WorldWideScience

Sample records for prunus serrula bark

  1. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  2. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study which aimed to produce a formula for establishing the mass of the bark of Prunus africana specimens was carried out in May 2011 on Tchabal Mbabo and Tchabal Gang Daba mountain forests, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The diameter at breast height (DBH), the height of the tree and the thickness of the ...

  3. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  4. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  5. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-10

    May 10, 2013 ... 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, BP 24 157 Cameroon. 2Ministry of Environment and Nature .... licenses were provided to Cameroonian entrepreneurs, the level of regulation of bark ... ecology, regeneration and subsequent protection. Such information is often lacking, ...

  6. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  7. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  8. Gum spots in black cherry caused by natural attacks of peach bark beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1981-01-01

    Peach bark beetles, Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris), made abortive attacks on healthy black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., trees. The beetle attacks caused five types of gum spots in the wood and a gummy exudate on the bark. The most extensive and common types of gum spot were single and multiple rows of interray gum spots that...

  9. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  10. Bark Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; McAvoy, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetles are one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. They are different than the larger longhorned and roundheaded/metallic woodboring beetles commonly infesting the inner wood of trees. The largest bark beetle, the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens), reaches only 8.3 mm in length. Because of their tiny size, bark beetles are not effective tree killers as individuals.

  11. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  12. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  13. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  14. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  15. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  16. Barking and mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Coppinger, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    Barking is most often associated with the domestic dog Canis familiaris, but it is a common mammalian and avian vocalization. Like any vocalization, the acoustic character of the bark is likely to be a product of adaptation as well as an expression of the signaler's internal motivational state. While most authors recognize that the bark is a distinct signal type, no consistent description of its acoustic definition or function is apparent. The bark exhibits considerable variability in its acoustic form and occurs in a wide range of behavioral contexts, particularly in dogs. This has led some authors to suggest that dog barking might be a form of referential signaling, or an adaptation for heightened capability to communicate with humans. In this paper we propose a general 'canonical' acoustic description of the bark. Surveying relevant literature on dogs, wild canids, other mammals and birds, we explore an alternative functional hypothesis, first suggested by [Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat. 111, 855-869] and consistent with his motivational-structural rules theory: that barking in many animals, including the domestic dog, is associated with mobbing behavior and the motivational states that accompany mobbing.

  17. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  18. Living on the Bark

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    on the bark as wounds created by various animate or inanimate. Dipanjan Ghosh teaches biology at Joteram. Vidyapith, a Higher. Secondary School situated in Burdwan, West Bengal. Apart from teaching he ..... A J Mordue and A Blackwell, Azadirachtin: An update, J. Insect. Physiol. Vol.39, pp 903–924, 1993. [6]. D Ghosh ...

  19. Bark is the Hallmark

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cinchotannic acid, gallotannic acid, etc. d) Volatile oils: Essential oils which have the odoriferous principle., eg., cinnamon oil, rose oil, etc. e) Resins: Solid or .... astringent which is applied in the treatment of stomach pain, ulcers, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. The paste of Michelia. Bark is a source of many medicines.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  1. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  2. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  3. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  4. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  5. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  6. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  7. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  8. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  9. Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, ...

  10. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  11. Rapid analysis of inner and outer bark composition of southern yellow pine bark from industrial sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    Differences in bark chemistry between inner and outer bark are well known and may affect the suitability of various bark supplies for a particular application. Accordingly, there is a need for quality control protocols to assess variability and predict product yields. Southern yellow pine bark samples from two industrial sources were separated into inner and outer bark...

  12. Estimating bark thicknesses of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the thickness of bark along the stem of a tree is critical to accurately estimate residue and, more importantly, estimate the volume of solid wood available. Determining the volume or weight of bark for a log is important because bark and wood mass are typically separated while processing logs, and accurate determination of volume is problematic. Bark thickness...

  13. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  14. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  15. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-10

    May 10, 2013 ... project entitled “Non-detriment findings (NDF) for P. africana (Hook.f.) Kalman in Cameroon”. The first important outputs of the project were the production of the partial NDF reports on P. africana for the mount Oku and mount Cameroon, respectively in the North west and. South west regions of Cameroon.

  16. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  17. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  18. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  19. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  20. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  1. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  2. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  3. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  4. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  5. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  6. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  7. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  8. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  9. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  10. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  12. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  13. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  14. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  15. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  16. The evaluation of the growth and nutrition conditions of the garden nursery material Prunus and Thuja according to the use of various cultivating substrates and systems of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meisl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different peat-based cultivating substrates and the system of fertilization on the nutrition conditions and growth characteristics of garden nursery material Prunus kurilensis ‘Brillant’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘Smaragd’ were observed during a three-year experiment. Three kinds of substrates were tested: peat + pumice (pemza proportioned 8:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2. Two fertilizers were used: granular controlled-release fertilizer – Osmocote, and watersoluble with irrigation – Kristalon.A higher content of macroelements was observed in the leaves of Prunus. The only exception was potassium, the quantity of which was demonstrably higher in the assimilative organs of Thuja. On the contrary, Thuja had a higher content of trace elements except for copper and iron. The highest contents of nitrogen, potassium, and iron were statistically proved in leaves of woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice due to its higher sorption capability. A better nutrition conditions in almost all nutrients were observed at plants where the gradually effective Osmocote was applied. The exceptions were calcium, molybdenum and iron, the content of which was, on the contrary, higher where Kristalon with irrigation were used. Physical characteristics of the growing substrates that contained bark were significantly worse at the end of the experiment. This was even intensified by clay. The substrate containing peat and pumice were less stable. The best growth was observed in woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice, ie where peat was not substituted by bark, and, at the same time, expanded clay was used instead of classic clay. Higher values of growth characteristics were demonstratively observed after the Osmocote fertilizer was applied.The results of the experiment reveal that pumice should be recommended, pemza with a high sorption capability and the

  17. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  18. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management.

  19. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  20. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  1. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  2. Bark functional ecology: evidence for tradeoffs, functional coordination, and environment producing bark diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Gleason, Sean; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Chang, Yvonne; Westoby, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The causes underlying bark diversity are unclear. Variation has been frequently attributed to environmental differences across sites. However, variation may also result from tradeoffs and coordination between bark's multiple functions. Bark traits may also covary with wood and leaf traits as part of major dimensions of plant variation. To assess hypotheses regarding tradeoffs and functional coordination, we measured bark traits reflecting protection, storage, mechanics, and photosynthesis in branches of 90 species spanning a wide phylogenetic and environmental range. We also tested associations between bark, wood, and leaf traits. We partitioned trait variation within species, and within and across communities to quantify variation associated with across-site differences. We observed associations between bark mechanics and storage, density and thickness, and thickness and photosynthetic activity. Increasing bark thickness contributed significantly to stiffer stems and greater water storage. Bark density, water content, and mechanics covaried strongly with the equivalent wood traits, and to a lesser degree with leaf size, xylem conductivity, and vessel diameter. Most variation was observed within sites and had low phylogenetic signal. Compared with relatively minor across-site differences, tradeoffs and coordination among functions of bark, leaves, and wood are likely to be major and overlooked factors shaping bark ecology and evolution. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  4. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... Objectives: To appraise the amount of sustainable bark stripped and time to complete bark recovery as basis ... and amphetamine addiction (Mash et al., 1998;. Fleurentin et al. ..... Table 4: Comparison of the harvest method performances according to mean bark wet mass yielded and bark recovering.

  5. SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-BASED COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987555The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro – bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruning and with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Sanitation Company of Paraná State, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2,7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  6. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  8. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linning Qu

    Full Text Available Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, a member of the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae, infects different Prunus species and has a worldwide distribution. Yet the population structure and genetic diversity of the virus is still unclear. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene and coat protein (CP gene of PBNSPaV isolates from seven Prunus species grown in China revealed a highly divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population, sharing nucleotide similarities of 73.1-100% with HSP70h gene, and 83.9-98.6% with CP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h and CP sequences revealed segregation of global PBNSPaV isolates into four phylo-groups (I-IV, of which two newly identified groups, II and IV, solely comprised Chinese isolates. Complete genome sequences of three PBNSPaV isolates, Pch-WH-1 and Pch-GS-3 from peaches, and Plm-WH-3 from a plum tree, were determined. The three isolates showed overall nucleotide identities of 90.0% (Pch-GS-3 and 96.4% (Pch-WH-1 with the type isolate PL186, and the lowest identity of 70.2-71.2% with isolate Nanjing. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report evidence of significant recombination in the HSP70h gene of PBNSPaV variant Pch2 by using five programs implemented in RDP3; in addition, five codon positions in its CP gene (3, 8, 44, 57, and 88 were identified that appeared to be under positive selection. Collectively, these results indicate a divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population. In addition, our findings provide a foundation for elucidating the epidemiological characteristics of virus population.

  9. Modelling biomechanics of bark patterning in grasstrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Holly; Runions, Adam; Hobill, David; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2014-09-01

    Bark patterns are a visually important characteristic of trees, typically attributed to fractures occurring during secondary growth of the trunk and branches. An understanding of bark pattern formation has been hampered by insufficient information regarding the biomechanical properties of bark and the corresponding difficulties in faithfully modelling bark fractures using continuum mechanics. This study focuses on the genus Xanthorrhoea (grasstrees), which have an unusual bark-like structure composed of distinct leaf bases connected by sticky resin. Due to its discrete character, this structure is well suited for computational studies. A dynamic computational model of grasstree development was created. The model captures both the phyllotactic pattern of leaf bases during primary growth and the changes in the trunk's width during secondary growth. A biomechanical representation based on a system of masses connected by springs is used for the surface of the trunk, permitting the emergence of fractures during secondary growth to be simulated. The resulting fracture patterns were analysed statistically and compared with images of real trees. The model reproduces key features of grasstree bark patterns, including their variability, spanning elongated and reticulate forms. The patterns produced by the model have the same statistical character as those seen in real trees. The model was able to support the general hypothesis that the patterns observed in the grasstree bark-like layer may be explained in terms of mechanical fractures driven by secondary growth. Although the generality of the results is limited by the unusual structure of grasstree bark, it supports the hypothesis that bark pattern formation is primarily a biomechanical phenomenon.

  10. Hydrological properties of bark of selected forest tree species. Part 2: Interspecific variability of bark water storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilek Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present research is the water storage capacity of bark of seven forest tree species: Pinus sylvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Ehrh. and Fagus sylvatica L. The aim of the research is to demonstrate differences in the formation of bark water storage capacity between species and to identify factors influencing the hydrological properties of bark. The maximum water storage capacity of bark was determined under laboratory conditions by performing a series of experiments simulating rainfall and by immersing bark samples in containers filled with water. After each single experiment, the bark samples were subjected to gravity filtration in a desiccator partially filled with water. The experiments lasted from 1084 to 1389 hours, depending on the bark sample. In all the studied species, bark sampled from the thinnest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in mm H2O · cm-3, while bark sampled from the thickest trees - by the lowest capacity. On the other hand, bark sampled from the thickest trees is characterized by the highest water storage capacity expressed in H2O · cm-2 whereas bark from the thinnest trees - by the lowest capacity. In most species tested, as the tree thickness and thus the bark thickness and the coefficient of development of the interception surface of bark increase, the sorption properties of the bark decrease with bark depth, and the main role in water retention is played by the outer bark surface. The bark of European beech is an exception because of the smallest degree of surface development and because the dominant process is the absorption of water. When examining the hydrological properties of bark and calculating its parameters, one needs to take into account the actual surface of the bark of trees. Disregarding the actual bark surface may lead to significant errors in the interpretation of research

  11. Salty bark as a soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Bollen

    1971-01-01

    Bark from Douglas-fir logs floated in sea water contained 0.75 to 1.94 percent salt (NaCl). Leaching by natural and simulated rainfall and by soaking readily removed this salt. Bush bean and tomato plants were grown in the greenhouse on a sandy loam soil to which bark of three different proportions of salt was applied as a mulch and as an incorporation at the rate of...

  12. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  13. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bark traits, decomposition and flammability of Australian forest trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootemaat, Saskia; Wright, Ian J.; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Shaw, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Bark shedding is a remarkable feature of Australian trees, yet relatively little is known about interspecific differences in bark decomposability and flammability, or what chemical or physical traits drive variation in these properties. We measured the decomposition rate and flammability

  15. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  16. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  19. Bark Beetle-Fire Associations in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    OpenAIRE

    Amman, Gene D

    1991-01-01

    The large forest fires in and around Yellowstone National Park in 1988 bring up many ecological questions, including the role of bark beetles. Bark beetles may contribute to fuel buildup over the years preceding a fire, resulting in stand replacement fires. Fire is important to the survival of seral tree species and bark beetles that reproduce in them. Without fire, seral species are ultimately replaced by climax species. Following fire, bark- and wood-boring beetles respond to fire-injured t...

  20. Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Vincent R; Krokene, Paal; Christiansen, Erik; Krekling, Trygve

    2005-08-01

    Conifers are long-lived organisms, and part of their success is due to their potent defense mechanisms. This review focuses on bark defenses, a front line against organisms trying to reach the nutrient-rich phloem. A major breach of the bark can lead to tree death, as evidenced by the millions of trees killed every year by specialized bark-invading insects. Different defense strategies have arisen in conifer lineages, but the general strategy is one of overlapping constitutive mechanical and chemical defenses overlaid with the capacity to up-regulate additional defenses. The defense strategy incorporates a graded response from 'repel', through 'defend' and 'kill', to 'compartmentalize', depending upon the advance of the invading organism. Using a combination of toxic and polymer chemistry, anatomical structures and their placement, and inducible defenses, conifers have evolved bark defense mechanisms that work against a variety of pests. However, these can be overcome by strategies including aggregation pheromones of bark beetles and introduction of virulent phytopathogens. The defense structures and chemicals in conifer bark are reviewed and questions about their coevolution with bark beetles are discussed. Copyright New Phytologist (2005).

  1. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  2. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  3. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  4. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  5. Photosynthetic bark : use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girma Gebrekidan, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Bongers, Frans; Schlerf, Martin; Schlerf, M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not

  6. Photosynthetic bark: use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girma, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Bie, de C.A.J.M.; Bongers, F.; Schlerf, M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not

  7. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Feng Zou; Bing-Zhao Zhang; Hilde Barsett; Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen; Drissa Diallo; Terje Einar Michaelsen; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The ch...

