytic enzymes activities of Oyster mushrooms cultivated on OMW (olive mill waste) supplemented media, spawn and substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodrigues, A.; Polonia, I.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ligninolytic enzymes activities (laccases, peroxidases (total, MnP and MiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO)) were measured during the cultivation of six commercial Pleurotus sp. strains on MMP media, on cereal grains (spawn) and on straw substrates (the three commonly utilized cultivation steps to

  6. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  7. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  8. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  9. Produção e qualidade de botões de rosa c v. Vega cultivados sob plásticos de cobertura com diferentes anos de uso Production and quality of floral buds for rose cv. Vega (Rosa SP. cultivated under plastic with different years of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a produção e qualidade de botões de rosa cultivar Vega ( Rosa sp. , cultivada sob cobertura plástica com diferentes anos de uso. Para tanto foram selecionados 15 vãos de estufas com plásticos colocados em 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003, e testemunha (sem uso anterior, com três repetições, avaliados por duas maneiras: na primeira os frutos foram colhidos através de uma poda (como procedimento do cultivo comercial; na segunda foi realizada uma poda rasa em uma área de 1 m² para poder acompanhar o crescimento da haste floral desde o início da formação até a fase de botão floral. No primeiro caso foram realizadas 4 coletas ao longo do período do experimento, nas quais foram coletadas 4 hastes florais por tratamento, totalizando 60 flores por data de coleta. No segundo caso foi avaliado o aparecimento dos botões florais dos novos brotos em quatro datas até a formação das hastes florais comerciais, e então coletadas 13 hastes florais por tratamento. Não houve diferença estatística entre os anos de uso dos plásticos de 1998, 1999, 2002 e 2003 nas variáveis: comprimento, diâmetro e comprimento dos botões florais, massa fresca e seca das pétalas, para as condições e cultivar analisados. Com isso o produtor ganha um período maior de utilização do plástico gerando um custo menor, sem perdas na produção.The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and quality of floral buds of rose cv. Vega (Rosa sp. cultivated underneath a plastic film used as greenhouse covering, with different years of use. In order to evaluate the bud production and quality, 15 greenhouse gaps with plastic covering dating from 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003, were selected; and the control covering (never used before with three replications each. Two types of evaluation were made for this analysis: the first one, the fruits were harvested by means of pruning (as the commercial use standard procedure; in the second

  10. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  11. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  12. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...

  13. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  14. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  15. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  16. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  17. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  18. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  19. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study which aimed to produce a formula for establishing the mass of the bark of Prunus africana specimens was carried out in May 2011 on Tchabal Mbabo and Tchabal Gang Daba mountain forests, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The diameter at breast height (DBH), the height of the tree and the thickness of the ...

  20. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  1. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  2. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  3. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  4. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    A regeneration system was developed for Prunus serotina from a juvenile (F) and two mature genotypes (#3 and #4). Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaves of in vitro cultures on woody plant medium with thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best regeneration for genotype F (91.4%) was observed on medium with 9.08 µM TDZ...

  5. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  6. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  7. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  8. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  9. Rhizobium nepotum sp. nov. isolated from tumors on different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; De Meyer, Sofie E; Süle, Sandor

    2012-06-01

    Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in Hungary: strain 39/7(T) from Prunus cerasifera Myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. Ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. Findus and in Poland, strain C3.4.1 from Colt rootstock (Prunus avium × Prunus pseudocerasus) and strain CP17.2.2 from Prunus avium. Only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains cluster together and belong to the genus Rhizobium and their closest relative is Rhizobium radiobacter (99.1%). Phylogenetic analysis of the novel strains using housekeeping genes atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB revealed their distinct position separate from other known Rhizobium species and confirmed their relation to Rhizobium radiobacter. The major cellular fatty acids are 18:1 w7c, 16:0, 16:0 3OH, summed feature 2 (comprising 12:0 aldehyde, 16:1 iso I and/or 14:0 3OH) and summed feature 3 (comprising 16:1 w7c and/or 15 iso 2OH). DNA-DNA hybridization of strain 39/7(T) with the type strain of R. radiobacter LMG 140(T) revealed 45% DNA-DNA hybridization. Phenotypic and physiological properties differentiate the novel isolates from other closely related species. On the basis of the results obtained, the five isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium nepotum sp. nov. (type strain 39/7(T)=LMG 26435(T)=CFBP 7436(T)) is proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  11. Growth of microalgae Scenedesmus sp in ethanol vinasse

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Nelzy Neyza Vargas; Farenzena, Marcelo; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using vinasse as a nutrient source for microalgae cultivation. The Scenedesmus sp was grown in a medium supplemented with vinasse and process variables were optimized using a factorial design and a Central Composite Design (CCD). The factorial design results showed that it was possible to cultivate microalgae at concentrations of up to 40% of vinasse in the culture medium. The CCD results showed that the light intensity and vinasse concentration influen...

  12. [Microbial diversity of Pyropia haitanensis phycosphere during cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qijun; Wang, Shugang; Ren, Jirui

    2013-10-04

    Pyropia haitanensis is of great commercial importance and wildly cultivated in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. To observe the characteristics and changes of phycosphere microbial communities during cultivation can help us monitor the potential pathogens and microbial factors affecting the health of cultivated seaweeds. The morphological characteristics and the diversity of phycosphere and surrounding seawater microbes were studied by pure culture method and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Similarity analysis was carried out online with the 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 18S rDNA (fungi) sequences in GenBank. The phycosphere microbial diversity during different growth stages, cultivated areas and periods was studied. Totally 467 bacteria and 55 fungi were isolated during P. haitanensis cultivation. The diversity of fungi was smaller than that of bacteria. The bacteria were classified into 41 genera, belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The dominant bacterial communities were Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Most of the fungi were classified into Ascomycota, only one strain belonging to the Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Bacteria of 19 specific genera were isolated from P. haitanensis while 13 specific genera were isolated from the surrounding seawater. Most actinomycetes and fungi were isolated from the conchocelis cultured indoors, which was different from the microbial communities of the thalli in intertidal zone. Within the isolated microbes, we found that some strains had very high similarity with those pathogens such as Cobetia marina (C. marina, P. haitanensis red-rotting disease), Phoma porphyrae (P. yezoensis disease) and saprotrophic fungi Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp.. The diversity of Pyropia phycoshpere microbes during cultivation was affected by the seaweed morphology, culture time and environmental factors. The strains that shared high

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  14. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  15. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods...

  16. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, Kolla J.P.; Muvva Vijayalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35?C. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies...

  17. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  18. The Cultivated Mind: From Mental Mediation to Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Ingrid E.; Fuhrer, Urs

    1998-01-01

    Examines Simmel's principle of cultivation whereby the cultivated mind is constructed through ongoing transactions of people with their cultural environment, cultural forms currently overlooked. Cultural forms result from externalizations of former person-culture transactions. Argues that development is structured through person-culture…

  19. Plant growth and cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  20. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  1. Isolation and heterotrophic cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae strains for domestic wastewater treatment and lipid production under dark condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Hu; Zhu, Shu-feng; Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-12-01

    Cultivating microalgae heterotrophically could overcome the light dependency, and thus increase the yield of microalgal lipid per unit area. In this study, three newly isolated strains of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. ZTY2, Scenedesmus sp. ZTY3 and Chlorella sp. ZTY4) from a domestic wastewater treatment plant were heterotrophically cultivated in domestic wastewater with no illumination. During the cultivation, the algal densities of Scenedesmus species and Chlorella species were increased by 203.0% and 60.5% comparing with the initial densities, respectively. After 11-day cultivation, the lipid contents of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY2, Scenedesmus sp. ZTY3 and Chlorella sp. ZTY4 reached 69.1%, 55.3% and 79.2%, respectively. The DOC removal efficiencies of these three strains were 63.4%, 52.9% and 64.4%, and the biomass yield were 1.65, 1.98 and 2.31mg biomass/mg DOC, respectively. This is the first report about the heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae strains for domestic wastewater treatment and lipid production under dark condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  3. "Logistic analysis of algae cultivation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Leduc, S.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Energy requirements for resource transport of algae cultivation are unknown. This work describes the quantitative analysis of energy requirements for water and CO2 transport. Algae cultivation models were combined with the quantitative logistic decision model ‘BeWhere’ for the regions Benelux

  4. Use of Solid Waste from Thermoelectric Plants for the Cultivation of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna da Silva Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of solid waste on the cultivation of the microalgae Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Chlorella fusca LEB 111 with 0, 40, 80 and 120 ppm of mineral coal ash. The addition of the ash did not inhibit the cultivation of microalgae at the tested concentrations, showing that it could be used for the cultivation of these microalgae due to the minerals present in the ash, which might substitute the nutrients needed for their growth.

  5. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuany Pérez González; Jorge L. Ayala Sifontes; Alexander Calero Hurtado

    2014-01-01

    The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of the company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In two house of cultivation of tomato 540m2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg) blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2) of floor). After the crop was incorporate to the floor atreatment of on experimental formulated of Trichoder...

  6. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuany Pérez González; Jorge L. Ayala Sifontes; Alexander Calero Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of t he company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In t wo house of cultivation of tomato 540 m 2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg) blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2 ) of floor). After the crop was incorporate to the floor a treatment of on experimental form...

  7. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae: a threat to global oat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat. The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen makes crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. P. coronata f. sp. avenae is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle a...

  8. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetic Variance, Performing Cooperative Structure with Genetics, Is Associated with Leaf Shape Traits in Widely Distributed Populations of Ornamental Tree Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifeng Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that epigenetics plays an important role in phenotypic variance. However, little is known about epigenetic variation in the important ornamental tree Prunus mume. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP techniques, and association analysis and sequencing to investigate epigenetic variation and its relationships with genetic variance, environment factors, and traits. By performing leaf sampling, the relative total methylation level (29.80% was detected in 96 accessions of P. mume. And the relative hemi-methylation level (15.77% was higher than the relative full methylation level (14.03%. The epigenetic diversity (I∗ = 0.575, h∗ = 0.393 was higher than the genetic diversity (I = 0.484, h = 0.319. The cultivated population displayed greater epigenetic diversity than the wild populations in both southwest and southeast China. We found that epigenetic variance and genetic variance, and environmental factors performed cooperative structures, respectively. In particular, leaf length, width and area were positively correlated with relative full methylation level and total methylation level, indicating that the DNA methylation level played a role in trait variation. In total, 203 AFLP and 423 MSAP associated markers were detected and 68 of them were sequenced. Homologous analysis and functional prediction suggested that the candidate marker-linked genes were essential for leaf morphology development and metabolism, implying that these markers play critical roles in the establishment of leaf length, width, area, and ratio of length to width.

  10. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    OpenAIRE

    Otręba Anna; Marciszewska Katarzyna; Janik Daria

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is ste...

  11. Detection and characterization of genome-specific microsatellite markers in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Potter, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of a polyploid species with disomic inheritance is often hampered by the impossibility of determining allele frequencies and the complexity of inheritance patterns. The objective of this study was to solve these problems in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. by finding genome-specific primers (i.e., primers that are specific to one of the two genomes that initially formed the species). Sixty-seven microsatellite...

  12. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak Szymon; Czajkowski Maciej; Ludwisiak Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  13. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  14. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  16. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  17. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  20. Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of procion red and congo red dyes using microalgae Spirulina sp was conducted. Spirulina sp was obtained by cultivation and production in laboratory scale. Spirulina sp was used as adsorbent for adsorption of dyes. Adsorption process was studied by kinetic and thermodynamic in order to know the adsorption phenomena. The results showed that kinetically congo red is reactive than procion red on Spirulina sp. On the other hand, thermodynamically procion red was stable than congo red on Spirulina sp which was indicated by adsorption capacity, enthalpy, and entropy.

  1. KEPADATAN DAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN SPESIFIK Nannochloropsis sp. PADA KULTIVASI HETEROTROPIK MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA HIDROLISAT SINGKONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Nannochloropsis sp. was observed in laboratory cultivation condition with enrichment of cassava hydrolysate into culture medium as follow : 25 ml microalgae strain, 75 ml seawater, without cassava hydrolysate (A; 25 ml microalgae strain, 25 ml cassava hydrolysate, 50 ml seawater (B, 25 ml microalgae strain, 50 ml cassava hydrolysate, 25 ml seawater (C. Cultivation condition was fixed as follow temperature 29°C, seawater pH 8, and salinity 30 ‰. Microalgae cultivation was performed at microalgae laboratory of Surfactant and Bioenergy Research Center using 100 ml Erlenmeyer covered by black plastic to prevent the influence of light. The specific growth rate of Nannochloropsis sp. was observed in 7 days for different cultivation medium composition. The highest density of microalgae was in the 4th days with 50ml cassava hydrolysate’s feeding (C treatment about 172.661 cell/mL. The highest specific growth rate for Nannochloropsis sp. cultivation was observed in the 6th days without cassava hydrolysate’s feeding. Result of statistical analysis showed that different cassava hydrolysate’s feeding treatments (ml in heterotrophically microalgae cultivation influenced the density of microalgae (cell/mL but not influenced the specific growth rate of microalgae (per day. Keywords: Cassava hydrolysate, Density, Heterotrophic cultivation, Spesific growth rate, Nannochloropsis sp.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  3. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  5. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  6. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Colavolpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 ºC, immersion in hot water (60 and 80 ºC, and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5 conidia/mL and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 ºC for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  7. Domestic wastewater treatment and biofuel production by using microalga Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae for biomass production is a promising way to dispose of wastewater and recover nutrients simultaneously. The properties of nutrient removal and biomass production in domestic wastewater of a newly isolated microalga Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 were investigated in this study. Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1, which was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, grew well in both the primary and secondary effluents of a wastewater treatment plant during the 21-day cultivation, with a maximal algal density of 3.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells · mL(-1), respectively. The total phosphorus concentrations in both effluents could be efficiently removed by over 97% after the cultivation. A high removal rate (over 90%) of total nitrogen (TN) was also observed. After cultivation in primary effluent for 21 days, the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 in dry weight had reached about 32.2%. The lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) production of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 was increased significantly with the extension of cultivation time. The TAG production of Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 increased from 32 mg L(-1) at 21 d to 148 mg L(-1) at 45 d in primary effluent. All the experiments were carried out in non-sterilized domestic wastewater and Scenedesmus sp. ZTY1 showed good adaptability to the domestic wastewater environment.