  8. Lignans from the bark of Zanthoxylum simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qun; Deng, Yi-Hui; Wang, Yue-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Investigation on the EtOAc extract of the bark of Zanthoxylum simulans led to the isolation of four new lignans including zanthoxylumin A (1), zanthoxylumin B (2), ( - )-magnolin (3), and ( - )-pinoresinol-di-3,3-dimethylallyl ether (4). Their structures were established by comprehensive analysis of the spectral data, especially 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  9. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  10. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  11. Peroxidases e fenóis totais em tecidos de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. nos períodos de crescimento vegetativo e de dormência Peroxidases activity and total phenols in the tissue rootstock of Prunus sp. in the vegetative development and rest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidases e a concentração de fenóis apresentam uma grande importância na união entre o enxerto e o porta-enxerto, podendo, desta forma, influenciar as respostas de estresse da incompatibilidade no processo de enxertia. O presente trabalho objetivou quantificar a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais em cultivares de Prunus sp. Amostras de casca e de lenho foram processadas e quantificadas por espectrofotometria, a partir dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras Mirabolano e Marianna comum, cultivados nos viveiros do Departamento de Fitotecnia da FAEM/UFPel. Concluiu-se que a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais varia entre porta-enxertos, período de crescimento e tipo de tecido; a maior atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais ocorre nos porta-enxertos Mirabolano e Marianna; a atividade das peroxidases e dos fenóis totais é maior na casca do que no lenho; no período de dormência, ocorre maior atividade das peroxidases e menor quantidade de fenóis totais, sendo o inverso no período vegetativo.The peroxidase activities and total phenols present a great importance in the union between the stock and the rootstock, and this is a way to evaluate the response to stress of the incompatibility in the graft process. This work aimed to quantify peroxidase activities and total phenols in order to verify its influence on the physiological and biochemical processes of Prunus sp. cultivars grafting. Those metabolic processes the samples in the bark and wood were processed and quantified by spectrophotometry, starting from peach rootstock GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi; and plum rootstock cv. Mirabolano and Marianna Comum, from nurseries of the Department of Plant Science of FAEM/UFPel. It is concluded that: peroxidase and the total phenol activities vary among rootstocks, growth period and tissue type; the highest peroxidase activities and total

  12. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  13. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. EM SUBSTRATOS À BASE DE LODO DE ESGOTO COMPOSTADO E FERTILIZANTE MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro - bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruningand with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Water and Sanitation Company of Paraná, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and dry biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2.7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  14. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  15. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  16. Complement fixing polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera root bark, stem bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Barsett, Hilde; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-06-06

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  17. Yellow Dye Extraction from Eucalyptus Grandis Bark.

    OpenAIRE

    Chengeto Zvavamwe; Cathrine Khetiwe Mkandhla; Clever Mpofu; Vernon Phiri; Felicity Bgwoni; Bettina Khonzokuhle Ncube; Mafika Sibutha; Joel Tshuma

    2016-01-01

    In this article, yellow dye was extracted from Eucalyptus Grandis bark using methanol solvent at a temperature of 250C and pressure of 1 atmosphere. The extraction process was optimized by varying extraction material-to-liquor ratio, in the ratios of 1:100, 1:50, 3:100, 1:25, 1:20, 3:50, 7:100, 2:25, 9:100 and 1:10. The extraction pH was varied from 1 to 13 at an interval of pH 1. The mass of the dye extract was found to be directly proportional to the mass of the bark at each pH. The optimum...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berahou, A; Auhmani, A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Gadhi, C A

    2007-07-25

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts of Quercus ilex bark (Fagaceae) was studied in vitro against seven reference strains of bacteria by using a disc-diffusion method and agar-dilution method. The ethyl acetate extract (QE), n-butanol extract (QB) and final aqueous layer (QA) were effective against all bacterial strains tested at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/ml. The n-hexane extract (QH) and dichloromethane extract (QD) showed no activity.

  19. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA BARK EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kishore and Rumana Rahman*

    2012-01-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) is considered a medicinal plant and is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of the aerial bark revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. The extract reduced contractions in isolated ileum induced by spasmogens like ACh, Histamine, KCl and BaCl2 and potentiated the effect of Nifedipine suggesting an antimuscarinic, anti...

  20. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  1. Bark-peeling, food stress and tree spirits - the use of pine inner bark for food in Scandinavia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Ostlund; Lisa Ahlberg; Olle Zackrisson; Ingela Bergman; Steve Arno

    2009-01-01

    The Sami people of northern Scandinavia and many indigenous peoples of North America have used pine (Pinus spp.) inner bark for food, medicine and other purposes. This study compares bark-peeling and subsequent uses of pine inner bark in Scandinavia and western North America, focusing on traditional practices. Pine inner bark contains substances - mainly carbohydrates...

  2. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  3. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  4. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  5. Mapping bark pH to better understand the cortisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F., Jr.; Köhler, S.; Jungkunst, H. F.; Gerold, G.

    2016-12-01

    The biogeochemistry of the cortisphere is poorly understood, despite the fact that a large variety of microbes, epiphytes, and insects live on, within, and just beneath corticular surfaces. Bark pH is a critical parameter that partially controls the chemodynamics of the cortisphere and its habitability by bark dwelling organisms as well as the chemistry of throughfall and stemflow. This presentation articulates, tests, and validates a method to accurately determine bark pH in situ. We employed agar-agar panels, embedded with a pH marker, to determine the spatiality of bark pH on cacao trees in Indonesia. In contrast to existing ex situ methods, we were able to record spatial differences in bark pH. In particular, bark pH was observed to fluctuate in relation to both morphological features on the bark, possibly corresponding to preferential flowpaths of stemflow, and epiphytic coverage. Due to its simplicity and economical nature, our method may be attractive to a variety of researchers interested in bark pH, its spatial variability, influence on stemflow chemistry, and its effect on organisms dwelling in the cortipshere. Publication note: This presentation is based on the following article: Köhler, S., Levia, D.F., Jungkunst, H.F. and Gerold, G. 2015. An in situ method to measure and map bark pH. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 35(6): 438-449. [DOI: 10.1080/02773813.2015.1025285

  6. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used...

  7. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  8. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  9. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  10. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  11. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  12. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  13. Transformation of Sugar Maple Bark through Catalytic Organosolv Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Koumba-Yoya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic organosolv pulping of sugar maple bark was performed adopting the concept of forest biorefinery in order to transform bark into several valuable products. Our organosolv process, consisting of pre-extracting the lignocellulosic material followed by pulping with ferric chloride as a catalyst, was applied to sugar maple bark. The pre-extraction step has yielded a mixture of phenolic extractives, applicable as antioxidants. The organosolv pulping of extractives-free sugar maple bark yielded a solid cellulosic pulp (42.3% and a black liquor containing solubilized bark lignin (24.1% and products of sugars transformation (22.9% of hemicelluloses, mainly represented by furfural (0.35% and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF, 0.74%. The bark cellulosic pulp was determined to be mainly constituted of glucose, with a high residual lignin content, probably related to the protein content of the original bark (containing cambium tissue. The biorefinery approach to the transformation of a solid bark residue into valuable biopolymers (lignin and cellulose along with phenolic antioxidants from pre-extraction and the HMF derivatives from black liquor (applicable for 2,5-diformylfuran production is an example of a catalytic process reposing on sustainable engineering and green chemistry concepts.

  14. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To appraise the amount of sustainable bark stripped and time to complete bark recovery as basis for sourcing of raw materials for plant-based drugs. Methodology and Results: A two-year experiment was conducted and several local harvest practices were tested on Garcinia lucida (named Essok in Boulou ...

  15. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of Commiphora africana (A. Rich) Engl. (Burseraceae) ... Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine ... Evaluation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves and stem bark were carried out to determine the macromorphological, ...

  16. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, M. Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, Rasheda Akter, Nazim Uddin Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These results revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  17. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebunnessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic bark extract of Mitragyna diversifolia showed significant (p<0.05 antidiarrheal activity on gastrointestinal motility with barium sulfate milk model and castor oil- induced diarrheal model in rats. These result obtained revealed that the bark extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.

  18. Improving harvester estimates of bark thickness for radiata pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiata pine bark thickness data from harvested logs and permanent sample plots (PSP) were analysed to determine best-fit coefficients for current and potential future harvester bark thickness models. The most ... Further research will determine if this approach produces acceptable results when optimising bucking.

  19. Comparative study of thermal insulation boards from leaf and bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of insulation boards made from leave and bark fibres of Pilios tigma thonningii L.in terms of density, water absorption, apparent thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The leave and the bark fibres were prepared in form of squared boards of 200 mm x ...

  20. Triterpenoids from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata bak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol. Keywords: triterpenoid, stem bark, Blighia unijugata, friedelin, epifriedelinol ...

  1. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Bark of Acacia suma Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucilages, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins and flavonoids in the bark. Conclusion: The findings of this study will facilitate pharmacognostic standardization of the plant material and aid in the preparation of a herbal monograph for the species. Keywords: Acacia suma var. Acacia polyacantha, Bark, Pharmacognostic ...

  2. Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaves and bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While quarter strength (5 g/ml) concentrations of the bark methanol and ethanol extracts were the MICs against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The phytochemical analysis carried out on B. ferruginea leaves and bark detected the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinone, ...

  3. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...

  4. Immunologic and haematologic effects of methanolic stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the weight, haematologic and immunologic effects of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica stem bark on vaccinated chickens experimentally challenged with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus. One hundred day old cockerels were randomly divided into four equal ...

  5. Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lucida aqueous stem bark extract (MLASE) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 8 days based on the African traditional use of the water infusion of the stem bark of Morinda lucida (family: Rubiaceae) in the local management of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia by the Yoruba herbal practitioners (Southwest Nigeria).

  6. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity.

  7. Genetic control of wood density and bark thickness, and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree diameter under and over bark at breast height (dbh), wood density and bark thickness were assessed on samples from control-pollinated families of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. grandis × E. urophylla and E. urophylla × E. grandis. The material was planted in field trials in the coastal Zululand region of South ...

  8. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six

    2004-01-01

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...

  9. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  10. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  11. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  12. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of the Bark of Acacia suma Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake the pharmacognostic evaluation of Acacia suma Roxb bark for the purpose of identification and differentiation from related species. Methods: The macroscopic and microscopic features of the bark were studied, including the use of powder microscopy with the aid of suitable tools and reagents.

  13. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  14. Larvicidal effects of leaf, bark and nutshell of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and nutshell of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) were evaluated on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Three concentrations of 10/100ml, 20/100ml and 30/100ml each of leaf, bark and nutshell were prepared in three replicates.

  15. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To characterize some preformulation properties of aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) (BF). Methods: The stem bark was extracted by maceration in hot distilled water. Two batches of granules containing the extract were prepared by wet granulation using maize starch, ...

  16. Antihyperglycemic activity of the bark methanolic extract of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The glucose homeostasis was observed till 180th min in glucose loaded rats treated with the bark methanol extract. The extract could also induce potent hypoglycaemia in STZ induced diabetic rats. The antioxidant defence system could be one of the prime mechanisms of S. mundagam leaf and bark extracts that needs to ...

  17. Anticonvulsant activity of extracts of Diospyros fischeri stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of extracts of Diospyros fischeri Gurke (Ebenaceae), which is used traditionally for the treatment of epilepsy shows that the aqueous extract of the tem bark has no effect against picrotoxin induced convulsions in mice. However, an 80% ethanol extract of the bark caused dose-dependent suppression of ...

  18. Bark removal for medicinal use predisposes indigenous forest trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The injury caused to trees leads to wood deterioration as a result of insect damage and fungal infection. This study aimed to ascertain the effects of different bark harvesting practices on the quality of wood of selected indigenous tree species often used as medicinal plants. The bark of these trees, which included ...

  19. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  20. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  1. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  2. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...

  3. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  4. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  5. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  6. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  7. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  8. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  9. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  10. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  11. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  12. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  13. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    A regeneration system was developed for Prunus serotina from a juvenile (F) and two mature genotypes (#3 and #4). Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaves of in vitro cultures on woody plant medium with thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best regeneration for genotype F (91.4%) was observed on medium with 9.08 µM TDZ...

  14. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  15. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  16. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  17. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Khatoon, Sayyada; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Vivek; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2010-07-01

    The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  18. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  19. Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Anthony Cognato; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings provide a synopsis of the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Association Microorganisms, which was held May 20-2, 2006 in Asheville, NC. Twenty- five participants from five countries attended the meeting. The proceedings are structured into four parts: Phylogenetics of Bark Beetles, Population Genetics of Bark Beetles, Bark Beetle Gene...

  20. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  1. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  2. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods...

  3. Arsenical injury through the bark of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingle, D.B.; Morris, H.E.

    1917-02-19

    The periderm on the smooth bark of apple trees is practically impervious to arsenical solutions. If such solutions are admitted during the growing season, more or less injury will follow. The solutions may be admitted through wounds, lenticels, or latent buds. As the trees become older and rough bark is produced, the cracks made in its production will admit arsenical solutions to the inner tissues, which will be injured. Roots and branches of equal size and with similar bark are about equally susceptible to arsenical injury. If the injury is rapid, for example, the arsenic gaining entrance through a wound in the smooth bark, very definite longitudinal streaks will be produced in the bark and sapwood. If the injury is slow, the arsenic gradually entering through cracks of the normal rough bark, such streaks are very little in evidence. Paint applied to fresh wounds offers a partial, but not complete protection. Of the arsenical compounds used as insecticides, calcium arsenite is the most injurious when admitted to the inner bark. The injury is not necessarily due to impurities in the arsenical compounds. 11 references, 11 tables.

  4. Peat and bark extractives and their behaviour in drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1992-12-31

    The organic compounds released in the thermal drying of peat and bark, and their behaviour in downstream sections, were studied to determine their impact on the formation of deposits in processes and on the environment. The releases were studied using laboratory-scale fluidized-bed drying experiments carried out on peat, pine bark and birch bark at different temperatures. In addition, peat particle and deposit samples were taken from the drying system of a peat power plans and bark, condensate and deposit samples from a pressurized steam dryer at a pulp mill. The hydrophillic compounds released were analysed using different chromatographic methods. All the samples were analysed for lipophilic extractives using capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The lipid composition of Finnish peat and peat extracts was investigated at the beginning of the study. The main hydrophillic compounds released from peat and barks were short-chain carboxylic acids, methanol, aliphatic aldehydes, anhydroglucoses and furanoic compounds. The hydrophillic compounds may cause organic load on the recipient or emissions to the air. Their amounts can be decreased by using lower drying temperatures. The major lipophilic compound groups released from peat consisted of fatty acids, those from pine bark of fatty acids and resin acids, and those from birch bark of triterpenoid alcohols. The peat lipids, and particularly the fatty acids, were enriched in the particle samples from the gas flows and in the deposit samples from the drying mill and the flue gas blower of the peat power plans.

  5. Peat and bark extractives and their behaviour in drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology)

    1992-01-01

    The organic compounds released in the thermal drying of peat and bark, and their behaviour in downstream sections, were studied to determine their impact on the formation of deposits in processes and on the environment. The releases were studied using laboratory-scale fluidized-bed drying experiments carried out on peat, pine bark and birch bark at different temperatures. In addition, peat particle and deposit samples were taken from the drying system of a peat power plans and bark, condensate and deposit samples from a pressurized steam dryer at a pulp mill. The hydrophillic compounds released were analysed using different chromatographic methods. All the samples were analysed for lipophilic extractives using capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The lipid composition of Finnish peat and peat extracts was investigated at the beginning of the study. The main hydrophillic compounds released from peat and barks were short-chain carboxylic acids, methanol, aliphatic aldehydes, anhydroglucoses and furanoic compounds. The hydrophillic compounds may cause organic load on the recipient or emissions to the air. Their amounts can be decreased by using lower drying temperatures. The major lipophilic compound groups released from peat consisted of fatty acids, those from pine bark of fatty acids and resin acids, and those from birch bark of triterpenoid alcohols. The peat lipids, and particularly the fatty acids, were enriched in the particle samples from the gas flows and in the deposit samples from the drying mill and the flue gas blower of the peat power plans.

  6. Bioconversion of eucalyptus bark waste into soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, K R; Sharma, R K; Kothari, R M

    2002-01-01

    An optimized protocol for the bioconversion of eucalyptus bark was devised. It comprised: (i) mechanical reduction in bark size to 0.5-3.0 cm, (ii) moistening to 60-65%, (iii) fortification with ligninase-rich fungus Volvariella sp. (S-1) and 2% urea and (iv) maintenance of this composting mix under aerobic and ambient condition for 14-15 weeks. The resulting bark soil conditioner (BSC) was an easily crumbling, reddish brown biomass, with physico-chemical and microbial properties which would enrich soil fertility/productivity.

  7. Prenylated flavonoids from Commiphora opobalsamum stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Ali A; Al-Massarani, Shaza M; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Mahbashi, Hassan M; Basudan, Omer A; Badria, Farid A; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S

    2017-09-01

    A phytochemical study on the stem bark of Commiphora opobalsamum looking for cytotoxic compounds afforded eleven flavonoids, including six previously undescribed prenylated congeners, comophorin A-E, and comophoroside A. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. Isolated compounds were biologically evaluated using in vitro cytotoxicity MTT-based assay against two cancer cell lines; namely human hepato-cellular carcinoma (HepG-2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Comophoroside A revealed to retain the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines with IC 50 values of 8 and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from the bark of Cananga odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Lopa, Simin S; Sadik, Golam; Harun-Or-Rashid; Islam, Robiul; Khondkar, Proma; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2005-12-01

    O-Methylmoschatoline, liriodenine and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid isolated from the barks of Cananga odorata showed antibacterial activities against a number of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. The compounds also showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities.

  9. Hypoglycemic activity of the bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. kurz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Mondal; G Dash

    2009-01-01

    ... it. In the present study, the various extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Family: Rubiaceae) was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity on adult Wistar albino rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg...

  10. Determining Light Transmittance Characteristics of Wood and Bark Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas B. Brumm; Robert C. Radcliffe; John A. Sturos

    1983-01-01

    Describes compter-assisted testing for measuring light transmittance of wood and bark chips. Electronic interface permitted the computer to collect physical data accurately and efficiently and to analyze and present the data in several tabular and grapical formats

  11. Antioxidant benzophenones and xanthones from the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant benzophenones and xanthones from the root bark of Garcinia smeathmannii. Alain Meli Lannang, Justin Komguem, Fernande Ngounou Ngninzeko, Jean Gustave Tangmouo, David Lontsi, Asma Ajaz, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Beiban Luc Sondengam, Atta -ur-Rahman ...

  12. Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E

    2017-10-20

    We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology Volume 63 is January 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  13. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  14. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-01

    Jul 1, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity of the bark extracts were evaluated in terms of inhibition of free ... Key words: Bauhinia purpurea, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant property. .... weakly positive; (+) = indicates presence of secondary metabolites; (-) = indicates absence of secondary metabolites.

  15. Properties of Matter of Awa Textile from Linden Bark

    OpenAIRE

    宮本, 栞; 山下, そのみ

    2003-01-01

    The fabric structure, the mechanical properties and the sanitary properties of Awa textile from linden bark were compared with those of shirting and linen cloth. The form of fiber of weaving yarns of Awa textile from linden bark was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The change in whiteness of Awa textile with washing times through colorimetry. The results obtained were as followed. 1) Awa textile resembled linen cloth in the fiber surface and shirting in the fiber cross section. But...

  16. Population dynamics of tree-killing bark beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Kärvemo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    During outbreak periods, the European spruce bark beetle and the North American mountain pine beetle are able to kill millions of coniferous trees. Throughout the 20th century, six outbreaks have occurred in Sweden and four in British Columbia, with about 20-year intervals in both regions. The outbreaks of the mountain pine beetles seem to grow much larger and last longer compared to the outbreaks of the spruce bark beetles. Over the years, the mountain pine beetle has killed about 60 million...

  17. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    OpenAIRE

    Otręba Anna; Marciszewska Katarzyna; Janik Daria

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is ste...

  18. Detection and characterization of genome-specific microsatellite markers in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Potter, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of a polyploid species with disomic inheritance is often hampered by the impossibility of determining allele frequencies and the complexity of inheritance patterns. The objective of this study was to solve these problems in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. by finding genome-specific primers (i.e., primers that are specific to one of the two genomes that initially formed the species). Sixty-seven microsatellite...

  19. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak Szymon; Czajkowski Maciej; Ludwisiak Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  20. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  1. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  3. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  4. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  5. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  10. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  12. Diarylheptanoid Glycosides of Morella salicifolia Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Makule

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic extract of Morella salicifolia bark was fractionated by various chromatographic techniques yielding six previously unknown cyclic diarylheptanoids, namely, 7-hydroxymyricanol 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, juglanin B 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, 16-hydroxyjuglanin B 17-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, myricanone 5-O-β-d-gluco-pranosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (4, neomyricanone 5-O-β-d-glucopranosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (5, and myricanone 17-O-α-l-arabino-furanosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (6, respectively, together with 10 known cyclic diarylheptanoids. The structural diversity of the diarylheptanoid pattern in M. salicifolia resulted from varying glycosidation at C-3, C-5, and C-17 as well as from substitution at C-11 with hydroxy, carbonyl or sulfate groups, respectively. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved on the basis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR as well as high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS analyses. The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O-(S-methyl butyrated (SMB sugar derivatives by comparison of their 1H-NMR data with those of reference sugars. Additionally, absolute configuration of diarylheptanoid aglycones at C-11 was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra simulation and comparison with experimental CD spectra after hydrolysis.

  13. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  14. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1969-01-01

    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  16. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  17. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  18. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater.

  19. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  20. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  2. Studies on cytotoxic, phytotoxic and volatile profile of the bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at analysing the compounds present in the bark extract of Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz. by GC-MS analysis and also to investigate the cytotoxic and phytotoxic activity of Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz. bark extract. The major constituents in M. tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz. bark extract are ...

  3. A technique to artificially infest beech bark with beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Lindinger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston

    1982-01-01

    Beech bark disease is initiated when bark of beech trees (Fagus spp.) is attacked by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger. The effects of the insect predispose tissues to bark cankering fungi of the genus Nectria. Critical studies of insect-fungus-host interactions had been stymied by the inability to...

  4. Fires following bark beetles: Factors controlling severity and disturbance interactions in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg; Rodman R. Linn; Francois Pimont; Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Judith Winterkamp; L. Scott Baggett

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bark beetles and fires can be interacting disturbances, whereby bark beetle-caused tree mortality can alter the risk and severity of subsequent wildland fires. However, there remains considerable uncertainty around the type and magnitude of the interaction between fires following bark beetle attacks, especially in drier forest types...

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  6. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  7. Influence of elevation on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Miller; Kelly Barton; Joel McMillin; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Bark beetles killed more than 20 million ponderosa pine trees in Arizona during 2002-2004. Historically, bark beetle populations remained endemic and ponderosa pine mortality was limited to localized areas in Arizona. Consequently, there is a lack of information on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of...

  8. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Jennifer L. Koch; Marek Krasowski; Judy. Loo

    2013-01-01

    Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the...

  9. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Hemingway

    1976-01-01

    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  10. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  11. Utilization of barks of terminalia species from Uttar Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, K.; Lal, J.; Swalen, M.

    1977-01-01

    Terminalia crenulata bark is being used to produce oxalic acid on a commercial scale in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India. Investigation of potential for oxalic production from the bark of a related species indicated that T. arjuna and T. alata were most suitable, with oxalic acid content ranging 13 to 21% for samples from various locations. T. Bellirica was also suitable, with an oxalic acids content of 12 to 19%. Bark of T. chebula had a lower content of oxalic acid, 7 to 5%. For each sample, MC, ash content, and tannin content were also measured. Variation in tannin and oxalic acid contents within the same species could not be directly related to regional factors such as soil and climate.

  12. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Young Chun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, Pine (Pinus densiflora, Platanus (Platanus, and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides. These were used as passive air sampler (PAS of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry, whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry, Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry, and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry, followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry, Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry, and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry. There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682. Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6% of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  13. Les espèces envahissantes : le cas du cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh).

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Vervoort, Arnaud; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    Introduites pour divers usages, les espèces envahissantes se sont rapidement adaptées et répandues dans leurs nouveaux habitats. Elles ont pour la plupart des impacts environnementaux, économiques et/ou sociaux. Parmi les essences forestières introduites, le cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), importé d’Amérique du Nord, est une espèce particulièrement en expansion dans nos forêts et est considérée comme espèce envahissante en Belgique, surtout sur les so...

  14. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells.

  15. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  16. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Triterpenoid from Prunus cerasoides D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One new metabolite, prunol (1, belonging to the pentacyclic triterpenoid skeleton was purified from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. The structure elucidation was accomplished on the basis of one dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and two dimensional HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments. The molecular mass was determined by HRFAB-MS, while the major fragments were observed in the EI-MS. The comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with the known analogues and the NOESY experiments were helpful in assigning the stereo centers in the molecule.

  17. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  18. The apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, P; Rubio, M; Mesonero, V; Periago, P M; Barceló, A Ros; Martínez-Gómez, P; Hernández, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (PPV) in different Prunus species showing different susceptibilities to PPV. The presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (pHMB)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (class I APX) and pHMB-insensitive APX (class III APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), NADH-POX, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was described in the apoplast from both peach and apricot leaves. PPV infection produced different changes in the antioxidant system of the leaf apoplast from the Prunus species, depending on their susceptibility to the virus. In leaves of the very susceptible peach cultivar GF305, PPV brought about an increase in class I APX, POX, NADH-POX, and PPO activities. In the susceptible apricot cultivar Real Fino, PPV infection produced a decrease in apoplastic POX and SOD activities, whereas a strong increase in PPO was observed. However, in the resistant apricot cultivar Stark Early Orange, a rise in class I APX as well as a strong increase in POX and SOD activities was noticed in the apoplastic compartment. Long-term PPV infection produced an oxidative stress in the apoplastic space from apricot and peach plants, as observed by the increase in H2O2 contents in this compartment. However, this increase was much higher in the PPV-susceptible plants than in the resistant apricot cultivar. Only in the PPV-susceptible apricot and peach plants was the increase in apoplastic H2O2 levels accompanied by an increase in electrolyte leakage. No changes in the electrolyte leakage were observed in the PPV-inoculated resistant apricot leaves, although a 42% increase in the apoplastic H2O2 levels was produced. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses revealed that the majority of the polypeptides in the apoplastic fluid had isoelectric points in the range of pI 4-6. The identification of proteins using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser

  19. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  20. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  1. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  2. Drug: D06893 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available akura [TAX:97325], Prunus verecunda [TAX:140663] Same as: E00190 Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus bark (dried) ...rugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) D06893 Cherry bark PubChem: 51091235 ...

  3. Exploring the bark thickness-stem diameter relationship: clues from lianas, successive cambia, monocots and gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Martínez-Méndez, Norberto

    2017-07-01

    Bark thickness is ecologically crucial, affecting functions from fire protection to photosynthesis. Bark thickness scales predictably with stem diameter, but there is little consensus on whether this scaling is a passive consequence of growth or an important adaptive phenomenon requiring explanation. With a comparative study across 913 species, we test the expectation that, if bark thickness-stem diameter scaling is adaptive, it should be possible to find ecological situations in which scaling is predictably altered, in this case between species with different types and deployments of phloem. 'Dicots' with successive cambia and monocots, which have phloem-free bark, had predictably thinner inner (mostly living) bark than plants with single cambia. Lianas, which supply large leaf areas with limited stem area, had much thicker inner bark than self-supporting plants. Gymnosperms had thicker outer bark than angiosperms. Inner bark probably scales with plant metabolic demands, for example with leaf area. Outer bark scales with stem diameter less predictably, probably reflecting diverse adaptive factors; for example, it tends to be thicker in fire-prone species and very thin when bark photosynthesis is favored. Predictable bark thickness-stem diameter scaling across plants with different photosynthate translocation demands and modes strongly supports the idea that this relationship is functionally important and adaptively significant. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids flavonoids and steroids. The ethanolic stem bark extract of P.erinaceus (6.4mg/ml) relaxed the isolated pregnant rat uterus. Oxytocin induced contractions of the pregnant rat uterus was blocked ...