  8. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  9. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae. PMID:25247176

  10. Use of spent compost in the cultivation of Agaricus blazei | Favara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two compost formulations, based on Braquiaria straw (Brachiaria sp.), a conventional one and a spent one, were tested in the cultivation of ABL 99/30 and ABL 04/49 strains of Agaricus blazei. The experimental design was in a completely randomized factorial scheme with four treatments (two strains of A. blazei x two types ...

  11. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieska Verawaty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a constructed wetland (CW was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10% bold basal medium (BBM. The results showed both micro- and macro-algae growth and their lipid contents were higher when they were grown in effluent-BBM (9:1 v/v media. The lipid content of the micro-algae mixed culture was 16.5% while for macro-algae Oedogonium sp and Cladophora sp it was 6.90% and 6.75% respectively.

  12. Screening, growth medium optimisation and heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zongchao; Liu, Ying; Daroch, Maurycy; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2014-08-01

    This article presents a study on screening of microalgal strains from the Peking University Algae Collection and heterotrophic cultivation for biodiesel production of a selected microalgal strain. Among 89 strains, only five were capable of growing under heterotrophic conditions in liquid cultures and Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 was found the best for the production of heterotrophic algal biodiesel. Composition of the growth medium was optimised using response surface methodology and optimised growth conditions were successfully used for cultivation of the strain in a fermentor. Conversion of algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) showed that the lipid profile of the heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 contains fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  13. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  14. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  15. Controlling docks by stubble cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Siegrist, Franziska; Weidmann, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stubble cultivation cuts the dock roots below growth points. The vegetative plant parts are then cut off from the water and nutrient supply, and regrowth is inhibited. Practical recommendation • Summer dock treatment is especially worthwhile in dry summers with catch crop cultivation and after early maturing crops (winter barley, whole-crop silage) or with an early tillage of grass-clover. • After grass-clover lay or cereal harvest, undercut the dock plants at a depth of 12-15 cm...

  16. Les espèces envahissantes : le cas du cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh).

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Vervoort, Arnaud; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    Introduites pour divers usages, les espèces envahissantes se sont rapidement adaptées et répandues dans leurs nouveaux habitats. Elles ont pour la plupart des impacts environnementaux, économiques et/ou sociaux. Parmi les essences forestières introduites, le cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), importé d’Amérique du Nord, est une espèce particulièrement en expansion dans nos forêts et est considérée comme espèce envahissante en Belgique, surtout sur les so...

  17. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells.

  18. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Triterpenoid from Prunus cerasoides D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One new metabolite, prunol (1, belonging to the pentacyclic triterpenoid skeleton was purified from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. The structure elucidation was accomplished on the basis of one dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and two dimensional HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments. The molecular mass was determined by HRFAB-MS, while the major fragments were observed in the EI-MS. The comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with the known analogues and the NOESY experiments were helpful in assigning the stereo centers in the molecule.

  19. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  20. The apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, P; Rubio, M; Mesonero, V; Periago, P M; Barceló, A Ros; Martínez-Gómez, P; Hernández, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (PPV) in different Prunus species showing different susceptibilities to PPV. The presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (pHMB)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (class I APX) and pHMB-insensitive APX (class III APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), NADH-POX, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was described in the apoplast from both peach and apricot leaves. PPV infection produced different changes in the antioxidant system of the leaf apoplast from the Prunus species, depending on their susceptibility to the virus. In leaves of the very susceptible peach cultivar GF305, PPV brought about an increase in class I APX, POX, NADH-POX, and PPO activities. In the susceptible apricot cultivar Real Fino, PPV infection produced a decrease in apoplastic POX and SOD activities, whereas a strong increase in PPO was observed. However, in the resistant apricot cultivar Stark Early Orange, a rise in class I APX as well as a strong increase in POX and SOD activities was noticed in the apoplastic compartment. Long-term PPV infection produced an oxidative stress in the apoplastic space from apricot and peach plants, as observed by the increase in H2O2 contents in this compartment. However, this increase was much higher in the PPV-susceptible plants than in the resistant apricot cultivar. Only in the PPV-susceptible apricot and peach plants was the increase in apoplastic H2O2 levels accompanied by an increase in electrolyte leakage. No changes in the electrolyte leakage were observed in the PPV-inoculated resistant apricot leaves, although a 42% increase in the apoplastic H2O2 levels was produced. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses revealed that the majority of the polypeptides in the apoplastic fluid had isoelectric points in the range of pI 4-6. The identification of proteins using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser

  1. Actinobacteria Associated with the Marine Sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and Their Culturability

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  2. Actinobacteria associated with the marine sponges Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp. and their culturability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Actinobacteria associated with 3 marine sponges, Cinachyra sp., Petrosia sp., and Ulosa sp., were investigated. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that actinobacterial diversity varied greatly and that Ulosa sp. was most diverse, while Cinachyra sp. was least diverse. Culture-based approaches failed to isolate actinobacteria from Petrosia sp. or Ulosa sp., but strains belonging to 10 different genera and 3 novel species were isolated from Cinachyra sp.

  3. The Relationship of Culture Media Composition and Chemical Composition on Spirulina sp for Metal Ion Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Zulkifli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis relationship of Spirulina sp medium with chemical composition has been conducted. Chemical analysis was performed using X-Ray Fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, potention of Spirulina sp as adsorbent of metal ions was analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Cu, and Mo were mainly metals in Spirulina sp. These metals were not correlated with cultivated medium of Spirulina sp. Analysis of potention Spirulina sp as metal ions adsorbent showed that Spirulina sp has functional groups –C=O and –OH as ligand. Intercation of metal ions Cu(II and Cr(III with Spirulina sp indicated that metal ions bond to –C=O functional group.

  4. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  5. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  6. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  7. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  8. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  9. Cultivation of entomopathogenic fungi for the search of antibacterial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si-Young; Nakajima, Ikuo; Ihara, Fumio; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Nihira, Takuya

    2005-11-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are a rich source of natural bioactive compounds. To establish cultivation conditions which facilitate the production of bioactive compounds and to select good genera among entomopathogenic fungi as the producer, 47 typical entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their ability to produce antibiotic activity. Thirty-eight strains (81%) and 30 strains (64%) of these fungi produced either anti-Bacillus compounds or anti-Staphylococcus compounds, respectively, indicating that the majority of the entomopathogenic fungi tested possessed the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. Using 9 representative strains (Aschersonia sp. HF724, Beauveria bassiana HF338, Cordyceps ramosopulvinata HF746, Metarhizium anisopliae HF293, Metarhizium flavoviride HF698, Nomuraea rileyi HF588, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus HF254, Paecilomyces tenuipes HF419, and Verticillium lecanii HF238), the cultivation conditions in liquid medium were surveyed with respect to the cultivation procedure and medium composition, particularly in terms of the presence or absence of insect-derived materials. At 26 degrees C, M. anisopliae HF293, N. rileyi HF588, and V. lecanii HF238 strains produced clear antibiotic activity against Bacillus and Saccharomyces, but only in the presence of insect-derived materials, suggesting that the production of antibacterial/antifungal compounds by entomopathogenic fungi is triggered by the presence of insect-derived materials.

  10. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments.

  11. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  12. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  13. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dashti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl-acetamide (11, 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12 and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a. When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  14. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  15. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the mechanism of oil dynamic accumulation during developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernels for the development of woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Jun; An, Jiyong; Wang, Libing; Fang, Chengliang; Ha, Denglong; Fu, Chengyu; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Hou, Xinyu; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Sufan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Feng, Xinyi; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of oil accumulation in Siberian apricot seed kernels (SASK...

  17. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazar Ul Islam; Raza Amin; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Amin; Sumera Zaib; Jamshed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...

  18. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  19. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  20. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  1. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  2. Urban wastewater treatment by Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Peter S C; Carvalho, Carolina F M; Pereira, Hugo; Gangadhar, Katkam N; Schüler, Lisa M; Santos, Tamára F; Varela, João C S; Barreira, Luísa

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a recent isolate, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, for nutrient removal from sewage effluents before and after the nitrification process under batch and continuous cultivation was studied. Biomass productivities in both wastewaters were similar under continuous conditions (0.343±0.053gL-1d-1) and nutrient uptake rates were maximal 31.4±0.4mgNL-1d-1 and 6.66±1.57mgP-PO43-L-1d-1 in WW before nitrification when cultivated in batch. Among batch treatments, cellular protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels shifted with aging cultures from 71.7±6.3 to 29.2±1.2%, 17.4±7.2 to 57.2±3.9% and 10.9±1.7 to 13.7±4.7%, respectively. In contrast, CTP4 cultivated continuously in Algal medium (control) showed lower biomass productivities (0.282gVSSL-1d-1) although improved lipid content (up to 20% lipids) in batch cultivation. Overall, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is promising for WW treatment as a replacement of the costly nitrification process, fixating more nutrients and providing a protein and carbohydrate-rich biomass as by-product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioautographic test of Punica granatum extracts on Fusarium oxysporum.f .sp.albidinis

    OpenAIRE

    LAOUFI A; BOULENOUAR N.; CHERITI A.; MAROUF A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albidinis, is among the most aggressive soil fungi causing wilt and rot of date palm. Bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albidinis (Foa), is a major limiting factor of the date palm cultivation. In order to look for other alternatives to fight against this fungus, in this work we study the antifungal potency of substances extracted from the peel of Punica granatum . The analysis by the method of direct bioautography allows the detection of 17 bioacti...

  4. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Sun, Yongming; Shu, Qing; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Liandong; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-05-01

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.

  5. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade; João Paulo Furlan de Jesus; Fabrício Rocha Vieira; Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes Viana; Marta Helena Fillet Spoto; Marli Teixeira de Almeida Minhoni

    2013-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellu...

  6. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  7. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  8. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  9. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  10. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two β-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16652960

  11. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two beta-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase.

  12. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  13. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  14. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  15. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  17. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  18. Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Emily M; Grubisha, Lisa C; Roland, Anna K; Connolly, Bryan A; Klooster, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    • Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species' geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States.

  19. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  20. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  1. Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against insects in two Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąderek, Ewa; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

  2. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  4. Application of special oligotrophic media for cultivation of bacterial communities originated from ultrapure water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéki, Zsuzsa; Grébner, Kitti; Bohus, Veronika; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika M

    2013-09-01

    Because of the selectivity of the commonly used media it is very difficult to cultivate bacteria inhabiting ultrapure waters under laboratory conditions. In this study 5 new media (synthetic and complex) were developed to reveal bacterial community of the ultrapure water originated from the water purification system of a Hungarian power plant which was studied already with using traditional media. Composition of the new media tends to reproduce the nutrient deficient conditions of the investigated water, therefore media were highly oligotrophic. Altogether 122 bacterial strains were isolated from the 5 different media. Based on ARDRA grouping 27 strains were chosen for the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that the applied media strongly influence the composition of the cultivable bacterial community. A larger scale of α-Proteobacteria (Mesorhizobium spp., Ancylobacter sp., Methylobacterium sp.) and many Actinobacteria (Leifsonia sp., Microbacterium spp., Mycobacterium spp.) could be isolated from the same ultrapure water system than with any other cultivation methods or media applied before. Moreover, two novel bacterial taxa could be isolated from the studied water purification system.

  5. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  6. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  8. PENTECOSTAL BODY LOGICS: Cultivating a Modern Sensorium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BRAHINSKY, JOSH

    2012-01-01

      Pentecostals put intensive study into bodies, texts, practices, and their interrelationships so as to effectively cultivate a sensory culture -- sensorium -- and invite authoritative religious experience...

  9. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; R. Keshavarz Afshar; Hashemi, M; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  10. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  11. Application of GFP-tagged Plum pox virus to study Prunus-PPV interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; Salvador, B; Garcia, J A; Le Gall, O; Decroocq, V; Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, V

    2005-11-01

    The Sharka disease caused by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. The study of PPV/Prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. While the PPV/Prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the Prunus host plants at the cellular level. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged M type PPV strain, combined to an in vitro inoculation procedure, we developed a novel tool to track PPV invasion in Prunus persica (peach) cv. GF305 and Prunus armeniaca (apricot) cv. Screara susceptible hosts. Different graft combinations were performed using in vitro-maintained healthy or GFP-tagged PPV infected 'GF305' and 'Screara'. Contact for 30 days in grafts between the inoculum and the genotype to be tested were found sufficient to allow the systemic spread of the recombinant virus: fluorescence from GFP-tagged PPV could easily be detected in the entire plant under a binocular microscope allowing quick and reliable sorting of infected plants. Using a fluorescence stereomicroscopy or confocal microscopy, GFP could also be observed in stem cross-sections especially in epidermis and pith cells. In vitro grafting inoculation with GFP-tagged PPV provides a new and powerful tool to facilitate mid-term virus maintenance. Moreover, this tool will be of special importance in the study of PPV infection dynamics in Prunus, allowing as well precise observations of cellular events related to PPV/Prunus interactions.