  5. Meiocarpin: A novel lignan from the stem bark of Meiocarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compounds, sitosterol and polycarpol, have been isolated from the stem bark of Meiocarpidium lepidotum, Annonaceae. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data. KEY WORDS: Meiocarpidium lepidotum, Annonaceae, lignan. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2004, 18(2), 221-224.

  6. Flavanol derivatives with antioxidant activity from the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new flavanol derivative dihydrocaffeic acid-(3→8)-epicatechin together with two known derivatives, (+)-catechin and catechin-(4β→8)-catechin were isolated from the stem bark of a mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRMS-FAB, EIMS, ...

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BARK OF COMMIPHORA BERRYI (ARN) ENGLLOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, N.L.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Manavalan, R.; Venkappayya, D.

    2004-01-01

    Commiphora berryi (Arn) Englor (Burseraceae) is a well known plant in Tamil nadu, India. It is used in several parts of the state for various medicinal properties. The present work summarizes preliminary phyto chemical study of bark of this plant. PMID:22557159

  8. An Investigation of Curative Effects of Entandrophragma Utile Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We previously reported the aqueous bark extract of Entandrophragma utile showed gastric acid reducing properties and prophylactic effects against acute ulcer formation. Here, we investigated its curative effects in established ulcers. Methods: Chronic gastric ulcers were induced with injection of 0.1 ml 10% ...

  9. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  10. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the phytochemical constituents and verify the ethnomedical claim of Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Seeman ex Bureau Bignoniaceae in treating septic wounds and eye problems. Methods: Applying standard methods, the phytochemical constituents of the stem bark were examined while the ...

  11. (Linn.) stem bark methanol extract in male rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proven fertile male rats were gavaged 100% methanol extract of A. squamosa stem bark at the dose level of 50, 100 and 200 mg/rat/day for 60 days. Fertility ... The findings of the study support contraceptive allege of Annoa squamosa however this contraceptive activity was reversible after withdrawal of the drug treatment.

  12. Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous Bark Extract of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum : A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Streptozotocin- Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) Rats. ... Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n = 6). of normal rats; streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; and diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the aqueous ...

  13. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Alchornea cordifolia Bark Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four extracts of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) bark, including aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane extracts, were tested for their antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B, using both agar diffusion and broth dilution methods.

  14. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) possesses potent medical properties and therefore, holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high cost and ...

  15. Some behavioural studies on methanol root bark extract of Burkea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to evaluate some central nervous system properties of the root bark methanol extractof B. africana in mice. It involved the following animal models: diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board and walking beam assay. Results: The methanol extract showed a significant decrease in the onset of sleep ...

  16. Status of beech bark disease establishment and research in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Toby R. Petrice; Nathan W. Siegert

    2003-01-01

    Beech bark disease was first discovered in Michigan in spring 2000 in Ludington State Park on the shore of Lake Michigan in the lower peninsula. Soon thereafter it was found in the upper peninsula of Michigan in the Bass Lake campground.

  17. Effects Of Vitex doniana (Sweet) stem bark aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Vitex doniana (sweet), black plum, stem bark aqueous extract alone on vital parameters (temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate), and sleeping time as well as the effects of the extract on the same parameters before and after ketamine anaesthesia in rabbits were investigated. Twenty rabbits were randomly ...

  18. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Based on the result of the acute toxicity test, white Swiss albino mice of average weight 25.3 g divided into 3 groups of one animal per group were intraperitoneally/orally administered 1600, 2900 and. 5000 mg/kg body weight, aqueous bark extract in water. Death was monitored over a period of 24 h.

  19. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate(EA) extract of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, ...

  20. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  1. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  2. Evaluation of lozenges formulated from the root bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lozenges were of uniform thickness and diameter, and also conformed to the official requirements for uniformity of weight and content of active ingredient for such preparations. We conclude that the bark of the roots of Zanthoxylum tessmannii can be formulated into lozenges for oral thrush in paediatric and geriatric ...

  3. Antipsychotic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of antipsychotic efect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis was carried out on amphetamine induced psychosis in 42 Wister albino rats weighingbetween 105 and 3052g using two indices feeding and locomotor activity. Twelve out of the 42 rats were divided into two groups; six per ...

  4. Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude aqueous extract of the root bark of zanthoxylumxanthoxyloides inhibits white blood cells migration in acute inflammation. ... Background: Crude aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum xanthozyloides is used locally to treat inflammatory conditions. Previous study confirmed that the ... response in inflammation. Objective: To ...

  5. Study on osteopotential activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Bone substitutes play an inevitable role in traumatic bone damages. Growth factors induce osteoinductivity, but suffer from limitations such as high cost and side effects. This study aims to evaluate the osteoinductive potential of bark extract of TA in bone ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Diospyros melanoxylon bark from Similipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of five extracts of Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. bark collected from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa was evaluated against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extracts including both polar and non polar solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and aqueous were ...

  7. Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids from the barks of Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ling-Tian; Chen, Pian; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids, together with 21 known compounds, were isolated from the barks of Melia azedarach. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by the means of HRESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography analysis.

  8. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique. Results ...

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique.

  11. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Brighente, Ines M.C.; Zuchinalli, Analice; Carvalho, Francieli K., E-mail: moacir.pizzolatti@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Candido, Ana C. S.; Peres, Marize T.L.P. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Hidraulica e Transportes

    2013-04-15

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  12. Behavioural Effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (family: Burseraceae) is commonly known as the frankincense tree that grows up to 13 meters high. It has a characteristic ragged pale papery bark and is locally abundant from Northern Ivory Coast to Northern Nigeria,. Cameroun and Central African Republic. The common vernacular names of the ...

  13. Phytochemical characteristics of the root bark of Erythrina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin layer chromatograph (TLC), using the solvent system chloroform and methanol (2:1) was done on aqueous and ethanol extracts of the root bark, with 3 mg Ivermectin, a commercial anti-filarial, anthelminthic and ecto-parasitic drug presented as Mectizan ® serving as standard. The analysis indicated the presence of ...

  14. Chevalierinoside A: A new isoflavonoid glycoside from the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chevalierinoside A (1), a new isoflavonoid glycoside determined as biochanin A 7-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-1→6-β-D-apiofuranosyl-1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside], together with the known friedelin (2), friedelan-3b-ol (3) and betulinic acid (4), were isolated from the stem bark of Antidesma chevalieri Beille. Their structures ...

  15. Behavioural effects of methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparations of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark are used traditionally in Nigeria in the treatment of fever, rheumatism, gastrointestinal discomforts and mental derangements. The efficacy of this plant in the treatment of mental disorders is well acclaimed among the Gwandara communities of North-Central part of Nigeria.

  16. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  17. Gossweilone: A new podocarpane derivative from the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new podocarpane diterpenoid, named gossweilone (1), has been isolated from the stem bark of Drypetes gossweileri, along with two known friedelane triterpenoids. The structure of the new compound was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. KEY WORDS: Gossweilone, Podocarpane diterpenoid, Drypetes ...

  18. Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus exasperata protects the Liver against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ficus exasperata is an important medicinal plant with a wide geographical distribution in Africa particularly in Nigeria. In this study, aqueous stem bark extracts of Ficus exasperata were administered to investigate its hepatoprotective effects on Paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. A total of Twenty Five Wistar rats ...

  19. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    coagulase negative; Staph = Staphylococcus; Ps = Pseudomonas; sp = species. Antibacterial activity of extract. The methanol extract of the stem bark showed activity against the tested isolates except Escherichia coli and Providencia species which were obtained from the wounds of non diabetic patients but however.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark Extracts in Experimental African Trypanosomiasis. ... International Journal of Health Research ... Results: Hexane extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, cured the experimental infection in mice.

  1. Sub-acute hepatotoxicity of Pausinystalia yohimbe bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It increases blood flow to erectile tissues and exerts its erectogenic effects through a central action and peripheral autonomic nervous system effects. Aim: This study was carried out to examine the hepatotoxicity and cellular deleterious effects of Pausinystalia yohimbe bark ethanolic extract used as burantashi at varying ...

  2. Morphological study of the infraorbital gland of the male barking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the infraorbital gland of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) was examined using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The glands consisted of sebaceous and apocrine glands, with proportion of apocrine glands was larger than the sebaceous gland.

  3. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... and safety thereby providing physicians with data to help patients make wise decision on their usage. The stem bark of Ximenia americana was .... They were watered ad libitum. A standard protocol was observed in accordance with the Good Laboratory. Practice (GLP) Regulations of the WHO (1998).

  4. Specific heat of ovendry spruce pine wood and bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1968-01-01

    Wood and bark from 72 trees of Pinus glabra Walt. were evaluated with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-1B scanning calorimeter; a total of 6,696 observations was made in the temperature range 60 to 140oC. The samples were from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama - the major commercial range of the species.

  5. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Bark Extracts of Rhizophora mucronata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata (R. mucronata). Shade dried stem bark of R. mucronata was powdered and extracted with 95% ethanol and water by cold extraction method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of water and ethanol extract of ...

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: In the present work, we evaluated antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Bombax ceiba stem bark. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also assessed in the extract. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH, Nitric Oxide scavenging and reducing power activity.

  7. Potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (KS) against liver diseases, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed in rats treated with two (2) different doses of the extract after the induction of liver damage in the ...

  8. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of the Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of the Stem Bark Extracts of. Pterocarpus erinaceus (Poir). *A. F. Gabriel1 and H.O. Onigbanjo2. 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, P.M.B. 117, Abuja Nigeria. 2National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Idu Abuja Nigeria.

  9. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The s...

  10. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mallotus philippinensis var. Tomentosus is a medicinal plant, which was tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. Phytochemical screening of the stem bark of M. philippinensis indicates the presence of secondary metabolites. From the results ...

  11. Anti-TB activity of Evodia elleryana bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Louis R.; Powan, Emma; Pond, Christopher D.; Matainaho, Teatulohi

    2009-01-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of bark from Evodia elleryana produced significant growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentrations only minimally inhibitory to human T cells. The crude extract yielded 95% inhibition of TB at 50 μg/ml. The crude extract yielded 29 % growth inhibition of human T-cells in culture at that concentration. PMID:17350179

  12. Present state of beech bark disease in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus J. Lang

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease can be found at present time in young and old stands (20-150 years old) of Fagus sylvatica. The present state of the disease may be described as "normal" and apart from some cases, it is no threat to the existence of the stands.

  13. Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Okland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjornstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene; Paal Krokene

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the...

  14. Metabarcoding of fungal communities associated with bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirsten E; Hopkins, Kevin; Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-03-01

    Many species of fungi are closely allied with bark beetles, including many tree pathogens, but their species richness and patterns of distribution remain largely unknown. We established a protocol for metabarcoding of fungal communities directly from total genomic DNA extracted from individual beetles, showing that the ITS3/4 primer pair selectively amplifies the fungal ITS. Using three specimens of bark beetle from different species, we assess the fungal diversity associated with these specimens and the repeatability of these estimates in PCRs conducted with different primer tags. The combined replicates produced 727 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for the specimen of Hylastes ater, 435 OTUs for Tomicus piniperda, and 294 OTUs for Trypodendron lineatum, while individual PCR reactions produced on average only 229, 54, and 31 OTUs for the three specimens, respectively. Yet, communities from PCR replicates were very similar in pairwise comparisons, in particular when considering species abundance, but differed greatly among the three beetle specimens. Different primer tags or the inclusion of amplicons in separate libraries did not impact the species composition. The ITS2 sequences were identified with the Lowest Common Ancestor approach and correspond to diverse lineages of fungi, including Ophiostomaceae and Leotiomycetes widely found to be tree pathogens. We conclude that Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding reliably captures fungal diversity associated with bark beetles, although numerous PCR replicates are recommended for an exhaustive sample. Direct PCR from beetle DNA extractions provides a rapid method for future surveys of fungal species diversity and their associations with bark beetles and environmental variables.

  15. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  16. Wound healing properties of stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wound healing properties of the methanol stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) were evaluated in rats using the excision wound model. Extraction of the powdered plant material by continuous extraction in a soxhlet afforded 5.73% w/w of the Tabebuia methanol extract (TME). Phytochemical analysis and ...

  17. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... Conclusions and application of findings: Peeling off pieces of bark using a machete and debarking over 1/3 of the stem ... collection practices for medicinal plants that would help to ensure safety and quality at the first and most important ... the traditional medicinal plant trade on resources of indigenous tree ...

  18. The proteomics of nitrogen remobilization in poplar bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal nitrogen (N) cycling in temperate deciduous trees involves the accumulation of bark storage proteins (BSPs), a class of vegetative storage proteins in phloem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. BSPs are anabolized using recycled N in the form of amino acids after autumn leaf senescence and lat...

  19. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  20. Synergistic antibacterial effect of stem bark extracts of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were screened for ...

  1. A new phenolic glycoside from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Junfen; Xue, Yongbo; Lai, Yongji; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides...

  2. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  3. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei, a plant used for the treatment of wounds and urinary tract infections in Nigeria. Phytochemical screening was done using standard methods while the agar well diffusion method ...

  4. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  5. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective activities and the mechanisms of actions of Musanga cecropioides stem bark aqueous extract (MCW) were investigated on acute hepatocellular injuries induced by intraperitoneal (IP) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20% CCl4/olive oil, 1.5 mL/kg) and 800 mg/kg/IP of acetaminophen (APAP) in normal ...

  6. Nephrocurative effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the curative effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia papyrifera on acetaminophen-induced kidney damage. Three different doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) of the extract were administered daily to the different groups of rats for two-and four-week periods after inducing kidney damage using ...

  7. Effects of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) bark meal additive on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) bark meal additive on growth performance and nutrient utlization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. M.S. Bayon, N.B. Ikenweiwe, D.O. Odulate, O.O. Adewumi, W.O. Alegbeleye, O.E. Babalola, A.A. Alimi ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Xeromphis spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Nath Das

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.

  9. Chemical constituents from the stem bark of Pentaclethra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: The pulverized stem bark of P. macrophylla was extracted to exhaustion with 70% methanol and the combined crude methanol extract after removal of solvent was partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol to give ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions. Antibacterial activity was evaluated on ...

  10. Effect of stem - bark of Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    The study investigated the activity of saponin from ethanolic extract of Erythrophleum suaveolens stem bark against freshwater snail, Lanistes lybicus. The crude saponin (4 g) was separated by silica gel using gradient elution with dichloromethane in methanol (100:0 to 0:100) followed by thin layer chromatography using ...

  11. Pyrigemmula, a novel hyphomycete genus on grapevine and tree bark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magyar, D.; Shoemaker, R.A.; Bobvos, J.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The anamorphic taxon Pyrigemmula aurantiaca gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens that were collected from the inner bark of living woody hosts (Vitis vinifera, Pyrus communis, Mespilus germanica, Platanus hybrida, Elaeagnus angustifolia) and plant debris in Hungary. The

  12. Toxicological studies of the stem bark extract of Khaya grandifoliola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant widely used in Africa for the management of malaria. In this study, toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of the plant has been evaluated with a view to ascertaining some of its possible toxic effects in the rats. Healthy rats of ...

  13. Antibacterial cyclopeptide alkaloids from the bark of Condalia buxifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Ademir F; Araujo, Carla A; da Silva, Ubiratan F; Hoelzel, Solange C S M; Záchia, Renato; Bastos, Nelci R

    2002-11-01

    The cyclopeptide alkaloid, named condaline-A, was isolated from the root bark of Condalia buxifolia Reissek (Rhamnaceae), along with the known compounds adouetine-Y', scutianine-B, and scutianine-C. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, with their antibacterial activities being evaluated by use of a direct bioautography method.

  14. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post mortem, hematological and histopathological examination did not show any significant (P<0.05) damage as a result of the extract administration. However, there were significant (P<0.05) weight changes. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous stem bark extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, ...

  15. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler

    2012-01-01

    Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...

  16. Phytochemicals and hypoglycaemic effect of methanol stem-bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the hypoglycaemic effect of methanol extract of stem-bark of Ficus sycomorus which was investigated in alloxan induced type-2 diabetic albino Wistar rats. The animals were separated into three groups and each was treated with 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg (body weight) of the extract intraperitoneally.

  17. Economic analysis of wood- or bark-fired systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Ellis

    1978-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Forest Products Research Society, is preparing three slide-tape presentations to help people evaluate wood- and bark fueled boiler systems as alternatives to ones using oil, gas, or coal. The first two presentations cover equipment selection and estimation of fuel values; the...

  18. In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effect of Phoenix dactylifera bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate significant anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic effects of the bark extract. Therefore, the extract can potentially be used for the in vivo treatment of diseases associated with lipid peroxidation such as cancers and Alzheimer's disease, but further studies are required.

  19. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxicity of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxicity of stem bark extracts of Anaxagorea dolichocarpa and Duguetia chrysocarpa (Annonaceae). Reísa da Silva Pinheiro, Suzana Vieira Rabelo, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Amanda Leite Guimarães, Manoel Odorico de Moraes-Filho, Marcília Pinheiro da Costa, Cláudia do Ó ...

  20. Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stem Bark of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enantia chlorantha Oliver (Annonaceae) is commonly known as African yellow wood used as hepatoprotective, antiviral, antimalarial, antibacterial and antiulcer agents. The study was aimed to investigate the pharmacognostic and physiochemical parameters of E. chlorantha stem bark. The macroscopy, microscopy and ...

  1. Evaluation of anticonvulsant properties of ethanol stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the claim of this medicinal plant part by herbalist for the treatment of epilepsy. A preliminary phytochemical screening was performed on the stem bark extract after which intraperitoneal LD50 was determined in mice. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using Maximal ...

  2. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    The difference between the means was tested with Post Hoc Duncan and t-test and values of p <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Plant Extraction. The yield of the stem bark extract was 4.25% w/w dry matter and was dark in colour. Acute Toxicity Test. Acute toxicity test of the extract produced no death.

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... in treating snake bite (Ajaiyeoba, 2002). Phytochemical results indicated that the root bark of the plant ... snake bites (Isuzu and Harvey, 2003), diabetes (Odetola et al., 2006), fever and infections caused by some sus- ceptible ... Education Publishers pp. 23-27. Alabi DA, Akinsulire OR, Sanyaolu MO (2005).

  4. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    OpenAIRE

    Malca-García,Gonzalo Rodolfo; Hennig, Lothar; Ganoza-Yupanqui,Mayar Luis; Piña-Iturbe,Alejandro; Rainer W. Bussmann

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5) also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  5. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  6. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  7. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  9. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  10. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  11. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  12. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  13. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  14. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments.

  15. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  16. Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-02-11

    The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the mechanism of oil dynamic accumulation during developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernels for the development of woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Jun; An, Jiyong; Wang, Libing; Fang, Chengliang; Ha, Denglong; Fu, Chengyu; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Hou, Xinyu; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Sufan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Feng, Xinyi; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of oil accumulation in Siberian apricot seed kernels (SASK...

  19. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazar Ul Islam; Raza Amin; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Amin; Sumera Zaib; Jamshed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...

  20. Can humans discriminate between dogs on the base of the acoustic parameters of barks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám

    2006-07-01

    In this study we tested the often suggested claim that people are able to recognize their dogs by their barks. Earlier studies in other species indicated that reliable discrimination between individuals cannot be made by listening to chaotically noisy vocalizations. As barking is typically such a chaotic noisy vocalization, we have hypothesized that reliable discrimination between individuals is not possible by listening to barks. In this study, playback experiments were conducted to explore (1) how accurately humans discriminate between dogs by hearing only their barks, (2) the impact of the eliciting context of calls on these discrimination performances, and (3) how much such discrimination depends on acoustic parameters (tonality and frequency of barks, and the intervals between the individual barks). Our findings were consistent with the previous studies: human performances did not pass the empirical threshold of reliable discrimination in most cases. But a significant effect of tonality was found: discrimination between individuals was more successful when listeners were listening to low harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) barks. The contexts in which barks were recorded affected significantly the listeners' performances: if the dog barked at a stranger, listeners were able to discriminate the vocalizations better than if they were listening to sounds recorded when the dog was separated from its owner. It is rendered probable that the bark might be a more efficient communication system between humans and dogs for communicating the motivational state of an animal than for discrimination among strange individuals.

  1. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  2. Proceedings of a workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research. Workshop on Bark Beetle Genetics; 1998 July 17-18; Madison, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Kenneth F. Raffa

    1999-01-01

    This proceedings contains contributions from each author or group of authors who presented their current research at the bark beetle genetics workshop held 17-18 July 1998 on the campus of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. This was the second meeting on this subject; the first was held in 1992. The subject of bark beetle genetics is of growing,...

  3. Attraction of bark beetle predator, Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae), to pheromones of the spruce beetle and two secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1997-01-01

    The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...

  4. Removal and recovery of uranium by modified Pinus radiata D. Don Bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, J.; Baeza, J.; Maturana, H.; Palma, G.; Duran, N.

    1989-01-01

    Bark from Pinus radiata D. Don was treated with both sulfuric acid/formaldehyde and nitric acid/formaldehyde. The ability to adsorb uranium by the bark was improved by these treatments, with essentially zero bleed colour into solution. The resin produced by nitric acid/formaldehyde treatment showed, in general, a better retention capacity than that of sulfuric acid/formaldehyde treatment. The nitric acid/formaldehyde modified bark showed 96% of adsorption of uranium after 1h and 63% of desorption from the loaded resin after 3h in 0.5M sulfuric acid solution. Unmodified bark and some bark components were also analyzed. Bark was shown to be an excellent adsorber, comparable in efficiency, but costing less than the commercial adsorbing agents. (author).

  5. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Iravani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  6. Anti-inflammatory flavanol glycosides from Saraca asoca bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Furkan; Misra, Laxminarain; Tewari, Rashi; Gupta, Preeti; Mishra, Pratikshita; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde, a common tree of India, is popularly used in the Ayurvedic and modern herbal systems of medicine for genito-urinary problems of women. Considering the reported antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory effect of S. asoca bark against such infections, we studied the anti-inflammatory activity-guided isolation of active compounds from methanol extract. The methanol extract of bark has yielded 10 compounds out of which 3'-deoxyepicatechin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6) and 3'-deoxycatechin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8) have been found to be in vitro and in vivo active. 3',5-Dimethoxy epicatechin (3), 3'-deoxyepicatechin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 3'-deoxycatechin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8) and epigallocatechin (9) are being reported for the first time from S. asoca.

  7. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  8. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzolatti,Moacir G.; Bortoluzzi,Adailton J.; Brighente,Ines M. C.; Zuchinalli,Analice; Carvalho,Francieli K.; Candido,Ana C. S.; Peres,Marize T. L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. O novo diterpeno clerodano 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoato de metila ...

  9. Pharmacognostic and hypotensive evaluations of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total ash value was 28.49±0.89 % while the water soluble and the acid insoluble ash values were 2.31± 0.19 and 9.93±0.2% respectively. The preliminary phytochemical results on the stem bark include saponins, tannins, flavonoids and no alkaloids and anthracene derivatives. At 5 mg/kg, the methanol extract of the ...

  10. A new furanoxanthone from the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Mah, Siau Hui; Rahmani, Mawardi; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Teh, Soek Sin; Lim, Yang Mooi

    2011-10-01

    The stem bark extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum furnished one new furanoxanthone, inophinnin (1), in addition to inophyllin A (2), macluraxanthone (3), pyranojacareubin (4), 4-hydroxyxanthone, friedelin, stigmasterol, and betulinic acid. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) while EI-MS gave the molecular mass. The new xanthone, inophinnin (1), exhibited some anti-inflammatory activity in nitric oxide assay.

  11. New proaporphines from the bark of Phoebe scortechinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Hadi, A Hamid A; Rondeau, David; Richomme, Pascal; Litaudon, Marc; Mustafa, M Rais; Awang, Khalijah

    2008-01-01

    The phytochemical study of the bark of Malaysian Phoebe scortechinii (Lauraceae) has resulted in the isolation and identification of two new proaporphine alkaloids; (+)-scortechiniine A (1) and (+)-scortechiniine B (2) together with two known proaporphines; (-)-hexahydromecambrine A (3), (-)-norhexahydromecambrine A (4), and one aporphine; norboldine (5). Structural elucidations of these alkaloids were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR.

  12. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  13. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meurisse

    Full Text Available Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles. We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9% of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04% of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that

  14. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  15. Two new geranylphenylacetate glycosides from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun-Fen; Zhu, Hu-Cheng; Lu, Jian-Wu; Hu, Lin-Zhen; Song, Jin-Chun; Zhang, Yong-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Two new glycosides, cinnacassides F (1) and G (2), with a rare geranylphenylacetate carbon skeleton, were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known analogues, cinnacassides A (3), B (4) and C (5). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses and chemical method. Compounds 1-5 were investigated for their immunomodulatory activities, and compounds 1, 3 and 4 showed differential immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes.

  16. Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and some biochemical parameters. M.K.C. Duru*1, B. A.Amadi2, C.T.Amadi3, K.C.Lele2, J. C.Anudike4, O.R.Chima-Ezika1, K. Osuocha1. 1Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria; 2Department of Biochemistry, Imo State ...

  17. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rodolfo Malca-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  18. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  19. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  20. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two β-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16652960

  1. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two beta-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase.

  2. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  3. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  4. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  5. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  7. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  8. Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Emily M; Grubisha, Lisa C; Roland, Anna K; Connolly, Bryan A; Klooster, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    • Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species' geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States.

  9. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  10. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  11. Morphology, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Bark Cloth from Ficus natalensis

    OpenAIRE

    George William Luggya; Blanka Tomkova; Samson Rwawiire

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed in 2005 that Ugandan bark cloth is largely produced from mutuba tree (Ficus natalensis) as a “Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.” An exploratory investigation of bark cloth a nonwoven material produced through a series of pummeling processes from mutuba tree in Uganda is fronted as a prospective engineering natural fabric. Bark cloth was obtained from Ficus natalensis trees in Ns...

  12. Assessment and Response to Bark Beetle Outbreaks in the Rocky Mountain Area

    OpenAIRE

    Samman, Safiya; Logan, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Bark beetles act as “agents of change” within the conifer forests of the Rocky Mountain area. They play a critical role in the development, senescence, and rebirth of Western forests. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality can be extensive, covering thousands of acres. This report is the Forest Service response to a Congressional direction in the FY2000 Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act asking for the causes, effects, and management options for native bark beetle outbreaks in the Ro...

  13. Bark Beetle Outbreaks Increase Fire Probability in Western United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many of the direct influences of disturbances such as fire or insects on ecosystem function are well known. In contrast, the interactions among disturbances are less well understood. In the forests of the western United States, the interaction between bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires is a pressing management concern for a diverse political, economic, and ecological community but the disturbance interaction is generally unknown. For example, although conventional wisdom holds that bark beetle outbreaks will increase fire risk, limited field studies suggest the opposite may be true. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to study bark beetle - fire interactions over the entire western United States. Here, using five years (2000-2004) of manually collected aerial detection survey (ADS) polygons depicting the extent of bark beetle outbreaks and five years (2001-2005) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1km fire images (MOD14), we calculated the influence of bark beetle outbreaks on one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence across the entire western United States. We converted the ADS polygons to raster format and co-registered all imagery to the Albers Equal Area projection. We then calculated the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle presence P(fire|bark beetles presence) and the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle absence P(fire|bark beetle absence). The presence of bark beetles increased the probability of one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence by 17% to 115% with an average value of 65%, strongly suggesting that bark beetle outbreaks in one year will increase the risk of fire in the next year. Key words: bark beetles, fire, disturbance interaction, conditional probability

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  15. Exploring the Indigenous Healing Ritual for Barkes: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf T. Vecaldo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The migrant settlers of Casigayan, Tabuk, Kalinga have upheld the healing ritual for barkes(a skin disease. It is a simple ritual performed by the mangngagas (folk healer who uses only pan-aw (cogon leaf and dalikan (clay stove as instruments of healing. The procedure basically starts from the diagnosis of the affected body area followed by the preparation of the materials, measuringthe barkes, prayer and sharing of post-ritual advice. This phenomenological study reveals that barkes underpins a collective experience among those who consider it as existent phenomenon. The healing ritual is viewed not only as an alternative remedy but also as a show window of intergroup interaction and solidarity. It brings about from the ritual actors a state of mutual focus of attention and shared reality, which creates frontiers of interaction as the participants of the ritual construct meaning to what they are doing. The study also presents that even in this age of modernity and scientific hegemony, folk rituals persist primarily to address the need for healing of those who believe in them and to generate vibrant channels of cultural confluences and intergroup camaraderie.