  12. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  14. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  15. Health of leaves and ears of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated after different forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 2000-2002. The aim of the research was to determinate the health of leaves and ears of spring wheat cultivated after spring cruciferae plants such as: spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., chiiiese mustard (Brassica juncea L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., ole iferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst., as well as after oat (Avena sativa L. as con trol. Spring wheat cv. Torka was sown after: pIoughed stubble cultivated on this field, ploughed stubble and straw, ploughed stubble with straw and 30 kg nitrogen per hectare. During all the years of studies on leaves and ears of spring wheat septo ria of leaf blotch and glume blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola, Phaeosphaeria nodorum were found. Brown rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici was seen on leaves of wheat only during years 2001-2002. Besides on ears fusarium ear blight (Fusarimn sp. was present in 2002 and sooty mould (Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp. in 2001. According to health of overground parts of plants the good forecrops to spring wheat were oat, chinese mustard, oleiferous radish. The biggest impact on presence of diseases of leaves and ears had the weather during years of studies. The use of after harvest rests didn't have significant influence on health of leaves and ears of spring wheat.

  16. Photosynthetic poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamravamanesh, Donya; Pflügl, Stefan; Nischkauer, Winfried; Limbeck, Andreas; Lackner, Maximilian; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from CO2 has the potential to reduce the production cost of this biodegradable polyesters, and also to make the material more sustainable compared to utilization of sugar feedstocks. In this study the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 has been identified as an unexplored potential organism for production of PHB. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 was studied under various cultivation conditions and nutritional limitations. Combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency led to highest PHB accumulation under photoautotrophic conditions. Multivariate experimental design and quantitative bioprocess development methodologies were used to identify the key cultivation parameters for PHB accumulation. Biomass growth and PHB accumulation were studied under controlled defined conditions in a lab-scale photobioreactor. Specific growth rates were fourfold higher in photobioreactor experiments when cultivation conditions were controlled. After 14 days of cultivation in nitrogen and phosphorus, limited media intracellular PHB levels reached up to 16.4% from CO2. The highest volumetric production rate of PHB was 59 ± 6 mg L(-1) day(-1). Scanning electron microscopy of isolated PHB granules of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 cultivated under nitrogen and phosphorus limitations showed an average diameter of 0.7 µm. The results of this study might contribute towards a better understanding of photoautotrophic PHB production from cyanobacteria.

  17. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  18. (Cicer sp.) accessions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the extent of natural vari- ation among cultivated chickpea and wild accessions at ... International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid. Tropics (ICRISAT), three from National Bureau of Plant ..... genotype by assigning a letter to each band. Alleles were numbered as 'a1', 'a2' etc., sequentially from the ...

  19. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  20. Cultivation of Angelica archangelica Linn.: evaluation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addition of manure (leaf litter in particular) and polyhouse cultivation further improved the yield. Economical viability of the cultivation was also observed and presented here. Keywords: Seedlings, economic yield, profit, observations, polyhouse. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences Vol. 2 (4) 2008: pp.

  1. Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Bapedi Traditional Healers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exotics Catharanthus roseus (54.9%) and. Carica papaya (15.6%) was the most cultivated. Threatened (11.6%) and protected (6.9%) species are also present in home-gardens, mostly due to their unavailability in natural areas. Conclusion: This study concludes that the practice of cultivating medicinal plant species in ...

  2. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During these cultivations, increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: ...

  3. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  4. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolla J.P. Narayana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35ºC. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield.Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE.

  5. Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Katsutoshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On coral reefs, damselfish defend their territories from invading herbivores and maintain algal turfs, from which they harvest filamentous algae. In southern Japan, intensive weeding of indigestible algae by Stegastes nigricans results in overgrowth by one filamentous alga, Polysiphonia sp. 1. Because this alga is highly susceptible to grazing and is competitively inferior to other algae, it survives only within the protective territories of this fish species, suggesting an obligate mutualism between damselfish and their cultivated alga. The wide distribution of damselfish species through the Indo-Central Pacific raises the question of whether this species-specific mutualism is maintained throughout the geographic range of the fish. To address this question, from all 18 damselfish species we conducted comprehensive surveys of algal flora within their territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific, and identified species of Polysiphonia using morphological examination and gene sequencing data. Results Several species of the genus Polysiphonia were observed as a major crop in territories throughout the geographic range of S. nigricans. Polysiphonia sp. 1 occurred only in territories of S. nigricans in central areas of the Indo-Pacific. However, its occurrence was low from the Great Barrier Reef and Mauritius. In contrast, other indigenous Polysiphonia species, which formed a clade with Polysiphonia sp. 1, occurred in the territories of fishes from Egypt, Kenya, and the Maldives. The other Polysiphonia species in the clade only inhabited damselfish territories and were never found elsewhere. Conclusions Cultivation mutualism between the damselfish S. nigricans and algae of Polysiphonia was maintained throughout the Indo-West Pacific, although algal crop species and the mode of cultivation (e.g., presence/absence of selective weeding, the species composition of algal turfs varied among localities. This finding implies that

  6. Geographic information system-based identification of suitable cultivation sites for wood-cultivated ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beon, Mu Sup; Park, Jun Ho; Kang, Hag Mo; Cho, Sung Jong; Kim, Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Wood-cultivated ginseng, including roots in its dried form, is produced in forest land without using artificial facilities such as light barriers. To identify suitable sites for the propagation of wood-cultivated ginseng, factor combination technique (FCT) and linear combination technique (LCT) were used with geographic information system and the results were superimposed onto an actual wood-cultivated ginseng plantation. The LCT more extensively searched for suitable sites of cultivation than that by the FCT; further, the LCT probed wide areas considering the predominance of precipitous mountains in Korea. In addition, the LCT showed the much higher degree of overlap with the actual cultivation sites; therefore, the LCT more comprehensively reflects the cultivator's intention for site selection. On the other hand, the inclusion of additional factors for the selection of suitable cultivation sites and experts' opinions may enhance the effectiveness and accuracy of the LCT for site application.

  7. Levantamento de espécies da família Orchidaceae em Águas de Sta. Bárbara (SP e seu cultivo A survey of the Orchidaceae family species to evaluate the biodiversity and their cultivation in the district of Águas de Santa Bárbara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Cardoso

    2005-06-01

    developing techniques for their cultivation. Farms and areas of preservation with gallery forest, as well as some areas covered with Savannah vegetation located in Rio Novo and Rio Pardo counties were visited and data on the average temperature and relative air humidity were collected. Predominant species found in the area belong to the genus Brassavola, Catassetum, Cattleya, Eulophidium, Epidendrum, Ionopsis, Microlaelia, Oncidium, Pleurothallis, Polystachya and Rodriguezia, indicating the large biodiversity present in the area. Most of these species are micro orchids with no ornamental value. However due to the presence of great genetic variability they could be used for breeding purposes.

  8. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  9. Banana (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Hernández, Juan B; Remy, Serge; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated bananas are vegetatively propagating herbs, which are difficult to breed because of widespread male and female sterility. As a complementary gene transfer method in banana, the described Agrobacterium protocol relies on highly regenerable embryogenic cell cultures. Embryogenic cells are infected and co-cultivated in the presence of acetosyringone with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plasmid vector to obtain a mixed population of transformed and untransformed plant cells. Transformed plant cells are promoted to grow for 2 to 3 mo on a cell colony induction medium containing the antibiotics geneticin or hygromycin as selective agents, while agrobacteria are counterselected by timentin. The whole procedure, including plant regeneration, takes approx 6 mo and results in an average frequency of 25 to 50 independent transgenic plants per plate, which equals 50 mg of embryogenic cells. This method has been applied to a wide range of cultivars and to generate large populations of transgenic colonies and plants for tagging genes and promoters in banana.

  10. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  11. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  12. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Repajić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the infl uence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, fi ltered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska diff ered. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identifi ed by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. Aft er processing, the concentration of all identifi ed anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice aft er pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  13. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  14. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H C; Poulton, J E

    1991-08-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity.

  15. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects.

  16. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-04-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages.

  17. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  18. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  19. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  20. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Latent Polyphenol Oxidase from Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derardja, Ala Eddine; Pretzler, Matthias; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Barkat, Malika; Rompel, Annette

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenol oxidase from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) (PaPPO) was purified in its latent form (L-PaPPO), and the molecular weight was determined to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. L-PaPPO was activated in the presence of substrate at low pH. The activity was enhanced by CuSO4 and low concentrations (≤ 2 mM) of SDS. PaPPO has its pH and temperature optimum at pH 4.5 and 45 °C for catechol as substrate. It showed diphenolase activity and highest affinity toward 4-methylcatechol (KM = 2.0 mM) and chlorogenic acid (KM = 2.7 mM). L-PaPPO was found to be spontaneously activated during storage at 4 °C, creating a new band at 38 kDa representing the activated form (A-PaPPO). The mass of A-PaPPO was determined by mass spectrometry as 37 455.6 Da (Asp102 → Leu429). Both L-PaPPO and A-PaPPO were identified as polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known PaPPO sequence (UniProt O81103 ) by means of peptide mass fingerprinting.

  2. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

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    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  3. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

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    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  4. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Aglès, M; Dalmau, E; Fernández, C; Felipe, A

    1996-12-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.

  5. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  6. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Albano, Clara; Liu, Yazheng; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Kitts, David D

    2016-06-01

    The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

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    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  8. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

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    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  10. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  12. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  13. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

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    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  15. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

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    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  18. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  19. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  1. Identification of genes associated with bud dormancy release in Prunus persica by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Terol, Javier; Martí, Gracia; Agustí, Manuel; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2010-05-01

    To better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying maintenance and release of seasonal bud dormancy in perennial trees, we identified differentially expressed genes during dormancy progression in reproductive buds from peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray hybridization. Four SSH libraries were constructed, which were respectively enriched in cDNA highly expressed in dormant buds (named DR), in dormancy-released buds (RD) and in the cultivars with different chilling requirement, 'Zincal 5' (ZS) and 'Springlady' (SZ), sampled after dormancy release. About 2500 clones picked from the four libraries were loaded on a glass microarray. Hybridization of microarrays with the final products of SSH procedure was performed in order to validate the selected clones that were effectively enriched in their respective sample. Nearly 400 positive clones were sequenced, which corresponded to 101 different unigenes with diverse functional annotation. We obtained DAM4, 5 and 6 genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors previously related to growth cessation and terminal bud formation in the evergrowing mutant of peach. Several other cDNAs are similar to dormancy factors described in other species, and others have been related to bud dormancy for the first time in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed differential expression of cDNAs coding for a Zn-finger transcription factor, a GRAS-like regulator, a DNA-binding protein and proteins similar to forisome subunits involved in the reversible occlusion of sieve elements in Fabaceae, among others.

  2. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

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    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  4. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  7. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  8. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  10. Changes in total soluble proteins and Ca2+ upon cryopreservation of Prunus mume pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Li, B L; Wang, H; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mei Flowers (Prunus mume) are traditional Chinese ornamental plants. Fifty-one Mei cultivars have been conserved in a pollen cryobank since 2003. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of total soluble proteins and flow cytometric detection of Ca2+ fluorescence to probe changes in pollen grains before and after cryopreservation. Results indicated that: (1) electrophoresis maps of total soluble proteins before and after cryostorage of pollen from three cultivars were different, even though 70 percent of the protein spots among these three cultivars were matched after cryopreservation. We found some protein spots that changed in all three cultivars; their molecular weights and pI were between 12.6-72.8 kDa and 5.6-7.3, respectively; (2): the geometric mean of Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (GMFI) value of cryopreserved pollen was significantly higher compared with that of fresh pollen in cultivar 'Beijing Yudie'. GMFI increased during pollen germination in our studied cultivars, especially after 0.5 and 1.0 h of culturing. In addition, no positive correlation was found between pollen germination rate and GMFI in the present study.

  11. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  12. Echinoparyphium montgomeriana n. sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle and seasonal abundance of. Echinoparyphium montgomeriana n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Natal, South Africa. c.c. Appleton, Fiona A. Donnelly and Ingrid M. Eriksson. South African Medical Research Council, Durban. A new species of Echinoparyphium, E. montgomeriana, is described from ...

  13. Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Yamaguchi, Aika; Kawami, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new species, Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov. within the Archaeperidinium minutum Jörgensen 1912 species complex. We examined the morphological variation of the cyst and motile stage by incubation experiments from sediment samples collected in coastal British Columbia...

  14. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    was ashed and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fruit set percentage was recorded on spurs and extension shoots in 2002. The nutrient analyses showed that control trees on Prunus avium had a higher concentration of leaf potassium compared with control trees on 'Colt'. Leaf....... The nutrient analyses of flower buds, flowers and bracts showed some significant differences in the nutrient concentrations as an effect of both rootstocks and treatments. Fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots was significantly affected by rootstock whereas the fertilization treatment had no effect....... Prunus avium had the highest percentage of fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots....