  16. Optimization of Bioactive Polyphenols Extraction from Picea Mariana Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie Francezon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reported for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and non-toxicity properties, the hot water extract of Picea mariana bark was demonstrated to contain highly valuable bioactive polyphenols. In order to improve the recovery of these molecules, an optimization of the extraction was performed using water. Several extraction parameters were tested and extracts obtained analyzed both in terms of relative amounts of different phytochemical families and of individual molecules concentrations. As a result, low temperature (80 °C and low ratio of bark/water (50 mg/mL were determined to be the best parameters for an efficient polyphenol extraction and that especially for low molecular mass polyphenols. These were identified as stilbene monomers and derivatives, mainly stilbene glucoside isorhapontin (up to 12.0% of the dry extract, astringin (up to 4.6%, resveratrol (up to 0.3%, isorhapontigenin (up to 3.7% and resveratrol glucoside piceid (up to 3.1% which is here reported for the first time for Picea mariana. New stilbene derivatives, piceasides O and P were also characterized herein as new isorhapontin dimers. This study provides novel information about the optimal extraction of polyphenols from black spruce bark, especially for highly bioactive stilbenes including the trans-resveratrol.

  17. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  18. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  19. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  20. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  1. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  2. Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against insects in two Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąderek, Ewa; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

  3. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  4. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  5. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA, S. daphnoides (SD, S. purpurea (SP, and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study.

  6. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  7. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  9. 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol: A Pheromone Component of Conifer Bark Beetles Found in the Bark of Nonhost Deciduous Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from bark of aspen, Populus tremula L. and two species of birch: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. and common birch (B. pubescens Ehrh., were collected by direct solvent extraction and aeration of both newly cut bark chips and undamaged stems in June 1998 and subjected to GC-MS analysis. The results showed the presence of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB, one of the two principal aggregation pheromone components of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, in bark extraction samples of all the three deciduous tree species tested. In addition, one more oxygenated hemiterpene, 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one, and (E-3-penten-2-ol were also found in the bark extracts. Only trace amounts of MB were detected in some aeration samples of the fresh bark chips, and no MB was found from the aeration samples of undamaged stems at detectable levels. The occurrence of this compound was also confirmed in the bark of four exotic birch species: B. albosinensis Schneid., B. ermanii Cham., B. jacquemontii Spach, and B. maximowicziana Regel, but not yet in the European pines/spruces and the common yeasts. Our results raise major questions regarding the evolution, the tropospheric chemistry, and the ecological role of this hemiterpene alcohol. They also suggest that comparative studies on the biosynthetic pathways for MB in different sources would be of considerably evolutionary interest.

  10. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; R. Keshavarz Afshar; Hashemi, M; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  11. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  12. Application of GFP-tagged Plum pox virus to study Prunus-PPV interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac, M; Eyquard, J P; Salvador, B; Garcia, J A; Le Gall, O; Decroocq, V; Schurdi-Levraud Escalettes, V

    2005-11-01

    The Sharka disease caused by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. The study of PPV/Prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. While the PPV/Prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the Prunus host plants at the cellular level. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged M type PPV strain, combined to an in vitro inoculation procedure, we developed a novel tool to track PPV invasion in Prunus persica (peach) cv. GF305 and Prunus armeniaca (apricot) cv. Screara susceptible hosts. Different graft combinations were performed using in vitro-maintained healthy or GFP-tagged PPV infected 'GF305' and 'Screara'. Contact for 30 days in grafts between the inoculum and the genotype to be tested were found sufficient to allow the systemic spread of the recombinant virus: fluorescence from GFP-tagged PPV could easily be detected in the entire plant under a binocular microscope allowing quick and reliable sorting of infected plants. Using a fluorescence stereomicroscopy or confocal microscopy, GFP could also be observed in stem cross-sections especially in epidermis and pith cells. In vitro grafting inoculation with GFP-tagged PPV provides a new and powerful tool to facilitate mid-term virus maintenance. Moreover, this tool will be of special importance in the study of PPV infection dynamics in Prunus, allowing as well precise observations of cellular events related to PPV/Prunus interactions.

  13. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Duchens Silva, Héctor; Rodríguez Rojas, Fernanda; Meisel, Lee A; Silva, Herman; Albert, Victor A; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-12-16

    Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

  15. Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis. PMID:24341635

  16. The evolution of bark mechanics and storage across habitats in a clade of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    Bark functional strategies vary conspicuously within communities. As a result, predicting most community-level bark traits based on environment often reveals little association. To complement this community-based view, we took a clade-based approach to study potentially adaptive differences in bark water storage and biomechanics across habitats and examined ontogenetic mechanisms that lead to these differences.• We studied the branches of nine species in the simaruba clade of Bursera in dry to wet, fire-free neotropical forests. We measured mechanical properties from branch tips to bases, as well as the relative area and water content of bark. Using raw data and phylogenetically independent contrasts, we then tested predictions regarding trait associations with environment and mapped branch tip-to-base ontogenetic changes.• Across our wet-dry gradient, bark water storage was greater in drier habitats, whereas bark tissue mechanical rigidity was greater in the taller species of moister forests. Bark was the principal mechanical tissue in branch tips and an important contributor even in branches 3 m long. Within species, bark contributions to mechanical support and water storage came mostly through a tip-to-base increase in bark quantity rather than alterations in tissue properties. Quantitative developmental alterations in proportions of bark to wood led to habit differences.• Our clade-based approach shows that, in marked contrast to most community-based results, environment can strongly predict bark functional traits across species in ways that seem plausibly adaptive. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Early Detection of Bark Beetle Green Attack Using TerraSAR-X and RapidEye Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonia M Ortiz; Johannes Breidenbach; Gerald Kändler

    2013-01-01

    .... In the future, areas affected by bark beetles may further increase due to climate change. However, the early detection of the bark beetle green attack can guide management decisions to prevent larger damages...

  18. Early Detection of Bark Beetle Green Attack Using TerraSAR-X and RapidEye Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Kändler; Johannes Breidenbach; Ortiz, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetles cause widespread damages in the coniferous-dominated forests of central Europe and North America. In the future, areas affected by bark beetles may further increase due to climate change. However, the early detection of the bark beetle green attack can guide management decisions to prevent larger damages. For this reason, a field-based bark beetle monitoring program is currently implemented in Germany. The combination of remote sensing and field data may help minimizing the react...

  19. a fraction from chloroform extract of Zizyphus spina-christi root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    badzu

    As part of our continued evaluation of Zizyphus spina-christi root bark, we tested fraction (numbered ZS-. 2A) from chloroform extract of the plant for its antiplasmodial activity against rodent plasmodia (Plasmodium berghei berghei) in vivo in mice for possible chemosuppressive effect against the parasite. The root bark of the.

  20. Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; D. Gallego; F.J. Sánchez-Garcia; J.A. Pajares

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality from temperature-driven drought is occurring in forests around the world, often in conjunction with bark beetle outbreaks when carbon allocation to tree defense declines. Physiological metrics for detecting stressed trees with enhanced vulnerability prior to bark beetle attacks remain elusive. Ethanol, water, monoterpene concentrations, and composition...

  1. Whole-tree bark and wood properties of loblolly pine from intensively managed plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Bruce E. Borders; Michael B. Kane; Harold E. Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify geographical variation in loblolly pine bark and wood properties at the whole-tree level and to quantify the responses in whole-tree bark and wood properties following contrasting silvicultural practices that included planting density, weed control, and fertilization. Trees were destructively sampled from both conventionally managed...

  2. In vivo antitrypanosomal effects of stem-bark extracts of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... The efficacy of stem-bark extracts of Securidaca longipedunculata against Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats was investigated. ... Thus, stem-bark extract of S. longipedunculata exhibited some levels of curative antitrypanosomal effect ..... the Federal Ministry of Education, Nigeria for the. Federal ...

  3. Tree response to bark harvest: the case of a medicinal species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree response to bark harvest: the case of a medicinal species, Garcinia lucida , as source of raw materials for plant-based drug development. ... on trees, from which bark was hardly removed from wood during harvest, probably characterized physiologically by a downward sap flow due to poor water supply in trees.

  4. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  5. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  6. Procyanidins from Pinus koraiensis bark inhibits HeLa cell growth by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of procyanidins from P. koraiensis bark on inhibiting Hela cells growth has been investigated by many approaches which are MTT method, agarose gel electrophoresis and Western blot method in vitro. The results showed that Marron powder were extracted from P. koraiensis bark with the extract ...

  7. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  8. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  9. Monitoring and risk assessment of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Netherer; J. Pennerstorfer; P. Baier; E. Fuhrer; A. Schopf

    2003-01-01

    A model describing development of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, combines topo-climatic aspects of the terrain with eco-physiological aspects of the bark beetle. By correlating air temperature and solar irradiation measured at a reference station, along with topographic data and microclimatic conditions of terrain plots, topo-climatic...

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Extract of the Stem Bark of Sapium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of S. ellipticum (Euphorbiaceae) (AESE). Methods: AESE was prepared by decoction of the powder from the dry stem bark of S. ellipticum. Its oral antidiarrheal effect was evaluated in vivo at the doses of 5.2, 10.4 and 20.8 mg/kg on ...

  11. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  12. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of crude extracts of stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to characterize the chemical profile of the crude extract of stem bark of Adansonia digitata using GC-MS and HPLC analysis The plant stem bark were extracted using three solvents, the crude extracts of each solvent were characterized using Gas chromatography mass spectrometry ...

  13. Observations on the mite Schizosthetus lyriformis (Acari: Parasitidae) preying on bark beetle eggs and larve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser; R. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Many species of mite that live exclusively in decaying wood and subcortical environments have intricate relationships with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (e.g., in the genus Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus) (Lindquist, 1969; Moser, 1975; Hirschmann and Wisniewski, 1983; Karg, 1993). These mites depend on bark beetles or other subcorticolous insects...

  14. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Allender; Karen M. Clancy; Tom E. DeGomez; Joel D. McMillin; Scott A. Woolbright; Paul Keim; David M. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these...

  15. Prescribed fire effects on bark beetle activity and tree mortality in southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Breece; T.E. Kolb; B.G. Dickson; J.D. McMillin; K.M. Clancey

    2008-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important tool in the management of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) forests, yet effects on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) activity and tree mortality are poorly understood in the southwestern U.S. We compared bark beetle attacks and tree mortality between paired prescribed-burned and...

  16. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: Looking toward the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...

  17. Assessment and response to bark beetle outbreaks in the Rocky Mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiya Samman; Jesse Logan

    2000-01-01

    Bark beetles act as "agents of change" within the conifer forests of the Rocky Mountain area. They play a critical role in the development, senescence, and rebirth of Western forests. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality can be extensive, covering thousands of acres. This report is the Forest Service response to a Congressional direction in the FY2000 Interior...

  18. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  19. Prescribed fire effects on wintering, bark-foraging birds in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa L. Pope; William M. Block; Paul Beier

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of prescribed fire on 3 wintering, bark-foraging birds, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), pygmy nuthatches (Sitta pygmaea), and white-breasted nuthatches (S. carolinensis), in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. During winters of 2004-2006, we compared bird density, foraging behavior, and bark beetle activity...

  20. Bark content estimation in poplar (Populus deltoides L.) short-rotation coppice in Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Werther; Piccioni, Emiliano; Bonari, Enrico [Land Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, via S. Cecilia 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ginanni, Marco [Centro Interdipartimentale Enrico Avanzi, Via Vecchia di Marina 6, 56010 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Differences in bark and wood content in woody biomass directly affect its quality and economic value as an energy source. In order to estimate the quality of biomass before harvesting, an allometric regression of bark percentage of total aboveground biomass and DHB (diameter at 1.30 m height) was developed in a 2-year poplar short-rotation coppice system in Central Italy. Firstly, a relationship between mean diameter and bark content percentage was established in 1 cm-wide sections belonging to all diametric classes. The model of best fit for these stem cylindrical sections was an equation y=ax{sup -b}. Following this, sample stems (of which we measured DHB) were collected and divided into sections belonging to a diameter class. Fresh and dry matter were determined for each class. Using the first equation, bark content was calculated separately for all classes. Thereafter, a second equation between bark content in the whole stem and DHB was developed. The best fitting equation for the whole stem was y=cx{sup -d}. Bark content in the whole stem ranged from 33.9-31.4% in large-sized DHB stems to 15.1-12.5% in smallest stems, depending on their moisture content. Bark content decreased rapidly in the small diametric classes until DHB reached 4 cm. Thereafter, the ratio of reduction of bark percentage dropped. (author)

  1. A comparison of paraffin and resin-based techniques used in bark anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, T.; Smets, E.; Lens, F.

    2011-01-01

    Bark anatomy is an unappreciated discipline in plant systematics, despite its great potential to reveal systematically informative features. In this paper, main reasons for the lack of detailed bark anatomical data in many plant families are identified, including problems with sectioning,

  2. Is self-thinning in ponderosa pine ruled by Dendroctonus bark beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1995-01-01

    Stand density of even-aged stands of ponderosa pine in California seems to be ruled by Dendroctonus bark beetles, rather than the suppressioninduced mortality common for other tree species. Size-density trajectories were plotted for 155 permanent plots in both plantations and natural stands. Bark beetle kills created a limiting Stand Density Index of...

  3. Managing bark beetle impacts on ecosystems and society: Priority questions to motivate future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse L. Morris; Stuart Cottrell; Chris Fettig; Winslow D. Hansen; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Vachel A. Carter; Jennifer L. Clear; Jessica Clement; R. Justin DeRose; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Philip E. Higuera; Katherine M. Mattor; Alistair W. R. Seddon; Heikki T. Sepp; John D. Stednick; Steven J. Seybold

    2016-01-01

    1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks in North America and Europe have impacted forested landscapes and the provisioning of critical ecosystem services. The scale and intensity of many recent outbreaks are widely believed to be unprecedented. 2. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on ecosystems are often measured in terms of area affected, host tree mortality rates, and...