  15. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  16. Parasites in the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliane Watanabe Cova

    Full Text Available In this work, parasites associated with the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae were studied at a cultivation unit in the estuary of the Graciosa River in Taperoá, Bahia. On a monthly basis, between April 2011 and March 2012, 20 oysters were collected, measured and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. In order to identify the parasites, routine histological techniques were used. The specimens were embedded in paraffin and sections, 7 µm thick, were cut. These were then stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin and were examined using an optical microscope. The parameters analyzed to investigate water quality showed that the temperature ranged from 23.9 °C to 29.3 °C, water salinity from 0.4 to 24.2 Practical Salinity Units PSU and recorded rainfall from 80 mm to 406.4 mm/month. During the parasitological analyses, infestation of the polychaete Neanthes succinea was observed in 41% of the oysters. Through histological techniques, the following parasites were identified: colonies of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs; the protozoa Nematopsis sp. and Ancistrocoma sp.; the turbellarian Urastoma sp.; the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and an unidentified tapeworm. The data collected showed that there was low-intensity infection with and prevalence of parasites, except for Nematopsis sp., thus attesting that these cultivated oysters were in a healthy condition.

  17. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  18. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N L Poyedinok

    2013-01-01

    .... Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of non-photosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited...

  19. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom (Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Key words: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), edible mushroom, antioxidant, reducing power, scavenging ability, phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION. The button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange). Imbach, is the premier cultivated edible mushroom and is consumed throughout the world.

  20. Hubungan Kemelimpahan Chlorella sp Dengan Kualitas Lingkungan Perairan Pada Skala Semi Masal di BBBPBAP Jepara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aprilliyanti

    2016-10-01

      ABSTRACT Chlorella sp is one of the microalgae are often cultivated for various purposes such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, or for alternative biodiesel Chlorella sp an agent of bioremediation good, but can live in a polluted environment can also wear a heavy metal as the metal essential for metabolism. The many benefits that will be taken if it can develop Chlorella sp on a mass scale. With the emergence of Chlorella sp author conducted research using Chlorella sp as its object. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the abundance of Chlorella sp with the quality of the water environment in the district of Jepara.Chlorella sp is cultivated outdoors with a light source coming from direct sunlight, aeration for mixing media using a blower that flowed through the hose and faucet aeration to mix media. Aeration used in this study with the aim of Chlorella sp cells can obtain nutrients evenly in cultivation media for their water circulation in the culture vessel (Amini, 2006. From the analysis of data obtained by the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.995. This illustrates that there is a very strong relationship between the independent variables namely the five parameters of water quality (nitrates, phosphates, temperature, pH and salinity with the dependent variable abundance of Chlorella sp. Furthermore, multiple linear regression equation as follows: Y = -5323.54 -16.80 -60.78 nitrate phosphate + 111.09 + temperature; 997.26 -191.92 pH salinity. From the regression equation shows that the water quality parameters that have a unidirectional relationship (proportional is temperature and pH. While water quality parameters which have an inverse relationship, namely; nitrate, phosphate and salinity. Chlorella sp abundance relationships with water environmental quality semi massive scale strong, the results of the regression analysis obtained Adjusted R2 value of 0.995, meaning that the percentage contribution of variables influence

  1. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Prażak

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp.), its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour,...

  2. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, se...

  3. In Vitro Cultivation of 'Unculturable' Oral Bacteria, Facilitated by Community Culture and Media Supplementation with Siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R; Adamowska, Aleksandra; Lawlor, Megan; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2016-01-01

    Over a third of oral bacteria are as-yet-uncultivated in-vitro. Siderophores have been previously shown to enable in-vitro growth of previously uncultivated bacteria. The objective of this study was to cultivate novel oral bacteria in siderophore-supplemented culture media. Various compounds with siderophore activity, including pyoverdines-Fe-complex, desferricoprogen and salicylic acid, were found to stimulate the growth of difficult-to-culture strains Prevotella sp. HOT-376 and Fretibacterium fastidiosum. Furthermore, pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated increased proportions of the as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes Dialister sp. HOT-119 and Megasphaera sp. HOT-123 on mixed culture plates supplemented with siderophores. Therefore a culture model was developed, which incorporated 15 μg siderophore (pyoverdines-Fe-complex or desferricoprogen) or 150 μl neat subgingival-plaque suspension into a central well on agar plates that were inoculated with heavily-diluted subgingival-plaque samples from subjects with periodontitis. Colonies showing satellitism were passaged onto fresh plates in co-culture with selected helper strains. Five novel strains, representatives of three previously-uncultivated taxa (Anaerolineae bacterium HOT-439, the first oral taxon from the Chloroflexi phylum to have been cultivated; Bacteroidetes bacterium HOT-365; and Peptostreptococcaceae bacterium HOT-091) were successfully isolated. All novel isolates required helper strains for growth, implying dependence on a biofilm lifestyle. Their characterisation will further our understanding of the human oral microbiome.

  4. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  5. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  6. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues......, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. Significant differences were observed in most of the studied parameters between cultivars. Overall results indicate...

  7. Rentabilidad y Competitividad del cultivo del Durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en el Suroeste del Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar; Juvencio Hernández Martínez; Felipe de Jesús González Razo

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar la rentabilidad, competitividad y ventajas comparativas del cultivo de durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en la región suroeste del Estado de México, fue calculada una Matriz de Análisis de Política para este cultivo en 2003. Los resultados obtenidos indican una rentabilidad global positiva tanto en términos privados como económicos. La política agrícola aplicada en 2003 constituyó un desincentivo para el sistema de producción al carecer de apoyos (incentivos) a la remunerac...

  8. Biochemical compositions and fatty acid profiles in four species of microalgae cultivated on household sewage and agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; de Lira, Evandro Bernardo; Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Rosenhaim, Raul; da Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; da Conceição, Marta Maria; Sassi, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The potential of four regional microalgae species was evaluated in relation to their cell growth and biomass production when cultured in the following alternative media: bio-composts of fruit/horticultural wastes (HB), sugarcane waste and vinasse (VB) chicken excrements (BCE), raw chicken manure (RCM), and municipal domestic sewage (MDS). The cultures were maintained under controlled conditions and their growth responses, productivities, biochemical compositions, and the ester profiles of their biomasses were compared to the results obtained in the synthetic media. The MDS and HB media demonstrated promising results for cultivation, especially of Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Lagerheimia longiseta, which demonstrated productivities superior to those seen when grown on the control media. The highest lipid levels were obtained with the HB medium. The data obtained demonstrated the viability of cultivating microalgae and producing biomass in alternative media prepared from MDS and HB effluents to produce biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of a novel sequential cultivation method for the production of enzymatic cocktails from Trichoderma strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, C; Cunha, F M; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

    2015-02-01

    The development of new cost-effective bioprocesses for the production of cellulolytic enzymes is needed in order to ensure that the conversion of biomass becomes economically viable. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel sequential solid-state and submerged fermentation method (SF) could be validated for different strains of the Trichoderma genus. Cultivation of the Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 reference strain under SF using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was shown to be favorable for endoglucanase (EGase) production, resulting in up to 4.2-fold improvement compared with conventional submerged fermentation. Characterization of the enzymes in terms of the optimum pH and temperature for EGase activity and comparison of the hydrolysis profiles obtained using a synthetic substrate did not reveal any qualitative differences among the different cultivation conditions investigated. However, the thermostability of the EGase was influenced by the type of carbon source and cultivation system. All three strains of Trichoderma tested (T. reesei Rut-C30, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma sp INPA 666) achieved higher enzymatic productivity when cultivated under SF, hence validating the proposed SF method for use with different Trichoderma strains. The results suggest that this bioprocess configuration is a very promising development for the cellulosic biofuels industry.

  10. Regulation of xylanase activity in cellulomonas Sp. IIbc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H.; Alea, F. (Cuban Research Inst. for Sugar Cane By-Products (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1992-01-01

    The regulation mechanism governing the xylanolytic activity in the strain Cellulomonas sp. IIbc was studied. High levels of activity were detected during the cultivation on cellulose as the only carbon source. No activity was produced with glucose, xylose or cellobiose cultures, but in the last one, the synthesis was de-repressed when the sugar concentration dropped to 0.2%. The activity was not inhibited by glucose, cellobiose and xylose up to 1% concentration. A basal constitutive synthesis was detected in nutrient broth cultures. At the same time, xylose and cellobiose acted as inducers of the xylanase activity. (orig.).

  11. A whole biodiesel conversion process combining isolation, cultivation and in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of native microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazzar, Souhir; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Marzouki, Mohamed Néjib; Acién-Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José María; Molina-Grima, Emilio; Smaali, Issam

    2015-08-01

    A coupled process combining microalgae production with direct supercritical biodiesel conversion using a reduced number of operating steps is proposed in this work. Two newly isolated native microalgae strains, identified as Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., were cultivated in both batch and continuous modes. Maximum productivities were achieved during continuous cultures with 318mg/lday and 256mg/lday for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. Microalgae were further characterized by determining their photosynthetic performance and nutrient removal efficiency. Biodiesel was produced by catalyst-free in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of wet unwashed algal biomass (75wt.% of moisture). Maximum biodiesel yields of 45.62wt.% and 21.79wt.% were reached for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids of Chlorella sp. showed a decrease in their proportion when comparing conventional and supercritical transesterification processes (from 37.4% to 13.9%, respectively), thus improving the quality of the biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DO GÊNERO PRUNUS SOB DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP EM DOIS MEIOS DE CULTURA IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCKS IN DIFFERENT BAP CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO CULTURE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO POSSER SILVEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor concentração de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e meio de cultura para a multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp., recentemente introduzidos no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna e Mirabolano foram testados em dois meios de cultura, meio MS e meio MS ¾ (reduzido em 25% dos sais do meio inteiro, combinados com quatro concentrações da citocinina BAP: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mg.L-1. Observou-se que os genótipos apresentaram comportamentos diferentes entre si em relação às concentrações de BAP e aos meios. Concluiu-se que, para os porta-enxertos G x N22 e Mr.S 2/5, o melhor meio de multiplicação é o MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Marianna, o meio MS com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Mirabolano, o meio MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, sendo que, para este porta-enxerto, o BAP exerce efeito negativo sobre o tamanho das brotações, independentemente do tipo de meio. Já para o porta-enxerto G x N22, este efeito se fez notar apenas no meio MS. O porta-enxerto GF 677 não apresentou bons resultados na propagação in vitro.The purpose of this work was to determine the best BAP concentration and culture media for the in vitro multiplication of Prunus rootstocks starting from nodal segments. The rootstocks G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna and Mirabolano were tested in two culture media (MS and MS ¾ combined with four BAP concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 mg.L-1. It was observed that the genotypes had different performance as the two media and BAP concentrations are concerned. BAP provided better results in the MS ¾ for the rootstocks G x N22 and Mr.S 2/5. For 'Marianna', the best results were found in the MS at 0.7 mg.L-1 BAP. 'Mirabolano', showed better results in the MS ¾ at 0.5 mg.L-1 BAP and in the two tested media, the shoot length decreased with the increase for

  13. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  14. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population Dynamic of Dendronephthya sp.-Associated Bacteria in Natural and Artificial Habitats

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    SUSAN SOKA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendronephthya sp. is a soft coral that has huge distribution starting from Indopacific, Tonga, Solomon Islands to Great Barrier Reef in Australia. However, this soft corals survive only in short period after cultivation in artificial habitat (aquarium. Recent study showed that the soft coral Dendronephtya sp. has an association or symbiotic relationship with several bacteria, commonly known as coral associated bacteria (CAB. In this study, we compared the population dynamic of Dendronephthya sp.-associated bacteria in natural and artificial habitat, resulting different bacterial community profiles using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of bacterial community DNA. There were 15 main classes of bacterial population identified along with uncultured microorganism, uncultured organism, uncultured bacteria and unidentified organism. Members of Actinobacteria, Arthrobacteria, Chlorobia, Caldilineae, -proteobacteria and Proteobacteria were predicted to give contributions in the survival ability of both Dendronephthya sp. The cultivation of soft corals after 2 weeks in artificial habitat increases bacterial population similarity on 2 different samples by 10%. Bacterial population similarity in artificial habitat would increase along with the longer cultivation time of soft corals.

  16. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Nabil A; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Fayez, Mohamed; Patz, Sascha; Murphy, Brian R; Ruppel, Silke

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs) revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts.

  17. Plant-fed versus chemicals-fed rhizobacteria of Lucerne: Plant-only teabags culture media not only increase culturability of rhizobacteria but also recover a previously uncultured Lysobacter sp., Novosphingobium sp. and Pedobacter sp.

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    Nabil A Hegazi

    Full Text Available In an effort to axenically culture the previously uncultivable populations of the rhizobacteria of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L., we propose plant-only teabags culture media to mimic the nutritional matrix available in the rhizosphere. Here, we show that culture media prepared from Lucerne powder teabags substantially increased the cultivability of Lucerne rhizobacteria compared with a standard nutrient agar, where we found that the cultivable populations significantly increased by up to 60% of the total bacterial numbers as estimated by Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE of cultivable Colony-Forming Units (CFUs revealed a more distinct composition and separation of bacterial populations recovered on the plant-only teabags culture media than those developed on a standard nutrient agar. Further, the new plant medium gave preference to the micro-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, and succeeded in isolating a number of not-yet-cultured bacteria, most closely matched to Novosphingobium sp., Lysobacter sp. and Pedobacter sp. The present study may encourage other researchers to consider moving from the well-established standard culture media to the challenging new plant-only culture media. Such a move may reveal previously hidden members of rhizobacteria, and help to further explore their potential environmental impacts.