  4. Study of the antibacterial activity of the stem bark and leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the stem bark and the leaves of Parkia biglobosa have been tested on four strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients in the ... The phytochemical screening showed that the extracts of the stem bark were rich in sterols, a triterpenes, tannins, saponosides, anthocyanidins, coumarins, ...

  5. Anatomical features of the bark structure in the stem of Salix matsudana Koidz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Shkuratova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of the bark structure in the stem ofSalix matsudana Koidz. were described in comparison with those in S. babylonicaL. It was suggested that anatomy of the bark cannot be applied for demarcation of this two species.

  6. CBF gene expression in peach leaf and bark tissues is gated by a circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBF transcription factors are part of the AP2/ERF domain family of DNA-binding proteins that recognize a C-repeat response cis-acting element that regulates a number of cold-responsive genes (CBF-regulon). In peach (Prunus persica), five CBF genes are situated in tandem on scaffold (Linkage Group) ...

  7. Overview on the pest status and research plans on beech bark disease: A new exotic in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Toby R. Petrice; Nathan W. Siegert

    2001-01-01

    Beech bark disease was first discovered in Michigan in spring 2000 in Ludington State Park and soon thereafter it was found in the upper peninsula in the bass Lake campground. since then, surveyshave found it in six counties in Michigan. Beech bark disease involves two exotic organisms: the beech bark scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.; Eriococcidae...

  8. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research. May 17-18, 1992, Berkeley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Jacqueline L. Robertson

    1992-01-01

    The Proceedings reports the results of a workshop focusing on the topic of bark beetle genetics. The workshop evolved because of the growing interest in this relatively unexplored area of bark beetle research. Workshop participants submitted brief descriptions of their views of the current status of bark beetle genetic research and needs for the future. Contributions...

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  11. Gastric antiulcer and antiinflammatory activities of Calotropis procera stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh S. Tour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a widespread search has been launched to identify new antiinflammatory and antiulcer-drugs from natural sources. The study was aimed at evaluating the antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity of chloroform extract (CH and hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Apocynaceae, obtained successively by cold maceration. The antiinflammatory effect of the CH and HE extracts of the stem bark of the C. procera against carrageenan-induced paw oedema and also its antiulcer activity by using two acute models: Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and ethanol (96%, 1 mL/200 g in albino rats have been studied and found to be significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg when compared to the standard drugs. As a part of investigations to obtain compounds with antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity in this work, a bioassay was carried out with fractions obtained from chloroform extract with n-hexane (NF1, 1-butanol (BF1, ethyl acetate (EF1 and chloroform (CF1. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark was fractionated with n-hexane (NF2, 1-butanol (BF2, ethyl acetate (EF2, chloroform (CF2 and water (WF2. The fractions were freeze-dried and evaluated for its antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. Fractions NF1, CF1, BF2 and EF2 (20 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. The results obtained for antiulcer activity were also supported well by the histopathological examination of the open excised rat stomach. Further experiments are underway to determine which phytoconstituents are involved in antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities as well as mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  12. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  13. In vivo antinociceptive and muscle relaxant activity of leaf and bark of Buddleja asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatullah, -; Ibrar, Muhammad; Ikram, Nazia; Rauf, Abdur; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bawazeer, Saud; Khan, Haroon; Pervez, Samreen

    2016-09-01

    The current study was designed to assess the antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effect of leaves and barks of Buddleja asiatica in animal models. In acetic acid induced writhing test, pretreatment of ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked marked dose dependent antinociceptive effect with maximum of 70% and 67% pain relief at 300mg/kg i.p. respectively. In chimney test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked maximum of 66.66% and 53.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In traction test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks caused maximum of 60% and 73.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In short, both leaves and barks demonstrated profound antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effects and thus the study provided natural healing agents for the treatment of said disorders.

  14. Calotroposide S, New Oxypregnane Oligoglycoside from Calotropis procera Root Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calotroposide S (1, a new oxypregnane oligoglycoside has been isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Calotropis procera (Ait R. Br. root bark. The structure of 1 was assigned based on various spectroscopic analyses. Calotroposide S (1 possesses the 12-O-benzoylisolineolon aglycone moiety with eight sugar residues attached to C-3 of the aglycone. It showed potent anti-proliferative activity towards PC-3 prostate cancer, A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and U373 glioblastoma (GBM cell lines with IC 50 0.18, 0.2, and 0.06 µM, respectively compared with cisplatin and carboplatin.

  15. Lactam Triterpenoids from the Bark of Toona sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three new limonoid-type triterpenoids, namely toonasins A–C (1–3 with a rare lactam E ring, along with six known compounds (4–9 were isolated from the barks of Toona sinensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data, and the relative configuration of compound 1 was further characterized by X-ray crystallographic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480, and compounds 3 and 5 showed weak cytotoxicities.

  16. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  17. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  18. A new phenolic glycoside from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junfen; Xue, Yongbo; Lai, Yongji; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Jinwen

    2014-10-31

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhibition against ConA-induced T cells proliferation.

  19. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfen Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic glycoside (1, named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhibition against ConA-induced T cells proliferation.

  20. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebeck, Martin; Hansen, E Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J

    2017-09-01

    Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce-dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi- or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research.

  1. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  3. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  4. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  5. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J.; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce‐dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi‐ or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research. PMID:28979060

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF Shorea foxworthyi Sym STEAM BARK METHANOL EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Hairil Alimuddin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening of antimicrobial activity compound from steam bark of Shorea foxworthyi Sym by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography method have been conducted. The result of this research can be base in elucidation of antimicrobial activity compounds from S. foxworthyi Sym. The first step was done in this research that is maceration of S. foxworthyi steam bark using methanol solvent. Fractination to methanol extract was done using n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate solvent, respectively. Phytochemical screening were done to methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions. Screening of antimicrobial activity compound were done to polar fraction such as methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction. The bacteria were used in this screening such as E. coli, S. aureus, S. thypii, and B. Subtilis. The extract was highest antimicrobial activity choosed to test by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography. The result was showed that chloroform extract was had highest antimicrobial activity and the flavonoide of compaund was considered having antimicrobial activity.   Keywords: antimicrobial, TLC-Bioautography, and Shorea foxworthyi Sym

  8. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  9. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Repajić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the infl uence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, fi ltered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska diff ered. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identifi ed by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. Aft er processing, the concentration of all identifi ed anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice aft er pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  10. Sexual regeneration traits linked to black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.) invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, Marie; Chabrerie, Olivier; Casado, Carolina Mainer; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-09-01

    In order to better understand the invasive capacity of black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), the regeneration dynamics of the species was studied during two consecutive years in a Belgian Pine plantation. Flower and fruit production, seed rain, dispersal and viability as well as the survival of seedlings of different ages were assessed. Despite the low fruit/flower ratio, fruit production was high (up to 8940 fruits per tree) as trees produced huge quantities of flowers. Both flower and fruit productions were highly variable between years and among individuals. The production variability between individuals was not correlated with plant size variables. Fruits were ripe in early September and a majority fell in the vicinity of the parent tree. A wide range of bird species dispersed 18% of the fruits at the end of October. Sixty-two percent of the fruits were viable and mean densities of 611 fruits m -2 were recorded on the forest floor. High mortality among young seedlings was observed and 95.3% of the fruits failed to give 4-year-old saplings. Nevertheless, the few saplings older than 4 years (1.32 m -2) presented a high survival rate (86%). All these regeneration traits are discussed in order to determine the main factors explaining the black cherry invasive success in Europe.

  11. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H C; Poulton, J E

    1991-08-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity.

  12. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects.

  13. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-04-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages.

  14. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  15. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  16. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  17. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Latent Polyphenol Oxidase from Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derardja, Ala Eddine; Pretzler, Matthias; Kampatsikas, Ioannis; Barkat, Malika; Rompel, Annette

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenol oxidase from apricot (Prunus armeniaca) (PaPPO) was purified in its latent form (L-PaPPO), and the molecular weight was determined to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. L-PaPPO was activated in the presence of substrate at low pH. The activity was enhanced by CuSO4 and low concentrations (≤ 2 mM) of SDS. PaPPO has its pH and temperature optimum at pH 4.5 and 45 °C for catechol as substrate. It showed diphenolase activity and highest affinity toward 4-methylcatechol (KM = 2.0 mM) and chlorogenic acid (KM = 2.7 mM). L-PaPPO was found to be spontaneously activated during storage at 4 °C, creating a new band at 38 kDa representing the activated form (A-PaPPO). The mass of A-PaPPO was determined by mass spectrometry as 37 455.6 Da (Asp102 → Leu429). Both L-PaPPO and A-PaPPO were identified as polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known PaPPO sequence (UniProt O81103 ) by means of peptide mass fingerprinting.

  19. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  20. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Aglès, M; Dalmau, E; Fernández, C; Felipe, A

    1996-12-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.

  1. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (<5, 8, and 11%) on the composition of volatiles in raw almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  2. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Albano, Clara; Liu, Yazheng; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Kitts, David D

    2016-06-01

    The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  4. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  7. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  8. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  10. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  13. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  14. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  16. Identification of genes associated with bud dormancy release in Prunus persica by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leida, Carmen; Terol, Javier; Martí, Gracia; Agustí, Manuel; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2010-05-01

    To better understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying maintenance and release of seasonal bud dormancy in perennial trees, we identified differentially expressed genes during dormancy progression in reproductive buds from peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray hybridization. Four SSH libraries were constructed, which were respectively enriched in cDNA highly expressed in dormant buds (named DR), in dormancy-released buds (RD) and in the cultivars with different chilling requirement, 'Zincal 5' (ZS) and 'Springlady' (SZ), sampled after dormancy release. About 2500 clones picked from the four libraries were loaded on a glass microarray. Hybridization of microarrays with the final products of SSH procedure was performed in order to validate the selected clones that were effectively enriched in their respective sample. Nearly 400 positive clones were sequenced, which corresponded to 101 different unigenes with diverse functional annotation. We obtained DAM4, 5 and 6 genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors previously related to growth cessation and terminal bud formation in the evergrowing mutant of peach. Several other cDNAs are similar to dormancy factors described in other species, and others have been related to bud dormancy for the first time in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed differential expression of cDNAs coding for a Zn-finger transcription factor, a GRAS-like regulator, a DNA-binding protein and proteins similar to forisome subunits involved in the reversible occlusion of sieve elements in Fabaceae, among others.

  17. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  19. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  20. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  2. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  3. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  5. Changes in total soluble proteins and Ca2+ upon cryopreservation of Prunus mume pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y L; Li, B L; Wang, H; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mei Flowers (Prunus mume) are traditional Chinese ornamental plants. Fifty-one Mei cultivars have been conserved in a pollen cryobank since 2003. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of total soluble proteins and flow cytometric detection of Ca2+ fluorescence to probe changes in pollen grains before and after cryopreservation. Results indicated that: (1) electrophoresis maps of total soluble proteins before and after cryostorage of pollen from three cultivars were different, even though 70 percent of the protein spots among these three cultivars were matched after cryopreservation. We found some protein spots that changed in all three cultivars; their molecular weights and pI were between 12.6-72.8 kDa and 5.6-7.3, respectively; (2): the geometric mean of Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (GMFI) value of cryopreserved pollen was significantly higher compared with that of fresh pollen in cultivar 'Beijing Yudie'. GMFI increased during pollen germination in our studied cultivars, especially after 0.5 and 1.0 h of culturing. In addition, no positive correlation was found between pollen germination rate and GMFI in the present study.

  6. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  7. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    was ashed and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fruit set percentage was recorded on spurs and extension shoots in 2002. The nutrient analyses showed that control trees on Prunus avium had a higher concentration of leaf potassium compared with control trees on 'Colt'. Leaf....... The nutrient analyses of flower buds, flowers and bracts showed some significant differences in the nutrient concentrations as an effect of both rootstocks and treatments. Fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots was significantly affected by rootstock whereas the fertilization treatment had no effect....... Prunus avium had the highest percentage of fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots....

  8. Banana Bark as A Part of Acoustic Design Unit by Hybrid Technology Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Dian Permanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Banana bark is one of tropical indigenous natural resources that can be used as main material for many products. Being a fast-growing renewable material, it is durable and has natural patterns that people find visually attractive. Naturally, its textures and patterns are its main values; therefore it has the potential to be developed further. This research is needed to optimize the growth of small craft industries of banana bark, including the community where production activities take place, and also to provide information or reference of banana bark utilizations. Previous experiments conclude that banana bark has porous structure, high flexibility, relatively water-resistant due to its natural wax coating that resists water droplets, unless being washed down immensely. Also, due to its softwood- and paper-like properties, ithas many possibilities to be formed and processed into various functional products, mostly as craft products. In the subsequent study, the research about the utilization of banana bark in small industries starting from the harvesting system, handling problems in raw material supply, applying proper technology in improving the material’s quality, improving the human-resource working culture by appropriate technologies, and also innovating the product’s designs. The recommended designs can be implemented to improve the performance and qualities of banana bark products.Keywords: applied technology; banana bark; renewable materials; design; sustainability.

  9. Polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus sylvestris L. bark--chemical and antitumor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Trifan, Adriana; Cioanca, Oana; Miron, S D; Mihai, C T; Rotinberg, P; Miron, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris L. is a very important timber tree in Romania, the bark being the main waste from the wood processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antitumor effects against HeLa cells of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus sylvestris L. bark. The polyphenolic content and profile were analyzed by means of spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC-UV/ESI-MS in the negative ion mode. The antitumor activity was investigated using two in vitro assays: MTT and flow cytometric apoptosis assays. Pine bark extract contained a high total phenolic content (48.16 +/- 0.29%). RP-HPLC-UV/ESI-MS analysis allowed the identification of taxifolin, a taxifolin-hexoside and several procyanidins (two monomers, three dimers and three trimers). At 200 microg/mL, pine bark extract exhibited a high cytotoxicity against HeLa cells (82.10 +/- 1.95%). Flow cytometry revealed the ability of pine bark extract to induce apoptosis: 71.97 +/- 0.96% apoptotic cells were determined in HeLa cells after a 48 h incubation with pine bark extract (200 microg/mL). The ability of pine bark extract to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in HeLa cells suggests the presence of compounds with antitumor properties and encourages further studies for their isolation and characterization.