  18. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Sriram, Aditya; Park, Joseph; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Main, Dorrie; Abbott, Albert

    2012-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several conserved and non

  19. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  20. Metabolism of gibberellins A1 and A3 in fruits and shoots of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanpu, M; Blake, P S; Browning, G; Taylor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isotope-labelled GA metabolites were identified by GC--MS, following HPLC fractionation of extracts derived from fruits or shoots, that had been incubated with [2H]- and [3H]- GA1 or [2H]- and [3H]- GA3. GA1 (1) was converted into GA8 (10) by developing fruits and vegetative shoots of sweet cherry (Prunus avium cv. 'Stella'), while GA3 (4) was converted into GA3-isolactone (17). Other metabolites of each GA were detected but were not identified unequivocally. These included a metabolite of GA1 (1) in fruitlets that was more polar (by reverse phase HPLC) than GA8 (10) and a metabolite of similar polarity to GA87 (6), was obtained after incubating fruitlets with GA3 (4). However, no evidence was obtained to suggest that GA87 (6) was a metabolite of GA3 (4) or that GA85 (2) was a metabolite of GA1 (1) in these tissues, under the conditions used. The pattern of metabolites obtained from vegetative tissues was similar to that from fruitlets. However, the results suggested that GA1 (1) and GA3 (4) were metabolised at a greater rate in shoots from mature trees than in shoots from seedlings, and that GA1 (1) was metabolised more rapidly than GA3 (4) in juvenile and mature shoots. We conclude from these observations that GA3 (4) is not a precursor of GA87 (6) and GA32 (5), also, that GA1 (1) is not a precursor of GA85 (2) and GA86 (3) in developing fruits or in vegetative shoots of sweet cherry.

  1. Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of prunasin hydrolase from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, G W; Poulton, J E

    1987-05-15

    Three forms of prunasin hydrolase (PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb), which catalyze the hydrolysis of (R)-prunasin to mandelonitrile and D-glucose, have been purified from homogenates of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds. Hydroxyapatite chromatography completely resolved PH I from PH IIa and PH IIb. PH IIa and IIb, which coeluted on hydroxyapatite, were resolved by gel filtration. PH IIa was a dimer with a native molecular weight of 140,000. Both PH I and PH IIb were monomeric with molecular weights of 68,000. The isozymes appeared to be glycoproteins based on their binding to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. When presented several potential glycosidic substrates, these enzymes exhibited a narrow specificity towards (R)-prunasin. Km values for (R)-prunasin for PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb were 1.73, 2.3, and 1.35 mM, respectively. PH I and PH IIb possessed fivefold greater Vmax/Km values than PH IIa. Ortho- and para-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucosides were hydrolyzed at the same active site. All forms had a pH optimum of 5.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer. PH I and PH IIb were competitively inhibited by castanospermine with Ki values of 0.19 and 0.09 mM, respectively. PH activity was not stimulated by any metal ion tested and was unaffected by diethyldithiocarbamate, o-phenanthroline, 2,2'-dipyridyl, and EDTA.

  2. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase : Purification, N-Terminal Sequencing, and Antibody Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C P; Swain, E; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I', II, II') were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, K(m), V(max)) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen.

  3. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

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    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  4. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Cheng; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1991-01-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by α-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668338

  5. Micromorphology of pollen grains of three cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L.

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of various cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L. produce striated sculpture of the exine. These grains are included in the trizonocolporate class. In polar view, pollen grains have a triangular outline, while in equatorial view an elliptical outline. The exine of grains forms a pattern of striae characteristic for a given taxon. Flowers of various P. armeniaca cultivars produce pollen grains with the polar (P and equatorial (E length ranging 31-60 μm and 24-36 μm, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the micromorphology of pollen grains of three P. armeniaca cultivars – ‘Harcot’, ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’, using light and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of pollen grains was carried out to determine their size, shape and exine ornamentation. Observations of pollen grains were performed under a light microscope (Nikon Eclipse 400 and a scanning electron microscope (SEM (Tescan Vega II LMU. In terms of their size, pollen grains of the studied P. armeniaca cultivars were classified as large. Their shape was determined to be prolatum. In equatorial view of pollen grains, the striae run along the polar axis. These structures in the exine are arranged parallel to each other, can be branched or arched. The width of striae ranges from 0.27 μm (‘Early Orange’ to 0.62 μm (‘Harcot’. The largest distances between the striae were found in pollen grains of ‘Harcot’ (0.33 μm, whereas much smaller distances were observed in ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’ (0.13-0.14 μm. In pollen grains of P. armeniaca the tectum is perforated. In an area of 10 μm2, the tectum forms 4-9 perforations with a pore diameter of 0.1-0.6 μm.

  6. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  7. Differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmenjaud, D; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Pinochet, J; Simard, M H; Salesses, G

    1997-09-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.

  8. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit

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    Veličković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is commonly used in food industry and phytotherapy. The contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidative activity in extracts of blackthorn fruit were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The content of total phenol compounds varies from 15.33 to 20.94 mg GAE g-1 of fresh fruit. The content of total flavonoids is very low, and ranges from 0.419 to 1.31 mg QE g-1 of fresh fruits. Anthocyanins content lies between 0.112 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/g of fresh sample in ethanol extract and 0.265 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside g-1 of fresh blackthorn fruit in methanol-water 50/50 (v/v extract. The differences in total phenol compounds content depend on used extraction medium as a consequence of different polarity of used organic solvents and their mixtures, which selectively extract individual compounds. All explored extracts exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, which ranges from 32.05 to 89.10%. Phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and caffeic acids, flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified in investigated ethanol extracts by HPLC analysis. Ethanol extract shows significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Blackthorn fruit extract exhibits a high phenolic content and a high antioxidant activity, and can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  9. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  12. Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

  13. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  14. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  15. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  16. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  17. Mechanical stimuli regulate the allocation of biomass in trees: demonstration with young Prunus avium trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Dupraz, Christian; Jaouen, Gaëlle; Ploquin, Stéphane; Adam, Boris

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tree-shelters are increasingly used to protect tree seedlings against browsing animals and herbicide drifts. The biomass allocation in young seedlings of deciduous trees is highly disturbed by common plastic tree-shelters, resulting in poor root systems and reduced diameter growth of the trunk. The shelters have been improved by creating chimney-effect ventilation with holes drilled at the bottom, resulting in stimulated trunk diameter growth, but the root deficit has remained unchanged. An experiment was set up to elucidate the mechanisms behind the poor root growth of sheltered Prunus avium trees. Tree seedlings were grown either in natural windy conditions or in tree-shelters. Mechanical wind stimuli were suppressed in ten unsheltered trees by staking. Mechanical stimuli (bending) of the stem were applied in ten sheltered trees using an original mechanical device. Sheltered trees suffered from poor root growth, but sheltered bent trees largely recovered, showing that mechano-sensing is an important mechanism governing C allocation and the shoot-root balance. The use of a few artificial mechanical stimuli increased the biomass allocation towards the roots, as did natural wind sway. It was demonstrated that there was an acclimation of plants to the imposed strain. This study suggests that if mechanical stimuli are used to control plant growth, they should be applied at low frequency in order to be most effective. The impact on the functional equilibrium hypothesis that is used in many tree growth models is discussed. The consequence of the lack of mechanical stimuli should be incorporated in tree growth models when applied to environments protected from the wind (e.g. greenhouses, dense forests).

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yiğit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69% and total phenolic content (7.9 ± 0.2 µg/mL were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value. Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  19. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis β-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caramia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1–5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125–0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125–0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI, BACTERIA, NEMATODES AND VIRUSES IN FOUR COMMERCIAL VARIETIES OF HELICONIA (Heliconia sp. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE HONGOS, BACTERIAS, NEMÁTODOS Y VIRUS FITOPATÓGENOS EN CUATRO VARIEDADES COMERCIALES DE HELICONIA (Heliconia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathali López Cardona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Analysis of 914 samples of roots, rhizomes, pseudostems, inflorescences and leaves of four commercial varieties of heliconia, cultivated at the municipality of Chinchiná-Caldas (Colombia, allowed to identify five genera of plant pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Helminthosporium and Curvularia, three genera of plant pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia, Pseudomonas and Erwinia, two species of viruses (Banana streak virus (BSV, Badnavirus, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumovirus,, and seven genera of plant parasitic nematodes (Helicotylenchus, Tylenchus, Meloidogyne, Ditylenchus, Aphelenchoides, Pratylenchus, and Radopholus. Of these, Fusarium sp., affecting pseudostems, Pseudomonas sp., affecting leaves and inflorescences, and the plant parasitic nematodes Ditylenchus sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Pratylenchus sp. and Radopholus sp., are new records in the heliconia production in Colombia . The most limiting diseases corresponded to leaf blight, caused by Helminthosporium sp.; the bacterioses, caused by Pseudomonas sp.; the spotted stems, caused by Fusarium sp.; and soft rot of the pseudostems, caused by Erwinia sp. The pathogenicity tests demonstrated that Colletotrichum sp. and Phoma sp. are not pathogenic in leaves; while Fusarium sp., inoculated in pseudostems, Helminthosporium sp. and Pseudomonas sp., inoculated in leaves, and Colletotrichum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., inoculated in inflorescences, had incidence values of 83.3, 86.6, 93.3, 100.0 and 100.0%, respectively.Resumen. El análisis de 914 muestras de raíces, rizomas, pseudotallos, inflorescencias y hojas de cuatro variedades comerciales de heliconia, cultivadas en el municipio de Chinchiná-Caldas (Colombia, permitieron identificar cinco géneros de hongos fitopatógenos (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Helminthosporium y Curvularia, tres géneros de bacterias fitopatógenas (Ralstonia, Pseudomonas y Erwinia, dos especies de virus (Banana streak

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  2. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  3. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2014-01-01

    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study...

  4. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  5. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  6. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these

  7. Występowanie fuzariozy tulipanów (Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. S. et H. f. sp. tulipae Apt. na plantacjach produkcyjnych w Polsce [Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht. S. et H. f. sp. tulipae Apt. in tulip plantations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae has been observed on 'bud'b coming from different plantations. The number of diseased bulbs depended on the conditions of cultivation, the manner of storing, and the variety. Among the varieties most strongly affected were: Red Giant (up to 70%, Brilliant Star, Blizzard, Cellini, and Prominence.

  8. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

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    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  9. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

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    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  10. Prospects for Sorghum cultivation in Poland

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    Roman Prażak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origin and cultivation history of sorghum (Sorghum spp., its biology, requirements, cultivation techniques, and utilization. Sorghum is a cereal of the Poaceae. It is one of the most important crop plants grown in warmer parts of the world. Sorghum comes from Africa and therefore has very high heat requirements. In comparison with other crop plants, it is characterized by more efficient nutrient and water utilization. Sorghum grain is used to produce porridge, flour, syrup, sugar, ethanol, vegetable oil, starch, wax, paints, and animal fodder (the grain and entire plant. Sorghum straw is used to produce fibres, paper, and building materials. Sorghum has high energy value and can be an excellent source of renewable energy. It is easy to cultivate, with low soil and nutrient requirements. Due to its content of allelopathic compounds, it inhibits weed growth and has a phytosanitary effect. It is also resistant to disease and pests. It is a short-day plant, and in Polish climate conditions, it does not form sufficiently mature seeds, but produces a very high yield of green matter that can be used for fodder. Cultivation of sorghum during periodic water shortages may be an alternative solution for obtaining fodder when maize cultivation is unreliable.

  11. Cultivation strategies for growth of uncultivated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R

    2016-11-01

    The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation. Auxotrophic bacteria, with small genomes lacking in the necessary genetic material to encode for essential nutrients, frequently rely on close symbiotic relationships with other bacteria for survival, and may therefore be recalcitrant to cultivation in purity. Since in-vitro culture is essential for the comprehensive characterisation of bacteria, particularly with regard to virulence and antimicrobial resistance, the cultivation of uncultivated organisms has been a primary focus of several research laboratories. Many targeted and open-ended strategies have been devised and successfully used. Examples include: the targeted detection of specific bacteria in mixed plate cultures using colony hybridisation; growth in simulated natural environments or in co-culture with 'helper' strains; and modified media preparation techniques or development of customised media eg. supplementation of media with potential growth-stimulatory factors such as siderophores. Despite significant advances in recent years in methodologies for the cultivation of previously uncultivated bacteria, a substantial proportion remain to be cultured and efforts to devise high-throughput strategies should be a high priority.

  12. Prunus spp. intoxication in ruminants: a case in a goat and diagnosis by identification of leaf fragments in rumen contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Styer, Eloise L; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-11-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry) intoxication was diagnosed on postmortem examination of a goat. The clinical signs were weakness, depression, seizure-like activity, and lateral recumbency. Natural cases of black cherry intoxication have not been reported in goats in the United States. In the absence of a history of access to black cherry or the ability to detect cyanide or cyanogenic glycosides in blood or tissues, black cherry intoxication may be diagnosed in ruminants by the identification of black cherry leaves in rumen contents. Three distinctive features facilitate identification of black cherry leaves or leaf fragments: 1) a pair of small glands that protrude from the sides of the petiole just below the base of the blade, 2) incurved, gland-tipped (callous) teeth along the margins of the leaf, and 3) a band of hairs to each side of the lower half of the midvein on the surface of the leaf. Shape of the marginal teeth, presence or absence of glands at the tips of these teeth, the morphology of these glands, and presence or absence of petiolar glands and their morphology may allow identification and differentiation of small fragments of leaves from the 6 most important cyanogenic Prunus spp. in eastern North America: black cherry, Carolina laurel cherry, peach, English laurel cherry, choke cherry, and fire cherry.

  13. Genotypic differences in cyanogenic glycosides levels of compatible Prunus persica P. persica and incompatible P. persica P. mume combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is a phenomenon associated with complex physiological, biochemical, and genetic interactions between scion and rootstock. The main objective of this work was to assess the role of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs, amygdalin and prunasin, in the graft incompatibility of Prunus and possible biochemical effects in compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Graft compatibility, amygdalin and prunasin content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity, were studied in different graft combinations (Chimarrita/Capdeboscq; Chimarrita/Tsukuba 1; Chimarrita/Umezeiro; Maciel/Capdeboscq; Maciel/’Tsukuba 1; Maciel/Umezeiro and ungrafted genotypes. The results indicate that there was graft incompatibility of Chimarrita and Maciel cultivars grafted into Umezeiro rootstock. Combinations identified as incompatible showed higher prunasin concentration and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL activity in rootstock and greater concentration of total phenolics compounds and antioxidant activity in scion and rootstock. The results indicate that large differences in CGs concentration, especially prunasin, can be the graft incompatibility cause between Prunus persic. and P. mume. The prunasin concentration may be considered a promising marker to predict graft compatibility between P. persica and P. mume.

  14. Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei-Feng; Ding, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Rui

    2005-08-01

    Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.

  15. Stability of gene silencing-based resistance to Plum pox virus in transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Scorza, Ralph; Malinowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Barbara; Ravelonandro, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most devastating diseases of Prunus species. Since few sources of resistance to PPV have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing PPV-resistant stone fruit cultivars. C5, a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica L., containing the PPV coat protein (CP) gene, has been described as highly resistant to PPV in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We show in this report that C5 trees exposed to natural aphid vectors in the field remained uninfected after 4 years while susceptible transgenic and untransformed trees developed severe symptoms within the first year. C5 trees inoculated by chip budding showed only very mild symptoms and PPV could be detected in these trees by IC-RT-PCR. The PPV-CP transgene in C5 was specifically hyper-methylated with no detectable expression. These results indicate both stability and efficiency of PTGS-based PPV resistance in plum under field conditions.

  16. [Xylanase activity of phytopathogenic and endophytic strains of Ceratocystis sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Iur'ieva, O M

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of xylanase activity of 36 phytopathogenic and endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains was conducted. The rate of their linear growth on the medium with xylan was studied. The rate of linear growth of phytopathogenic strains was 0.003-0.004 mm/h that was almost 70 times less than in endophytic ones. There were no correlation between levels of xylanase activity of studied strains and rates of their linear growth. Xylanase activity ofendophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains varied from complete absence to high level. Phytopathogenic strains possessed only high xylanase activity; maximum values of their xylanase activity zones were three times more than in endophytic strains. The differences in xylanase activity were observed on the strain level. The xylanase activity of 24% endophytic and 64% phytopathogenic strains became higher with increasing of cultivation period. The clear dependence of xylanase activity on the species and organs of host plants was not demonstrated. It was shown that the xylanase activity level of phytopathogenic Ceratocystis sp. strains was too much higher than in such phytopathogens as Fusarium poae, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata strains. The conclusion was made that the studied endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains can be related to latent pathogens, which are able to cause the diseases of host plants in conditions favorable for them.

  17. Oil from the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurachman, Zeily; Brataningtyas, Dewi Susan; Hartati; Panggabean, Lily Maria Goretty

    2012-11-01

    The potential of the tropical marine benthic-diatom Navicula sp. for biodiesel feedstock was investigated. Growth profiles were analyzed by changing nutrient compositions in three different media (Walne, plain seawater, and modified seawater) and irradiance intensities. Navicula sp. cells showed significant growth in Walne and modified seawater medium but not in plain seawater medium. The microalgae grew well in a pH range of 7.8-8.4, and the cells were very sensitive to the intensity of direct sunlight exposure. The average cell concentration obtained from the cultures in plain seawater, Walne, and modified seawater media at the beginning of the stationary phase was 0.70, 2.17, and 2.54 g/L, respectively. Electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry showed that the triacylglycerols of the algae oil were identified as POP (palmitic-oleic-palmitic), POO (palmitic-oleic-oleic), and OOLn (oleic-oleic-linoleic). The oil productivity of Navicula sp. cultivated in Walne and modified seawater media was 90 and 124 μL L(-1) culture d(-1). The Navicula sp. biodiesel exhibited a kinematic viscosity of 1.299 mm(2)/s, density of 0.8347 g/mL, and internal energy of 0.90 kJ/mL.

  18. Additional sources of broad-spectrum resistance to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in Canadian accessions of Avena barbata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) is considered the most damaging disease of oat and the use of race-specific seedling (Pc) genes for resistance has been the primary means of control. As these resistance genes from cultivated oat, Avena sativa and the wild hexaploid animated oat, A. ster...

  19. Spirulina cultivation with a CO2 absorbent: Influence on growth parameters and macromolecule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriel Martins da; Moraes, Luiza; de Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select a concentration of CO2 absorbents to supplement Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultivation and to evaluate the effect of these compounds on the growth and production of macromolecules. Three initial biomass concentrations (X0), eight concentrations of monoethanolamine (MEA), and three NaOH concentrations were tested. The selected MEA concentrations did not inhibit the growth of Spirulina and doubled the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration in the assay medium in relation to the concentration of NaOH. The protein concentration in the biomass grown with MEA was, on average, 17% higher than that obtained with NaOH. Thus, it was found that MEA did not reduce the productivity of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, and its use can be further explored as a means for converting the carbon dissolved in the medium to biomolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of conditioned medium for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Seungjib; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-04-01

    The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been spotlighted as a promising candidate in genetic engineering research for biodiesel production. However, one of the major bottlenecks in the genetic manipulation against Nannochloropsis sp. is low transformation efficiency. Based on the idea that they grow rapidly in broth culture, the effect of conditioned medium on colonization and transformation efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. Cells grown on agar plates with 20-40% conditioned medium produced colonies that were approximately 2.3-fold larger than cells grown without conditioned medium. More importantly, the transformation efficiency was about 2-fold greater on plates with 30% conditioned medium relative to those without conditioned medium. In addition, FAME productivity in liquid cultures with 100% conditioned medium increased up to 20% compared with cultures of control medium. These results suggest that conditioned medium can be applied for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of N. salina for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultivation of microalgae in industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson

    that has many potential uses. Unfortunately, the current high costs of cultivation have limited the development and exploitation of such systems, resulting in only a few full-scale algae wastewater treatment installations and a small industry based mostly around food and pigments. This thesis contributes...... to autotrophic controls. Industrial wastewater was used as cultivation medium of Chlorella sorokiniana. The culture was able to grow at high rates upto a density of 4 g L-1. The deceleration-stat technique was used to create a series of pseudo-steady states to give information about the expected results...... to a growing body of knowledge with the aim to make algae cultivation viable for the production of sustainable products. Specific contributions include: improvement in the methods of screening the growth potential of different microalgae species; identification of an industrial wastewater that allows good...

  2. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  3. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  4. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  5. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  6. SPATIAL CONTINUITY OF DENDROMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS IN CLONAL CULTIVATED EUCALYPTUS SP. TRHOUGHOUT THE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carolina de Lima Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial continuity of the dendrometric characteristics average dominant height, volume and mean annual increment, throughout five different continuous ages. The experimental area was planted in 2003, accounting for 1,072.6 hectares. The data sets were derived from 116 permanent plots where successive forest inventory was carried out between 2006 and 2010. Using least squares weighted method, spherical, exponential and gaussian semivariogram models were fitted to the experimental semivariogram. To select the best model, reduced average error and standard deviation of the mean reduced error were analyzed. The spatial continuity assessment at along the time was carried out by comparison of the scaled semivariograms plotted considering the data sets from each age. Exponential semivariogram model has presented the best fitting and all the dendrometric characteristics has presented spatial continuity. The evaluated models were similar for each age and the studied characteristics as well. The results obtained with this study show that the use of geostatistical procedures to evaluate the growth of the trees throughout the time is an important planning tool, allowing a better management and prediction of wood volume in the forest.

  7. M ud indu plants Mill sp. uction s of pig ] cultiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    their roots was washed with tap water and transplanted into plastic cups or small pots, filled with autoclaved mixture of soil and sand. (3:1) for hardening (Dayal et al., 2003). Plants were kept in high. (90% or more) humidity and, initially low light intensities. The data were statistically analysed by standard ANOVA tool and ...

  8. Biodegradable and biocompatible biomaterial, polyhydroxybutyrate, produced by an indigenous Vibrio sp. BM-1 isolated from marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wu, Ho-Shing; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) which has biodegradable and biocompatible properties. They are adopted in the biomedical field, in, for example, medical implants and drug delivery carriers. This study seeks to promote the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1, isolated from a marine environment by improving constituents of medium and implementing an appropriate fermentation strategy. This study successfully developed a glycerol-yeast extract-tryptone (GYT) medium that can facilitate the growth of Vibrio sp. BM-1 and lead to the production of 1.4 g/L PHB at 20 h cultivation. This study also shows that 1.57 g/L PHB concentration and 16% PHB content were achieved, respectively, when Vibrio sp. BM-1 was cultivated with MS-GYT medium (mineral salts-supplemented GYT medium) for 12 h. Both cell dry weight (CDW) and residual CDW remained constant at around 8.2 g/L and 8.0 g/L after the 12 h of cultivation, until the end of the experiment. However, both 16% of PHB content and 1.57 g/L of PHB production decreased rapidly to 3% and 0.25 g/L, respectively from 12 h of cultivation to 40 h of cultivation. The results suggest that the secretion of PHB depolymerase that might be caused by the addition of mineral salts reduced PHB after 12 h of cultivation. However, work will be done to explain the effect of adding mineral salts on the production of PHB by Vibrio sp. BM-1 in the near future.

  9. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  10. Microalgae cultivation in sugarcane vinasse: Selection, growth and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Hugo; Cereijo, Carolina R; Teles, Valérya C; Nascimento, Rodrigo C; Fernandes, Maiara S; Brunale, Patrícia; Campanha, Raquel C; Soares, Itânia P; Silva, Flávia C P; Sabaini, Priscila S; Siqueira, Félix G; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is produced at large scale generating wastes that could be used for microalgae biomass production in a biorefinery strategy. In this study, forty microalgae strains were screened for growth in sugarcane vinasse at different concentrations. Two microalgae strains, Micractinium sp. Embrapa|LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40, presented vigorous growth in a light-dependent manner even in undiluted vinasse under non-axenic conditions. Microalgae strains presented higher biomass productivity in vinasse-based media compared to standard Bold's Basal Medium in cultures performed using 15L airlift flat plate photobioreactors. Chemical composition analyses showed that proteins and carbohydrates comprise the major fractions of algal biomass. Glucose was the main monosaccharide detected, ranging from 46% to 76% of the total carbohydrates content according to the strain and culture media used. This research highlights the potential of using residues derived from ethanol plants to cultivate microalgae for the production of energy and bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Co-Cultivation of Cyanobacteria on Growth, Productions of Polysaccharides and Extracellular Proteins, Nitrogenase Activity, and Photosynthetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Libo; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Shiping; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria as biofertilizers are benefit to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and reestablish the ecological system in soil. In general, several strains of cyanobacteria were involved in the biofertilizers. The co-cultivation of cyanobacteria were characterized on growth profile, production of polysaccharides and extracellular proteins, nitrogenase activity, and photosynthetic activity for three selected N 2 -fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena cylindrica (B1611 and F243) and Nostoc sp. (F280). After eight-day culture, the highest dry weights were obtained in F280 pure culture and co-cultivation of B1611 and F280. Higher production of extracellular proteins and cell-bonding polysaccharides (CPS) were observed in co-cultivations compared with pure culture. The highest released polysaccharides (RPS) contents were obtained in pure culture of F280 and co-cultivation of F280 and F243. Galactose and glucose were major components of CPS and RPS in all samples. Trehalose was a specific component of RPS in F280 pure culture. Based on the monosaccharide contents of CPS and RPS, F280 was the dominant species in the related treatments of co-cultivation. The nitrogenase activities in all treatments exhibited a sharp rise at the late stage while a significant decrease existed when three cyanobacteria strains were mixed. Photosynthetic activities for all treatments were determined with rapid light curve, and the related parameters were estimated.

  12. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aparecido Lima da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade genética e sanitária das mudas é de fundamental importância para o sucesso da fruticultura moderna. Para o pessegueiro, a micropropagação vem permitindo a produção clonal massal de plantas, com matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de explantes no estabelecimento in vitro, bem como avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus. Explantes constituídos por ápices caulinares e gemas laterais dos porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 e da seleção VP411 foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro em meio de cultura de Lepoivre suplementado com BAP (0,5 mg.L-1. A taxa média de sobrevivência para os porta-enxertos foi 62,9% para ápices caulinares e 58,8% para gemas laterais. Ápices caulinares e gemas laterais apresentaram 14,8% e 29,8% de contaminação, respectivamente. O genótipo afetou significativamente as taxas de multiplicação in vitro. Quanto ao número de brotos por explantes, o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq e a seleção VP411 foram superiores ao porta-enxerto GF677, resultando em 14,7; 16,0 e 10,5 brotos, respectivamente. Para a altura média dos brotos, os porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 foram superiores à seleção VP411 com 9,3; 8,9 e 7,8 mm, respectivamente. O porta-enxerto Capdeboscq foi superior ao porta-enxerto GF677 e à seleção VP411 na variável número de brotos >20 mm com 2,0; 1,3 e 1,0 brotos, respectivamente.