  10. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  11. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  12. Investigation Of Sound Absorption Properties Of Bark Cloth Nonwoven Fabric And Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwawiire Samson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quest for sound-absorbing materials that are not only environmentally friendly, but also sustainable is the foremost reason for natural fibre-acoustic materials. Bark cloth is a natural non-woven fabric that is largely produced from Ficus trees. An exploratory investigation of bark cloth a non-woven material and its reinforcement in epoxy polymer composites has been fabricated and investigated for the sound absorption properties so as to find the most suitable applications and also to see whether bark cloth can be used in some applications in place of man-made fibres. Three types of material species were investigated with their respective composites. The fibre morphology showed bark cloth to be a porous fabric that showed promising sound absorption properties at higher frequencies. The sound absorption results of four-layer material selections of Ficus natalensis, Ficus brachypoda and Antiaris toxicaria bark cloth showed sound absorption coefficient of 0.7; 0.71 and 0.91 at f > 6400 Hz, respectively. The bark cloth reinforced laminar epoxy composites had reduced sound absorption coefficients, which ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, which was attributed to decreased porosity and vibration in the bark cloth fibre network.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  15. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Filipe X; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G; Fernandes, Paulo M; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  16. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe X Catry

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France, covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  17. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  18. Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2014-08-15

    In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues......, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. Significant differences were observed in most of the studied parameters between cultivars. Overall results indicate...

  20. Rentabilidad y Competitividad del cultivo del Durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en el Suroeste del Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar; Juvencio Hernández Martínez; Felipe de Jesús González Razo

    2009-01-01

    Con el objetivo de analizar la rentabilidad, competitividad y ventajas comparativas del cultivo de durazno (Prunus Pérsica) en la región suroeste del Estado de México, fue calculada una Matriz de Análisis de Política para este cultivo en 2003. Los resultados obtenidos indican una rentabilidad global positiva tanto en términos privados como económicos. La política agrícola aplicada en 2003 constituyó un desincentivo para el sistema de producción al carecer de apoyos (incentivos) a la remunerac...

  1. Enzyme inhibition, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts from the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Malterud, Karl Egil; Le, Nhat Hao Tran; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-09-11

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera have been traditionally used against a variety of ailments such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough, and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis and skin diseases in African folk medicine. Boiling water extracts of Terminalia macroptera, administered orally, are the most common preparations of this plant used by the traditional healers in Mali. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of the activities of α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase, DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of different extracts obtained by boiling water extraction (BWE) and by ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) with ethanol, ethanol-water and water as extractants from different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera. 27 different crude extracts were obtained by BWE and ASE from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera. The total phenolic and carbohydrate contents, enzyme inhibition activities (α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase), DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of these extracts were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for total biological activities evaluation. Several of the extracts from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera obtained by BWE and ASE showed potent enzyme inhibition activities, radical-scavenging properties and complement fixation activities. None of the extracts are toxic against brine shrimp larvae in the test concentration. Based on the results from PCA, the ASE ethanol extracts of root bark and stem bark and the low molecular weight fraction of the 50% ethanol-water extract of leaves showed the highest total biological activities. The boiling water extracts were less active, but the bark extracts showed activity as α-glucosidase inhibitors and radical scavengers, the leaf extract being less active. The observed enzyme

  2. Cytototoxic constituents from the bark of Chisocheton cumingianus (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katja, Dewa Gede; Farabi, Kindi; Nurlelasari; Harneti, Desi; Mayanti, Tri; Supratman, Unang; Awang, Khalijah; Hayashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-25-ethyl-lanost-9(11),24(24')-diene (1), along with 3β-hydroxy-lanost-7-ene (2) and β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (3) was isolated from the stem bark of C. cumingianus. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1-3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC 50 values of 28.8 ± 0.10, 4.29 ± 0.03, and 100.18 ± 0.16 μg/ml, respectively.

  3. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Jagadish V; Rana, A C; Chowdhury, Anirban Roy

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was evaluated for wound healing activity in Wistar rats. The extract was administered by the oral route at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight (1/8 and 1/4 of LD(50), respectively) for all the wound models selected, excision, incision and dead space wounds. The extract significantly enhanced the wound breaking strength in the case of incision wound, the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelization in the case of excision wound. The granulation tissue weight, its breaking strength and its hydroxyproline content was also increased by the extract in the dead space wound. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cardiac stimulant activity of bark and wood of Premna serratifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Basha N

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia Lin., (Verbenaceae contains alkaloids and iridoid glycoside and is believed to prevent cardiovascular disease. The stem-bark and stem-wood were extracted with 95% ethanol and distilled water. These extracts were screened for their effects by Isolated Frog Heart Perfusion Technique and biochemical parameters in heart tissue and serum of albino rats after administering the extracts for 7 days. The ethanol extract produced significant positive ionotropic and negative chronotropic actions similar to that of digoxin on frog heart and its effect was inhibited by nifedipine and not by propranolol. A significant decrease in membrane Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase and an increase in Ca2+ATPase further confirmed its cardiotonic activity. Aqueous extract produced positive ionotropic and chronotropic effects similar to that of Adrenaline and its effect was antagonized by propranolol and nifedipine. The results suggest that the ethanol extract produced cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced β-adrenergic effect.

  5. Triterpenoid saponins from root bark of Zanha golungensis (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Catherine; Sayagh, Charlotte; Humbert, Franck; Pouny, Isabelle; Delaude, Clément

    2015-01-30

    The chemical investigation of the methanolic extract from root bark of Zanha golungensis Hiern led to the isolation of five new and one known triterpenoid saponins. Their structures were elucidated by full analysis of their spectroscopic data and by partial hydrolysis. These glycosides contain zanhic acid as aglycone, a rare oleanane-type triterpenoid found in species belonging to Sapindaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. Two new saponins are esterified saponins by 3,3-dimethylacryloyl and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-butanoyl residues located on the sugar part. The new compounds were named zanhasaponins D-H following previous isolation of similar compounds from Zanha africana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Duan, Ying-Hui; Li, Man-Mei; Tang, Wei; Wu, Xia; Wang, Guo-Cai; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Li, Yao-Lan

    2013-09-01

    Nine new triterpenoid saponins, including four ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptursosides A-D (1-4), four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptoleosides A-D (5-8), and one dammarane-type triterpenoid saponin, heptdamoside A (9), along with two known saponins, asiaticoside D (10) and scheffoleoside B (11), were isolated from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. It is noteworthy in this study that the aglycone of 1-6 is reported for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of the tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin from Schefflera. All the saponins were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, and 2, 6, 7, and 10 showed anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  9. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  10. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Sriram, Aditya; Park, Joseph; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Main, Dorrie; Abbott, Albert

    2012-09-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs (sRNAs) approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR). Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627) were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica). Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other species. Several conserved and non

  11. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  12. Bark Thickness Equations for Mixed-Conifer Forest Type in Klamath and Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas E. Zeibig-Kichas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied bark thickness in the mixed-conifer forest type throughout California. Sampling included eight conifer species and covered latitude and elevation gradients. The thickness of tree bark at 1.37 m correlated with diameter at breast height (DBH and varied among species. Trees exhibiting more rapid growth had slightly thinner bark for a given DBH. Variability in bark thickness obscured differences between sample locations. Model predictions for 50 cm DBH trees of each species indicated that bark thickness was ranked Calocedrus decurrens > Pinus jeffreyi > Pinus lambertiana > Abies concolor > Pseudotsuga menziesii > Abies magnifica > Pinus monticola > Pinus contorta. We failed to find reasonable agreement between our bark thickness data and existing bark thickness regressions used in models predicting fire-induced mortality in the mixed-conifer forest type in California. The fire effects software systems generally underpredicted bark thickness for most species, which could lead to an overprediction in fire-caused tree mortality in California. A model for conifers in Oregon predicted that bark was 49% thinner in Abies concolor and 37% thicker in Pseudotsuga menziesii than our samples from across California, suggesting that more data are needed to validate and refine bark thickness equations within existing fire effects models.

  13. Metabolism of gibberellins A1 and A3 in fruits and shoots of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanpu, M; Blake, P S; Browning, G; Taylor, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isotope-labelled GA metabolites were identified by GC--MS, following HPLC fractionation of extracts derived from fruits or shoots, that had been incubated with [2H]- and [3H]- GA1 or [2H]- and [3H]- GA3. GA1 (1) was converted into GA8 (10) by developing fruits and vegetative shoots of sweet cherry (Prunus avium cv. 'Stella'), while GA3 (4) was converted into GA3-isolactone (17). Other metabolites of each GA were detected but were not identified unequivocally. These included a metabolite of GA1 (1) in fruitlets that was more polar (by reverse phase HPLC) than GA8 (10) and a metabolite of similar polarity to GA87 (6), was obtained after incubating fruitlets with GA3 (4). However, no evidence was obtained to suggest that GA87 (6) was a metabolite of GA3 (4) or that GA85 (2) was a metabolite of GA1 (1) in these tissues, under the conditions used. The pattern of metabolites obtained from vegetative tissues was similar to that from fruitlets. However, the results suggested that GA1 (1) and GA3 (4) were metabolised at a greater rate in shoots from mature trees than in shoots from seedlings, and that GA1 (1) was metabolised more rapidly than GA3 (4) in juvenile and mature shoots. We conclude from these observations that GA3 (4) is not a precursor of GA87 (6) and GA32 (5), also, that GA1 (1) is not a precursor of GA85 (2) and GA86 (3) in developing fruits or in vegetative shoots of sweet cherry.

  14. Isolation and characterization of multiple forms of prunasin hydrolase from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, G W; Poulton, J E

    1987-05-15

    Three forms of prunasin hydrolase (PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb), which catalyze the hydrolysis of (R)-prunasin to mandelonitrile and D-glucose, have been purified from homogenates of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds. Hydroxyapatite chromatography completely resolved PH I from PH IIa and PH IIb. PH IIa and IIb, which coeluted on hydroxyapatite, were resolved by gel filtration. PH IIa was a dimer with a native molecular weight of 140,000. Both PH I and PH IIb were monomeric with molecular weights of 68,000. The isozymes appeared to be glycoproteins based on their binding to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside. When presented several potential glycosidic substrates, these enzymes exhibited a narrow specificity towards (R)-prunasin. Km values for (R)-prunasin for PH I, PH IIa, and PH IIb were 1.73, 2.3, and 1.35 mM, respectively. PH I and PH IIb possessed fivefold greater Vmax/Km values than PH IIa. Ortho- and para-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucosides were hydrolyzed at the same active site. All forms had a pH optimum of 5.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer. PH I and PH IIb were competitively inhibited by castanospermine with Ki values of 0.19 and 0.09 mM, respectively. PH activity was not stimulated by any metal ion tested and was unaffected by diethyldithiocarbamate, o-phenanthroline, 2,2'-dipyridyl, and EDTA.

  15. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase : Purification, N-Terminal Sequencing, and Antibody Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C P; Swain, E; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I', II, II') were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, K(m), V(max)) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen.

  16. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  17. Immunocytochemical Localization of Mandelonitrile Lyase in Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Cheng; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1991-01-01

    Mandelonitrile lyase (MDL, EC 4.1.2.10), which catalyzes the reversible dissociation of (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds by conventional protein purification techniques. This flavoprotein is monomeric with a subunit molecular mass of 57 kilodaltons. Glycoprotein character was shown by its binding to the affinity matrix concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B with subsequent elution by α-methyl-d-glucoside. Upon chemical deglycosylation by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, the molecular mass was reduced to 50.9 kilodaltons. Two-dimensional gel analysis of deglycosylated MDL revealed the presence of several subunit isoforms of similar molecular mass but differing slightly in isoelectric point. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in New Zealand white rabbits against deglycosylated and untreated MDL. Antibody titers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent and dot immunobinding assays, while their specificities were assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Antibodies raised against untreated lyase recognized several proteins in addition to MDL. In contrast, antisera raised against deglycosylated MDL were monospecific and were utilized for developmental and immunocytochemical localization studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of seed proteins during fruit maturation showed that MDL first appeared in seeds shortly after cotyledons began development. In cotyledon cells of mature seeds, MDL was localized primarily in the cell wall with lesser amounts in the protein bodies, whereas in endosperm cells, this labeling pattern was reversed. N-terminal sequence data was gathered for future molecular approaches to the question of MDL microheterogeneity. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668338

  18. Micromorphology of pollen grains of three cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of various cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L. produce striated sculpture of the exine. These grains are included in the trizonocolporate class. In polar view, pollen grains have a triangular outline, while in equatorial view an elliptical outline. The exine of grains forms a pattern of striae characteristic for a given taxon. Flowers of various P. armeniaca cultivars produce pollen grains with the polar (P and equatorial (E length ranging 31-60 μm and 24-36 μm, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the micromorphology of pollen grains of three P. armeniaca cultivars – ‘Harcot’, ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’, using light and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of pollen grains was carried out to determine their size, shape and exine ornamentation. Observations of pollen grains were performed under a light microscope (Nikon Eclipse 400 and a scanning electron microscope (SEM (Tescan Vega II LMU. In terms of their size, pollen grains of the studied P. armeniaca cultivars were classified as large. Their shape was determined to be prolatum. In equatorial view of pollen grains, the striae run along the polar axis. These structures in the exine are arranged parallel to each other, can be branched or arched. The width of striae ranges from 0.27 μm (‘Early Orange’ to 0.62 μm (‘Harcot’. The largest distances between the striae were found in pollen grains of ‘Harcot’ (0.33 μm, whereas much smaller distances were observed in ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’ (0.13-0.14 μm. In pollen grains of P. armeniaca the tectum is perforated. In an area of 10 μm2, the tectum forms 4-9 perforations with a pore diameter of 0.1-0.6 μm.

  19. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  20. Differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmenjaud, D; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Pinochet, J; Simard, M H; Salesses, G

    1997-09-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.