  13. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (-22.4%) and N:P (-10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (-8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (-13.5%) and F. sylvatica (-11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled invasion of

  14. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Prunus padus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon

    2012-11-21

    Prunus padus Linne has been widely used as a traditional medicine, with beneficial effects in numerous diseases, including stroke, neuralgia and hepatitis. In this study, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the methylene chloride fraction of P. padus (MPP). In vitro studies, the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP were examined using IFN-γ/LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophage model. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of MPP in vivo, trypsin-induced paw edema test was also conducted. The anti-nociceptive activities of MPP were measured using various experimental pain models including thermal nociception methods such as the tail immersion test and the hot plate test as well as chemical nociception methods like acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test. To determine whether analgesic activity of MPP is connected with the opioid receptor, we carried out combination test with naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist. In the current study, MPP showed potent inhibitory effect on IFN-γ/LPS-induced NO production. MPP also suppressed not only iNOS enzyme activity but also iNOS expression. Moreover, MPP inhibited COX-2 expression dose dependently. IFN-γ/LPS stimulation induced the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus but it was attenuated in the presence of MPP. In vivo study revealed that MPP could reduce paw volume after subplantar injection of trypsin. In addition, MPP showed potent analgesic activities both thermal and chemical nociception compared to tramadol and indomethacin. Furthermore, pre-treatment of naloxone slightly suppress the analgesic activity of MPP indicating that MPP acts as a partial opioid receptor agonist. In the present study, MPP showed potent anti-inflammatory properties through not only by suppressing various inflammatory mediators in vitro, but reducing the inflammatory edema in vivo. MPP also exhibited strong anti-nociceptive activities via both central and peripheral mechanism by

  16. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of P. sibirica

  17. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  18. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  19. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  20. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as "locomotion," "hormone metabolic process," and "detection of stimulus," indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  1. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  2. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F

    2013-04-01

    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  3. physicochemical characterization of 3 cultivated ivorian plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cooking quality of the most cultivated and consumed plantain in Côte d'Ivoire : Corne 1, French 2 and. Orishele at stage 5 of ripening (more yellow than green) were determined. Their gelatinization properties were also analyzed. Corne 1 variety contained the most ash, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium and the least ...

  4. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assuming cultivated pasture area will decrease with land degradation, conversion to grain crops or urban expansion, the only alternative is to increase ... In rangeland or natural grassland systems, sequential or simultaneous introduction of MHS results in greater productivity, diversity and resilience of plant as well as ...

  5. Cultivating Student Learning across Faith Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Marion; Shady, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Educators face the important challenge of preparing students to live constructively in a religiously diverse world. At some institutions, a reluctance to allow issues of faith into the classroom creates an obstacle to cultivating the skills students need to understand, process, and engage a religiously pluralistic society. At faith-based…

  6. Perfect roses and energy efficient cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, De A.

    2017-01-01

    How to grow roses with a constant quality year round in an energy efficient manner? That is the question for an applied research in which assimilation lighting, existing of HPS lamps and inter lighting LED, and cooling equipment and forced ventilation for semi-closed cultivation are combined. The

  7. Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, A.E.; Peene, F.; Donner, S.; Wijnhoven, S.; Geijsen, P.; Bossier, P.; Nevejan, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth.Broodstock animals were conditioned with

  8. Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collaborative learning of water conservation practices: cultivation and expansion of a learning network around rainwater harvesting demonstration sites in the Eastern Cape, ... South Africa has water, nutrition and food security challenges, especially the Eastern Cape Province where there is a relatively high level of poverty.

  9. Phosphoglucose isomerase polymorphism in cultivated groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to study one of the enzymes involved in glycolysis, Phosphoglucose isomerase subunits (PGI) (EC 5.3.1.9), in the cultivated groundnut, Arachis hypogaea, and some of its wild relatives. Two gene loci specifying PGI were detected. The more anodal locus, Pgi-1, was ...

  10. Alternative substrates for cultivating oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw has generally been used as the main substrate for cultivating oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus); however, in South Africa it is becoming expensive for small-scale farmers to utilise. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to investigate the use of alternative, but suitable substrates for planting oyster ...

  11. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom ( Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activities and phytochemical compounds of ethanol and hot water extracts of Agaricus bisporus species fruiting body and mycelia cultivated in Kenya were spectophotometrically determined and evaluated. The total antioxidant activity was analysed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil, hydroxyl, superoxide ...

  12. Isolation and cultivation of Walsby's square archaeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H; Poele, EMT; Rodriguez-Valera, F

    2004-01-01

    In 1980, A. E. Walsby described a square halophilic archaeon. This archaeon is of specific interest because of its unique shape and its abundance in hypersaline ecosystems, which suggests an important ecophysiological role. Ever since its discovery, the isolation and cultivation of 'Walsby's square

  13. Cultivation in the Newer Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Researchers who study television's cultivation effects believe that heavy television viewing exposes people to consistent messages that lead them to be more fearful and mistrustful of others. The widespread adoption and use of new television technologies, such as cable, VCR, and remote control devices (RCD), however, have the potential to alter…

  14. The cultivation, bioactive components and pharmacological effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... and relationship between structure and function of their secondary metabolites. Key words: Armillaria mellea, cultivation, ... were soybean cake powder and wheat bran, respectively. To optimize the submerged culture ... silkworm pupa powder, 1.5% soybean cake power, 2.0% sucrose, 1% ethanol, 1.0% ...

  15. Television Exposure Measures and the Cultivation Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin

    1990-01-01

    Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…

  16. Some Processes in the Cultivation Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    Elaborates on the cultivation hypothesis: that heavy television viewers incorporate biases present in television content into their own constructions of reality. Suggests that the integration of discrete television events into social reality beliefs requires cognitive skills not available to or unused by younger children. (JMF)

  17. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Caracterização molecular dos alelos-S de incompatibilidade gametofítica em Prunus salicina Lindl. Molecular identification of S-alleles of gametophytic incompatibility in Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalize Salete Mota

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomares comerciais de ameixeira-japonesa devem conter pelo menos duas cultivares para obter boa fertilização, devido à presença do sistema de incompatibilidade gametofítica, que inibe a autofecundação da grande maioria das cultivares. No presente trabalho, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar molecularmente os alelos-S de 11 cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl. e verificar a compatibilidade entre os genótipos avaliados. As cultivares Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaiba e Harry Pickstone foram analisadas por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com três pares de iniciadores específicos para alelos-S. As condições da PCR utilizadas, bem como as combinações de iniciadores, permitiram a identificação de alelos-S nas cultivares de P. salicina estudadas, bem como a indicação dos polinizadores mais compatíveis com algumas das principais cultivares utilizadas na produção de frutas. O sequenciamento de alguns dos alelos-S amplificados revelou elevada similaridade com sequências de nucleotídeos já identificados em outros trabalhos com Prunus spp.. Entretanto, a obtenção de sequências completas de maior número de alelos-S faz-se necessária para o estabelecimento de uma relação de identidade precisa entre os mesmos.Commercial plum orchards must contain at least two cultivars, in order to ensure good fruit set and thus high economic yields, because its carries the gametophytic incompatibility system, that inhibits the selfing in a great number of cultivares. The aim of this work was to identify by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction the S-alleles related to gametophytic incompatibility in eleven Prunus salicina (Lindl. cultivars. The Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaíba e Harry Pickstone

  19. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  20. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  1. Temperature induced stress influence on biodiesel productivity during mixotrophic microalgae cultivation with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subhash, G; Rohit, M V; Devi, M Prathima; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-10-01

    The role of operating temperature as a physical stress factor for enhancing lipid induction during microalgae cultivation with domestic wastewater was evaluated. Experiments were designed with dual mode microalgae cultivation viz., growth phase (GP) and temperature induced stress phase (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). GP showed enhancement in biomass growth and carbohydrate accumulation while stress phase (SP) operation at 30 °C showed noticeable improvement in lipid productivities (total/neutral lipid, 24.5/10.2%). Maximum carbohydrate utilization was observed during SP at 30 °C operation (57.8%) compared to 25 °C (50.6%) and 35 °C (26.9%) correlating well with the lipid synthesis. Interestingly the neutral lipid content documented five-fold increment illustrating feasibility towards good biodiesel properties. Biodiesel profile at 30 °C temperature is well supported by higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) to unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) ratio. GP operation showed good COD and nutrient removal concomitant to the biomass growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-10-05

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco.

  3. Microalgae cultivation in a tubular bioreactor and utilization of their cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyu, Hon-Nami; Shunji, Kunito

    1998-03-01

    In this study on the possiblities of microalgae technology as an option for CO2 mitigation, many microalgae were isolated from seawater. Some species of the isolates, Chlamydomonas sp. strain YA-SH-1, which accumulates starch in cells under light and ferment ethanol in dark and anaerobic condition, was grown outdoors by using 50-L tubular bioreactors in batch cultivation and harvested. Using these cells, the performance of ethanol production was examined quantitatively in a 0.5-L scale fermentor. Another species, Tetraselmis sp. strain Tt-1, was cultivated in a semi-batch manner by a similar type of tubular bioreactor indoors and examined for its utilization. Tests showed these cells could be used as partial substitute for wood and kenaf pulp for processing into paper. With the idea of making microalgae produce cellulose by genetic engineering in their minds, the authors studied the structure of bacterial cellulose synthase genes and the low temperature-induced, reversible flocculation in a thermophilic blue green alga (Cyanobacterium), Synechocystis vulcanus in order to examine the feasibility of using these genes as gene source and the cynanobacterium as host.

  4. Assessment of different carbohydrates as exogenous carbon source in cultivation of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Érika Cristina; Franco, Telma Teixeira; Wagner, Roger; Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Glucose is the substrate most widely used as exogenous carbon source for heterotrophic cultivation of cyanobacteria. Due to limited information about the use of different carbohydrates as carbon sources to support cyanobacterial heterotrophic metabolism, the objective of this work was to evaluate different monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose), disaccharides (lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) and polysaccharides (carboxymethylcellulose, cassava starch, Hi-maize(®), maltodextrin Corn Globe 1805(®) and xylan) as exogenous carbon source for heterotrophic culture of cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. The batch cultivation using fructose as organic carbon source resulted in the highest (p carbon source with the highest (p carbohydrate with major potential to produce biomass (1,072.8 mg(biomass)/L/day) and lipids (160.8 mg(lipids)/L/day). Qualitatively, the fatty acid profiles of the lipid extract from Phormidium sp. showed predominance of saturated chains for the cultures grown with most of the carbon sources, with the exception of the ones grown with xylose and maltodextrin.

  5. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  6. Nitrogen Effect on Water-Soluble Polysaccharide Accumulation in Streblonema sp. (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriptsova, Anna V

    2017-08-01

    The water-soluble polysaccharides of brown algae attract the increasing attention of researchers as an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest. The sole source for production of these polysaccharides has been large brown seaweeds such as members of Laminariales and Fucales. A new source of water-soluble polysaccharides is suggested here: it is a filamentous brown alga Streblonema sp., which can be cultivated under controlled conditions in photobioreactors that allow obtaining algal biomass with reproducible content and quality of polysaccharides. The accumulation of water-soluble polysaccharides can be stimulated by macronutrient limitation. In response to nitrogen deficiency, Streblonema sp. accumulated water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs) rich in laminaran. WSP accumulation started after 3-4 days following nitrate depletion and reached a plateau at around day 7. Polysaccharide accumulation was related to cellular nitrogen content. The critical internal N level that triggered the onset of polysaccharide accumulation was 2.3% dry weight (DW); at a cellular N concentration less than 1.4% DW, the polysaccharide synthesis stopped. Upon nitrate re-supply, mobilization of WSP occurred after 3 days. These results suggest that a two-stage cultivation process could be used to obtain large algal biomass with high water-soluble polysaccharide production: a first cultivation stage using nitrate-supplemented medium to accumulate algal biomass followed by a second cultivation stage in a nitrate-free medium for 3 to 7 days to enhance polysaccharide content in the alga.

  7. Progress in developing technologies to domesticate the cultivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress in developing technologies to domesticate the cultivation of shea tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa L.) in Ghana Progres realises dans le developpement des technologies pour domestiquel la cultivation du karitier ( Vitelleria paradoxa L.) au Ghana.

  8. In vitro propagation of Pilosocereus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecia Montalvo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective to establish the necessary cultivation conditions for the multiplication in vitro of Pilosocereus sp. Seeds from mature fruits collected under field conditions were used. The effect of three concentration of NaOCl (1.5, 2.0, 2.5% in the disinfection of the seeds was studied, as well as the influence of three salts concentration Murashige-Skoog, (MS (25, 50, 75% on the germination of the same ones. During the multiplication phase the influence of three concentration of bencilaminopurine (1.0, 2.0 y 3.0 mg l-1 in the culture medium was evaluated. The 100% of seeds free of microbial pollutants was achieved when the 1.5% NaOCl during 10 minutes was used. The biggest germination percentage was achieved in a culture medium with 25% of salts MS (88.5%. For the multiplication of plants the best results were reached when 1.0 mg l-1 of 6-BAP was used and a multiplication coefficient of 2.28 units was obtained. The 100% of plants develop root in a simple culture medium Murashige-Skoog (MS without regulators of growth. During the acclimatization phase the 88.7% of survival was reached. Key words: biodiversity, cactus, micropropagation, threatened species

  9. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild rice somewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970–1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same

  10. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  11. Ozone uptake (flux) as it relates to ozone-induced foliar symptoms of Prunus serotina and Populus maximowiziixtrichocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendovici-Best, T; Skelly, J M; Davis, D D; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2008-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during 2003 and 2004 from early June to the end of August, at 20 sites of lower or higher elevation within north-central Pennsylvania, using seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowiziixtrichocarpa). A linear model was developed to estimate the influence of local environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. The most significant factors explaining stomatal variance were tree species, air temperature, leaf vapor pressure deficit, elevation, and time of day. Overall, environmental factors explained less than 35% of the variation in stomatal conductance. Ozone did not affect gas exchange rates in either poplar or cherry. Ozone-induced foliar injury was positively correlated with cumulative ozone exposures, expressed as SUM40. Overall, the amount of foliar injury was better correlated to a flux-based approach rather than to an exposure-based approach. More severe foliar injuries were observed on plants growing at higher elevations.

  12. Molecular characterization of cDNAs corresponding to genes expressed during almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, J; Messeguer, R; Arús, P; Puigdomènech, P

    1995-01-01

    A number of different cDNA clones corresponding to the most abundant mRNAs present in immature seeds have been isolated from an almond (Prunus amygdalus cv. Texas) immature seed cDNA library. Those corresponding to proteins involved in storage processes have been further characterized. Two of these cDNAs (PA3BF1 and PA3BE12) code for the almond globulins (prunins), the main family of storage proteins synthesized in seeds during embryogenesis, and another cDNA (PA3BA1) codes for the 15.7 kDa almond oleosin, a protein located on the surface of oil bodies in plant seeds. These cDNAs have been sequenced and their expression during almond fruit development has been studied. Their expression is seed-specific and localized in cotyledons around 100 days after flowering. Both prunin and oleosin genes are present in one or two copies in the almond genome.

  13. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population.

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  15. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

  16. Exploration of Brazilian biodiversity and selection of a new oleaginous yeast strain cultivated in raw glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susan Hartwig; de Andrade, Cristiane Conte Paim; Ghiselli, Gislaine; Maugeri, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use glycerol generated from the synthesis of biodiesel to study the oleaginous potential of wild yeasts. An initial selection was performed via a rapid and qualitative technique by staining with Sudan Black B. Initially 129 yeasts were present, from which 5 were selected and cultivated in liquid medium containing pure or raw glycerol. The yeast LEB-M3, isolated from the Pantanal, presented lipid content of 20.46% and 56.58% for cultivation in pure and raw glycerol, respectively. This strain was genotypically identified as Candida sp. The fatty acid profile showed predominance of oleic acid (C18:1), 57.35% for cultivation in pure glycerol, and in raw glycerol linoleic acid (C18:2) was predominant (46.0%). It was possible to select a yeast with high lipid concentrations 9.14 g/L and fatty acid profile similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuany Pérez González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of the company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In two house of cultivation of tomato 540m2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2 of floor. After the crop was incorporate to the floor atreatment of on experimental formulated of Trichoderma (Trichobiol 34 PH with the fatirriego system to reason of 5x1012 conidios/ha. With the objective of evaluate the levels of affectation for nematodes. The use of Trichoderma solid and blended with worm humus and the addition of a preparation of commercial powdered Trichobiol (34 PH reduce the contamination degree of nematodes 2, to degree 1 in a period of 13 days in the treated house and they statued at that level until the crop.

  18. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuany Pérez González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of t he company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In t wo house of cultivation of tomato 540 m 2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2 of floor. After the crop was incorporate to the floor a treatment of on experimental formulated of Trichoderma (Trichobiol 34 PH with the fatirriego system to reason of 5x1012 conidios/ha. With the objective of evaluate the levels of affe ctation for nematodes. The use of Trichoderma solid and blended with worm humus and the addition of a prepara tion of commercial powdered Trichobiol (34 PH reduce the contamination degree of nematodes 2, to degree 1 in a period of 13 days in the treated house and they statued at that level until the crop

  19. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  20. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed.

  1. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  2. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  3. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the soil management methods under rice cultivation in. Ndokwa grassland soils with the aim of determining the most effective soil management measures for rice cultivation. Soil samples were collected at three locations where rice is presently cultivated in the area. Five plots of 20m x 20m were ...

  4. [Formation of huntite by Lysinibacillus sp. GW-2 strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinglong; Li, Fuchun; Zhang, Chonghong; Li, Xuelin

    2015-05-04

    We studied the formation of carbonate minerals induced by microorganism to explore the possibility of mineral capture. Culture experiments of carbonate precipitation were done using B4 medium with 6:1 molar ration of Mg/Ca for 50 days. The same medium without inoculation was used as the control. During the cultivation, bacterial density, precipitate quantities, pH and conductivity of the medium, calciumand magnesium concentration were determined. The morphologies of precipitated carbonates were observed using scanning electron microscopy, and mineral species of carbonate were determined by X-ray diffraction. The main results were: (1) In the inoculation process of the Lysinibacillus sp. (GW-2 strain), we found that precipitate quantities were gradually increased with time, while precipitate was not collected in the aseptic experiments; (2) There were significant positive correlations between bacterial density and average precipitation rate (r = 0. 67, P carbonate minerals by Lysinibacillus sp. formed according to following trend: amorphous calcium carbonate --> Huntite --> High-Mg calcite. The main conclusions were: (1) Lysinibacillus sp. (GW-2 strain) might induce the formation of carbonate minerals precipitation; (2) The bacterial density directly affected the precipitation of carbonate minerals, whereas pH value indirectly controlled the precipitation of carbonate minerals; (3) Decreased of conductivity, calcium and magnesium concentration of the medium could indirectly indicate the occurrence of carbonate precipitate; (4) Huntite might be formed through ageing of amorphous calcium carbonate, whereas high-Mg calcite might be formed through demagnesium of the huntite.

  5. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R

    2009-01-01

    Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness. PMID:22557340

  6. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Sheetal L; Yende, Mohan R

    2009-07-01

    Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness.

  7. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  8. In vitro cultivation of Maritrema novaezealandensis (Microphallidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the composition of culture medium on excystation, growth, survival and egg production was investigated for the recently discovered microphallid trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis. Metacercariae from the two second intermediate crab hosts, Macrophthalmus hirtipes...... and Halicarcinus whitei, were incubated in either: (1) 0.85% saline solution, (2) the commercial cell culture medium, NCTC-109, (3) NCTC-109 supplemented with 20%, or (4) NCTC-109 supplemented with 40% chicken serum. Furthermore, excysted metacercariae were cultured for 5 days in each of the three media: NCTC-109...... cultured in media with a supplement of chicken serum and reached a maximum after 2 days of cultivation. Growth, however, did not occur after the first day of cultivation in any of the three media....

  9. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  10. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. Leptospira sp. as a cause of equine abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Argenta Pescador

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. em um feto de 6 meses proveniente de um estabelecimento localizado próximo a Porto Alegre/RS. As lesões macroscópicas se caracterizaram por icterícia e hemorragias distribuídas difusamente sobre a pele, mucosa oral, tecido subcutâneo, pulmão, coração e sistema gastrintestinal. O fígado estava aumentado de tamanho, friável e de coloração amarelada. Os rins apresentavam hemorragias petequiais na superfície capsular e na superfície de corte observaram-se palidez da região cortical e medular. Cortes de rim e sistema nervoso central, corados por Warthin-Starry, revelaram a presença de espiroquetas nos túbulos, glomérulos e substância branca do encéfalo. Cultivo aeróbio de amostras de fígado e pulmão não revelaram crescimento bacteriano significativo. O teste de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi positivo e a sorologia fetal resultou numa titulação de 80 para o sorovar copenhageni e 40 para os sorovares icterohaemorragiae e pomona.This report describes an abortion on 6-month-old equine aborted fetus that has been caused by Leptospira sp. Main lesions included jaundice and hemorrhages diffusely scattered throughout the skin, oral mucosa, subcutaneous tissues, lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system. The liver was enlarged, pliable and yellow colored. The cortical and medullar of the kidneys were pale and petechial hemorrhages were present on the capsular surface. Warthin-Starry stained slices of the kidneys and central nervous system revealed the presence of spirochaetes within the tubules, glomeruli and white matter of the encephalo. Aerobic cultivation from samples of the liver and lungs were negative. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was positive and the fetus’s serological test resulted titers of 80 against sorotype copenhageni and 40 against the sorotypes icterohaemorragiae and pomona.

  12. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzi,Junior Cesar; Norton,Lloyd Darrell; Silva,Marx Leandro Naves; Curi,Nilton; Oliveira,Anna Hoffmann; Silva,Mayesse Aparecida da

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under m...

  13. Is GM Soybean Cultivation in Argentina Sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Choumert, Johanna; PHELINAS, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the long term sustainability of Argentina’s specialization in genetically modified soybean cultivation. It is conceived as an evidence-based assessment of the most relevant economic, social, and environmental, implications of the “soybeanization” of Argentinian agriculture. We combine 2 sources of primary and secondary quantitative data: the National Agricultural Census, and farm level data from a field survey carried out in 2 provinces of the Argentinian Pampas. Our resul...

  14. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  15. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops

    OpenAIRE

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-01-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on...

  16. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  17. Large-Scale Cultivation of Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the twentieth century, microalgae have been exploited as a candidate biomass source of food and other products. One such candidate source is the fast-proliferating microalga Euglena gracilis. The commercial cultivation of E. gracilis began in 2007, after the success of its outdoor mass cultivation and improvement of the harvesting and drying methods suitable for Euglena cells. The commercialization of Euglena production is based on the strategy of "5Fs of Biomass," which refers to the development and production of commercial products including food, fiber, feed, fertilizer, and fuel from biomass." Although room for improvement remains in the productivity of Euglena biomass, the product with the highest value-food-is already profitable. By enhancing the productivity of its biomass, other Euglena products, including fiber, feed, fertilizer, and fuel, can be commercialized. Breeding and recombinant DNA technology studies are being conducted to accomplish more extensive application of Euglena. In addition, the search for a better place for outdoor mass cultivation of Euglena is ongoing.

  18. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The difference of anti-inflammatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. that is derived from Punaga beach, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmawati Asmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the difference of anti-inflammatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. that is derived from Punaga beach, South Sulawesi toward mice. Seaweed is one of resourceful plants in Indonesian ocean. Some researchers suggested that brown seaweed has a potential to be an anti-inflammatory agent because of it contains polysaccharide sulfate, PUFA, and fuchosantin. Punaga village that is located in South Sulawesi is an area with most of their people work as seaweed farmer and cultivation of seaweed. This is the reason why researcher found it interest to use natural sources as an alternative of herbal medicine especially as an anti-inflamatory.As many as 20 male mice were used as sample in this study weighing 14-35 g and divided into four treatment groups (n=5. Group 1 as positive control with 5 mice for sample, use diclofenac sodium solution 0.35 mg/35 g body weight. Group 2 as negative control with 5 mice for sample use NaCMC solution. Group 3 with also 5 mice for sample use methanol extract of Padina sp. with dose 7 mg/35 g body weight. And group 4 with 5 mice use methanol extract of Sargassum sp. with dose 6.125 mg/35 g body weight. Thirty minutes after injection of test material, 0.5 ml pepton 1% is injected into mice leg. The assessment of mice leg use plethysmometer that is taken on the first hour until fourth hour after injection of pepton 1%. Data analysis use T-test to find out the difference of anti-inflamatory effect of brown algae extract Padina sp. and Sargassum sp. Based on the result of this study, it showed that brown algae extract Padina sp has P (0.025 < 0.05 and brown algae extract Sargassum sp. has P (0.02 < 0.05 which means that there are anti-inflammatory effect found in both test materials. And it is also found that brown algae extract Padina sp. has longer anti inflammatory effect half time than in brown algae extract Sargassum sp. Brown algae extract

  20. Production of D- and L-Lactic Acid by Mono- and Mixed Cultures of Lactobacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonija Trontel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch cultivation of monoculture of Lactobacillus sp. and two–strain mixed culture of Lactobacillus sp. and Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531T was carried out with the aim of producing L-(+- and D-(–/L-(+-lactic acid to be implemented in poly(lactic acid polymer production. Metabolic capacity of two Lactobacillus strains to ferment different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose or soluble starch during cultivation in MRS medium at 40 °C, in a laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor was defined. Lactobacillus sp. showed similar affinity towards mono- and disaccharide substrates, which were homofermentatively converted mostly to L-(+-lactic acid. L. amylovorus DSM 20531T has been characterized as a D/L-lactate producer and it is capable of conducting simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Due to the interaction of Lactobacillus sp. with L. amylovorus DSM 20531T, starch was hydrolysed and fermented to the mixture of L-(+- and D-(–-lactic acid. Modified Luedeking-Piret kinetics used for the description of substrate utilization, growth of mono- and mixed cultures and production of lactic acid stereoisomers showed good agreement with experimental data.